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"THE INTEGRATION AND OPERATION OF WIND

POWER PLANTS INTO POWER SYSTEMS"

TRAINING COURSE

Curricula for

MODULE 3
THE POWER QUALITY, IN CASE OF WIND POWER PLANTS
CONNECTION AT THE NATIONAL POWER SYSTEM
Ph. D. Vatră Fănică - LPQI/LPQIVES National Coordinator
Ph. D. Poida Ana - LPQI/LPQIVES National Manager

LPQIVES is co-finaced by:

LPQIVES is a programme of:

LPQI is part of:

www.lpqi.org
PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83
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Module 3
THE POWER QUALITY, IN CASE OF WIND POWER PLANTS
CONNECTION AT THE NATIONAL POWER SYSTEM.

1 INTRODUCTION
The connecting of wind power plants at the electrical power networks and the operating specific
conditions of these can determine electromagnetically disturbances into the networks to which are
connected to, that influence the power quality parameters into the connecting node if adequate
measures are not adopted for limiting the disturbances.
The deviations from the voltage quality into the electrical network to which the wind power plants
will be connected to can lead to decreasing of their performances and, in some cases at
disconnecting by protection system of the respective wind power plant. During a disturbance in the
electric power network, the wind power plants/units disconnecting may increase the harmful effects
on the power system performances. Generally, when it is connected a wind power plant/unit it is
required to be sized so as to cope with the disturbances which appear in the grid.
1.1 General aims
This module’s general aim is to provide the attendants the basic knowledge about the power quality
and the electromagnetically disturbances produced by the wind power plants, which may affect the
power quality into the electrical networks to which are connected to and to familiarize them with the
requirements of the Technical Codes for wind power plants to not affect the safe operation of NPS.
The aim is achieved through 6 didactic sections, presented at point 2.2 from curricula.
1.2 Target groups
This module’s target groups are: investors, consultants, designers, electrical installations building
up or installation work contractor, managers and specialists from the electricity generation
companies based on renewable power resources, respectively from the electricity companies,
responsible with the initiation, financing, designing, implementation/performing, operating and
maintenance of wind installations, from equipment sellers and services, as well, who intend to
increase their knowledge in this field.
2 SPECIFIC AIMS AND TOPICS
The pathway of module consists of a 2 days seminar, subdivided in sections (with different
duration), with these contents and related aims.
1st day
Contents Introduction into power quality.
Parameters that allow the assessment of wind power plants impact on the power quality.
Provisions of Technical Codes of transmission and electricity distribution electrical
networks.
Aims The first day aim is to provide the attendants the basic knowledge about power quality and
parameters that allow the assessment of wind power plants influence on power quality. Also,
there are analysed several provisions proposed for the National Technical Codes of
transmission and electricity distribution electrical networks and they are compared with some
provisions of the Technical Codes in Europe.
2nd day
Contents Harmonics and interharmonics. Voltage fluctuations (flicker effects). The influence of voltage dips,
short interruptions and overvoltages from the electrical network on the wind power plants. The
measuring of power quality.
Aims During the second day are provided the basic knowledge about the electromagnetically
disturbances produced by the wind power plants, which may affect the power quality into the
electrical networks to which are connected to. Also, there are presented requirements for
equipment for power quality measuring and standardized procedures of measurement and
aggregation of the measured data.

Below there’s an overview of the module contents.

www.lpqi.org
PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83
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2.1 Pathway of course / module

Time
Knowledge
progression Section level
(hours)

Lesson
Course
15 Course
0 opening
opening. Lesson and discussions
Information.

Introduction into PQ.


145 1 Parameters which
allow PQ assessment.

Provisions from
300 2 Technical Codes

Harmonics
430 3 and
interharmonics.

Voltage fluctuations
600 4 (flicker effects)

The influence of voltage


700 5 dips, short interruptions
and overvoltages

The measuring of
845 6 Power Quality

The end of Final discussions.


15 Questioner filling.
9 seminar/
Confirmation of attendance.
module

3 MODULE DETAILED PROGRAM

First day:
60 min. Participants registration
15 min. Course opening. Information.

90 min. Section 1: Introduction into power quality. Parameters that allow the assessment
of wind power plants impact on the power quality.
- The components of power quality.
- The electromagnetically disturbances that affect the power quality.
- Susceptibility of equipment. Levels of compatibility.
- Standards and regulations on power quality.
- The effects of quality of electrical network voltage on wind power units/plants.
- The influence of wind power plants on the power quality of the electrical power system.
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PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83
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- The parameters that allow the assessment of the wind power plants on the power
quality.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.

30 min. Coffee break


75 min. Section 2: Romanian Technical Regulation - "Technical conditions for the wind
power plants connection to the electrical networks of public interest".
- Comparison between some provisions of Technical Codes in Europe.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.

90 min. Section 3: Harmonics and interharmonics.


- Basic terms and definitions
- Fourier analysis and synthesis.
- Sources of harmonics and interharmonics.
- The effects of harmonics and interharmonics.
- Wind power groups / plants - as sources of harmonic disturbances.
- Means for limiting harmonics (harmonics mitigation).
- Evaluation of power quality indices.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.

Second day:

90 min. Section 4: Voltage fluctuations (flicker effects).


- Description disturbances. Basic terms and definitions.
- Analytical methods for evaluating the relative variation of voltage.
- Sources / causes of voltage fluctuations / flicker effect.
- The effects of voltage fluctuations / flicker.
- Quantification of voltage fluctuations / flicker phenomenon.
- Standardization in the field of voltage fluctuations. Permissible limits.
- Simplified methods for evaluating the level of flicker Pst into electrical networks.
- Predetermination by calculation of the flicker level generated by the wind power
groups and plants. Case-Study.
- Limitation of voltage fluctuations.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.
60 min. Section 5: The influence of voltage dips, short interruptions and overvoltages
from the electrical networks on wind power plants/installations.
- Voltage dips and short interruptions.
- The difference between voltage dips and short interruptions.
- The voltage dips assessment.
- The overvoltages assessment.
- The influence of voltage dips on tower vibration.
- Effects of voltage dips on the wind power groups/generators.
- Effects of voltage dips caused by the wind power groups/generators start-up.
- The limiting of voltage dips and short interruptions effects.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.
30 min. Coffee break

105 min Section 6: The measuring of power quality.


- General conditions which must meet the measurement equipment.
- Chain of measurement.
- Measuring equipment classes.
- Uncertainty of Real Time Clock.
- Aggregation of data measured.
- The concept of flagging.
- The measurement of parameters that defining the power quality.
www.lpqi.org
PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83
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- The measurement of frequency.


- The measurement of rms voltage.
- The measurement of harmonics and interharmonics.
- The measurement of voltage fluctuations (flicker effect).
- The measurement of the unbalance level.
- The measurement of voltage dip and short interruptions.
- The measurement of temporary overvoltages of industrial frequency.
Modality: Lesson and discussions.
30 min. Final discussions.
End of the module/course. User Satisfaction Questioners filling by the attendants.
Confirmation of attendance at module/course.

GENERAL NOTES:
- each day there will be coffee breaks, in the purpose of dividing the teaching periods in
sections not exceeding 2.5 hours;
- at the beginning of the module the lecturer will explain the module aims;
- at the end of the module/lessons, a user satisfaction survey will help the lecturer in
monitoring the module quality.

4 TEACHING METHODS
Teaching methods are summarized in three main moments:
− knowledge transfer (Lesson): topics exposure by the lecturer with the help of slides and
eventually other electronic tools (animations, data sheets, didactic movies);
− deepening/learning verification (discussion): general discussion stimulated by the lecturer
(also during the lesson) to verify knowledge transfer and to eventually deepen particular topics.
During all the sections, the lecturer will always attend, with teaching and/or activity coordination duty.

5 DIDACTIC MATERIAL AND TOOLS


The didactic tools which will be used by the lecturers will be:
− Blackboard;
− Video-projector;
− Pointer;
− Notebook.
The lecture room will be suitable to allow the use of all the above listed didactic tools.
Each user will receive, during the registration, a folder containing:
− course program;
− lecture notes containing all or part of the lecture slides.

At the end of each lesson/section the lectures will perform a Test referring to the taught knowledge.
Some additional materials are available, as electronic form, at: http://www.leonardo-energy.org/drupal/

The folder will also include a user satisfaction questionnaire (which will be filled by attendants at
the end of the course).

6 EXISTING KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS

Level
Topic
Basic Medium High
Electrical circuits •
Electrical networks and systems •
Electrical power plants •
Power quality •
The measurement of electrical values •
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PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83
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7 ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE
The knowledge acquired during the seminar/module should be sufficient for retention of basic
aspects referable to:
- The power quality.
- Disturbances produced by the wind power plants, which may affect the power quality.
- The parameters needed to allow the assessment of the influence of wind power
plants/installations on the power quality.
- Standards and regulations in the field
- The measuring of power quality.

www.lpqi.org
PARTNER NAME S.I.E.R.  internet address - www.sier.ro e-mail address: office@sier.ro  Address: Bdul Lacul Tei no.1, sector 2, Bucureşti phone number + 0722.361.954 
Copyright ©SIER. fax number: + 021.610.52.83