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Review for Exam 1

LING 275 Fall 2010 Language and Mind TA: Iris Ouyang

IPA to speech sound
IPA charts ( are in the handouts for week 2.

Sagittal sections
All the graphs in this handout are generated on:

Natural class Ear Waveform vs. Spectrum Contrastive/Complementary/Free Distribution Rules and Rule ordering

From transcription to pronunciation

mi spd hajin
=> Show me a spotted hyena.

maj wajf s tlnd psnt

=> My wife is a talented person.

aj dslajk sm l kwsts
=> I dislike some linguists.

Ladefoged, Peter. 2006. A Course in Phonetics (5th edition). Wadsworth.

Sagittal Section


Sagittal Section


Sagittal Section


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Sagittal Section


Sagittal Section


Sagittal Section


Important characteristics of sound

Velum lowering => Nasal Vocal folds are: closed => glottal stop [] vibrating => voiced (vowels, glides [j w], liquids [l ], nasals [m n ], voiced stops [b d g], voiced fricative [v z ]) neither closed nor vibrating => voiceless (voiceless stops [p t k], voiceless fricative [f s ]) Which class of sound has the least constriction in the mouth? => Vowels

Natural Class
l j
[l, , j]: approximants []: nasal (stop)

[, , ]: lax tongue shape [-ATR] [o]: tense tongue shape [+ATR]

[, , ]: voiced [c]: voiceless

Natural Class
i y
[y ]: rounded [i]: unrounded

b d l
[d, l, ]: alveolar [b]: bilabial

[, , ]: back [a]: front

More natural classes

Obstruents Sounds which are produced with an significant obstruction of the airflow, and thus require more effort to be voiced Stops, Fricatives, Affricates Sonorants Sounds which are produced with a relatively open passage for the airflow, and thus typically voiced Vowels, Nasals, Approximants Stridents (Sibilants) Sounds which are made by directing the airflow air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth, and hence perceptually greater noise The fricatives and affricates with more turbulence, such as /s/, /z/, //, //, /t/, /d/

Outer ear amplify and localize sounds Sound amplification: particularly for frequencies employed in human speech Sound localization: since we have one ear on each side Middle ear increase intensity (pressure) Tympanic membrane (eardrum): sensitive to air pressure fluctuations Ossicles: convert the motion of tympanic membrane into mechanical energy

Inner ear analyze the frequency components of sounds Cochlea

Basilar membrane (within the cochlea)

Convert the physical movements into a electrical (neural) signal Base (the portions more exterior): narrow and stiff, resonate to higher frequencies Apex (the portions more interior): wide and less stiff, resonate to lower frequencies

Hair cells (on the basilar membrane)

The number of hair cells are fixed. Damaged or dead hair cells are not recoverable or regenerable.


X axis: time Y axis: amplitude Period (T) = seconds/cycle Frequency (f) = cycles/second f = 1/T; T= 1/f Frequency Pitch Amplitude Intensity

(a) (b) (c)
Time (ms) [1 sec = 1000 ms]

(a) (b) (c)

period = 5 ms period = 3.33 ms period = 10 ms

frequency = 200 Hz frequency = 300 Hz frequency = 100 Hz


X axis: frequency Y axis: amplitude

Fundamental frequency (F0): the lowest frequency Harmonics: integer multiples of F0

If F0 = 150 Hz; the harmonics = 300 Hz, 450 Hz, 600 Hz, If F0 = 300 Hz; the harmonics = 600 Hz, 900 Hz, 1200 Hz,

Waveform & Spectrum

The abstract mental representation of a set of sounds which are identified as the same sound The sounds in a given language which show contrastive distribution
A change in the phonemes changes the meaning of the word. Minimal pairs should be found, especially for the phonemes which belongs to the same natural class.

The concrete variants of a phoneme Some allophones of a phoneme may show complementary distribution.
The forms are predictable when given a context. e.g. [kjt] kite [skj] sky

The other allophones of a phoneme may show free variation.

The forms are neither predictable by context nor contrastive e.g. [pt] pot

in meaning.

[pt] pot

Recap: 3 types of distribution

Contrastive Distribution
Two sounds in the same environment bring about different meanings. (minimal pair) Which form will appear is not predictable by context.

Complementary Distribution

Two sounds never appear in the same environment. Which form will appear is predictable by context.

Free variation

Two sounds in the same environment dont result in different meanings. Which form will appear is not predictable by context.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [amazad] [kaa] [leo] [xoo] [saxi]

/L/: [L] [l]

prettily tin goal however at home goal loss hand wife to scrape

6. [leo] 7. [zarali] 8. [xeli] 9. [oli] 10. [vxle]


/L/: [L] [l]

Consider the left-hand context: Both laterals may appear at the beginning of a word, after the vowels [a] [e] [o], and after the consonant [x]. Consider the right hand context: Complementary Distribution The velar lateral [L] appears in a wide variety of contexts: before the vowels [a] and [o], and before the consonants []. In contrast, the alveolar lateral appears only before the vowels [e] and [i] the front high vowels. /L/ [l]/__[i, e] /L/ [L]/elsewhere Lateral Alveolarization: Laterals become alveolar before front vowels. [+lateral] [+alveolar]/__[+front, +high, +vowel]

Tagalog vowel deletion

stem bukas kapit tubos stem-in buks-in kapt-in tubs-in stem-an buks-an kapt-an tubs-an gloss open embrace redeem

Vowel Deletion: V / VC __ CV Could the rule be Vowel Insertion? V / C__C (No)

Tagalog vowel raising

stem opos posod tubos stem-in ups-in pusd-in tubs-in stem-an ups-an pusd-an tubs-an gloss stop tuft redeem

/o/-Raising: o u / __ CC Could the rule be /u/-Lowering? u o / ?? (No)

Tagalog [h]-insertion/deletion
stem bata bili polo stem-in bath-in bilh-in pulh-in stem-an bath-an bilh-an pulh-an gloss suffer buy ask for trifles

[h]-Insertion: h / V __ V Insert a [h] between adjacent vowels. Could the rule be /h/-Deletion? h / __ # (Yes)

Tagalog nasal place assimilation

stem damit bani anap stem-in damt-in ba-in amp-in stem-an damt-an ba-an amp-an gloss clothe mat fulfill

Nasal Place Assimilation:

Assimilate the alveolar nasal /n/ to the place of articulation of the following consonant.

Is Nasal Place Assimilation ordered before or after Vowel Deletion?

Tagalog rule ordering

UR Nasal Place Assimilation Vowel Deletion SR /bani + in/ --bangin *[bangin]

UR Vowel Deletion Nasal Place Assimilation SR

/bani + in/ bangin bagin [bagin]

Polish final devoicing

singular klup trut wuk rus ur buj plural klub- trud- wu- ruz- ur- boj- gloss club labor lye rubble soup fight

Final Devoicing: obstruent [voice] / __ # An obstruent becomes voiceless at the end of a word.

Polish vowel raising

singular dom dzvon sul trup wup nos vus plural dom- dzvon- sol- trup- wob- nos- voz- gloss house bell salt corpse crib nose cart


/o/ becomes [u] before a final voiced non-nasal consonant.

Polish rule ordering

UR Final Devoicing /o/-Raising SR /ro/ rok --*[rok] /voz/ vos --*[vos] /boj/ --buj [buj] /dom/ ----[dom]

UR /o/-Raising Final Devoicing SR

/ro/ ru ruk [ruk]

/voz/ vuz vus [vus]

/boj/ buj --[buj]

/dom/ ----[dom]

GOOD LUCK in the exam!

Contact Iris:
Discussions on Blackboard Email:, Office hours: Mon 9:30-10:30 GFS 342 Additional office hours: Sep 29, Wed 2:30-3:30