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1200 Lighting

Abstract
This section provides technical and practical guidance for the design and selection of lighting systems. It defines and describes lighting, different types of light sources, factors to consider when selecting lamps and fixtures, and the design, layout, and maintenance of lighting systems. Design considerations including acceptable lighting levels for specific areas, economic factors, safety issues, and different methods for determining the number and layout (location) of fixtures are also discussed. Contents 1210 Introduction 1211 Section Guide 1220 Light Sources (Lamps) 1221 Incandescent Lamps 1222 Fluorescent Lamps 1223 High Intensity Discharge Lamps 1224 Lamp Designations 1230 Fixture Selection 1231 Area Classification 1232 Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation 1233 Color 1234 Cost 1235 Temperature 1236 Lamp Starting and Restarting 1237 Ballasts 1238 Fixture Materials 1239 Voltage Levels 1240 Lighting System Design 1200-21 1200-8 1200-3 Page 1200-3

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1241 Distribution of Light 1242 Lighting Methods 1243 Illumination Level 1244 Lighting Level Reduction 1245 Emergency Lighting Systems 1246 Company Experience with Lighting Systems 1250 Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout 1251 Area Lighting 1252 Lumen Maintenance Factor (LMF) 1253 Watts-Per-Square Foot Method 1254 Iso-Footcandle Method 1255 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts 1256 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Tables 1260 Maintenance Considerations 1270 Glossary of Terms 1280 References 1281 Model Specifications (MS) 1282 Standard Drawings 1283 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) 1284 Other References 1200-44 1200-45 1200-46 1200-25

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1210 Introduction
Good lighting systems provide two primary benefits in a facility: personnel safety and efficiency of operations. All decisions involving lighting system design and selection must take into consideration these two factors. This section contains information that provides guidance for selecting appropriate lighting systems. It also provides guidance for analyzing the efficiency of existing systems and for analyzing systems maintenance.

1211 Section Guide


The following guide directs the user to the appropriate sections. If unfamiliar with different types of lamps, Section 1220, Light Sources (Lamps) should be reviewed. General information is provided about incandescent, fluorescent, and different high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. HID lamp types include mercury vapor, metal halide, and high pressure sodium. This section is not intended to be used for the selection of lighting fixtures. Section 1230, Fixture Selection, should be used as a guide in selecting the type of fixture. Factors discussed that influence fixture selection are: area classification, color rendition, luminous efficacy and lumen depreciation, cost, temperature, and lamp starting and restarting time. Three other factors should be considered when specifying fixtures: ballast, fixture materials, and voltage level. Section 1240, Lighting System Design, reviews the many considerations involved in lighting design. These considerations include the type of light distribution, lighting methods, illumination levels, and emergency lighting systems. Many OPCOs have standardized particular fixtures. For these applications, the recommended illumination levels listed in API RP 540, Section 6, Electrical Installations in Petroleum Refineries, and API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, should be used to determine the necessary footcandle levels. Company experience is also outlined for many applications. Section 1250, Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout, can be used to determine the number of fixtures and their layout. Topics discussed are: area lighting, lumen maintenance factor (LMF), and three computational methods, with two examples using the iso-footcandle method. Section 1260, Maintenance Considerations, discusses relamping, cleaning fixtures, and cleaning lighted surfaces.

1220 Light Sources (Lamps)


The primary purpose of an electrical light source is the conversion of electrical energy into visible light. The effectiveness with which a lamp accomplishes this is expressed in terms of lumens emitted per watt of power consumed, or luminous efficacy.

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For an idea of the relative luminous effectiveness of common light sources, consider that a 60-watt incandescent lamp (A-19 medium base soft-white) emits about 900 lumens in comparison to a 60-watt fluorescent lamp (cool white) which emits about 5600 lumens. This is roughly six times the lumens per watt of the incandescent lamp. In addition, the fluorescent lamp has a ten-times longer life than the incandescent lamp. To obtain the predicted long life of any lamp, it must be mounted according to the manufacturers instructions. Some lamps can only be mounted in a vertical position; others, only in a horizontal position. Some have a requirement for the base to be up, others for the base to be down. The most common types of light sources and their associated groups are shown below.
Type Incandescent Fluorescent Mercury Vapor Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Group Filament Fluorescent High Intensity Discharge High Intensity Discharge High Intensity Discharge

1221 Incandescent Lamps


The filament lamp produces light by heating a wire filament to incandescence, which generates energy in the form of light and heat. The most common filament material is tungsten. All filament lamps emit a large quantity of heat with generally less than 5% light energy emitted. Both the life and light output of an incandescent lamp are determined by the filament temperature. The higher the temperature for a given lamp, the shorter the life. However, the larger the diameter of the filament wire, the hotter the lamp can operate. This results in more light output, which in turn means higher efficacy. To illustrate this, consider that a 150-watt, 120-volt lamp produces approximately 34% more light than three 50-watt, 120-volt lamps. Incandescent lamps have a rated average life of about 1000 hours and radiate about 14 to 20 lumens per watt. Vibration and shock should be eliminated as they can greatly reduce lamp life. Incandescent lamps are available with virtually unbreakable shells and filaments where high vibration or rugged duty is required. As a general rule, incandescent lamps should be operated at rated voltage. Overvoltage operation produces higher wattage, higher efficacy, and higher light output, but results in a shorter life. Undervoltage, while increasing lamp life, causes a reduction in wattage, efficacy, and light output. A voltage as little as 5% below normal results in a loss of light of more than 16%, with a savings in wattage of only 8%. Since the lamp cost is almost always small compared with the cost of the power to operate the lamp, the increased lamp life which accompanies reduced voltage does not compensate for the loss in light output. Maintaining the proper voltage is an important factor in obtaining good performance from lamps and lighting installations.

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1222 Fluorescent Lamps


The fluorescent lamp contains mercury vapor at low pressure with a small amount of inert gas for starting. When voltage is applied, an arc discharge is produced by current flowing through the mercury vapor. The discharge generates ultraviolet radiation which excites the fluorescent powders on the inner wall of the lamp, which in turn emit light. Like most gas discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps must be operated in series with a ballast. The ballast produces the required voltage to start and operate the lamp and the required current to produce the desired light output. Fluorescent lamps have a rated average life of about 20,000 hours when operated for a minimum of 3 hours per start. The lamps radiate about 74 to 84 lumens per watt. The average lamp life for fluorescent lamps is affected by the number of on-off operations. A rule-of-thumb is that each lamp start reduces the average lamp life by 3 hours. This might imply that fluorescent lamps should be operated continuously during the day to save lamp life rather than being turned off when not in use to save energy. However, the light should be turned off to save energy because approximately 80% of the life-cycle cost of a fluorescent lamp is for electrical energy. The life of F40 and F30 lamps, operating on rapid start ballasts when burned 3 or more hours per start, is not appreciably affected by the number of starts. All burned-out lamps should be removed promptly to prevent the auxiliary equipment from overheating. Depreciation in light output of the fluorescent lamp is due chiefly to a gradual deterioration of the phosphor powders and a blackening of the inside of the tube. In the last hours of lamp life, a dense deposit develops at the end of the lamp where the electrode is deactivated. This effect is especially marked if the lamp is allowed to flash on and off before it is replaced. Low voltage, as well as high voltage, reduces efficiency and shortens fluorescent lamp life. This is in contrast with filament lamps, where low voltage reduces efficiency but prolongs life. Low voltage and low ambient temperatures may also cause starting difficulties with fluorescent luminaires. A large voltage dip or reduction in line voltage affects the stability of the arc. The reaction to a voltage dip depends on the lamp type and ballast characteristics. For 40-watt, T-12 lamps, the line voltage can drop to the values illustrated in the table below before the lamps will extinguish:
Type Preheat Rapid-start series-sequence Instant-start lead-lag Instant-start series-sequence Percent of Normal Voltage 75 80 60 50

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1223 High Intensity Discharge Lamps


High intensity discharge (HID) lamps that are commonly used include mercury vapor, metal halide, and high pressure sodium. The light producing element of these lamps is a stabilized arc discharge contained within an arc tube. Light is produced by the passage of an electric current through a vapor or gas rather than through a tungsten wire. The applied voltage ionizes the gas and permits current to flow between two electrodes located at opposite ends of the lamp. The electrons which comprise the current stream, or arc discharge, are accelerated to tremendous speeds. When they collide with the atoms of the gas or vapor, they temporarily alter the atomic structure, and light is produced from the energy generated as the atoms return to their normal state. Low pressure sodium lamps are not recommended because of very poor color rendition and high operating costs.

Mercury Vapor Lamps


Most mercury vapor (MV) lamps are constructed with two envelopes, an inner envelope (arc tube) which contains the arc, and an outer envelope which: (a) shields the arc tube from outside drafts and resulting changes in temperature; (b) usually contains an inert gas which prevents oxidation of internal parts; (c) provides an inner surface for a coating of phosphors; and (d) acts as a filter to remove certain wavelengths of arc radiation. A significant part of the energy radiated by the mercury arc is in the ultraviolet region. Through the use of phosphor coatings on the inside surface of the outer envelope, some of this ultraviolet energy is converted to visible light by the same mechanism employed in fluorescent lamps. Mercury lamps used in open-type fixtures can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from shortwave ultraviolet radiation if the outer envelope of the lamp is broken or punctured and the arc tube continues to operate. For this reason, nonenclosed fixtures should be specified with self-extinguishing lamps that will automatically extinguish if the outer envelope is broken or punctured. Self-extinguishing lamps cost about twice as much as standard lamps.

Metal Halide Lamps


Metal halide (MH) lamps are very similar in construction to mercury lamps. The major difference is that the metal halide arc tube contains various metal halides in addition to mercury and argon. Almost all varieties of available white-light metal halide lamps produce color rendering which is equal or superior to the presently available phosphor coated mercury lamps. Metal halide lamps are also available with phosphors applied to the outer envelopes to further modify the color. Most metal halide lamps require a higher open-circuit voltage to start than corresponding wattage mercury lamps. Therefore, they require specifically designed ballasts.

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Metal halide lamps are constructed of a glass envelope with an internal arc tube made of quartz. These arc tubes operate under high pressure (6 to 7 atmospheres) at a very high temperature (up to 900C). The arc tube may unexpectedly rupture due to internal causes or external factors, but most commonly ruptures when the lamp is operated beyond its rated life. If the arc tube ruptures, the glass envelope surrounding the arc tube can break, allowing particles of extremely hot quartz from the arc tube and glass fragments from the glass envelope to be discharged into the fixture enclosure and surrounding area. This circumstance creates a risk of personal injury or fire. Metal halide lamps should always be used in enclosed fixtures with lens/diffuser material which is able to contain fragments of hot quartz or glass. To reduce the potential hazard of ruptured arc tubes, use metal halide lamp manufacturers with proven lamps. Additional precautions to use to reduce the likelihood of arc tube rupture are: 1. Turn continuously operating lamps off once a month for at least 15 minutes. Lights which are close to the end of their design life likely will not restart. This procedure will reduce the chance of arc tube rupture caused by continuously operating lamps burning beyond the end of rated life. Relamp fixtures at or before the end of their rated life. Allowing lamps to operate beyond their design life increases the possibility of arc tube rupture.

2.

Like mercury vapor lamps, metal halide lamps can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from shortwave ultraviolet radiation if the outer envelope of the lamp is broken or punctured and the arc tube continues to operate. When using open-type fixtures, self-extinguishing lamps that automatically extinguish when the outer envelope is broken or punctured should be specified.

High Pressure Sodium Lamps


In a high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp, light is produced by electric current passing through sodium vapor. The arc tube contains xenon as a starting gas. Special ballasts are required which incorporate starting voltages in the range of 2250 to 4000 volts to strike the arc. These high strike voltages can result in high temperatures which could possibly create problems in classified areas. HPS lamps do not incorporate a starting electrode or heater coil as do mercury vapor and metal halide lamps. Arc tube rupture is not a problem with high pressure sodium lamps since the arc tube is made of ceramic material. Shortwave radiation is also not a concern with high pressure sodium lamps.

1224 Lamp Designations


Lamp designations follow a system authorized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). All designations begin with a letter that identifies the type of HID lamp: H for mercury, M for metal halide, and S for high pressure sodium. This letter designation is followed by an ANSI assigned number which identifies the electrical characteristics of the lamp and, consequently, the ballast. After the number, two arbitrary letters identify the bulb size, shape, and finish, but do not

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identify the color. Additional letters are used by individual manufacturers for special designations.

1230 Fixture Selection


A thorough understanding of the purpose for a lighting system must be established before the various selection factors can be evaluated. Figure 1200-1 lists fixture types and typical applications in order of preference for locations that require maximum light output at the lowest possible operating cost. On offshore platforms where power is generated and the physical layout prevents full use of light output, mercury vapor fixtures are often preferred. They give better color rendition and have lower installed costs in situations where some of the light is lost due to shadows. When several possible fixture types have been chosen, a review of the features of each one can be made to complete the selection process.
Fig. 1200-1 Light Fixture Selection (1 of 2) Light Fixture Type Application Outdoor: Entrance Illumination Wall Illumination Ladder Illumination Emergency Lights Area Floodlighting Walkways Roadways Corridors Canopy Lighting Heliports Indoor: Small Store Rooms Exit Lights Stairways Bulkheads Emergency Lights Offices Control Rooms Living Areas 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 (with instant restrike) 1 1 1 1 Incandescent Fluorescent MV MH HPS

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Fig. 1200-1 Light Fixture Selection (2 of 2) Light Fixture Type Application Corridors Switchgear Buildings High Bay Area Lighting Warehouses
Notes:

Incandescent 2

Fluorescent 1 1 3 3

MV

MH

HPS

2 2

1 1

1. Number indicates order of preference, 1 being the most preferred. 2. See Section 1230, Fixture Selection, for discussion of limited-light applications and low-cost power usage.

1231 Area Classification


Area classification must be determined before selecting lighting fixtures. Refer to Section 300 of this manual for guidance in determining area classification and Section 340 for specific lighting fixture considerations. Refer to the area classification drawing of the facility in which the lighting fixture is to be installed to identify the proper area classification. The fixture temperature must not exceed the ignition temperature of flammable gases or vapors present. See Figure 1200-2 for temperature identification numbers and T-Ratings for typical fixtures.

1232 Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation


One of the two primary factors used in fixture selection is the luminous efficacy (lumens per watt) of the light source. The other primary factor is the initial cost of the fixture. For fixtures that have a long life, the luminous efficacy, which relates directly to the operating cost of the lamp, usually will govern the selection process. These factors usually do not govern fixture selection when shadows prevent full use of light output or when power is generated at very low cost (e.g., on offshore platforms). Lumen depreciation is a reduction in normal light output that is unique to each type of lamp. It is an important factor during the design and fixture layout process. For example, the light output of a mercury vapor lamp at the end of rated life will only be about 50% of its original light output. By comparison, the light output of high pressure sodium and fluorescent lamps at the end of rated life will be about 80% of their original light output.

Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation Summary


Figure 1200-3 and Figure 1200-4 summarize the luminous efficacy and lumen depreciation for different light sources.

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Fig. 1200-2 Technical Data: Temperature Identification Numbers of Typical Fixtures (Courtesy of Appleton Electric Company)

1233 Color
In some applications, color rendition is the dominant factor in fixture selection. For example, metal halide fixtures are typically used in the canopy area of service stations because of the pleasing visual effect of the light. Metal halide lamps use more energy per lumen output and have a shorter life than high pressure sodium lamps, but the visual attractiveness obtained by using metal halide lamps outweighs their added operating cost. Mixing high pressure sodium with metal halide or mercury vapor is not recommended because of the contrasting colors. Mixing luminaires becomes a problem when color rendition is importantfor example, for distinguishing colors, for reading, and when performing precision, task-oriented activities. Mixing luminaires also presents a maintenance problem during relamping, when time is lost locating the correct lamps.

Incandescent Filament Lamps


Incandescent light closely resembles natural sunlight, with good color rendition.

Fluorescent Lamps
The color produced by a fluorescent lamp depends upon the blend of phosphors used to coat the wall of the tube. There are different white and color spectrum

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Fig. 1200-3 Efficacies for Various Light Sources (from The IESNA Lighting Handbook Reference and Application, Ninth Edition. Courtesy of IESNA)

fluorescent lamps available with their own particular coloration. White lamps have good color rendering properties.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps


A discussion of the color aspects of HID lamps follows. Mercury Vapor (MV) Lamps. The color spectrum of clear mercury lamps is deficient in red and has a preponderance of blue and green. This results in marked distortion of object colors, and makes mercury vapor lamps undesirable when the appearance of colors is important. This deficiency can be overcome by using deluxe white (color-corrected) lamps in which fluorescent phosphor coatings are added to the lamps to improve color rendering. MV lamps have poorer color rendition than MH lamps, but better color rendition than HPS lamps. MV lamps are best used for general lighting (street, industrial, and flood-lighting) where color rendering is not extremely important or where the full output of an HPS lamp will not be utilized because of shadowing. Metal Halide (MH) Lamps. The color spectrum of clear metal halide lamps is equal to or superior to phosphor-coated mercury vapor lamps. Phosphor coatings can be added for better color. MH lamps are best used where color rendering is important and in general lighting where only a few fixtures are required. High Pressure Sodium (HPS). The color spectrum of high pressure sodium lamps consists of white light with a yellow-orange tone. HPS lamps are best used for

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Fig. 1200-4 Lumen Depreciation Factor (LDF) (from Philips Lighting Guide to High Intensity Discharge Lamps" Printed 8/91, publication # P-2685, pages 7, 12, and 16. Courtesy of the Philips Lighting Company.)

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general lighting of large areas where good color rendition is a secondary consideration.

1234 Cost
High pressure sodium lamps are usually the best economic choice for lighting large areas, primarily because of their low operating cost and long life. Such areas include: floodlighting, general area lighting, road way lighting, and warehouse lighting. Metal halide is the second most cost effective choice for outdoor lighting, followed by fluorescent. Mercury vapor fixtures should not be used in new installations due to poor luminous efficacy and high lumen depreciation (which results in high operating costs) except for specific locations as discussed below. In fact, it may be cost effective to retrofit existing mercury vapor installations with high pressure sodium lamps. At locations where power is purchased or generated at low cost and physical layout prevents full use of light output, metal halide or mercury vapor fixtures may be more cost effective. An economic evaluation should be performed. Fluorescent lamps are often the preferred choice for enclosed areas, especially for control rooms, office buildings, and laboratories with low ceiling clearance. High pressure sodium lamps are often preferred for warehouses and indoor process areas. Incandescent lamps should be used sparingly, and only for specialty applications (e.g., emergency lighting) or where lighting is used infrequently and the initial fixture cost is low compared to alternative lighting fixtures.

Fluorescent Lamps
Figure 1200-5 shows a cost analysis for energy-saving versus standard efficiency fluorescent lamps. This analysis indicates that energy-saving lamps should be specified even when the time value of money is as high as 20%. Energy-saving lamps are more cost effective because the average lamp life is long (almost 7 years) and energy represents more than 80% of the life cycle cost (LCC) of operating lamps.

High Intensity Discharge Lamps


Figure 1200-6 shows a cost analysis to light a 50,000 square foot area to an illumination level of 5 footcandles. The analysis is based on using Class I, Division 2 (UL-844) fixtures, with an energy cost of $0.08/KWH, and 4000 burning hours per year. For different costs of power and labor, ratio actual costs to the costs used in this example (e.g., $0.04/KWH/$0.08/KWH=$4,864.00 annual operating cost). The undiscounted life cycle cost (LCC) of using HPS lamps in this example is approximately $300,000. By comparison, the undiscounted LCC of MV lamps is more than $720,000. This cost does not consider the added cost of source equipment (transformers and panelboards) for the MV lamp option (with a connected load of 82 KW versus 30 KW for the HPS option). In addition, more conduit, wire, and lamp stanchions are required for the MV lamp option. The metal halide option is also a better choice economically than mercury vapor. Figure 1200-7 illustrates another example in which one HPS, MV, or MH fixture provides a maintained minimum illumination of 5 footcandles. In this example, the

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Fig. 1200-5 Cost Analysis: Comparison of Fluorescent LampsEnergy Savers vs. Standard Lamps F40CW Standard Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Estimated Lamp Life (Hrs) Average Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost After Discount ($/lamp) Lamp Input (watts/lamp) Total Connect Load (W) Relamp Labor/lamp @$50/hr Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 110.81 96.08 84.30 54.96 97.38 84.44 74.08 48.30 3.72 30.00 192.00 225.72 5.16 30.00 163.20 198.36 0.19 1.50 9.60 11.29 0.26 1.50 8.16 9.92 1.00 3,150.00 20,000 0.15 1.24 40.00 40 10.00 F40 Energy Saver 1.00 2,775.00 20,000 0.15 1.72 34.00 30 10.00

MV option has the lowest initial cost and the lowest LCC even when the time value of money is over 20%. Figure 1200-8 demonstrates a retrofit example in which MV lamps are presently in use. An initial investment of approximately $96,000 will be required to retrofit to HPS or $104,000 to retrofit to MH. Based on a 10-year LCC, the option to retrofit with HPS yields a savings even when the time value of money is as high as 12%. Retrofitting with MH is not a cost effective option. This also is true when using a 20-year LCC. However, when the cost of energy is below $0.05/KWH, it is not cost effective to change out the MV lights. An economic analysis should be performed for each possible situation.

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Fig. 1200-6 Cost Analysis: High Intensity Discharge Fixtures High Intensity Discharge Fixtures Basis: 50,000 Sq Ft Area; Illuminated to 5 fc 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/Kwh Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D 150 W HPS Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life (hrs) Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Labor Cost Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 225,615 202,896 185,198 143,525 542,332 483,338 437,382 329,173 332,451 294,623 265,155 195,770 14,580 5,400 194,560 214,540 294,540 19,040 11,900 525,504 556,444 720,664 46,400 16,000 294,400 356,800 446,800 729 270 9,728 10,729 952 595 26,275 27,822 2,320 800 14,720 17,840 56,000 24,000 80,000 110,670 53,550 164,220 60,000 30,000 90,000 160 16,000 0.60 1,536,000 24,000 27 27 190 30.40 350 150 10 175 W MV 357 8600 0.50 1,535,000 24,000 60 16 230 82.11 310 150 10 175 W MH 200 14,000 0.55 1,540,000 10,000 80 29 230 46.00 300 150 10

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Fig. 1200-7 Cost Analysis: High Intensity Discharge Fixtures High Intensity Discharge Fixtures Basis: Equal Number of Fixtures; Illumination Minimum to 5 fc; 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/kwh; Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D 70 W HPS Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life (hours) Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Labor Cost Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 1,006 923 859 707 1,004 904 827 644 1,662 1,473 1,325 978 97 33 652 782 1,257 63 33 844 941 1,306 232 80 1,472 1,784 2,234 4.80 1.70 32.60 39.10 3.20 1.70 42.20 47.10 11.60 4.00 73.60 89.20 325 150 475 215 150 365 300 150 450 1 5800 0.60 3,480 24,000 0.17 29 102 0.10 325 150 10 100 W MV 1 4200 0.50 2,100 24,000 0.17 19 132 0.13 215 150 10 175 W MH 1 14,000 0.55 7,760 10,000 0.40 29 230 0.23 300 150 10

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Fig. 1200-8 Fixture Retrofit Cost Analysis Replace Existing Mercury Vapor (MV) Fixtures Basis: 50,000 Sq Ft Area; Illuminated to 5 fc 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/kwh Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Engineering Installation Labor Cost Remove MV Fixtures ($50/fixture) Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 10 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 10 Year Operating Cost 10 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 10 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 14% Discount Rate 150 W HPS 160 16,000 0.60 1,536,000 24,000 27 27 190 30.40 350 150 10 56,000 6,000 24,000 9,850 95,850 729 270 9,728 10,727 7,290 2,700 97,280 107,270 203,120 167,746 161,686 156,390 201,048 187,070 175,882 166,814 175 W MV 357 8,600 0.50 1,535,000 24,000 60 16 230 82.11 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 952 595 26,275 27,822 9,520 5,950 262,752 278,222 278,222 186,689 170,955 157,201 273,162 236,866 207,816 184,270 175 W MH 200 14,000 0.55 1,540,000 10,000 80 29 230 46.00 300 150 10 60,000 6,000 30,000 7,850 103,850 2,320 800 14,720 17,840 23,200 8,000 147,200 178,400 282,250 223,557 213,469 204,649 279,005 255,731 237,104 222,006

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1235 Temperature
Temperature can affect the installation and operation of light sources in many ways. Ambient temperatures can affect the lumen output of some fixtures. Self-generated heat in excess of that which is designed to be dissipated by the fixture can damage the ballast, lamp, base, and fixture. Ballast life is very sensitive to high ambient temperatures. For high ambient temperature areas, it may be more cost effective to use fixtures with remote-mounted ballasts, even though the initial costs for fixtures with integral ballasts may be lower. Fixtures must be mounted according to manufacturers recommendations to correctly dissipate heat.

Incandescent Filament Lamps


Operation of lamps under conditions which cause excessive bulb and base temperatures may result in softening of the base cement and loosening of the base. In extreme cases, the fixture and adjacent wiring can be damaged. Care should be taken to ensure that the correct wattage lamps are installed in fixtures. Most fixtures are designed to dissipate a specific quantity of heat generated by the lamps. Overvoltage conditions or the use of lamps of higher wattage than the manufacturers rating can cause slight or severe damage. The use of incorrect wattage lamps may also affect light distribution by fixtures since the focal point will not be correct for reflectors.

Fluorescent Lamps
Temperature is an important factor in the performance of fluorescent lamps. The temperature of the bulb wall has a substantial effect on the amount of ultraviolet light generated by the arc; therefore, light output is significantly affected by the temperature and movement of the surrounding air. For maximum efficiency, bulb wall temperatures should be within a range of 100 to 120F. Light output decreases about 1 percent for each 1-degree drop in bulb temperature below 100 F, and decreases a like amount for each 2-degree rise between 120 to 200F. When fluorescent lamps with P ballasts are installed, fixtures must be able to dissipate the heat which is generated. Insulation around the fixture, or a fixture installed in a high ambient temperature area, can cause the ballast protection to cut in and out, turning the lamp off and on unpredictably. Low temperatures may also cause starting difficulty. This normally is not a problem with indoor applications, but can become a significant problem outdoors. For outdoor applications, fluorescent lamps designed for outdoor use are recommended because of their high lumen output. In order to maintain high output in cold climates, the lamps must be enclosed. Enclosing the lamps shifts the peak output to a lower ambient temperature. When using lamps in cold weather without a surrounding enclosure, best results will be obtained from T10J lamps specifically designed for use in low air temperatures.

High Intensity Discharge Lamps


The lumen output of the enclosed arc-tube type lamp is not significantly affected by ambient temperature. However, to insure immediate starting at low temperatures,

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many HID lamps require a ballast which has a higher open-circuit voltage than that of a standard ballast designed for a temperature-controlled environment. Because HID lamps have a long life, operating temperatures are particularly important. The effect of heat is partly a function of time, and the longer the life of the lamp, the greater the possibility of damage from high temperature. Excessive bulb and base temperatures may cause the following conditions: lamp failure, unsatisfactory performance due to softening of the glass, damage to the arc tube from moisture being driven out of the outer envelope, softening of the basing cement or solder, or corrosion of the base, socket, or lead-in wires. The use of any reflecting equipment that might concentrate heat and light rays on either the inner arc tube or the outer envelope should be avoided.

1236 Lamp Starting and Restarting


Lamp starting and restarting can be an important consideration if there is a significant time delay before light output can be achieved. This factor can be important in remote locations, or in an industrial setting where an unsafe condition may exist after a power dip if light is not restored immediately. Of all luminaires, metal halide lamps take the longest time to restart and reach full power output after a power failure.

Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent lamps achieve immediate light output upon starting and restarting.

Fluorescent Lamps
Fluorescent lamps should be equipped with rapid-start ballasts which provide immediate starting and restarting characteristics.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps


All HID lamps need time to reach full output and stable color. If the arc is extinguished after this warm-up, the lamp will not relight until it is cooled sufficiently to lower the vapor pressure of the gases to a point where the arc will restrike with the available voltage. Some ballasts can be equipped with a restart circuit that will provide sufficient starting voltage to overcome the higher vapor pressure of the gases. Ballasts equipped with restart circuits provide full light output immediately upon restoration of power. Battery-powered emergency lighting systems may be required for outages which are longer than momentary outages. Epoxy encapsulated ballasts should be considered for high humidity areas and corrosive environments. The epoxy protects the ballast from possible contaminants.

Mercury Vapor (MV) Lamps


The time from initial starting to full light output at ordinary room temperature varies from 5 to 7 minutes. Restrike time (including cooling time until the lamp will restart) varies between 3 and 6 minutes.

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Mercury vapor lights with an auxiliary quartz lamp are available. The incandescent quartz lamp lights immediately when the circuit is restored. When the MV lamp attains 75% of its rated output, a current sensing relay turns the quartz lamp off. Quartz lamps operate at temperatures which are above those allowed for Class I, Division 1 or 2 areas.

Metal Halide (MH) Lamps


The warm-up time for MH lamps is slightly less than that of MV lamps, varying between 2 and 5 minutes. Since MH arc tubes operate at higher temperatures than MV lamps, the time to cool and lower the vapor pressure of the metal halide lamp is longer, varying between 10 and 20 minutes.

High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps


The lamp warm-up time for HPS lamps is between 3 and 4 minutes, and full light output is reached in approximately 10 minutes. Because the operating pressure of a high pressure sodium lamp is lower than that of a mercury lamp, the restrike time is shorter, between 0.5 and 1 minute. Ninety percent of full light output is reached in 3 to 4 minutes. HPS lamps can be equipped with a special feature called Instant Restrike for convenience (or for use as emergency lighting) when uninterrupted illumination is required. With this feature, some light is available immediately. Light output reaches 30% of full output after 1/2 minute. Full light output is achieved in about 3 minutes.

Lamp Start and Restrike Summary


Figure 1200-9 summarizes the lamp starting and restrike times for the various HID light sources.
Fig. 1200-9 Lamp Start and Restrike Time (in Minutes) Type of Lamp MV Start Time Restrike Time 5-7 3-6 MH 2-5 10-20 HPS 3-4 0.5-1(1) Incandescent immediate immediate Fluorescent immediate immediate

(1) Also available with instant restrike.

1237 Ballasts
Fluorescent Lamps
The components of a typical rapid start ballast consist of a transformer-type core and coil, power capacitor, thermal protective device, and a potting compound (such as asphalt) containing a filler (such as silica). The average ballast life at a 50% duty cycle and proper operating temperature is about 12 years. In the United States and Canada, it is mandatory that all fluorescent lamp ballasts be thermally protected internally. The thermally protected Underwriters Laboratory approved ballast is marked or labeled as Class P. Ballasts should also be listed by

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the Certified Ballast Manufacturers Association (CBM). All CBM listed ballasts are also UL listed. CBM publishes sound ratings for ballasts.

High Intensity Discharge


The Constant Wattage Autotransformer CWA lead circuit ballast is the preferred choice for most HID installations. It consists of a high reactance autotransformer with a capacitor in series with the lamp. The capacitor allows the lamp to operate with better wattage stability if branch circuit voltage fluctuates. Other advantages of the CWA ballast are a high power factor, low-line extinguishing voltage, and lower line starting currents. Fixtures with ballasts other than CWA will require approximately 60% more starting current than operating current. The CWA features allow maximum loading on branch circuits and provide more cost-effective HID lighting systems.

1238 Fixture Materials


Fixture material may be an important consideration in the selection of lighting fixtures, especially in marine environments. Underwriters Laboratories Standard UL-595 covers marine-type electric light fixtures. Outdoor fixtures for use on shipboard or offshore platforms should be UL-595 listed.

1239 Voltage Levels


The voltage level of the electrical supply is discussed in Section 100, System Design. Incandescent and fluorescent fixtures normally are supplied with 120 volts. HID fixtures can be supplied at 120, 208, 240, 277, or 480 volts. Many locations have standardized a particular voltage level. This practice should be investigated before selecting fixtures. Many locations prefer 120 volts for all fixtures for safety considerations, easier phase balancing, and reduced inventories of fixtures and ballasts.

1240 Lighting System Design


Before the system design process can begin, the following design parameters must be determined: area classification, fixture selection, and voltage level. In addition, the following project design tasks must be completed: facility layout, mechanical equipment plans, structural plans, and emergency escape routes. The design of any lighting installation involves the consideration of many variables. These variables include: (1) lighting for detailed work, (2) flood lighting, (3) task-oriented lighting, and (4) emergency lighting. The lighting system should be designed to provide slightly more than the initial desired light to allow for lamp deterioration and dirt accumulation on the fixture lens (i.e., maintenance factor and luminaire depreciation factor). The lighting system should also be designed to provide the desired quantity of light at the particular location and in the proper visual plane. The amount of glare produced, the ease of installation and maintenance, and environmental suitability (e.g., indoors, outdoors, and hazardous locations) should all be considered during the design phase.

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1241 Distribution of Light


The distribution of light is divided into five classes: direct, semi-direct, generaldiffuse (or direct-indirect), semi-indirect, and indirect. Direct lighting provides 90 to 100% of its light downward, and while it often is most efficient, it usually results in glare. Semi-direct lighting provides 60 to 90% of its light downward, with a general decrease in glare and increase in seeing comfort. General-diffuse (direct-indirect) lighting systems provide approximately equal components of up-light and down-light. This system emits very little brightness in the direct-glare zone. The efficiency of the system depends largely on the reflectances of all the room surfaces. This system is widely used in laboratories and offices. Semi-indirect lighting provides 60 to 90% up-light and depends on light being reflected from the ceiling and walls. This type of lighting system is used when reflected glare from room surfaces must be minimized. Indirect lighting systems provide 90 to 100% up-light and produce the most comfortable light. However, they have the lowest utilization of the five classes and often are difficult to maintain. Indirect lighting is preferred for control rooms with CRT monitors.

1242 Lighting Methods


To provide the necessary quantity and quality of light for lighting system applications, three types of lighting are used. General lighting should provide overall, uniform lighting with special attention focused on the areas along walls. The lighting level at the wall should be comparable to that at the center of the room. An example of this is in the bunk areas of living quarters. Localized general lighting is used in areas where higher illumination levels are required. This often can be obtained by increasing the output of the general lighting system in the particular area. Supplementary luminaires are used to provide higher levels of illumination in small or restricted areas.

The illumination of vertical surfaces often requires special considerations to provide uniformity and, in those cases where the vertical surface is behind a transparent cover, to prevent reflected glare. Where vertical surfaces are adjacent to sources of high luminance, acceptable brightness ratios should be maintained to help avoid eye-strain caused by a large difference in brightness between the task area and the background.

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1243 Illumination Level


Company experience has shown that the lighting levels listed in API RP 540, Section 6, Electrical Installations in Petroleum Refineries, and API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, are adequate and are recommended for Company installations.

1244 Lighting Level Reduction


In the interest of energy conservation, lighting levels which exceed the standard recommendation should be reduced. Levels listed for office areas are based on the 1974 guidelines of the Federal Energy Administration. Persons with uncorrectable visual difficulties and those performing difficult visual tasks may require supplemental lighting. When supplemental lighting is provided in the form of desk or floor lamps, the lamps should be selected and placed so that minimum glare is introduced. Lighting level reductions often are made by removing fluorescent lamps from fixtures. Even if all lamps are removed from a fluorescent fixture, energy is still consumed by the ballasts. Certain considerations and precautions must be made when removing fluorescent lamps: 1. With the exception of Slim-Line (Instant-Start) lamps, all lamps connected to a given ballast should be removed. Removing only a portion of the lamps from a ballast can cause damage to the ballast from overheating. Most four-lamp fixtures operate from two ballasts, with two lamps on each ballast. Removing only one or three lamps from this type of fixture is not a safe practice. Either all four lamps should be removed or two lamps operating from the same ballast should be removed. UL rating and manufacturers warranties are normally invalidated if the above steps are not followed. There is one exception to this rule: any number of lamps can be removed from a Slim-Line (Instant-Start) fixture providing the fixture is equipped with circuit-interrupting lampholders as required by UL. If maintenance personnel are uncertain about the lampholder type, technical assistance should be obtained before lamps are removed. When lamps are removed from a fixture, a potential voltage remains at the sockets which could be dangerous. A suitable protective cap should be used or the sockets should be taped with high temperature tape. All maintenance personnel who are likely to be working on or cleaning these fixtures should be made aware of this potentially dangerous condition. As a general rule, the power factor in a given installation will not drop below 90% provided that no more than one-half of the lamps are removed. Disconnecting additional lamps lowers the power factor further, resulting in higher currents and possible utility charges for excessive use of reactive power. A ballast will continue to draw current after all lamps are removed (except for fixtures with circuit-interrupting lampholders), resulting in wasted energy and possible overheating of the ballast. For example, measurements taken on a fourlamp, 40 watts-per-lamp, Rapid-Start fixture show that each ballast uses 10

2.

3.

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watts of power with all lamps removed. Therefore, if practical, and especially if the reduction in lighting level is to be permanent, the ballast should be disconnected from the power source.

1245 Emergency Lighting Systems


Emergency lighting is used during power failures and provides illumination by silhouetting objects. It should be provided in control rooms, at critical instrument locations, in large electrical substations, in mechanics shops, and in laboratories. Emergency systems are used to evacuate personnel, to provide light to shut down controls and equipment, and to maintain a level of illumination adequate for safety and security. It may also be required to illuminate equipment for plant startup following a power outage. Local, city, state, and federal codes may require emergency lighting for special areas where personnel work. Applicable codes should be reviewed carefully. The power source for emergency lighting systems should be separate from the normal electrical source. If the same power source is used for both normal and emergency lighting, a power outage would render the emergency lighting useless. Emergency lighting power sources include engine generator sets, UPS, and batteries. If normal power is lost, light should automatically be provided in areas where the loss of light might cause personnel hazard.

1246 Company Experience with Lighting Systems


Industrial Lighting
High pressure sodium lamps are preferred for most outdoor onshore lighting applications because of their lower initial capital investment and operating costs. MV or MH fixtures should be considered for offshore locations where power is locally generated (often at lower cost/KWH) and where obstructions may shadow areas (requiring more fixtures regardless of the individual fixture output). There are some applications where only a few fixtures are required or where color rendering is of primary importance. In these situations, metal halide or color-corrected mercury vapor fixtures may be preferred.

Service Station Lighting


Metal halide lighting is almost exclusively used for outdoor lighting at Chevron service stations. The better color rendering properties of metal halide help to maintain the Company image and improve sales. Normally, high pressure lighting is used for tank truck loading racks and warehouse lighting.

Roadway and Parking Lot


High pressure sodium lighting normally is preferred for roadways and parking lots.

Offshore Platforms
Mercury vapor and metal halide (and occasionally high pressure sodium) lamps are used for area lighting and lighting the interiors of large buildings. Fluorescent

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lighting is used indoors (and at times outdoors) for area lighting, particularly where low profile fixtures are needed because of low ceiling heights.

Control Room Lighting


Control rooms or other rooms equipped with CRTs should be designed with indirect lighting to reduce glare. Wall-mounted or suspended indirect fluorescent fixtures with adjustable light level controls are preferred. Fluorescent lighting with parabolic louvers (to reduce glare) can also be used for general lighting. Incandescent spot lighting can be used for task lighting. An effort should be made to prevent light penetration from other work spaces. All surfaces in control rooms should be nonreflective.

Aviation Lighting
Metal halide or color-corrected mercury vapor systems are preferred for most heliport lighting applications on offshore platforms because of their superior quality of light. Fluorescent fixtures may be required for low profile applications. Incandescent fixtures equipped with long-life lamps are used for landing lights.

1250 Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout


The three most common methods used to determine the number of fixtures required to provide the necessary maintained illumination for an area are: the lumen method, the point-to-point method, and the iso-footcandle method. The watts-per-square foot method is used for estimating purposes very early in a project or during the conceptual phase of a project. Generally, the lumen method is used in calculations where fixtures are installed in an enclosed space (like a room). The point-to-point method is commonly used in calculations for outside applications where reflected light is not a factor. However, either method may be used for indoor or outdoor locations. The IES Handbook and the Westinghouse Lighting Handbook contain detailed, step-by-step processes for using these two methods. Most lighting design done by the Company is for exterior (outdoor) lighting, primarily for area lighting and floodlighting. This section explains two lighting-calculation methods: the watts-per-square foot method for conceptual design, and the isofootcandle method for general outdoor applications.

1251 Area Lighting


Area lighting for a particular operating company location should be standardized as much as possible. Designs should produce uniform and efficient lighting levels and facilitate cost-effective maintenance.

Floodlighting
The difference between floodlighting and area lighting is the aiming angle. The greater the aiming angle, the greater the area illuminated; however, light output directly beneath the fixture will be lower. Since the objective of floodlighting is to

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maintain only 1 to 2 footcandles at grade, the best method is usually to angle fixtures at 60 degrees from horizontal and install them at heights of about 25 feet. The area illuminated by floodlights can be varied by using different beam widths. This is particularly useful when the light must be directed to a specific area where an individual lighting fixture cannot be installed. Standard floodlight beam widths are specified by NEMA as follows: NEMA TYPE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BEAM SPREAD (degrees) 10 - 18 18 - 29 29 - 46 46 - 70 70 - 100 100- 130 130 and up

Variables in Area Lighting


By understanding and properly addressing the variables discussed below, an effective lighting design can be achieved. 1. Fixture Reflector. The purpose for the reflector is to direct light down, as opposed to out. Figures 1200-10 and 1200-11 are iso-footcandle tables for fixtures with and without reflectors. Since the objective of area lighting is to provide light at grade level, reflectors should be used in most applications. Figure 1200-12 provides a conversion table for lamps other than high pressure sodium lamps. Mounting Height. Both Figures 1200-10 and 1200-11 demonstrate that the lower a fixture is mounted, the brighter the area directly below the fixture. However, as the fixture height is lowered, the amount of peripheral light decreases. When selecting mounting height, it should be kept in mind that the objective of area lights is to achieve a fairly high illumination level directly below fixtures, and that relatively low mounting heights facilitate maintenance. Angled Mounting. Angle stanchion mount fixtures are available to direct the light to one side so that fixtures need not be directly above the area to be illuminated. It is more efficient to mount a fixture directly above an area, but if this is not possible, angled mounts work well. Angled Reflector. Angled reflectors serve the same purpose as angled mounts. A good application for an angled reflector is for fixtures mounted adjacent to buildings. Since minimal light is needed on the side of the building, as much light as possible should be directed to the area needing illumination.

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3.

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Fig. 1200-10 Footcandle TableTypical HPS Fixture, Standard Reflector, No Guard (See Figure 1200-12 to convert HPS footcandle values to MV or MH) Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-11 Footcandle TableTypical HPS Fixture, No Reflector, No Guard (See Figure 1200-12 to convert HPS footcandle values to MV or MH) Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-12 Conversion Table for HPS to MV or MH Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

1252 Lumen Maintenance Factor (LMF)


As lamps age, lumen output deteriorates (lumen depreciation). Dirt depreciation is the lamp depreciation associated with dirt on the lamp, lens, and reflector. Together, lamp depreciation and dirt depreciation constitute the lumen maintenance factor (LMF). Figure 1200-13 provides the recommended lumen maintenance factors to apply to various types of fixtures.
Fig. 1200-13 Lumen Maintenance Factors (1 of 2) Type of Fixture Incandescent -Indoor -Outdoor Fluorescent -Indoor -Outdoor Mercury Vapor -Indoor -Outdoor High Pressure Sodium -Indoor 0.55 0.40 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.70 Lumen Maintenance Factor

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Fig. 1200-13 Lumen Maintenance Factors (2 of 2) Type of Fixture -Outdoor Metal Halide -Indoor -Outdoor 0.45 0.55 Lumen Maintenance Factor 0.60

For example, a 70-watt HPS fixture with a standard reflector and no guard, mounted 8-feet high, will provide 10 footcandles of initial illumination in a 5-foot radius. By applying the LMF of 0.6 for HPS fixtures, the illumination level design basis is 6 footcandles (10 x 0.6) near the end of rated life. If the minimum recommended illumination level is 12 footcandles, two 70-watt HPS fixtures spaced 5-feet apart would provide the required illumination.

1253 Watts-Per-Square Foot Method


The watts-per-square foot method works well to determine the appropriate number of lighting fixtures required and to estimate the total lighting loads for determining initial calculations during the conceptual phase of a project. To use this method, a six-step process is outlined below: Step 1. Determine the illumination level for the area(s) in question. Step 2. Determine the total square footage of the area to be illuminated from the preliminary plot plan. Step 3. Determine the type of lighting fixture to use from Figure 1200-1, Light Fixture Selection. Step 4. Determine the watts per square foot from Figure 1200-14. Step 5. Obtain the total wattage required by multiplying the watts per square foot (from Step 4) by the area to be illuminated (from Step 2). Step 6. Determine the total number of fixtures required by dividing the total wattage required (from Step 5) by the wattage of each lamp (from Step 3).

1254 Iso-Footcandle Method


The iso-footcandle lighting-calculation method works well for outdoor locations, but is not well suited for indoor applications. Figure 1200-15 shows an iso-footcandle chart for a 70-watt HPS fixture with a standard dome reflector mounted at an elevation of 8 feet. Iso-footcandle charts show lines of equal footcandles that will be produced by a specific fixture at a given height. These curves are created from photometric test data, and are representative of the lamps actual output. Iso-footcandle charts are useful as they can be superimposed on the design plot plan and relocated until satisfactory light levels are achieved. Iso-footcandle charts (IFCs)

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Fig. 1200-14 Chart for Determining Watts per Square Foot

may be hard to obtain for a specific fixture and often have to be scaled to match the plot plan. An alternative to the iso-footcandle chart is the iso-footcandle table, which is readily available from most fixture manufacturers. Using this data, isofootcandle levels can be placed on the plot plan. Sections 1255 and 1256 present two examples that illustrate the layout of lighting fixtures using the iso-footcandle method.

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1255 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts


Figure 1200-16 shows a plot plan of a tank truck loading dock, including area classification. The facility consists of a pump pad, an elevated valve manifold platform, an MCC, walkways, and a parking lot. The first step for fixture layout is to determine the proper illumination levels for the various areas. The lighting levels listed in Figure 1200-17 were chosen from API RP 540, Section 6. High pressure sodium fixtures have been selected since they have the highest lumen efficacy and adequate color rendering. The first decision is whether to use floodlights or area lights. The pump pad and valve platform could be adequately lit with two floodlights. A better choice, however, is to use three or four area lights because a uniform light level over the entire area (including the two stairways) can be achieved. Logical locations for the area lights would be the perimeters of the pump pad and the valve platform. In particular, placing a luminaire on an 8-foot stanchion near each stairway would light both the platform and the stairs. The 8-foot height also provides ease of relamping. Using the lumen method, three 70-watt HPS lamps will provide adequate light for the pump pad and elevated platform. The next step is to use the detailed iso-footcandle method. An iso-footcandle chart (drawn to plot-plan scale) for a 70-watt HPS fixture mounted 8-feet high is shown in Figure 1200-18. The values are for initial footcandle levels. A lumen maintenance factor of 0.6 for HPS lamps (from Figure 1200-13) will reduce the radiated light shown on the chart by a factor of 0.6.

Pump Pad and Elevated Valve Platform


The iso-footcandle chart (drawn to the scale of the plot plan) is now located at the top of each stairway, and one more fixture is located to provide the three fixtures called for in the lumen method. Figure 1200-19 shows the iso-footcandle lighting level of the three fixtures. One more fixture is needed near the valve wheels on the tank-side of the platform to achieve a reasonably uniform 5 footcandles (including lumen maintenance factor) on the pump pad and valve platform.

Walkway
The walkway requires a minimum of 1 footcandle. An iso-footcandle chart (IFC) is superimposed on the plot plan to locate the fixtures along the walkway. Using 70watt HPS fixtures mounted at 8 feet, the result is one fixture, 15 feet from the valve platform, and two more at 25-foot intervals at the loading dock area. Figure 1200-20 shows the results.

MCC
Note that the walkway fixtures do not provide adequate light at the MCC where a minimum of 5 footcandles is required. Another fixture should be located to one side of the MCC. The location in Figure 1200-21 was chosen for two reasons: first, to light the face of the MCC at an angle from the side so an operator standing in front of the MCC will not receive any glare from glass-instrument faces; and second, to

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Fig. 1200-15 Iso-Footcandle Chart for Stanchion Mount Fixture Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-16 Plot Plan for Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts

Fig. 1200-17 Desired Lighting Levels for Areas in Figure 1200-16 Area Pump Pad Elevated Valve Platform Stairs Area of Loading Dock Paved Walkways Instruments and Gages Parking Area Lighting Level (footcandles) 5 5 5 10 1 5 1

provide some light on the guard posts to the side of the MCC so that a person walking from the MCC to the parking area will see the posts.

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Fig. 1200-18 Diagram of Iso-Footcandle Chart for 70 Watt HPS Plot-Plan Scale

Loading Dock
The illumination level on the loading dock needs to be much higher than other areas. By inspection, the 70-watt HPS will not provide adequate lumen output per fixture. In addition, the canopy above the loading rack is 15 feet above grade. By choosing a 100-watt HPS pendant-mounted fixture with a 4-foot pendant, plus the fixture length of 1 foot, the fixture height is 10 feet above grade. Figure 1200-22 shows the IFC drawn to scale for this fixture, superimposed on the plot plan. Two fixtures are located to provide the desired 10 footcandles in the loading area. The area of the overhang normally will be occupied by a tanker truck and will only receive partial lighting.

Parking Lot
The final area to be illuminated is the parking lot. Floodlights should be used for this application since the area is larger and light levels need not be uniform or high. A single, 150-watt HPS floodlight, mounted 20 feet above grade (as shown in Figure 1200-23) will provide the necessary lighting levels across the parking area and is high enough that so it will not blind people walking to the loading dock from the parking area.

1256 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Tables


Iso-footcandle tables can also be used to determine fixture locations. Figure 1200-10 is an iso-footcandle table for a 70-watt HPS fixture with a reflector. The table indicates the amount of light at grade level from a light source mounted at a given height.

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Fig. 1200-19 Pump-Pad Platform Lighting Level

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Fig. 1200-20 Walkway Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-21 MCC Lighting Levels

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When using iso-footcandle tables, the best method to overlap light output from different sources must be determined in order to achieve desired light outputs. For instance, assume it is necessary to light a circle of 5-foot radius to 5 footcandles. One 70-watt HPS fixture with a reflector, mounted at 8 feet, will light a 5-foot radius circle to 6 footcandles (after a 60% maintenance factor is applied). See Figure 1200-24 (top). Therefore, one fixture will fulfill the requirement. Assume the area to illuminate is 10 feet by 20 feet. Two 70-watt HPS fixtures, spaced 15 feet apart, will do the job. When two fixtures are adjacent, the resulting footcandle level is the sum of the contributions from each fixture. For example, the sum of the contributions at the center of the 10-foot by 20-foot area is approximately 6 footcandles. See Figure 1200-24 (bottom). To illustrate the iso-footcandle table method, Figure 1200-25 shows a plot plan where two gasoline pumps are to be installed in an area adjacent to a pipeway. The area classification is shown by hashed marks representing a Class I, Division 2, Group D area. Two new walkways and a small parking lot are to be added. The only existing lights in the area are the streetlights on the road and the floodlights by the existing pump station. A lighting survey has shown that the existing illumination where the new facilities are to be installed is essentially zero. To determine the lighting levels in Figure 1200-25, refer to API 540, Section 6. High pressure sodium fixtures are used for this application since they have the lowest life-cycle cost and adequate color rendering for the application. To design the lighting system, divide the new area into four sections: (a) the parking lot, (b) the walkways, (c) the pumps, and (d) the pump manifold.

Parking Lot
A 250-watt, HPS widebeam floodlight, mounted at a height of 25 feet and aimed at 60 degrees, illuminates an oval shaped area 70 feet by 50 feet to approximately 1 footcandle. Because of the lumen maintenance factor, two floodlights will be required to adequately light the 75-foot by 65-foot parking lot to an illumination level of about 1 footcandle (2 x 1 fc x 0.6 = 1.2). Mounting both floodlights on a single pole (compared to two poles) in the middle of the right side of the parking lot will reduce costs. The fixtures are aimed at 60 degrees to the opposite corners of the parking lot. There may be shadow areas that may not achieve 1 footcandle, but most of the lot will be adequately illuminated. With most multiple floodlight designs, it is virtually impossible to avoid shadow areas and still achieve a cost-effective design. Lighting design pamphlets available from major lighting manufacturers can be used as guides.

Walkways
For standardization purposes, 70-watt HPS fixtures mounted at a height of 8 feet will be used throughout the facility. Standardization simplifies the design, construction, and maintenance of the facility. From Figure 1200-10, about 1 footcandle can be maintained (including the lumen maintenance factor) for a horizontal distance of

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Fig. 1200-22 Loading Dock Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-23 Parking Lot Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-24 Lighting Level at a Radius of 5 ft. Circle (top) and Lighting Level at Center of 10 ft. by 20 ft. Area (bottom)

12.5 feet. Fixtures will be separated by 25 feet. One fixture is installed on the paved walkway, 12.5 feet from the parking lot. Four more are installed along the walkway toward the new pumps, 25 feet apart. Along the 225 foot walkway towards the pump station, a fixture is installed 12.5 feet from the intersection of the two new walkways and eight more are installed along the walkway towards the pump station, 25 feet apart.

Pumps
Seventy-watt HPS fixtures spaced 12.5 feet apart (one per pump) will provide the required 5 footcandles of illumination.

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Fig. 1200-25 Iso-Footcandle Plot-Plan: Example Showing Iso-Footcandle Table Method

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Fig. 1200-26 Desired Lighting Levels for Iso-Footcandle Areas in Figure 1200-25 Area Pump Pad Pump Manifold/General Area Walkways Parking Lot Lighting Level (footcandles) 5 1 1 1

Manifold Area
The general area to be illuminated around the pump is approximately 50 feet by 50 feet. One 250-watt HPS floodlight on a 25-foot pole will sufficiently light the general area to approximately 1 footcandle and keep the fixture out of the classified area.

1260 Maintenance Considerations


If a regularly scheduled maintenance program is not followed, the effectiveness of a lighting system can be substantially reduced. Proper maintenance is usually more economical than allowing the system to operate at low efficiency. A good maintenance program involves: (1) replacing lamps, (2) cleaning fixtures, and (3) cleaning lighted surfaces.

Replacing Lamps (Relamping)


Two different approaches may be taken in relamping programs: (1) replace lamps as they extinguish, or (2) replace all lamps at one time (group replacement). The first approach, individual lamp replacement, is usually the least cost-effective method. The labor portion of the relamping program typically dominates the total cost. When the labor cost is not the largest portion of relamping cost, the first approach is the more economical (e.g., on offshore platforms.) A group replacement scheme can be developed for a given installation by considering the cost of labor and lamps, lamp life, and the effect of work interruptions. A commonly used criterion for group replacement is: When 20% of the original lamps have failed, the entire installation is relamped. This approach cannot be used if fixtures provide light for specific locations. The time between replacements may vary somewhat because of variations in system voltage and operating schedules. Overvoltage or undervoltage should be suspected if the replacement interval is several months shorter than normal.

Cleaning Fixtures
In some instances, dust and other foreign material on lighting equipment can reduce the lighting level by 30% in only a few months. The type of ventilation and cleanliness of the surrounding area determine the required cleaning intervals. It is important to clean fixtures regularly. If fixture cleaning is coordinated with group lamp replacement, maintenance costs usually can be kept to a minimum.

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Cleaning Lighted Surfaces


Cleaning interior lighted surfaces usually is an important maintenance factor. If an illumination survey indicates less than the design level illumination after lamp replacement and fixture cleaning, the lighted surfaces may need painting or cleaning. However, a check should be made first to insure that low voltage is not the problem.

1270 Glossary of Terms


Average Luminance: The average brightness of a luminary at a given angle, expressed in candles per square inch or footlamberts. Ballast: An electromagnetic device used to control starting and operating conditions of electric discharge lamps. Brightness: See luminance. Brightness Ratio: See luminance ratio. Candela: Unit of luminous intensity (preferred over the term candle). Candle: Unit of luminous intensity (candela is preferred). Candlepower: Luminous intensity expressed in candelas. Dekalux: 10 lux (0.929 footcandles.) Electric discharge lamp: A lamp in which light is produced by passing an arc current through a vapor or gas. Fixture: A full assembly of lamp, ballast (if necessary), socket, holder, diffuser, lens and guard. The term luminaire is used interchangeably with fixture. Footcandle: The unit of illumination used in the United States. It is equal to the illumination of a surface area of 1 square foot on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of 1 lumen. One footcandle equals 10.76 lux or 1.076 dekalux. Footlambert: The unit of luminance (brightness). Glare, Direct: Glare resulting from high brightness in the field of vision. Glare, Disability: Glare which reduces visibility and causes discomfort. Glare, Discomfort: Glare that produces discomfort, but does not necessarily reduce visibility. Illumination: The quantity of light (lumens) falling on a given surface area. Lumen: The unit of luminous flux. The amount of light flux radiated into a solid angle by a uniform light source. In practice, it is the unit of light output that lamp manufacturers identify on their specification sheets. Lumen maintenance: Data, usually given in graph form, showing the effect of age on the output of a lamp.

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Luminaire: A complete lighting unit which consists of a lamp with components to distribute light, the parts to protect and position the lamps, and the parts to connect the lamps to the power supply. Luminance: Brightness, the luminous intensity of a surface in a given direction, per unit of projected area of the surface. Luminance ratio: The ratio of brightness between any two areas in the field of vision. Luminous Efficacy: The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) output to electrical power (in watts) input for a lamp, expressed in lumens per watt. Luminous flux: The time rate of flow of light, expressed in total output of a light source in lumens. Lux: The International System Unit (SIU) of illumination, equal to the illumination on a surface area of 1 square meter on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of 1 lumen. One lux equals 0.0929 footcandles. Mounting height: The distance from the work plane to the center of the lamp. Reflectance: The fraction of the total luminous flux incident on a surface that is reflected. Work plane: The plane where the task under consideration is located and where the recommended illumination is required.

1280 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

1281 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no specifications for this section.

1282 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings in this guideline.

1283 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
*ELC-EF-484 Lighting Schedule *ELC-EF-599 Lighting Standards, Flood Ltg. Fixtures & Mtg. Details *ELC-EF-600 Standard Lighting Poles, Fixtures, and Receptacle Mountings

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1284 Other References


American National Standard Practice for Industrial Lighting (ANSI/IES RP-7) American National Standards Practice of Office Lighting (ANSI/IES RP-1) *American Petroleum Institute RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms *American Petroleum Institute RP 540, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures, ANSI/NFPA No. 101 Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore, Marshland, and Inland Locations, revised August 1988, CUSA Eastern Region Production Department ANSI/IEEE Std 45, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard IES Lighting Handbook, 1984 Reference Volume and 1987 Application Volume IES RP 12, Recommended Practice for Marine Lighting National Electric Code, ANSI/NFPA 70 U.S. Coast Guard Regulations, Federal Register Title 33, July 1, 1987, Pollution Prevention - Regulations for Marine Oil Transfer Facilities, Paragraph 154.570, Lighting, and Paragraph 155.79, Deck Lighting. Washington, DC Westinghouse Lighting Handbook, Revised May, 1978 (No longer published)

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