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H52223 ( H52.

223 ) Regular astigmatism, bilateral

Structural Information

Revision Code Type Code Description Note Dotted Code Chapter/Section Code Chapter/Section Name Section/BodyPart Code Section/BodyPart Name

10th Revision Diagnosis H52223 Regular astigmatism, bilateral The code is valid for submission on a UB04 H52.223 7 Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H59) H49-H52 Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction

Detailed Information

Revision Code Type Code Description Note Dotted Code Chapter/Section Code Chapter/Section Name Section/BodyPart Code Section/BodyPart Name

10th Revision Diagnosis H52223 Regular astigmatism, bilateral The code is valid for submission on a UB04 H52.223 7 Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H59) H49-H52

Ninth Revision / Tenth Revision Specifies the type of code (Diagnosis / Procedure) Actual ICD-10 Code Description Note DottedCode Chapter/Section Code Chapter/Section Name Section/BodyPart Code

Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, Section/BodyPart Name accommodation and refraction

If you have astigmatism in one eye do you always have it in the other eye?

Two forms of astigmatism exist. Regular astigmatism is a type that is corrected by glasses or soft contact lenses, and irregular astigmatism is typically created by various eye conditions or eye diseases and is corrected by hard contact lenses or surgical options. While astigmatism is most often bilateral (both eyes) that is not always the case. In addition, astigmatism is rarely exactly the same amount in both eyes. Some eye conditions can lead to asymmetrical amounts of

astigmatism between two eyes. Even something as simple as a large stye (hordeolum) or chalazion (blocked oil gland in the eyelid) can push on the eye and induce temporary astigmatism in one eye from pressure on the wall of the eye that distorts the cornea shape.
Telangiectasias /tln.di.kte.zi./ or angioectasias (also known as spider veins) are small [1] dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 [2] and 1 millimeter in diameter. They can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the face around the nose, cheeks, and chin. They can also develop on the legs, specifically on the upper thigh, below the knee joint, and around the ankles. Many patients who suffer with spider veins seek the assistance of physicians who specialize in vein care or peripheral vascular disease. These physicians are called phlebologists or interventional radiologists. Some telangiectasia are due to developmental abnormalities that can closely mimic the behaviour of benign vascular neoplasms. They may be composed of abnormal aggregations of arterioles, capillaries, or venules. Because telangiectasias are vascular lesions, they blanch when tested withdiascopy. Telangiectasia is a component of the CREST variant of scleroderma (CREST is an acronym that stands for calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon,esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.)

Causes[edit source]
The causes of telangiectasia can be divided into congenital and acquired factors.

Congenital causes[edit source]

Goldman states that "numerous inherited or congenital conditions display cutaneous [2] telangiectasia". These include: Naevus flammeus (port-wine stain) Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome Maffucci's syndrome (multiple endochondromas & hemangiomas) Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) Ataxia-telangiectasia Sturge-Weber syndrome, a nevus formation in the skin supplied by the trigeminal nerve and associated with facial port-wine stains, glaucoma, meningeal angiomas and mental retardation.

Acquired causes[edit source]

Cushing's syndrome

Venous hypertension[edit source]

Telangiectasia in the legs is often related to the presence of venous hypertension within underlying varicose veins. Flow abnormalities within the medium sized veins of the leg (reticular veins) can also lead to the development of telangiectasia. Factors that predispose to the development of varicose and telangiectatic leg veins include

Age: The development of spider veins may occur at any age but usually occurs between 18 and [citation needed] 35 years, and peaks between 50 and 60 years. Gender: Females are affected approximately four to one to males.
[citation needed]

Pregnancy: Pregnancy is a key factor contributing to the formation of varicose and spider veins. The most important factor is circulating hormones that weaken vein walls. There's also a significant increase in the blood volume during pregnancy, which tends to distend veins, causing valve dysfunction which leads to blood pooling in the veins. Moreover, later in pregnancy, the enlarged uterus can compress veins, causing higher vein pressure leading to dilated veins. Varicose veins that form during pregnancy may spontaneously improve or even disappear a few [citation needed] months after delivery. Lifestyle/Occupation: Those who are involved with prolonged sitting or standing in their daily activities have an increased risk of developing varicose veins. The weight of the blood continuously pressing against the closed valves causes them to fail, leading to vein [citation needed] distention.

Other acquired causes[edit source]

Acquired telangiectasia, not related to other venous abnormalities, for example on the face and trunk, can be caused by factors such as Acne rosacea Environmental damage such as that caused by sun or cold exposure Trauma to skin such as contusions or surgical incisions. Radiation exposure such as that experienced during radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer Chemotherapy Carcinoid syndrome Limited systemic sclerosis/scleroderma (a Scleroderma sub-type) Chronic treatment with topical corticosteroids may lead to telangiectasia.

spider angiomas are a radial array of tiny arterioles that commonly occur in pregnant women and in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and are associated with palmar erythema. In men, they are related to high estrogen levels secondary to liver disease.

Treatment[edit source]
Sclerotherapy is the "gold standard" and is preferred over laser for eliminating telangiectasiae and [4] smaller varicose leg veins. A sclerosant medication is injected into the diseased vein so it hardens and eventually shrinks away. Recent evidence with foam sclerotherapy shows that the foam containing the irritating sclerosant quickly appears in the patient's heart and lungs, and then in some [5] cases travels through a patent foramen ovale to the brain. This has led to concerns about the safety of sclerotherapy for telangectasias and spider veins. In some cases stroke andtransient ischemic [6] attacks have occurred after sclerotherapy. Varicose veins and reticular leg veins, if present, must be treated prior to any treatment of the telangiectasia. Varicose veins can be treated with foam sclerotherapy, endovenous laser treatment, radiofrequency ablation or open surgery. The biggest risk, however, seems to occur with sclerotherapy, especially in terms of systemic risk of DVT, pulmonary embolism, and stroke. Another issue that arises with the use of sclerotherapy to treat spider veins is staining, shadowing, telangetatic matting and ulceration. In addition, incompleteness of therapy is common, requiring multiple treatment sessions.

Telangiectasias on the face are often treated with a laser. Laser therapy uses a light beam that is pulsed onto the veins in order to seal them off, causing them to dissolve. These light-based treatments require adequate heating of the veins. These treatments can result in the destruction of sweat glands, and the risk increases with the number of treatments.

What is the function of the macula in the human eye? The macula is a small area -- less than inch -- in the center of the retina at the back of the eye .It is responsible for sharp, clear central vision and the ability to perceive color. How_does_the_macula_function?">How does the macula function? Like the film in a camera, the retina receives light rays from the front of the eye and transmits those light rays through the optic nerve to the brain where the rays are converted into images. The densely packed photoreceptor (light-sensitive) cells in the macula control all of the eye's central vision and are responsible for the ability to read, drive a car, watch television, see faces, and distinguish detail. The rest of the retina handles peripheral vision that enables your eyes to see objects off to the side while you are looking forward. There are two types of photoreceptor cells in the cornea -- rods and cones. The rods provide vision at low light levels, while the cones provide sharp vision and discrimination. Because the macula contains a high concentration of cones, straight-ahead vision is in sharp focus, particularly in bright light. Most of the rods are located in the periphery of the retina, so faint objects are more visible if you do not look directly at them. A dim star, for instance, is best seen when your eyes are not aimed directly at it. What_problems_can_occur_with_the_macula?">What problems can occur with the macula? The most common cause of functional blindness in people over the age of 60 is macular degeneration, a deterioration or breakdown of the macula. Damage to the macula results in the loss, either partial or complete, of ability to see objects clearly in the center of vision. Although not totally blind, the person has difficulty performing tasks that require "straight-on" vision, such as driving a car, reading, or watching television. Because peripheral vision is not affected, the person can adapt somewhat to the loss of central vision and continue to pursue some normal daily activities, such as walking, without assistance. There are two types of macular degeneration. The "dry" form is usually the result of aging and thinning of the macula's layers, and the "wet" form occurs when abnormal blood vessels under the retina leak fluid and blood, causing scarring. Vision loss with dry macular degeneration occurs gradually over a number of years, and the affected person may not be aware of any problem. Dry macular degeneration is the less serious of the two forms. With the wet form of this disease, central vision capabilities can be damaged rapidly. Early detection usually results in more successful treatment.