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Major Project report on

Buck Boost Converter

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electricals And Electronics Engineering BE VII Sem.
Submitted to

RAJIV GAND I !R"#D$"GI%I VI& 'AVID$A(A$A) B "!A( *+,!,Submitted By

%shiti. Nagle */0/0E12/2/23Jitendra Akode*/0/0E12/2/24!a5an Gu6ta*/0/0E12/2/78+a9ur Raghu5anshi*/0/0E12/2/:;-

Department of Electrical! Electronic! Engineering In!titute of Engineering and Science" IPS #cademy" Indore $MP% Se!!ion &'()*(+


IN&<I<#<E "= ENGG, AND &CIENCE I!& ACADE+$) IND"RE *+,!,-

,hi! i! to certify that Indu!trial training report titled - Buck Boost Converter. i! !ubmitted to /aji0 1andhi Proudyogi2i Vi!hwa0idyalaya" Bhopal3M.P.4"by5!hitij6agle3'7'7E8('('(94:itendra#2ode3'7'7E8('(' (;4Pawan1upta 3'7'7E8('(')<4Mayur /aghuwan!hi3'7'7E8('('&+4 ) in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering *B,E,- in Electricals And Electronics Engineering *BE VII &e>,Date

+r, +ano. Gu6ta Department of E8

!rof, B,N !hadke =>D E8


IN&<I<#<E "= ENGG, AND &CIENCE I!& ACADE+$) IND"RE *+,!,-

,hi! i! to certify that Major report titled - Buck Boost Converter i! !ubmitted to /aji0 1andhi Proudyogi2i Vi!hwa0idyalaya" Bhopal 3M.P.4" by 5!hitij6agle3'7'7E8('('(94:itendra#2ode3'7'7E8('('(;4Pawan1upta 3'7'7E8('(')<4Mayur/aghuwan!hi3'7'7E8('('&+4in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering *B,E,- in Electricals And Electronics *BE VII &e>,-

Date Internal E?ternal


@e5!hitij6agle3'7'7E8('('(94:itendra#2ode3'7'7E8(' ('(;4Pawan1upta3'7'7E8('(')<4Mayur !tudent of Bachelor of Engineering VII Electronic! Engineering" !e!!ion /aghuwan!hi3'7'7E8('('&+4 &e>ester in Electrical! #nd IE& I!& Acade>9


Indore*+,!,-" hereby declare that the wor2 pre!ented in thi! report entitled Buck Boost Converter i! the outcome of my own wor2" i! bonafide and correct to the be!t of my 2nowledge and thi! wor2 ha! been carried out ta2ing care of Engineering Ethic!.

%shiti. nagle*/0/0E12/2/23Jitendra Akode*/0/0E12/2/24!a5an Gu6ta*/0/0E12/2/78+a9ur Raghu5anshi*/0/0E12/2/:;

E0ery !tudent ta2e! an indomitable urge" per!e0erance" and proper guidance e!pecially when it i! mo!t needed.

I wi!h to e?pre!! my !incere gratitude toward! Mr. Manoj 1upta3,raining Ao*ordinator4 for pro0iding me their in0aluable time and !upport during the training. I would al!o li2e to than2 all the !taff member! of S#,PB/# ,=E/M#C P>@E/ S,#,I>6" S#/6I for their guidance and !ugge!tion! at all !tage! of training. ,heir con!tructi0e critici!m of the approach to the problem and the re!ult obtained during the cour!e of thi! wor2 ha! helped u! to a great e?tend in bringing thi! wor2 to it! pre!ent !tate. I would li2e to than2 =ead of Department Prof. B.6 P=#D5E" Dr. #rchana 5reeti Ahowdhary Principal IES" and all teaching and non teaching !taff for their con!tant !upport. ,heir in!pired !tint! and their e?perience and 2nowledge pro0ided me with educati0e !upport.

=ere I than2 from the core" e0erybody who ha! helped me to at wor2. In true !en!e" be!ide! my guide I am indebted to many other member! at IES IPS #A#DEMD for their con!tant help and in0aluable contribution on all occa!ion! when they were mo!t needed. #gain" I find the opportunity to ac2nowledge regard! and than2 to my family member! and friend! who ha0e been true !upport behind me.

5!hitij 6agle 3'7'7E8('('(94 :itendra #2ode3'7'7E8('('(;4 Pawan 1upta3'7'7E8('(')<4 Mayur /aghuwan!hi3'7'7E8('('&+4

Eor the Senior De!ign Project a buc2*boo!t con0erter will be de!igned to !upply a load with a con!tant F(GV output and at a range of &@ to &'@. ,he con0erter will ha0e an input range of ('V to (<V and a tolerance of HI* (J 0oltage ripple. # gate dri0e circuit i! u!ed to control the EE, in the con0erter. ,he power con!umption of the gate dri0e will gi0e an indication of what the efficiency of the o0erall circuit will be. In the final !tage of the de!ign" the con0erter will be operated o0er the range! of the !pecified input! while trying to achie0e the !pecified output!.

iii ,#BCE >E A>6,E6,S


DA*DA con0erter! ha0e a wide range of u!e! today and are becoming increa!ingly more important in e0ery day u!e. Dc power !upplie! are probably the large!t u!e of the con0erter! and are much more compact and efficient than the old method of con0er!ion with tran!former!. ,he!e con0erter! can ha0e an output of any rangeL for in!tance" one can run logic gate! or large dc motor dri0e! with a !imple con0erter. ,he large!t problem with the!e con0erter! i! !till efficiency although there i! al!o an intere!t to ma2e the!e con0erter! a! !mall a! po!!ible and to control the heat di!!ipation. @e ha0e cho!en to build the buc2*boo!t con0erter becau!e of it! 0er!atility and wide range of u!e! in todayM! mar2et. ,here are two circuit diagram! attached one i! the ba!ic Buc2*Boo!t circuit Eigure ( and the other i! the gate dri0e circuit Eigure & which will dri0e the EE, gate at a certain input 0oltage from a !eparate !ource. ,he drain and !ource of the EE, will be connected to the Buc2*Boo!t circuit with the !ource at the output !ide of the con0erter the buc2 i! achie0ed in part by placing a polariNed capacitor at the out put with the negati0e !ide at the diode terminal. Eor the con0erter that to be build will ha0e a range of input! of ('0*(<0 and an out put range of F(G0. ,he output ripple i! !pecified to be le!! than HI*(J. ,he output power requirement! will range from &w to &'w. # 9'J efficiency rating will be attempted and a thermal di!!ipation in the EE, of le!! than ;< degree! Ael!iu! which i! <'J of the rating.

,he con0erter will be te!ted o0er the entire range of the input and output 0oltage!. #t each 0alue of input and output the data will be documented. ,he power*out" power*in" duty ratio" and thermal reading! will al!o be recorded. ,he!e 0alue! will allow for the nece!!ary calculation! for efficiencie! and thermal rating!.

De!ign Procedure

# DA*DA con0erter i! nothing more than a DA tran!former or a de0ice that pro0ide! a lo!! le!! tran!fer of energy between different circuit! at different 0oltage le0el!. @hen dc*dc con0er!ion i! needed there i! al!o a need for control and a need for higher efficiencie!. If the latter were not important we could ju!t u!e a 0oltage di0ider and get the change in 0oltage we are loo2ing for. In modern dc electronic! we need more than ju!t 0oltage reduction. @hat really are needed are 0oltage tran!fer!" polarity re0er!al!" and increa!ed and decrea!ed 0oltage! with control. >ne method of building a dc tran!former i! to u!e !witching con0erter! called chopper!. ,he pro0ided !witching function require! a duty ratio" which will gi0e u! the control that ha! been needed. In the Buc2*boo!t con0erter achie0ing output! of any magnitude! are po!!ible. ,he buc2 boo!t con0erter ha! two main re!triction!. ,hey are 5VC and 5AC ha! to be !ati!fied. ,hi! mean! that only one !witch i! on at a time. @hen !witch ( 3EE,4 i! on the 0oltage Vt 3Eigure (4 i! ju!t Vin and when !witch & 3diode4 i! on Vt i! ju!t *Vout. ,hen the

duty ratio can be related to Vout by !aying Vout O

D( P Vin ( D(

,he input and output current! PQioutRO PQiinR

are determined by the !witching action. Since I! OQioutRHQiinR then



and becau!e of the ca!cading proce!! thi! con0erter require! a negati0e output with re!pect to the input. In theory if

i! ' then the output i! Nero and if


i! ( then the

output i! infinity and if



( &

then the output i! equal in magnitude to the input. ,he

capacitor at the output i! there to gi0e the output 0oltage !ource propertie!. ,he method of determining the other element! of the circuit i! di!cu!!ed in !ome depth in the re!ult!. Probably the mo!t important con!ideration of all the element! i! the inductor. ,he inductor 0alue i! important to not be below the critical 0alue !o that the con0erter will not ha0e a di!continuou! mode. ,hi! happen! when the inductor i! too !mall to maintain current flow at all time!. @hen the con0erter i! in di!continuou! mode it! output become! load dependent.

=igure 2

De!ign Detail!
Since the objecti0e of building a con0erter that will !upply a con!tant F(G 0olt! the deci!ion to u!e a buc2 boo!t de!ign wa! cho!en due to the polarity re0er!al 3!ee figure (4. ,he fir!t thing to do wa! to find the 0alue of the !witching frequency for which CRCcrit. ,o do thi! the 0alue! of the load current" the time period and the duty ratio mu!t be 2nown !ince the 0alue of Ccrit i! dependant upon them. ,o obtain the load current we u!e the following equation! to obtain the data in table +. I! O QiinR H QioutR POVI two ca!e! & @att! &' @att! QI*outR '.(&< (.&< QI*inR ('0 '.& & QI*inR(<0 '.()) (.)) I! ('0 '.(&; (.&; I! (<0 '.()< ).<7 ,able*( 3(4 3&4

,he relation!hip between !witch ( and !witch & i! called the Duty /atio and can be repre!ented by the following equation" Vout O 3D(I(*D(4 P Vin 3)4

6ow to con!ider the duty ratio and !ince a polarity !hift need! to occur" then the!e term! will need to con!idered in term! of ab!olute 0alue!. Eor the (' 0olt ca!eD( O G&J and D& O )7J. Eor the (< 0olt ca!e D( O <&J and D& O +7J. 6ow to !ol0e for the 0alue of t from the relation!hip below

tOD(P, Vin O Ccrit P iIt

3+4 3<4

1i0en i O .(&<# 3from ,able (4 and !ince tOD(P, where , i! the period and i! equal to (If we can !ol0e for , and !ub!titute 0alue! of Ccrit and !ol0e for the period and then for the frequency. ,ypically we would li2e a frequency between &'2=N and (''2=N. If we begin with a &''h inductor we get frequencie! of 7&.G2=N at the (< 0olt range and ('2=N for the (' 0olt range !o the !witching frequency i! fma?R7&.G;2=N. ,he ne?t !tep i! to choo!e a load and loo2ing at the power requirement! and the 0oltage output u!ing the following relation!hip can do thi!. POV&I/ Eor the &*watt ca!e we get a load of (&7.7 and for the &'*watt load we get (&.7. In choo!ing the capacitor the tolerance !pecification of HI* (J will help determine the capacitor 0alue that will allow u! to achie0e thi! range. ,o do thi! the change in output 0oltage will be determined by the !pecification! gi0en in the propo!al and determined by the following relation!hip. Vripple Q 0 P Vout 3;4 3G4

#fter obtaining the Vripple O .)G0 we can u!e thi! 0alue to determine the 0alue of the capacitance u!ing the following equation. A>tI0 P icRD(P,ma?PIoutI0 374

,hen in the (' 0olt ca!e yield! AR(.<f and for the (< 0olt ca!e we get AR(7.9f in thi! con0erter a +;f capacitor will be u!ed. 6ow that all of the component! ha0e been !elected for the con0erter it i! time to choo!e the component! of the gate dri0e. #nd

finally the inductor u!ed will be a )''h becau!e it i! larger than the &''h that wa! u!ed in the calculation!. In choo!ing the component! needed for the gate dri0e circuit it i! con!idered that the greate!t control of the gate i! needed to obtain the output range !pecified. Eor the Pul!e @idth Modulation chip the BA)7+) wa! cho!en becau!e it allow! control of the duty ratio from ' to (''J and it al!o allow! the frequency to be controlled o0er a range of ('2=N to <''2=N. ,hi! P@M chip al!o ha! a wide range of input! a0ailable and the output i! capable of dri0ing the EE, into !aturation where the !witching lo!!e! are minimiNed. ,he Irf<&' wa! cho!en for the EE, and the MB/ ('+< for the diode. ,he Irf<&' ha! a current rating of 7# continuou! and a )&#*pea2 0alue and a 0oltage rating of ('' 0olt! and a /d!on 0alue of .) ohm!. Since the 0alue of /d!on i! !o important to the thermal di!!ipation factor the Motorola M,D ))'& @a0e EE, will al!o be u!ed and compared with the Irf<&'. ,he MB/ ('+< ha! a current rating of ('# and a 0oltage rating of +< 0olt!. ,here will be two 0ariable re!i!tor! u!ed in the gate dri0e. ,he fir!t one will be a &<2ohm (<*turn pot to be u!ed for frequency adju!tment and the other one will be a <'' ohm (< turn pot u!ed to adju!t the duty ratio. ,he final gate dri0e de!ign i! !hown below in Eigure &

Design Verification
,he ne?t !tep i! to build the con0erter and to begin te!ting a! !pecified by the propo!al. ,he te!ting began with the &*watt load and wa! ran at (*0olt inter0al! o0er the range of input! and continued on with the &'*watt load. @hile doing thi! data wa! collected to compare the duty ratio" efficiency and the output. Data ta2en in the &*watt range i! gi0en below
Test Data Frequency 85khz Low output Vin !"!8 "!' $"!' '"! & 5"! Vout 5"#8 (" 5"#& (" (" (" With Wave Fet Pin $"% '"( '" '" '"$ ' Pout $ $"% $"& $"' $"' $"$ Efficiency Duty Ratio %&"!% $! %5"!! 8 %%"&$ ( %&" # & % "88 $ %'"'' #

,able & ,he data in ,able & i! data ta2en with the @a0e EE,. #! !hown in the data the F(G0 at &* watt! output wa! achie0ed and the efficiency achie0ed i! in the mid ;'J range" not a! high a! we had anticipated but it i! better than the efficiencie! that were ta2en with the !tandard EE, a! !hown in ,able )
With )tan*ar* FET Pin '"' '"5 '"( '"( '"$ '"&

Vin ! "! $"!' '"!$ & 5"!'

Vout ( ("! (" ( 5"#8 5"##

Pout $" $"' $"5 $"& $" $"$

Efficiency Duty Ratio ('"(& $ (5"% # (#"&& % (("(% ( (5"(' & (&"% !

,able )

In ,able ) one can e?plicitly !ee the relation!hip between the 0alue of /d!on and the efficiency of the con0erter with the @a0e EE, the efficiency i! appro?imately ('J higher than the efficiency with the !tandard Irf<&' EE,. ,hi! i! directly related to the !witching lo!!e! in the EE, due to the 0alue of / d!on . ,he data ta2en for the high power output loo2! !imilar to the data ta2en abo0e e?cept that the efficiencie! are lower and the duty ratio! are higher. ,hi! i! common for the fact that there i! more thermal di!!ipation in the EE, and the ,he fact that at the high power range the current! being pu!hed through the con0erter i! much higher than the current that wa! pu!hed into the con0erter at the low power range. ,hi! i! where the lower 0alue of / d!on become! 0ery important to lower the !witching lo!!e! in the EE, and at the !ame time lowering the thermal di!!ipation reducing the need for a heat !in2. ,hi! can be !een in the data in the following table!.
Vin ! " $" ' &"!' 5" Vout ( 5"#8 5"## ("!$ ("!' 5"## Pin '&" '&" '& ''"5 ''"& ''" Pout $!" #"#8 #"#8 $!" $ $!" & #"## Efficiency 58"#& 58"5# 58"%( (!"!( (!"'! (!"'# Duty Ratio &8 &% &5 && & &!

,able + In table + thi! i! the data ta2en with the wa0e EE, and the data in table < i! with the !tandard Irf<&' EE,.
Vin !" " $"!' '"$ & 5" Vout 5"# ("!$ 5"#8 5"## (" ("! Pin & "! '#"( '#"$ '#" '8"( '8"$ Pout $!" #"8 #"#8 $!"!8 #"## $!"! Efficiency &#"! 5!"!! 5!"#% 5 "'( 5 "%# 5$"'8 Duty Ratio &8 &8 &% &5 && &$

,able < #fter analyNing the data it become! 0ery clear that there i! a definite relation!hip between the duty ratio and the input 0oltage and the efficiency.

,he thermal di!!ipation data i! a! follow!

Ther+a, Dissipatio n )tan*ar* FET W - no heat sink . of FET $ Watts $! Watts W - 2eat sink . of FET $ Watts $! Watts $ /para,,e,0 '& 8% $ /para,,e,0 && 1 $5 Wave FET

W - no heat sink . of FET $ Watts $! Watts W - 2eat sink . of FET $ Watts $! Watts $ /para,,e,0 $# (# $ /para,,e,0 ' !

5' 11 $5

'# 1 $5

&( !

' 8(

,able G #! !hown in the data to operate in the high power range the u!e of heat!in2! were required but the objecti0e wa! met with two @a0e EE,! in parallel. ,he !witching trajectorie! loo2ed li2e the following

Eigure ) #n ideal !witching trajectory would ha0e a more linear !lope in the turn on and turn off time there for thi! one i! not to far off. #ltering the !witching trajectory i! the !ole job of the !nubber circuit. ,he capacitor and re!i!tor in the !nubber !hould be !ufficient enough to a0oid the 0oltage o0er !hoot and to pro0ide an /A time con!tant large enough to totally di!!ipate the !tored energy during the turn on time. ,he !nubber needed to be incorporated to operate the con0erter at the high power end of the output due to the fact that the EE, wa! not turning on !oon enough to allow the con0erter to operate at the !pecified frequency.

,he efficiencie! were not where they were e?pected to be and thi! i! becau!e the input! of the con0erter were 0ery !mall compared to the output requirement!. ,he efficiencie! ri!e a! the input 0oltage ri!e! and the duty ratio decrea!e!. ,hi! i! becau!e a! the input 0oltage ri!e! and the duty ratio decrea!e! the !witching lo!!e! in the EE, are reduced and the current dri0ing the con0erter i! reduced. ,here could ha0e been !ome change! in the de!ign of the con0erter in the early !tage! to po!!ibly increa!e the efficiencie! but thi! would ha0e had to be !et forth in the beginning. Such a!" if we had cho!e to build the con0erter for a !pecified load we could ha0e cho!en the input to be more helpful to the gate dri0e and therefore increa!ing the efficiency. #! it !tand! the efficiency of the con0erter range! from the low <'J to the mid ;'J thi! i! not terrible gi0en the fact that the con0erter wa! built for a general range of input! and output!. ,he @a0e EE, did help the thermal di!!ipation and the 0alue of le!! than ;< degree! Ael!iu! wa! achie0ed with minimal u!e of heat !in2!. >0er all the circuit could ha0e been built in a relati0ely !mall pac2age of two inche! by three inche! with the EE, mounted to the bac2 of the heat !in2. ,hi! i! clo!e to indu!try !tandard!" an a0erage dc*dc con0erter will be about )inche! by )inche! and larger a! the power requirement! increa!e.

Pa rts Lis t
Line 3uantity $ ' & 5 ( % 8 # ! $ ' & 5 ( % Discription $5k 5h+ Resistor 5!! 5h+ Pot Resistor k 5h+ Resistor $k Resistor /$0 (8k Resistor !"!!&%+F 4apacitor /$0 !"! +F 4apacitor /$0 R7(!D Dio*es &%k Resistor +F 4apacitor 89R !&5 Dio*e &#+F 4apacitor $8 5h+ Power Resistor $"8k 5h+ Power Resistor !"$$!+F 4apacitor :RF5$! Fet ;4'8&' PW8 :4 4ost Tota, 6!" % 6!" % 6!"#' 6!"#' 6!"!( 6!"!( 6!"!# 6!"!# 6!"' 6!"($ 6!"'& 6!"'& 6!"$% 6!"5& 6!"&' 6!"8( 6!"$# 6!"$# 6!"$' 6!"$' 6!"5' 6!"5' 6!"%8 6!"%8 6!" 8 6!" 8 6!" # 6!" # 6!"&& 6!"&& 6!"5( 6!"5( 6 "(% 6 "(%

$ $ $

Tot a, 4os t


,otal labor i! projected at about )& hour! of lab time and (' hour! of de!ign and re0iew for a total of +& hour! per per!on and at a !alary of S)' an hour. ,otal price of SG")''.'' for labor and part! are S7.+7 for a grand total of SG")'7.+7.

A66endi@ 2

P. ,. 5rein" Elements of Power Electronics. 6ew Dor2 >?ford" (997 pp.((9*&'<" <)+*<+7