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Mnemonics Ior Antibiotics

(and other related shit)



Found most oI these online, but made a Iew oI my own. Hope they help in your micro studies!


Antimicrobial agent MOA`s (mechanisms oI action):
Mnemonic combines two mnemonics into one: Iirst part stands Ior drug MOA`s, and second part
stands Ior classes oI drugs that Iollow the particular MOA:
"CLIP Married Guys Seeking Fun!" "British People C Police SueD
ClimS-ChLiMaTe Aiming For
Virtual MeRi!"
Cell wall synthesis inhibited Beta-lactams
Leakage Irom cell membranes Polypeptides/Polyenes/Polymyxin
Intermediate metabolism inhibited SulIonamides, Diaminopyrimidines
Protein synthesis inhibited Clindamycin, Streptogramins,
Chloamphenicol, Linezolid,
Macrolides, Tetracyclines
M-RNA code misread Aminoglycosides
Gyrase (DNA gyrase) inhibited Fluoroquinolones
Synthesis oI DNA inhibited antiViral agents
Function oI DNA inhibited Metronidazole (Nitroimidazoles),
RiIampin


Penicillinase-resistant penicillins:
"PeRP, Motha Fucka Does Negatively Omit"
Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins
Methicillin (not used in U.S.)
Flucloxacillin (replaced Methicillin in U.S.)
Dicloxacillin (replaced Methicillin in U.S.)
NaIillin
Oxacillin
Also, Negative Omitted Gram-negative bacteria omitted Irom treatment; i.e., only treats
Gram-positive bacterial inIections

Extended-spectrum penicillins:
"ESPecially Gram, Negative, Always A Sensitive Boy"
Extended-Spectrum Penicillins
Gram-Negative
Ampicillin
Amoxicillin
Sensitive to Beta-lactamases



C =with
(knowit's
usuallyc, but
it'swhat I
cameupwith
for the
mnemonic)
__
__


"APPear Gram. Now, So Lost. Piple (people) Ti (to) Call?"
Anti-Pseudomonal Penicillins
Gram-Negative
Sensitive to beta-Lactams
Piperacillin
Ticarcillin
Carbenicillin


Penicillin analogs/derivatives:
'PCN AnD CaST
PCN Penicillin
Analogs/Derivatives
Clavulanic acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam


Cephalosporins:
1st generation:
All cephalosporins sound like CEF, except 1
st
generation. In 1
st
generation, there is PH rather
than CEF, like:
- CePHalothin ,CePHaprin, CePHradine, CePHalexin
- exceptions: CeFAZoline, ceFADroxil
Mnemonic: Dr faz and fad did PHD in 1st class (generation)

2nd generation:
Mnemonic: AIter doing second step u celebrate with ur FAMily ,some wear FON color FUR
coats and u MET ur FOXy cousion who drinks TEA, FOR a toast to ur achievement
- CeFAclor, ceFAMandole, ceFONicid, ceFURoxime, ceIMEtazole, ceFOXitine, ceIoTEtan,
ceFORanide

3rd generation:
TRI Ior third; most have T in their name.
- CeITRIaxone, ceITAZidine, ceIoTAXime, ceITIzoxime
- exceptions: Cefixime, cefoperazone, moxalactam
Big Mac for MAC
Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is usually Iound in HIV patients with a CD4 count
50. Prophylaxis against MAC is a MACrolide (clarithromycin or azithromycin). These are used
instead oI the usual TB drugs to avoid creating MDR-TB.


Shouldbe: BigMAC for MAC
MAC =MycobacteriumAviumComplex, and
Macrolides(treatment) Azithromycin, Clarithromycin
Antibiotics contraindicated in pregnancy:
'M CAT
Metronidazole
Chloramphenicol
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines


Primarily bacteriostatic antibiotics:
'Stop SuCh TeEthEry Daps!
Stop Static
SulIonamides
Chloramphenicol
Tetracyclines
Ethambutol
Erythromycin
Dapsone


Tetracycline MOA:
TetrA
Tetracyclines bind to Thirty S (30 S) ribosome submit and e(i)nhibits trna attachment to the A
site.


Cell wall inhibitors:
'Pleasing Seth-sparring, Back-tracing, Vanquishing, Fo` Mike In, Serine-
PCN
Cephalosporin
Bacitracin
Vancyomycin
FosIomycin
Cycloserine


Vancomycin:
'Vanquishing used Positive Gram Toxins, Back to Resisting Meth and Lactose allergy
Vancomycin, used Ior
Gram-Positive (bacteria)
Toxicity (high)
Bactericidal
Methicillin-resistance
beta-Lactam allergic patients



Bacitracin characteristics:
'Back the Topic oI Toxic Gram; he`s Positively a Negative Cock.
Bacitracin/Bactericidal
Topically used due to Toxicity
Gram-positive organisms
Gram-negative cocci


Polymyxin characteristics:
'Poly`s mixes BE Top Toxins and Negative Cats Deter Back
Polymyxin B & E
Topical use due to Toxicity
gram-Negative
Cationic Detergent
Bactericidal



'Dap To My Sin, OK Jean Stop a Positive SSEC
DapToMyCin
Hyperosmosis with K

eIIlux (leads to depolarization and eventual cell lysis)


Jean(Gene) Stop (Inhibited DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis)
gram-Positive bacteria: speciIically, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and
Corynebacteria


'To Stop Protein, use TeAm 30 and take 50 CC`s oI Macro Lined Streps.
Protein inhibitors
30S ribosomal subunit: are Tetracycline and Aminoglycoside
50S ribosomal subunit: Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Macrolides, Linezolid, Streptogramin



Macrolides drugs and property:
'At 50, Stop Macking CATE, See it`s My Sin
50 50S ribosomal subunit
Stop stops growth bacteriostatic
Macking Macrolides
CATE Clarithromycin, Azithromycin, Telithromycin, Erythromycin
See C, Ior Clindamycin
My Sin reIers to omycin suIIix oI all 4 drugs


Remember (not a mnemonic, just know):
II a drug binds to bacteria irreversibly, then it is bactericidal.
II a drug binds to bacteria reversibly (non-permanently), then it is bacteriostatic.


RiIamycin/RiIampin
'RiII my sinIul Transcript or Stop you Positive Cock, TB.
RiIamycin
Transcription Stopped (inhibited)
gram-Positive Cocci
Tuberculosis microbacteria


Fluoroquinolones:
'Flour is Negative to Aerobics and Stops Super Gyrations.
Flour Fluoroquinolone
Negative Aerobics gram-negative aerobes
Stops (inhibits)
Super (reIerring to supercoiling oI DNA)
Gyrations DNA Gyrase, which supercoils DNA


Metronidazole
'the Metro is DiIIicult First Ior Pro Anaerobics
Metronidazole
DiIIicult First reIerring to Iirst drug oI choice Ior treating Clostridium diIIicile
Pro Anaerobics reIerring to treatment Ior protozoans and anaerobic bacteria


Antibiotics used to treat TB:
'StRIPE
Streptomycin
RiIampin
Isoniazid
Pyrizinadmie
Ethambutol


Not a mnemonic, but easier way to remember eIIects oI SulIonamides and Trimethoprim:
SulIonamides / SulIas with 'S in the drug name inhibits DHP Synthase
Without SulIas: PABA DHP Synthase DHP
(1
st
step oI bacterial nucleic acid synthesis; Dr. Gonzalez stated this)
Trimethoprim with 'R in the drug name inhibits DHF Reductase
Without Trimethoprim: DHF DHF Reductase THF
(important step in bacterial nucleic acid synthesis; Dr. Gonzalez stated this)



Routes oI entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body
"Stick it, SniII it, Suck it, Soak it":
Stick Injection
SniII inhalation
Suck ingestion
Soak absorption


2 antiIungal treatments:
'The 2 antiIungal Ilu` drugs, Ilucanazole and Ilucytosine, can easily Ilu (Ilow) in the CSF and
the urine.


AntiIungal treatments; not mnemonics, just know:
Polyenes (Amphotericin B and Nystatin): cidal
Azoles: static
Flucytosine: cidal
CaspoIungin: cidal
TerbinaIine: static (Lamisil) and cidal; depends on Iungi being treated
GriseoIulvin: static



Antibiotic-resistant organisms:
'KEEP MASS SPEC
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Enterococcus Iaecalis and Iaecium
E. coli 0157:H7
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Acinetobacter baumannii
Staphylococcus aureus
Salmonella typhi and enterica
Streptococcus pneumoniae (aka Pneumococcus) and pyrogenes
Plasmodium Ialciparum
Enterobacter aerogenes and cloacae
Clostridium diIIicile


Treatment Ior S. typhi:
2 for 1 Deal: Salmonella typhi and Ceftriaxone





Acid Iast organisms:
'BSNL RIMS
Bacterial spores
Spermatic head
Nocardia
Legionella
Rhodococcus
Isospora belli
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leprae, smegmatis
Cryptosporidium


DNA viruses:
"Pop A Potato Hot Hot Potatoe"
Pop papova
Hot herpes
A adeno
Hot hepadna
Potato parvo
Potatopox
Herpes virus says: "I am going to the cytoplasm to replicate unlike the rest oI you, nuclear
replicating DNA viruses"
Meanwhile, parvo the pervert is playing with his single strand (all others double).


E. coli diseases caused in presence oI virulence Iactors:
"DUNG"
Diarrhoea
UTI
Neonatal meningitis
Gram negative sepsis
DUNG: since these diseases are caused by E. coli Irom 'dung- contaminated water.


Klebsiella: Morphology & InIections
You can tell the patient:
"Fat Alcoholics Never Get UPSet"
Fat Morphology, which is Iat prominent capsule
Alcoholics reIerring to increased risk oI inIection
"Never Get up" motility, which is non-motile (non-Ilagellated)
SET InIections, which are UTI, Pneumonia, Sepsis
Klebsiella are Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose Iermenting, Iacultative
anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium Iound in the normal Ilora




McConkey agar- components
'PLANT'
Peptone
Lactose
Agar
Neutral red
Taurocholate


Meningococci and gonococci: Fermentation properties
'MeninGococci and Gonococci'
Meninigococci Ierments both Maltose and Glucose; whereas Gonococci Ierments only Glucose.


Microorganisms causing UTI
"KEEPS"
Klebsiella pneumoniae
E.coli
Enterococcus Iaecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/ Proteus mirabilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus/ Serratia marcescens


Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture charactersitics
' Rough, Tough & BuII '
Rough: colony is rough like breadcrumbs and not smooth,
Tough: colony sticks to the culture plate and is diIIicult to remove,
BuII: buII is the colour. It is a yellowish brown/coIIee shade.


Obligate anaerobes
' ABC '
Actinomyces
Bacteroids
Clostridium


Relapsing Iever
'LETS'
Louse borne:Epidemic
Tick borne:Sporadic




Spore Iorming bacteria
' BSC.Chemistry '
Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis
Sporosarcina
Clostridium species
Coxiella burnetti


Toxin producing bacteria
"Say A.B.C.D.E "
Staphylococcus
pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Bordetella pertussis
vibrio Cholerae, Clostridium botulinum
Diptheria
E. coli


Urease positive organisms
"PUNCH"
Proteus
Ureaplasma
Nocardia
Cryptococcus
Helicobacter pylori


Vibrio cholerae: reactions
"COINS "
The biochemical reactions which help to diIIerentiate vibrio cholera are
Catalase
Oxidase
Indole
Nitrates reduced to nitrites
Sucrose Iermentation
Vibrio cholerae causes the acute diarrheal disease called cholera.


Trypanosoma: disease caused
'I went on a TRYP to AIrica'
ie., Trypanosoma brucei causes AIrican sleeping sickness





Bacteria that undergo lysogenic conversion:
"BCDEF"
clostridium Botulinum (botulism)
vibrio Cholerae (cholera)
corynebacterium Diptherae (diphtheria)
E. coli (hemorrhagic diarrhea by shiga-like toxin)
F Iever (Scarlet Fever) streptococcus pyrogenes


Anti-viral drugs use 'vir in the beginning, middle or end oI the drug name; list is as Iollows:
Abacavir
Acyclovir
Amprenavir
CidoIovir
Denavir
EIavirenz
Indavir
Invirase
Famvir
Ganciclovir
Norvir
Oseltamivir
Penciclovir
Ritonavir
Saquinavir
Valacyclovir
Viracept
Viramune
Zanamivir
Zovirax


MHC I and MHC II: T cell type
'MHC x T cell8'
MHC II goes with CD4 (2x48)
MHC I goes with CD8 (1x88)


Gram-positive bacteria:
"Corny Actors Knock Back Listerine in the Closet with StaII"
Corynobacterium
Actinomyces
Nocardia
Bacillus
Listeria
Clostridium
Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Gram-negativebacteria:
"NiceShyEcoSue. Better Heal Y'er
Salmon. CampRickKlubsLegionsof
Clams."
Neisseria
Shigella
Escherichia
Pseudomonas
Bacteroides
Helicobacter
Yersinia
Salmonella
Campylobacter
Rickettsia
Klebsiella
Legionella
Chlamydia
ObligateAnaerobes:
"ABC" or "Act Better Clos"
Actinomyces
Bacteroides
Clostridium
Aerobicbacteria:
"B3KLMN2P3V"
BacillusAnthracis
BordetellaPertussis
Brucella
Klebsiella
Listeria
Mycobacterium
Nocardia
Neisseria
Pseudomonas
Proteus
Pasteurella
V. cholerae
Endospore-formingbacteria:
"BacintheCloset for Endo"
Bacillus
Clostridium
Endospores