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3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.

kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Lecture 6: Semiconductor
Fundamentals VI
Woo Young Choi
Dept. Electronic Eng.
Sogang Univ.
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Contents
Reading: 94 ~ 104
Carrier scattering mechanisms
Drift current
Conductivity and resistivity
Relationship between band diagrams & V, c
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Velocity Saturation
Slope =
v
sat
E
sat
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Mechanisms of Carrier
Scattering
Dominant scattering mechanisms:
1. Phonon scattering (lattice scattering)
2. Impurity (dopant) ion scattering
2 / 3
2 / 1
1
velocity ermal carrier th density phonon
1

T
T T
phonon phonon
t
Phonon scattering mobility decreases when T increases:
= qt / m
T v
th

phonon
(log scale)
T
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Impurity Ion Scattering
_
+
- -
Electron
Boron Ion
Electron
Arsenic
Ion
D A D A
th
impurity
N N
T
N N
v
+

2 / 3 3

There is less change in the electrons direction of travel


if the electron zips by the ion at a higher speed.

impurity
(log scale)
T
Doping
increases
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Matthiessen's Rule
The probability that a carrier will be scattered by
mechanism i within a time period dt is
where t
i
is the mean time between scattering events
due to mechanism i
The probability that a carrier will be scattered within a
time period dt is
impurity phonon
impurity phonon

t t t
1 1 1
1 1 1

+ =
+ =

i
i
dt
t
i
dt
t
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Mobility Dependence on
Doping
1E14 1E15 1E16 1E17 1E18 1E19 1E20
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Holes
Electrons
M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
m
2

V
-
1

s
-
1
)
Total Impurity Concenration (atoms cm
-3
)
Total Doping Concentration N
A
+N
D
(cm
-3
)
Phonon scattering
limited mobility
Ionized impurity scattering
becomes significant.
Flattens due to screening
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Temperature Effect on
Mobility
impurity phonon
impurity phonon

t t t
1 1 1
1 1 1
+ =
+ =
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Drift Current
v
d
t A = volume from which all holes cross plane in time t
p v
d
t A = #of holes crossing plane in time t
q p v
d
t A = charge crossing plane in time t
q p v
d
A = charge crossing plane per unit time = hole current
Hole current per unit area (hole current density)
J = q p v
d
(A/cm
2
)
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Conductivity and Resistivity
J
p,drift
= qpv
dn
= qp
p
c
J
n,drift
= qnv
dn
= qn
n
c
J
drift
= J
n,drift
+ J
p,drift
= oc =(qn
n
+qp
p
)c
Conductivity of a semiconductor is o qn
n
+ qp
p
Resistivity 1 / o
(Unit: ohm-cm)
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Resistivity Dependence on
Doping
n-type
p-type
For n-type material:
n
qn

1
~
For p-type material:
p
qp

1
~
Note: This plot does not apply
for compensated material!
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Electrical Resistance
where is the resistivity
Resistance
Wt
L
I
V
R =
(Unit: ohms)
V
+
_
L
t
W
I
homogeneously doped sample
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Example
Consider a Si sample doped with 10
16
/cm
3
Boron.
What is its resistivity?
Answer:
N
A
= 10
16
/cm
3
, N
D
= 0 (N
A
>> N
D
p-type)
p ~ 10
16
/cm
3
and n ~ 10
4
/cm
3
1
19 16
1 1
(1.6 10 )(10 )(450) 1.4 cm
n p p
qn qp qp

= ~
+
(
= = O

3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Example: Dopant
Compensation
Consider the same Si sample, doped additionally
with 10
17
/cm
3
Arsenic. What is its resistivity?
Answer:
N
A
= 10
16
/cm
3
, N
D
= 10
17
/cm
3
(N
D
>>N
A
n-type)
n ~ 9x10
16
/cm
3
and p ~ 1.1x10
3
/cm
3
1
19 16
1 1
(1.6 10 )(9 10 )(600) 0.12 cm
n p n
qn qp qn

= ~
+
(
= = O

3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Example: Temperature
Dependence of
Consider a Si sample doped with 10
17
cm
-3
As.
How will its resistivity change when the temperature is
increased from T=300K to T=400K?
Solution:
The temperature dependent factor in o (and therefore
) is
n
. From the mobility vs. temperature curve for
10
17
cm
-3
, we find that
n
decreases from 770 at 300K to
400 at 400K. As a result, increases by
93 . 1
400
770
=
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Potential vs. Kinetic Energy
electron kinetic energy
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n

e
n
e
r
g
y
E
c
E
v
hole kinetic energy
i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

h
o
l
e

e
n
e
r
g
y
reference c
P.E. E E =
E
c
represents the electron potential energy:
E - E
c
E
v
- E
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
N-
+
0.7V
Si
E
V
(
x
)
0.7V

x
0
Electrostatic Potential, V
The potential energy of a particle with charge -q is
related to the electrostatic potential V(x):
) (
1
c reference
E E
q
V =
qV = P.E.
E
reference
is constant.
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
N-
+
0.7V
Si
E
V
(
x
)
0.7V

x
0
Electric Field, E
c
1dE dV
dx q dx
c = =
Variation of E
c
with position is called band bending.
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Carrier Drift (Band Diagram
Visualization)
E
c
E
v
e
h
E
3D Integration and Device Lab. (http://tidlab.sogang.ac.kr)
EEE2120: Physical Electronics I Woo Young Choi Dept. EE, Sogang Univ.
Summary
Carrier mobility varies with doping
decreases w/ increasing total concentration of ionized dopants
Carrier mobility varies with temperature
decreases w/ increasing T if lattice scattering is dominant
decreases w/ decreasing T if impurity scattering is dominant
The conductivity of a semiconductor is dependent on
the carrier concentrations and mobilities
E
c
represents the electron potential energy
Variation in E
c
(x) variation in electric potential V
Electric field
E - E
c
represents the electron kinetic energy
o =qn
n
+ qp
p
dx
dE
dx
dE
v c
= = c