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Definition of communication:

The term 'communication' originates from the Latin word communicare, which means to share or imparts, communication means commonness with other persons. Many scholars and researchers also argued that the present shape communication. This communication is the "bridge" to exchange our ideas, thought, values, facts, opinion, emotion and information between two or more people.

According to A. Allen " A systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding is drown as communication" Newman and Summer "Communications an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons."
So, we say that, communications the art of developing and attaining understanding between people. It is the process of exchanging information or feelings between two or more people. Communication is the sum of all the things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It consist bridge of meaning .IT involve a systematic continuous process of telling listening and understanding.

Importance of Communication
George R. Terry states: "Communication serves as the lubricant, posturing for the smooth operations of the management process". The reasons for the growing significance of communication can be judged from the Following paragraphs: Coordination: Modern complex organizations are large, consisting of numerous employees working towards accomplishing common goals. The organizational structure illustrates many levels of organization hierarchy- both horizontally and vertically. More often than not, this leads to issues related to coordination. Effectual systems of communication encourage better coordination. Coordination is viewed as a necessity among groups; channels are vital for efficient functioning of the organisation as a whole.. Communication encourages better coordination. Smooth Working: Smooth and uninterrupted working of an enterprise, largely depends on good communication network. Communication takes on a greater role in this direction.

Accurate decision-making and efficiency of the organization is anchored in information supply. If messages have obstacles in the course of their flow, it is impossible to bring about a smooth functioning and uninterrupted working of the organization. According to Herbert G. Micks, Communication is basic to an organizations existence from the birth of the organisation through its continuing life. Effective Decision-Making: It is essential to have a record of past and present data for Immediate and effective decision-making. Communication is the primary base by means of which information is supplied to further help in making decisions. Problem-defining, alternative courses of action, selecting the best option available, can be possible with the provision of relevant and adequate information conveyed to the decision-maker. In event of inadequate or no information, it would be relatively impossible even for the top management to take important decisions. Conversely, it is unlikely to achieve goals and objectives unless the top management has a smooth interaction with all levels of the organisation. Managerial Efficiency: As quoted in George Terry's remark earlier, communication encourages managerial efficiency. Efficiency lays in the manner individuals and groups are assigned their respective targets.. Managerial functions like planning, control, coordination, motivation cannot be discharged without communication. As management is an art of ensuring targets are achieved in collaboration with other people, communication educates personnel working in the organisation about the desires of the management. Management communicates goals, policies and targets by issuing verbal and written orders and instructions. The yardstick for measuring managerial efficiency is communication. Co-operation: Co-operation among workers is possible only when there is an exchange of information between individuals and groups and between the management and the employees. This not only promotes the industrial peace but also maximizes production. The two-way communication network enhances co-operation between people. The flow of communication can be smooth and receptive with co-operation, confidence and message flow vertically, horizontally and across the organization. In short, communication promotes co-operation and understanding among employees. Effective Leadership: Leadership implies the presence of a leader and followers. There is always a continuous process of communication between them. Communication is the basis for direction, motivation as well as establishment of effective leadership. The followers have to follow the leader and through conveying of ideas, opinions, feelings and be in constant communication with them. Thus, transmission and reception ensures a two-way traffic, the sine qua non for effective leadership. Job Satisfaction: Communication is essential for achieving job satisfaction. Management conveys messages, which promote mutual understanding. Reception and recognition provide job satisfaction to employees. Two-way communication creates confidence, which leads to job satisfaction among employees. Openness, straightforward expression of opinions is necessary in this direction. Increase Productivity: Communication helps the management in achieving maximum productivity with minimum cost and eliminating waste. These are the main objectives of the management. It is remarked that an archenemy of communication is the very illusion

of it. This illusion can be avoided only with an effective system of communication. It is through communication that the workers can be well informed about the process of production, new methods of production and the activities of the workers in a similar organisation. Thus, a good system of communication helps the management to achieve maximum productivity with minimum cost, elimination of waste, reduction of cost etc. Inter-firm comparison is not possible without effective communication. Morale Building: Morale and good relations in the organisation are essential for achieving goals of the organisation and promoting its benevolence goodwill in the public. An effective system, of communication builds good morale and improves human relations. Participatory communication is the best technique of morale building and motivation. S. Khandwala remarked, "Most of the conflicts in business are not basic but are caused by misunderstood motives and ignorance of facts. Proper communication between the interested parties reduces the points of friction and minimises those that inevitably arise". Achieving Managerial Roles: Henry Mintzberg has described a managers job by assigning three roles, namely inter-personal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. Communication plays a vital role in these three types of role. In case of interpersonal role, a manager has to constantly interact with subordinates. In informational role, a manager has to collect information from various people and supply the necessary information to others both inside and outside the organisation. A manager in a decisional role or written media of communication discharges interpersonal, informational and decisional roles as well. The importance of communication may be concluded with the remark of Chester I. Barnard: The first executive function is to develop and maintain a system of communication.

The basic objective of human communication is trying to elicit a reaction from the person we are trying to communicate with. From a business or commercial angle, if we observe any small or large business around us we will be able to notice that the amount of success the business has achieved mainly relies on its power of communication. Communication defines the level of success that the company has attained. Following are a few of the main objectives of business communication. 1. Information: The core objective of a business is to convey information and making individuals more up to date, E.g.- all the advertisement campaigns that we notice around us are an attempt to inform and convey the information across to others, and in case of companies, this information is generally regarding the product or services at offer. . 2. Motivation: Communication in business is moreover essential to boost the workers' motivation. Thus if the communication is carried out correctly and is successful in encouraging the workers and workers are sufficiently encouraged, the work gets completed easily, proficiently and the workers will carry out their functions by themselves without supervision. 3. Raising Morale: Another extremely significant objective of business communication (internal) is maintaining a sense of high morale amongst the workers, so that they

perform their tasks with dynamism and resilience as a team. This is a key aspect that can create a great impact on the success of a company. 4. Order and instructions: An order is an oral or written rule influencing the start, end or adjusting an activity. This form of communication is internal and is executed within a company. Order may be in written or verbal form. Written orders are given when the type of job is extremely vital or the person who would carry out the task is far off. Care must be taken at the time of handing out written orders; a copy of the order should always be maintained so that it is easy during the follow up. Oral orders come into play at the time of urgency in the work and when the person is in close proximity. However, it is extremely vital to follow up in both the cases. 5. Education and training: These days, communication can be additionally used in business to enhance the scope of knowledge. The goal of education is attained by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public a. Education for future managers: At this juncture, junior personnel in the organisation are taught to deal with vital assignments comprising of responsibility, so that they can achieve something more than their superiors in the long run. b. Education for newbies: When new personnel join an organisation they are introduced by enlightening them in relation to the culture of the company, code of discipline, work ethos etc. This is generally carried out by way of a training method to accustom the new recruits with the working style of the organisation. c. Educating the public: This is carried out by advertising, informative seminars, newspapers, journals to notify the public regarding the product, the working style of the company and different schemes presented by the company.

Nature of Communication
The Nature of communication can be explained using following characteristics of communication:

Two way process Information sharing and understanding Verbal and nonverbal Circular flow Goal oriented Continuous process Pervasive activity

Types of Communication
Channel Direction Method of expression Downward Verbal


Upward Informal Horizontal Diagonal Nonverba l

People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication. Types of Communication Based on channel Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are: 1. Formal Communication 2. Informal Communication

1. Formal Communication
Formal communication refers to the official communication which take place following the chain of command in the organization.
In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern. In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication. Advantage-

Orderly flow of information Identified source Authentic information Expensive Justification of authority Answerability for action and control

Disadvantage Time consuming lack of personal touch distortion

2. Informal Communication/Grapevine
Communication between individual and groups which are not officially recognized known as informal communication.
Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. Its just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, foul language is not restricted. Usually. informal communication is done orally and using gestures. Informal communication, Unlike formal communication, doesnt follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships. Advantage Social relation Need satisfaction Speed Avenue of expression

Feedback Supporting of formal channel Better human relation

Disadvantage Incomplete information Distortion Unreliability Leakage Lack of authenticity Problem in fixing responsibility

Type of grapevine

Single strand chain- A communicate with B through intervening persons in a strand Gossip chain- non-selectively communicates with everyone. Probability chain A communicate randomly with others according to the law of probability.

Cluster chain-A selectively communicate with those he can trust.

Types of communication based on the method of expression are: 1. Verbal Communication 2. Nonverbal Communication

1. Verbal Communication
Verbal communication refers to the the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. In verbal communication remember the acronym KISS(keep it short and simple). When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case. usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning. So in order to deliver the right message, you must put yourself on the other side of the table and think from your receivers point of view. Would he understand the message? how it would sound on the other side of the table? Verbal Communication is further divided into:

Oral Communication Written Communication

Oral Communication
In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television,

voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. Advantages of Oral communication are: It brings quick feedback. In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust whats being said or not. Disadvantage of oral communication

In face-to-face discussion, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering, so this can be counted as a

Written Communication
In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and electronic mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication. For communicating with external environment in writing, electronic mail, Internet Web sites, letters, proposals, telegrams, faxes, postcards, contracts, advertisements, brochures, and news releases are used. Advantages of written communication includes: Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent. Written communication provide record for every message sent and can be

saved for later study. A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback. Disadvantages of written communication includes: Unlike oral communication, Written communication doesnt bring instant feedback. It take more time in composing a written message as compared to word-ofmouth. and number of people struggles for writing ability.

2. Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is all about the body language of speaker. Nonverbal communication helps receiver in interpreting the message received. Often, nonverbal signals reflects the situation more accurately than verbal messages. Sometimes nonverbal response contradicts verbal communication and hence affect the effectiveness of message. Nonverbal communication have the following three elements: Appearance Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics Surrounding: room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings Body Language facial expressions, gestures, postures Sounds Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate

Classification on the basis of direction

Downward communication-

It represents the flow of information from top level to the lower level of the organization. Communication from the Managing director to the operating employees represents the downward flow. Generally orders, instructions, decisions of the superior are communicated through this channel. Upward communicationCommunication flowing from the subordinates to superior are called upward communication. It includes reports, suggestions, complaints, etc. Upward communication enables the management to evaluate the effectiveness with which its orders have been carried out and also to know the grievances or suggestions of the subordinates.

Horizontal or lateral communicationIt refers the transmission of information among person at the same level .It generally take place among departmental heads who are responsible for different functional areas of the business .It is also known as lateral or sideward communication. d) Diagonal Communication :

Communication between people who are neither in the same department nor at the same level of organisational hierarchy is called diagonal communication.

Communication Process/ Cycle Communication is a process which involves a sender of message and a receiver. Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus, communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to the sender on how well the message is understood by him.

The main components of communication process are as follows: 1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context. 2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.

3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. 4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there. 5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.

Barriers to communication
The term barrier means hurdle hindrance or obstacle. thus barriers to communication imply hurdle on the way of transmission of message from the sender to receiver.
The barriers to communication and the ways and means of over coming them to achieve effective communication. 1. Barriers to communication result in undesirable reaction and unfavorable response. 2. The communication exercise fails because the feed back is absent or falls short of expectation 3. Barriers to communication are caused by environmental, physical, semantic, attitudinal and varying perceptions of reality

Barriers of communication

Physical Barriers

Language or semantic

Psychologic al Barriers

Organizational barriers

Personal barriers

I: Physical barriers -


The physical barriers may be caused by noise, distance, time and information overload. These are discussed belowNoise:-Due to higher level of noise some time irrelevant information may be screened out and some time relevant information may be left out. Distance Long distance between the sender and the receivers can also obstruct effective communication. Time Time refers to the reaching of the message .If an important message reach late its sure to affect the information. Information overload-It refers to the excessive transmission of information the receiver cant not understand digits analysis and act upon information overload that is beyond the mental capacity. 1. Semantic Semantic barriers occur when there is disagreement about the words being used, often based on individuals being from different cultures, disallowing the parties involved to determine a common meaning of the words used. This most often occurs when the parties involved speak different languages. Additional instances of semantic barriers occur when the use of jargon that is terminology-specific to a certain field or use of colloquial words or statements which can be specific to a region. For example, a doctor explaining a diagnosis to a patient will deliver the message less effectively if he relies solely on medical terminology Type of semantic barrier Unclear message Poorly chosen words, carless omission bad organization of idea, inadequate vocabulary are some common fault in this case.

Words with multiple meaning A word may have several meaning .the receiver has to perceive one such meaning for the words used for the communicator. For example the word value may be used in different senses. The value of this book rs.200 We value our customer.

Technical words or jargons- it is often found that specialist and technical personnel tend to use technical language of their respective field .this increase their isolation from others and build communication barrier. Body language and gesture Along with verbal communication another important mode of communication is body language and gesture used by person who is talking. If verbal communication is not matching with the body language, the listener may get confused and misunderstanding the meaning. Faulty translated- sometimes instructions originally drafted in one language need to be translated to the language understood by worker. If translator is not proficient with both language mistake may creep in causing different meaning than the intended one.

Socio- psychological barriers a number of psychological factors act as barriers to effective communication .for example a frightened person may not communicate properly , similarly an angry person may not receive message properly. Differences in perception perceptual barrier may arise due to differences between individuals in the way they perceive, organize and understood their environment. Differences in attitudes- People differ with regard to attitudes and opinions which often interfere with communication. For example if message consist with our attitude we receive it favorably otherwise we give unfavorable reaction. Inattention- Communication has no impact on those who are unwilling to listen. if people do not pay attention to listening and understanding the message they message they are supposed to receiver , communication will lose its purpose. Cultural differences cultural differences are faced when manager deal with people of different culture. Culture refers to the values, belief norms attitude and perception.

Destruct- It arises out of ill considered judgment or illogical decision or frequent countermanding of the original communication by the communicator ,hence making communication unsuccessful. Organizational barrierAn organization is a deliberate creation for the attainment of certain specified objective. This is usually attempted through a variety of official measure such as designing the organizational arrangement for performance of various activities ,rules regulation and procedure such major barrier are as follows: Status relationships- organization create number of status levels among the members of the organization. The common cause for obstacle in communication due to status are non listening habits of the superior and desire to keep maximum information with on self. One way flow Effective communication is a two ay street .when the feedback from the receiver is blocked ,understanding will suffer, in fact one way communication is some situation is not a communication at all. Complex organization structure the organization structure of most big enterprise is complex a) several layer supervision, b)long communication lines ,c) co-existence of executives , distance between top level and lower level management, organization structure create problem because communication may break down. Rigid rules and regulation organizational rules and regulation affect the flow of communication prescribing the subject matter to be communicated. The rules may restrict the flow of certain message.

Personal barrier Attitude of superior The attitude of superior towards communication in general affect the flow of message. for example if this attitude is unfavorable there is a grater possibility that message would not flow adequately. Lack of confidence in subordinates- superior generally perceive, correct otherwise, that their subordinate are less competent, so they are not able to give advise to superior. Ignoring communication- sometimes superiors consciously and deliberately ignore the communication from their subordinate to maintain their importance Shortage of time- no time or lack of time the terms frequently used by the superior .they does not spare time to talk to the subordinate.

7 Cs of effective communication
There are 7 Cs of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral communication. These are as follows: 1. Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receivers mind set and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features: Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization. Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete. A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of receiver. Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/ receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information. It persuades the audience.

2. Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other Cs of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features: It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving. It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words. Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience. Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience. Concise message is non-repetitive in nature. 3. Consideration - Consideration implies stepping into the shoes of others. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audiences view points, background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audiences needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows: Emphasize on you approach. Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience. Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on what is possible rather than what is impossible. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.

4. Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features: It makes understanding easier. Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message. Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words. 5. Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features: It is supported with specific facts and figures. It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation. Concrete messages are not misinterpreted. 6. Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the senders expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features: Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message. Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience. It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message. It is not at all biased. 7. Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features: The message is exact, correct and well-timed. If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level. Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers. It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message. It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Impact of technological advancement on business communication

The age of electronics and more specifically, computers, has caused a tremendous paradigm shift in the way we do business today. Just 15 years ago, innovations such as the Facsimile (FAX) machine, and the Personal Computer (PC) were state-of-the-art and considered cutting edge. Today, many business people wouldn't be able to function efficiently without these tools. Furthermore, communications as we know it, would almost cease to exist without E-mail, Fax-on-demand and teleconferencing. We have gotten so accustomed to the presence of computers and the services they provide that many of us don't remember what it was like before. The Changing Workplace Business spent US$1 trillion in the last decade, but showed little gain or efficiency.1 Only now are we seeing the payoff. Some of this latency is due to some people's natural resistance to the types of change introduced by evolving technologies.

Many employees are anxious and/or resentful of being forced to change the way they perform their job function. Every organization has individuals that would much prefer to be operating "the old way". Slowly, these individuals are either embracing the change or face elimination. This elimination can take the form of either attrition or in extreme cases - termination or layoff. It is not uncommon for an organization to go through a cleansing process that eliminates "deadwood" and individuals who refuse to obtain the required skill sets. Because computers can perform repetitive tasks so well, their evolution has taken a somewhat predictable path and has eliminated many jobs that were once performed by people. Although many of these tedious jobs have been reduced or eliminated, computers created a whole new set of jobs focused on computer manufacture, programming and support. A major challenge for the government and business sectors, is that these new jobs demand highly skilled, adaptable, innovative workers who are constantly upgrading and learning new skills. Theres been a movement away from face-to-face meetings / communication. Instead, people and businesses use video conferencing, Eliminate (incorporates chat and presentation conferencing facilities) and virtual conferencing (Second Life). Technology is more portable and people have and expect constant access to the internet. Communication is virtually instantaneous (compare email versus snail mail). Communication is less rigid and less inclined to conform to traditional standards and rules. Its less formal. Mistakes are common. Acronyms are also common.

Speed / time money can be saved because its much quicker to move information around. Cost it feels free to send an email (although it isnt); its certainly cheaper than phone calls. Video conferencing saves money on flights and accommodation. Online communication brings families / friends together across distances. Education its accessible and theres lots of free information. Community it can reduce isolation and provide support systems for people who need it. Its available 24 / 7. People can do shopping / banking / chat at any time they like. They can communicate with people on the other side of the world while everyone in their own country is asleep.


Reliance on technology people dont bother learning to spell because they use spellchecker etc Loss of face-to-face may mean loss of some communication skills and loss of the personal touch. There are risks attached to the unknown / hidden elements on the internet (you dont necessarily know who you are talking to).

Reliability of information everyones posting so just because somethings on the web doesnt mean its reliable. Viruses, fraud and identity theft are all risks for people using the internet.
There are costs associated with maintaining equipment and keeping equipment up with contemporary software. Addiction some people get addicted to web / games etc.. which increases their social isolation and can cause health problems. Health issues related to less sun, exercise etc and a tendency to eat more. Interruptions because people dont tend to turn off technology, they dont focus or concentrate for uninterrupted periods as much. Theres a trend towards mult-tasking that can have benefits but also impacts productivity. There are potential risks relating to cancer and fertility associated with regular exposure to mobile phones.

Related crimes:

Hacking Viruses Identity theft Fraud etc

Some tools are as follows which make business communication more easy and flexibleThe Internet
The Internet began as a government effort to provide fast communications for scientists working on national security issues around the globe. Today, the number of Internet users is doubling every 6 months Studies show that one out of every eleven people are connected to the Internet.2 The Internet is a replete source of information, software and communications. Many would agree that the future of communications and business commerce liens in the Internet.

The Word Wide Web (WWW) is another name for the Internet, but "The Web" is best
known for its graphical hyperlink based "pages". Depending on their purpose and how they are configured, clicking on these hyperlinks can play audio, display graphic images or text documents or simply route the user through additional Web pages, all linked by a common logical thread. The Web is extremely popular for recreational use as there are enormous amount of FAN Clubs, hobby centered and general interest sites as well as some extremely bazaar sites. For example - you could visit one out of the hundreds of Elvis Fan clubs, discover carpentry techniques and learn about UFOs, Devil worship, and how to build a bomb

out of fertilizer, all in the same sitting. While the number of users is doubling every six months, the number of these Web pages is doubling every 53 days.2 . Teleconferencing - In some companies, Teleconferencing has all but replaced "physical" meetings, thereby drastically reducing travel costs and the loss of productivity as a result of the travel time required to attend the meetings. Teleconferencing is particularly useful when remote teams are working at different locations, but on a common project. It also provides a means for adhoc meetings where spontaneity is desirable or necessary. Electronic Mail (E-mail) - E-mail has transformed business communication like no other technology. In addition to simple inter-office communications, E-mail has helped to advance the global market and provides immediate information transfer. In the modern business world, Email has all but replaced conventional postal mail for simple communications and has put a significant dent into the overnight delivery services. In addition, although the telephone is an immediate means of communication, some people would still prefer to communicate via E-mail. Their logic is E-mail gives them an opportunity to better articulate themselves and expound on their thoughts. This is particularly effective for technical communications where specific details are important and would be prohibitively tedious to transcribe over the phone. E-mail also tends to reduce encoding when forwarding communications through a workflow. Unlike verbal data, E-mail does not decay while traversing from one employee to the next. Lastly, Email is self-documenting andis an excellent means of providing an audit trail when working on important projects.

Video conferencing has become part of communication advancement and technology in reaching out to others via the modern means and application. Video conferencing is an interactive method of interaction which allows two or more people at the same time at a different place to communicate with video and audio transmissions at the same time with the help of web conferencing.
Video conferencing is design especially for conference purposes especially in big companies when they are dealing with overseas business partners and potential clients in another side of the world where distant is the issue of meeting up.

Part II
RESUME, C.V., and BIO-DATA document highlighting skills, education, and submits when applying for a job. On the mean the same. However, there RESUME Resume Is a French word meaning "summary", and true to the word meaning, signifies a summary of one's employment, education, and other skills, used in applying for a new position. A resume seldom exceeds one interchangeably for the experience that a candidate surface level, all the three are intricate differences.

side of an A4 sheet, and at the most two sides. They do not list out all the education and qualifications, but only highlight specific skills customized to target the job profile in question. A resume is usually broken into bullets and written in the third person to appear objective and formal. A good resume starts with a brief Summary of Qualifications, followed by Areas of Strength or Industry Expertise in keywords, followed by Professional Experience in reverse chronological order. Focus is on the most recent experiences, and prior experiences summarized. The content aims at providing the reader a balance of responsibilities and accomplishments for each position. After Work experience come Professional Affiliations, Computer Skills, and Education C.V. CURRICULUM VITAE

C.V Is a Latin word meaning "course of life". Curriculum Vitae (C.V.) is therefore a regular or particular course of study pertaining to education and life. A C.V. is more detailed than a resume, usually 2 to 3 pages, but can run even longer as per the requirement. A C.V. generally lists out every skills, jobs, degrees, and professional affiliations the applicant has acquired, usually in chronological order. A C.V. displays general talent rather than specific skills for any specific positions. BIO-DATA

Bio Data the short form for Biographical Data, is the old-fashioned terminology for Resume or C.V. The emphasis in a bio data is on personal particulars like date of birth, religion, sex, race, nationality, residence, martial status, and the like. Next comes a chronological listing of education and experience. The things normally found in a resume, that is specific skills for the job in question comes last, and are seldom included. Bio-data also includes applications made in specified formats as required by the company. A resume is ideally suited when applying for middle and senior level positions, where experience and specific skills rather than education is important. A C.V., on the other hand is the preferred option for fresh graduates, people looking for a career change, and those applying for academic positions. The term bio-data is mostly used in India while applying to government jobs, or when applying for research grants and other situations where one has to submit descriptive essays. Resumes present a summary of highlights and allow the prospective employer to scan through the document visually or electronically, to see

if your skills match their available positions. A good resume can do that very effectively, while a C.V. cannot. A bio-data could still perform this role, especially if the format happens to be the one recommended by the employer. Personal information such as age, sex, religion and others, and hobbies are never mentioned in a resume. Many people include such particulars in the C.V. However, this is neither required nor considered in the US market.. A Bio-data, on the other hand always include such personal particulars..

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A RESUME An effective Resume: Is concisely written Contains relevant information about your: Academic background Work Experience Occupational interest areas Activities out side of work Honors or recognition received Is well organized Draws the attention and interest of a busy employer Is easily read and with appropriate use of white space on the pages The Purpose of a Resume is to: Represent you on paper Be an advertisement for you a sales presentation Convince the employer that you are right for the job and the career area Demonstrate your job worth: the skills and abilities related to the work for which you are applying General Writing Guidelines: SEQUENCE Name, address, and phone number (e-mail if applicable) at the top The rest of the information should be in a logical, easy-to-read sequence. Education and experience should be listed as most recent or present first LENGTH One page is typical if you are a B.A., B.M., B.S., or B.S.N graduate More than one page is appropriate if relevant and important information requires more than one page to best present you to an employer. A resume should not be more than two pages. WRITING STYLE Should be clear and concise, as well as consistent in your display techniques Avoid using the pronoun I, slang, jargon, trite expressions, and abbreviations Spelling, grammar, and typography must be perfect Use action words (list is provided in this packet) FORMAT Must have eye appeal to present a positive impression of you

To achieve this, use appropriate separation of the categories of your resume Underline, use italics and/or capitalize key headings and titles ORGANIZATION Employment Objective Education Work Experience or Relevant Experience College Activities or Community Involvement May add: Honors, Professional Memberships, Publications, Certificates Held, or Military Experience References *Ministry positions only: may include items such as age, marital status, children, etc.

Types of resume
Chronological resume
Definition: A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent position listed first. Your jobs are listed in reverse chronological order with your current, or most recent job, first. Your education, skills, and other information are listed after your experience. Employers typically prefer this type of resume because it's easy to see what jobs you have held and when you have worked at them.

Combination resume
Definition: A combination resume lists your skills and experience first. Your employment history is listed next in chronological order. When you use a combination resume you can highlight the skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for, and also provide the chronological work history that employers prefer.

Functional resume
Definition: A functional resume focuses on your skills and experience, rather than on your chronological work history. A functional resume is typically used by job seekers who are changing careers or who have gaps in their employment history.

Interview An interview means a face to face interaction between the interviewer and the candidate/candidates so as to obtain desired information from him/them. It can also be defined as a way of exchanging meanings between individuals by using a common set of symbols. Interviews generally need a preparation. Job interviews seem frightening, even if the individual is well prepared. Interviews have a definite structure. Clear communication should take place during an interview. All interviews have a definite purpose familiar to the interviewer and the candidate/interviewee. Tips for the Interviewee

1. The interviewee should be dressed formally, and not casually. Have a pleasing appearance as the candidates personality is a significant part of the communication. 2. Always carry an extra CV, a notepad to write on, a pen, and all essential things required in an interview. 3. Practice, practice and practice in advance. Prepare and rehearse for the unexpected also. 4. Research a lot about the organization for which you are being interviewed. 5. As soon as the interview gets over, pen down the name of the interviewer, your strengths and weaknesses, answers to questions raised by you during the interview and the feedback of the interviewer. 6. Be punctual. Try reaching before time for the job interview. 7. Do not indulge in a fight or argument with the interviewer. 8. Answer the questions specifically, truly and undoubtedly. 9. Be courteous and sophisticated during an interview. 10. Just be yourself. Do not boast about yourself. The interviewer is smart enough to judge the candidates intelligence and aptness for the job. 11. Do not make negative statements or comments about your past employer. 12. Your body language should be positive during the interview, i.e., maintain an eye-to-eye contact with the interviewer, sit in well balanced and confident posture, do not lean on the table, do not yawn, smile when appropriate, etc. Tips for the Interviewer 1. The interviewer should be an active listener. He should not interrupt unnecessarily. 2. The interviewer should be considerate enough. Even if the interviewer does not agree with the interviewee, he must respect the latters feelings. 3. The interviewer should be friendly and understanding. He should begin the interview in a friendly manner, some friendly conversation and then show concern in family background, hobbies, etc. This will make the interviewee more relaxed and comfortable.

4. The interviewer should restrain to the time allotted. He shouldnt indulge in arguments unnecessarily. He should try to be precise. 5. The interviewer must be thoroughly prepared for the questions that are likely to be asked. He should be a good planner. 6. The interviewer must focus attention on the interviewee. He should use positive gestures when conducting the interview. 7. Encourage/invite questions from the interviewee. Ensure that the interviewee clarifies the question he has. When selected a candidate should not feel he was not told about a certain aspect of the job. 8. Avoid distraction in the interview area .Ensure that there is no or minimal distraction where the interview is being conducted. A phone ringing all the time in the background can distract the interviewer and interviewee. 9. There are many types of interviews serving diverse purposes. Knowing what to expect can help you achieve your goals.

Types of interview
1. Informational Interview The objective of this interview is to ask for advice and learn more about a particular career field, employer or particular job. Interviewing experts in their field is one more way to become more occupationally literate. The knowledge that you gain here will make you a sharper and more informed. You will also make a contact and further develop your network. 2. Screening or Telephone Interview A phone interview is a very cost effective way to screen candidates. These can last anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes. You should prepare for it like an open book exam. It is recommended that you have in front of you your resume, the job description, a list of references, some prepared answers to challenging questions and perhaps something about the company. The vast majority of communication is non-verbal. Because they cant see your body language, it is critically important to have positive and polished answers with energetic tone and inflection. Be sure to ask what the next step is. 3. Individual Interview This is the most common type and often called a personal interview. It is typically a one-on-one exchange at the organizations offices. In order to best prepare you will want to know the length of the interview which can usually range from 30 to 90 minutes. If

the interview is 30 minutes you have to be concise and have a high impact with your answers. If it is 60 or 90 minutes you will want to go into much more depth and use specific examples to support your generalizations. 4. Small Group or Committee Interview This is where you will be meeting with several decision-makers at once. This can be an intimidating experience if you are not prepared. Its an efficient way to interview candidates and allows for different interpretations or perceptions of the same answer. Be sure to make eye contact with everyone, no matter who asked the question. Its important to establish rapport with each member of the interview team. Try to find out the names and job titles of the participants. 5. The Second or On-Site Interview After your first interview, you may be asked back again for a second date. They like you enough that you made the first round of cuts, but they would like to know more about you before making their final decision. Second Interviews can last either a half or fullday so it is best to check again and get an agenda. You may be meeting with three to five individuals. This may include a representative from Human Resources, the department head, the office staff and the department heads supervisor. Be alert and enthusiastic at all times! The more you know about the structure of the process, the less anxious you are going to feel and the better you will perform. This is the last step before an offer is made. 6. Behavioral-Based Interview The theory behind Critical Behavioral Interviewing (CBI) is that past performance in a similar situation is the best predictor of future performance. CBI probes much deeper than traditional interviewing techniques. You should prepare by thinking of specific examples that demonstrate your competence in core behaviors such as teamwork, problem-solving, communication, creativity, flexibility and organizational skills. You will want to tell your story and structure it by stating your answers in terms of the situation, the task, what action you took, and what was the result or outcome. 7. Task Oriented or Testing Interview This is a problem-solving interview where you will be given some exercises to demonstrate your creative and analytical abilities. A company may ask you to take a short test to evaluate your technical knowledge and skills. Sometimes a presentation to a group is necessary to determine your communication skills. Try to relax as much as possible. 8. Stress Interview During this rare type, the interviewer tries to bait you, to see how you will respond. The objective is to find your weaknesses and test how you hold up to pressure. Such tactics

as weird silences, constant interruptions and challenging interrogation with antagonistic questions are designed to push your boundaries. The question you have to ask yourself is: Do I want to work for a company that treats me this way even before the offer is made? Rethink the corporate culture.