Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

LINE SPECTRUM OF ATOMS DIFFERENT TYPES (BOHRS ATOMS THEORY)

Muh. Ihsanul Amri *), Hasnita Asnur, Tiara Purnama, Yusran Anri Saputra Modern Physics Laboratory o Physics !epartement o mathematics and science State "ni#ersity o Ma$assar
Abstrak. Has been done e%perimentally di erent types o atomic spectral lines. This e%periment aims to determine the &a#elen'th o spectral line noble 'as atoms He, (e and (a metal. This e%periment is done to put 'as in the tube then electri ied so it &ill emit li'ht !i erent characteristics o each di erent 'ases. )ased on obser#ations, the li'ht discrete spectral lines emitted by a ro& o purple, indi'o, blue, 'reen, yello&, oran'e, red. The analysis o data obtained in accordance &ith the theory o &a#e yaitupan*an' each di erent color spectrum+ di erent. ,olor spectrum &ith the lon'est &a#elen'th is red spectrum and spectrum o color &ith the shortest &a#elen'th is #iolet color spectrum 'enerated o He and (e atoms. As or the obser#ation inter#al yello& line / D ) = -. nm spectra produced by (a atoms rom analysis o the data obtained.

Ke !"r#$ ,olor Spectrum, line spectrum, &a#elen'th INTRODUCTION (iels Hendri$ !a#id )ohr /-001+-23.) is one o the e& physicists &ho ha#e a stron' scienti ic in luence o the other physicists o his day. In the all o -2--, )ohr, the scholarship stipend post+doctoral studies, *oined the 'roup 4. 4. Thompson at ,ambrid'e. Ho&e#er, )ohr did not eel at home. A ter meetin' &ith 5uther ord, he decided to &or$ &ith him in Manchester durin' the second hal o his stay in 6n'land. This is &here )ohr became amiliar &ith the concept o the atomic nucleus by 5uther ord de#eloped in early -2--. Ha#e $no&n at the time that the 5uther ord atomic model is inconsistent &ith classical physics. This model can7t e%plain &hy an atom is stable. 8rom here, )ohr $ne& that a 9ne& physics9 should be used to o#ercome this problem. 9(e& physics9 is Planc$:s ;uantum theory. Spectrometer is an instrument used to determine, deri#e the, and identi y the spectrum o li'ht due to the distribution pattern o &a#e di raction e ects. !i raction pattern o the spread o the &a#e is due to the narro& 'ap in the medium obstacle the &a#e propa'ates. The smaller the obstacle, the 'reater the spread o the &a#e. This could be e%plained by the Huy'ens principle. Seen the li'ht and dar$ pattern o li'ht, this is due to the ne& &a#elet + &a#elet is ormed in the narro& slit inter ere &ith each other mutually. Spectrum lines orm a ro& o color li'ht &ith di erent &a#elen'ths. 8or the hydro'en 'as that is the simplest atom, the &a#elen'th o this series turns out to ha#e certain patterns that can be e%pressed in the orm o mathematical e;uations is raised by )almer. 8or this reason, it is necessary &e can pro#e the #alue o Planc$:s constant< 3.3= % ->+=? 4s by indin' the &a#elen'th o each spectrum color in ad#ance usin' the concept o utili@in' a spectrometer and di raction 'ratin'. Ab*ecti#e to determine Planc$:s constant prices in the trial, to compare the &a#elen'ths o each color spectrum seen in the e%periment. . THEORY I a 'as is placed in the tube and then electric current is applied to the tube, the 'as &ill emit li'ht. The li'ht emitted by each 'as is di erent and is a characteristic o the 'as. Li'ht is emitted in the orm o a line spectrum and not a continuous spectrum. The act that the 'as emits li'ht in the orm o a line spectrum is belie#ed closely related to atomic structure. Thus, the atomic line spectra can be used to test the correctness o a model o the atom. I the noble 'ases and lo&+pressure metal #apor under atmospheric pressure 6%citation, the emitted radiation has a spectrum that contains only certain &a#elen'ths. 6ach element o the spectrum sho&s a uni;ue line. Aptical spectrometer can be used to determine the &a#elen'th o the line spectra o noble 'as atoms and metal #apor. Bratin' is used to

separate the spectral lines. !i racted li'ht in the lattice, e%periencin' the same &a#elen'th superposition and produces ma%imum intensity. The relationship bet&een di raction and &a#elen'th is linear /sin C D E) on the normal spectrum. Fe can determine the &a#elen'th o the li'ht that comes throu'h the lattice usin' a spectrometer. The e;uation or determinin' the &a#elen'th o the line spectrum is

E3PERIMENT METHOD Ability )ohr atomic theory to e%plain the ori'in o the spectral lines is one result that stands out, so this theory &ill be applied to the atomic spectrum. Apparatus and Materials : -. Aptical Spectrometer .. Lattice 5o&land =. Spectrum Lamp He, (a, (e, ,d, H'J,d and Ti ?. Trans ormer, 3 K A,, -. K A, 1. "ni#ersal ,ho$e, .=> K, 1> H@ Equipment and Work Adjustment Procedures Spectrometer settin's, Put a lamp spectrum He on the tube, then on+ri'ht on "ni#ersal cho$e. Loo$ at the telescope and ma$e sure you see a #ertical li'ht line. Position the prism 'ratin' at the table and ali'n the telescope so that li'ht passes throu'h the slit and 'ratin' spectrum can be obser#ed in the telescope. Observation

GC . E= n.( sin
&ith< n H spectrum order, GC H the amount o the an'le bet&een the ri'ht and le t spectral lines, ( number o 'rid lines used, and E H &a#elen'th

F%&'re (. Schematic dia'ram or the de inition o an'le GC To calculate the inter#al t&o line, an e%ample is 'i#en di raction e%perimental data on n H and n H . or the line+! Sodium as ollo&s< Tab)e (. Sodium !+Lines, di raction measurements or n H - and n H . +,-./012 L%*e N *2 > =2.=>> 102.== !. 0?.1?.> 102.?=2..1>> 100.3!. > . 0?.?.1 100.I? )ased on Table -, the inter#al bet&een t&o $no&n yello& Sodium !+Lines &ith #alue GE H >.I. nm /measured at n H -) and GE H >.3I nm /measured at n H .). Its a#era'e #alue is E/!-) + E /!.) H >.I> nm.

Measures the Line pectrum !e , Ali'n the collimator and the optical spectrometer telescope, Ali'n the li'ht lines are #isible in the telescope &ith #ertical threads on the telescope, 5otate the telescope to one direction /ri'ht) and ma$e sure the line spectra obser#ed. So also in the opposite direction /le t). 5eturn the telescope to its normal position. 5otate bac$ to the ri'ht slo&ly so that the obser#ed color o the irst line on the order o - /n H -). Ali'n the mar$ on the #ertical threads telescope &ith the irst color line and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as L ri'ht, Turn the telescope to the le t so that the obser#ed color o the irst line on the order o /n H -) and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as L le t, 5epeat acti#ity /.) and /=) or the ne%t color stripes on the same order, 5epeat acti#ity /.) and /=) or the ne%t color stripes on the ne%t order, 5eplace li'ht He bulbs &ith (e, then repeat the action /-) to /I). Determine the interval bet"een t"o lines o# $a%D, 5emo#e the lamp and replace it &ith the

li'hts (e (a. 8ind t&o yello& (a+! line o the irst di raction ma%imum on either side o the main. Ali'n the mar$ on the #ertical threads telescope &ith yello& lines and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as L 5i'ht , Turnin' the telescope to the le t so that the obser#ed yello& lines on the order o - on the scale and see the appointment as a spectrometer L Le tist, 5epeat acti#ities /.) to /?) on the ne%t order. E3PERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS DATA Obser4at%"*0 2eas're2e*ts > - line >,>. (ST Spe$trometer < H 3> mm Lattice< 3>> lineJmm = 3 % -> +? line J nm TABLE (. Spectrum o He lines
"r#e s5e1tr'2 S5e1tr'2 1")"r Kiolet )lue !ye )lue ( Breen Yello& Aan'e 5ed Kiolet )lue !ye )lue < Breen Yello& Aan'e 5ed 6r%&7t () -1,I> -3,>> -3,I> -I,1> .>,3? .=,I= .1,.1 =.,II =?,0. =I,0= =0,.I ?.,0= ?1,I> ?0,I1 8)e9t () -1,20 -3,0-I,=> -I,0= .>,3> .=,I3 .1,=3 =.,0=?,11 =3,3I =I,3I ?1,>1 ?1,3= ?0,10 :; (") =-,30 =.,0=?,>> =1,== ?-,.? ?2,>2 1>,331,10 3I,3I?,1> I1,I= 01,00 2-,== 2I,==

Yello& Aan'e 5ed

?-,=. ?=,?1 ?1,.I

?.,-1 ??,-0 ?3,=3

0=,?I 0I,3= 2-,3=

TABLE =. Yello& spectrum o (a lines


"r#e s5e1tr'2 . S5e1tr'2 1")"r Yello& Yello& 6r%&7t () .>,>2 ?.,0> 8)e9t () ..,>> 1-,=1 :; (") ?.,>2 2?,-1

!ata Analysis, !etermine the &a#elen'th.

GC . E= n.( sin

&here, = "avelen&th /nm) = ri&ht + le#t / > )


n = orde to $ = number&aponlattice

!etermine uncertainty o &a#elen'th. ri&ht + le#t = sin .


=

ri&ht + le#t ri&ht le#t

ri&ht cos ri&ht + cos le#t le#t . . . .

because, ri&ht = le#t = ri&ht +ri&ht = . cos .

TABEL <. Spectrum o (e lines


"r#e s5e1tr'2 S5e1tr'2 1")"r Kiolet )lue !ye )lue ( Breen Yello& Aan'e 5ed Kiolet )lue !ye )lue < Breen 6r%&7t () -3,>> -I,-I -I,2. -0,-2 .>,>? .-,== ..,1> =.,.I =3,3I =I,1> =I,2> 8)e9t () -3,30 -0,3> -2,1> -2,21 .=,>= .=,20 .1,=0 =1,II =I,>1 =0,.= =0,I1 :; (") =.,30 =1,II =I,?. =0,-? ?=,>I ?1,=?I,00 I-,>? I=,I. 32,I= I3,31

ri&ht + le#t cos . .

ri&ht + le#t sin .

'( =

= nm

->>M

)irst activit* a) Li'ht o He

Order 1 #iolet

oran'e

=32.,=?3=nm =-.,0031 nm
'( = -,03 M

=-,.0 > sin . = ? lines -. /3 + -> ) sin -1,0? o = 3 + -> ? lines

= 32. -.

nm

mm = ?1?,2-22nm

red

=I-.,=2?3 nm =-.,0>I=- nm
'( = -,I2 M

nm

o - cos =-,.0 . . = />,>-I) ?1?,2-22 nm Order 2 =-,.0 o #iolet sin . 31,10 > sin o - cos -1,0? . = = . />,>-I) ?1?,2-22 nm ? lines sin -1,0? o . /3 + -> )

= I-. -.

nm

=-=,3.0I= nm
-=,3.0I= '( = ?1?,2-22 =.,22 M + ->>M

mm = ?1-,=>-.nm

sin =.,I2 -. + -> ? lines

nm
o

= ?1? -= nm

blue dye

=?I>,I>03nm =-=,1022= nm
'( =.,00 M

- cos 31,10 . . = />,>-I) ?1-,=>-. nm 31,10o sin . - cos =.,I2o = . />,>-I) ?1-,=>-. nm sin =.,I2o =1,21?30= nm
1,21?30= '( = +->>M ?1-,=>-. = -,=-M

= ?I> -=

nm

blue

=?0I,.03. nm =-=,1?I31 nm
'( =.,I0 M

= ?1- 1 nm

= ?0I -=

nm

blue dye

'reen

=?3=,3?>-nm =1,001I23 nm
'( = -,.3 M

=1>1,I1-0nm =-=,?203I nm
'( =.,33 M

= ?3= 1

nm

= 1>1 -=

nm

blue

yello&

=1>?,?--I nm =1,3=0=?0 nm
'( = -,-- M

=103,2?I=nm =-=,.12- nm
'( =.,.1 M

= 1>? 1

nm

= 103 -=

nm

'reen

=1--,1>.3 nm =1,12.>>= nm
'( = -,>2M

=3--,I0.1nm = -=,-III? nm
'( =.,-1M

= 1-- 1

nm

= 3-- -=

nm

yello&

=13I,32=?nm =1,-01?I0 nm
'( =>,2- M

oran'e

=3?-,2302nm =-=,>I=10 nm
'( =.,>=M

= 13I 1

nm

= 3?- -=

nm

oran'e

=123,>11nm =?,21>.>? nm
'( =>,0= M

red

=3I3,.223nm =-.,2?I2. nm
'( = -,2-M

= 123 ?

nm

= 3I3 -.

nm

red

=3.1,I-I?nm =?,3I0.3. nm
'( =>,I?M

Order 2 #iolet

= 3.1 ?

nm

=?0?,-112nm =1,I31.-1 nm
'( = -,-2M

b) li'ht o (e Order 1 #iolet

= ?0? 1

nm

=?30,02?1nm =-=,12??3 nm
'( =.,02M

blue dye

=?22,00?0nm =1,33I?>- nm
'( = -,-=M

= ?30 -=

nm

= ?22 1

nm

blue dye

=1--,0?10nm =-=,?0.>3 nm
'( =.,3=M

blue

=?I3,=I>3nm =1,0--00? nm
'( = -,..M

= 1-- -=

nm

= ?I3 1

nm

blue

=1=?,3=>1nm =-=,?-0>. nm
'( =.,1>M

'reen

=1-3,I3I0nm =1,1132-I nm
'( = -,>IM

= 1=? -=

nm

= 1-3 1

nm

'reen

=1??,1=01nm =-=,=02. nm
'( =.,?1M

yello&

=11?,I=03nm =1,.010>0 nm
'( =>,21M

= 1?? -=

nm

= 11? 1

nm

yello&

oran'e

=1I3,2?=?nm =1,----01 nm
'( =>,00M

spectrum yello& atoms 'enerated by (a rom results analysis o data obtained / D ) = -. nm . CONCLUSION )ased on the e%perimental results, obtained that the spectrum o each line atom, #aries accordin' to the characteristics o The atom types, this is in accordance &ith the the di erent &a#elen'ths produced by each ro& color on the spectrum lines obser#ed in noble 'as atoms He, (e and (a metal. Spectrum lines obser#ed a spectrum o discrete lines &here red color &ith a &a#elen'th &hereas the lon'est purple &ith the shortest &a#elen'ths BIBLIO>RAPHY Nrane, N.S. -22.. 8isi$a Modern /ter*emahan). 4a$arta< "ni#ersitas Indonesia Leybold Physics Lea lets O p1.I...-, Measurin' the line spectra o inert 'ases and metal #apors usin' a 'ratin' spectrometer, Manual ,ASSY.

= 1I3 1

nm

red

=12I,1II3nm =?,2=32.= nm
'( =>,0.M

= 12I ?

nm

second activit* Arder -

=120,1>-0nm =-=,..-I= nm
'( =.,.>M

= 120 -=

nm

Arder .

=3->,.>?0nm =?,0.?>=3 nm
'( =>,I2M

= 3-> ?

nm

So, the inter#al is <

=- . = 3-> ? 120 -= = -. nm

DISCUSSION 6%perimental spectrum o di erent types o atom done &ith use spectrometer to obser#e the line spectra produced by He and (e atoms, and inter#al determines the color line spectrum yello& produced by the (a atom, rom the results obser#ation o li'ht emitted by each atom #aries. Li'ht emitted in the orm o a line spectrum. The resultin' spectral lines o atoms the orm o discrete line spectra. )ased on the results o data analysis obtainable to determine lon' each color spectrum &a#es, accordin' &ith the theory that each atom emits spectrum o di erent colors accordin' &ith characteristic the atom, &here there are di erent &a#elen'ths produced by each ro& o color on line spectra are obser#ed or the He atom (e and (a. Line spectra are obser#ed a spectrum o discrete lines &here color red &a#elen'th lon' and purple &ith lon' . &hile &a#e obser#ation inter#al to the color