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Painting as a Form of Communication in Colonial Central Andes

Variations on the Form of Ornamental Art in Early World Society

Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwrde der Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultt der Universitt Luzern

vorgelegt von Fernando Valenzuela von Santiago !hile"

Eingereicht a#$ %& Se'te#(er )**+ Erstgutachter$ ,rof& Dr& -udolf Stichweh Zweitgutachterin: ,rof& Dr& !ornelia .ohn
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Abstract

This dissertation offers a meta-synthesis of the history of painting in colonial central Andes from the point of iew of the theory of social systems put forward !y "i#las $uhmann% Assuming this author&s central insight regarding the o!ser ation of art as a social phenomenon ' namely( that art is a form of communication inasmuch as it triggers a search for meaning that is used as a !asis for further communications or !eha iors )artistic or otherwise* ' this research attempts to answer the +uestion: ,ow did paintings trigger a search for meaning in this region of western South America from the second half of the si-teenth century to the eighteenth century and what societal conditions made this form of communication pro!a!le. / propose that( in a peripheral conte-t in which the e olution of art wasn&t guided !y a differentiated artistic memory( painting constituted itself as communication through the tight coupling of forms in the medium that was made a aila!le !y the ornamentation of sym!ols% E en though different modalities of painting could !e directed to different audiences according to a primarily stratified differentiation of society( this medium esta!lished a common denominator for what could !e e-pected from painting in !oth sides of the social hierarchy( esta!lishing which ariations in painting could !e successful in the central Andes during most of the colonial period% Art participated of a sphere of social reality in which e ery e-perience or action could !e communicated as contingent in the light of transcendence( so that it triggered a search for meaning that was religious proper% Thus a shift in the system of reference of sociocultural e olution has to !e e-pected when comparing the colonial periphery with the European metropolis in this epoch% /n the central Andes( 0modern1 pictures that corresponded to an art that already aimed towards autonomy posed interesting inno ations for a program of ornamentation of sym!ols when pro ing themsel es against a mainly religious and moral representation of the world% What art historical te-ts highlight as moments of artistic glo!alism that set the e olution of colonial art in motion ' such as the wor#s of the /talian mannerist masters 2itti( 34re5 de Alesio and 6edoro( and those of 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 3umacallao ' constituted accidents that didn&t lead to the formation of social structures in the direction of a differentiated system of art% ,owe er( for sociocultural e olution( these were not altogether failed ariations( as they were +uic#ly adopted !y series of parasitic ornamental systems: heteronomous ornamental systems that were !uilt !ased on other systems( the internal operations of which already aimed towards autonomy%

ii

Acknowledgments

/ owe my deepest gratitude to my super isor( 3rof% 8r% rer% soc% 9udolf Stichweh( for his insightful o!ser ations and constant support( and to 8r% 3edro 6orand4( who first introduced me to this area of research% 6any other people ha e helped me gain different perspecti es to the research pro!lem% / want to gi e special than#s to 3rof% 8r% 7ornelia 2ohn( 3rof% 8r% 6artina 6er5( 8r% 8ar:o 9odr:gue5( 8r% Aldo 6ascare;o and 8r% rer% soc% 7hristian 6orgner( and to the researchers and li!rarians at the /!ero-American /nstitute in 2erlin( in special to 8r% 3eter 2irle( 8r% 2ar!ara <=!el and 8r% >at?a 7arrillo Zeiter% / also would li#e to ma#e a special reference to 8r% 7arol 8amian( who sent me copies of #ey documents without which / wouldn&t ha e !een a!le to understand the history of this su!?ect% Of course( the !lame for errors in the analysis )if any* lies with me alone% This dissertation wouldn&t ha e !een possi!le without the emotional support of my wife Ver@nica Wedeles( who accompanied me in this ?ourney into un#nown territories( of my parents( and of my friends in $ucerne( who made us feel at home in a distant land% / am also than#ful for the support / ha e recei ed from my colleagues at the 8epartment of Sociology of the Ani ersidad Al!erto ,urtado% This research was funded !y the programs 2eca 3residente de la 9epB!lica and 2ecas 7hile of the <o ernment of 7hile( which allowed me to settle in $ucerne from CDDE to CDDF( and !y the 3russian 7ultural ,eritage Foundation( that made possi!le a research stay at the /!ero-American /nstitute in 2erlin during the summer of CDDG%

iii

A Vernica y Maite

Table of Contents
/(stract&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&i /cknowledg#ents&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&ii 0ntroduction&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1 1& -egional traditions of art in the 'eri'her2 of an e#erging world societ2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&13 1&1 0ntroduction to the histor2 of 'ainting in viceregal central /ndes&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1+ 1&1&1 0##igrant #asters4 i#'orted i#ages&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)* 1&1&) 5estizo 'aintings&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)) 1&1&6 Decline of the !usco school of 'ainting&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)3 1&1&3 7he #odernist hecato#( and the creole cos#o'olitans&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&61 1&) 7he centralit2 of the social conte8t of colonial 'ainting in historical narrations and the need for a s2ste#atic review&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&63 1&6 7he art s2ste# of societ2 in the work of 9iklas Luh#ann&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&3: 1&3 /rt in a world societ2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&;3 1&; /rt and orna#ent$ social s2ste#4 'arasitic orna#ental s2ste#s and s2#(olization&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&:6 1&;&1 <rna#ent as #ere decoration and as unif2ing 'rinci'le&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&:3 1&;&) <rna#ental art and 'arasitic orna#ental s2ste#s&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&:% 1&;&6 <rna#ent and s2#(olic art&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&%1 1&: Sociological reconstruction of art histor2$ #ethodological considerations&&&&&&&&=* )& !olonial 'aintings in the central /ndes seen through the for# of orna#ental art&&&&+* )&1 5estizo architecture as conte8t for the histor2 of 'ainting&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+* )&1&1 5estizo architecture as innovative orna#entation of archaic structures&&&&&+1 )&1&) For#al disintegration and the influence of 're-contact indigenous traditions &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&+; )&1&6 /rtistic centers4 'rovinces and 'eri'heries&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1*1 )&) >h2 didn?t native artisans learn to 'aint like Euro'eans and 'roduced orna#ental art instead"@ 1+)* A 1+3*"&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1*: )&)&1 Feli'e !ossBo del ,o#ar&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&11* )&)&) 5ariano ,icCn Salas&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&11= )&)&6 Luis Dlvarez UrEuieta&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1)1 )&)&3 5iguel SolF&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1); )&)&; Guan 5anuel ,eHa ,rado&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1)+ )&)&: Ianding over histor2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&161 )&6 0s orna#ental art the 'roduct of cultural s2ncretis# or isolation@ 1+3* A 1+:*" &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&136 )&6&1 Dngel Juido&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&136 )&6&) EnriEue 5arco Dorta&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&13= )&6&6 -icardo 5ariFtegui <liva&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1;1 )&6&3 5artin Se(astian Soria&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1;6 )&6&; Feli'e !ossBo del ,o#ar and the 'o'ularization of art histor2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1;=

)&3 !oda$ GosK de 5esa4 7eresa Jis(ert and Francisco Stastn2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1:3 6& GosK de 5esa and 7eresa Jis(ert$ 0ndians in colonial artworlds&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1:: 6&1 ,o'ular i#ages for an interregional #arket&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1:+ 6&) /utochthonous sensi(ilities&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1%= 6&)&1 Iow an institutional conflict led to differences in st2le&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1=) 6&)&1&1 St2listic conseEuences of the conflict in the guild of 'ainters of !usco &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1=: 6&)&1&) -acial conflict in the guild of 'ainters of !usco&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&1+: 6&)&) 7races in iconogra'h2 &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)*+ 6&)&)&1 / #ilitia of archangels&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)1) 6&)&)&) St& 5ar2 in the sacred landsca'e&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)1; 6&)&)&6 7he /ntisu2u as ,aradise&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&))) 6&6 /dorned with all 'ossi(le decenc2$ the role of the (isho' of !usco4 5anuel de 5ollinedo 2 /ngulo&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&))% 3& Francisco Stastn2$ the #edievalization of art&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)63 3&1 0#'orted art and its #edievalization&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)6% 3&) ,rints as strategies of inclusion&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)36 3&6 5anneris# and the 0talian #asters in the /ndes&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)3= 3&6&1 Iigh 5aniera and !ounter-5aniera&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&);* 3&6&) 7he use of art for religious illustration and 'ro'aganda in the central /ndes &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&);3 3&3 7he for# of evolution in colonial 'eri'heries&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&);% 3&3&1 7he orna#entation of s2#(ols in the colonial 'eri'her2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&):= 3&; /rtistic and social archais# in a world societ2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)%6 0#ages&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)%= .i(liogra'h2&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+%

Introduction

Art historical te-ts pu!lished since the third decade of the twentieth century depict the history of painting in the region of the central Andes in western South America from the second half of the si-teenth century to the end of the eighteenth century as a fascinating case of emergence( apogee and decline of an influential regional tradition in the en ironment of European art% This is foremost the case of the 7usco school of painting( which had ma?or influence o er other centers of artistic production( from Iuito to Santiago de 7hile% The period that goes from the differentiation of this local school in the last decades of the se enteenth century to the decline of its regional influence towards the end of the eighteenth century is commonly descri!ed in such te-ts as ha ing ta#en place !etween two epochs in which the production of paintings in the central Andean region( then centered on the 7iudad de los 9eyes )$ima*( was seemingly attuned to the e olution of art in Europe: European criteria of artistic e aluation are seen to ha e !een adopted( e en if they were not entirely fulfilled in particular cases% 2etween these phases of artistic glo!alism( the Andean schools of painting are descri!ed as leading a process of pro incial regression ' in words of Francisco Stastny H ' from which a
H Francisco Stastny( 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana(1 Letras( no% GE )HFJJ*: KE%

regional form of painting emerged that turned its !ac# on the European history of art%

This research reconstructs this history from the point of iew of the theory of social systems put forward !y "i#las $uhmann% Assuming this author&s central insight regarding the o!ser ation of art as a social phenomenon ' namely( that art is a form of communication inasmuch as it triggers a search for meaning that is used as a !asis for further communications or !eha iors )artistic or otherwise* C ' this research attempts to answer the +uestion: ,ow did paintings trigger a search for meaning in this region of western South America from the second half of the si-teenth century to the eighteenth century and what societal conditions made this form of communication pro!a!le.

Following $uhmann&s theory of sociocultural e olution( this sociological reconstruction of art history emphasi5es the mechanisms that steer e olution as a recursi e process( in the light of which the e ents that attract the attention of art historical analyses ' including artistic communications as historical e ents ' are reconstructed as accidents( in the sense that they are a source of ariation for a system that has yet to determine their structural alue% K /n this theoretical conte-t(
C K "i#las $uhmann( Art as a Social System( trans% E a 6% >nodt( 7rossing Aesthetics )Stanford: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( CDDD*( CL% "i#las $uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte(1 in Soziologische Aufklrung( ol% C( Cnd ed% )Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGC*( HMD-HEFN "i#las $uhmann( 0<eschichte als 3ro5eO und die Theorie so5io-#ultureller E olution(1 in Soziologische Aufklrung( ol% K( Hst ed% )Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGH*( HJG-FJN 9udolph Stichweh( 0Systemtheorie und <eschichte(1 in Soziologische Theorie und Geschichte( ed% Fran# Wel5 and Awe Weisen!acher )OpladenN Wies!aden: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFFG*( EG-JFN Fran# 2us#otte( Resonanzen fr Geschichte !iklas Luhmanns Systemtheorie aus geschichts"issenschaftlicher #ers$ekti%e )2erlin: $it( CDDE*( EM-JC%

the distinction !etween European art and other forms of art in its en ironment ' a distinction that fuels this art historical tradition '( can !e translated in terms of the distinction !etween ornamental art forms and art as a social system% This second distinction implies a shift in the system of reference that guides sociocultural e olution from the le el of society to that of its functional su!systems%

This step assumes "i#las $uhmann&s distinction !etween two interrelated concepts of ornamentation% An operati e concept distinguishes ornamentation from the figurati e )representati e or illusory* elements of wor#s of art% 7orrespondingly( it o!ser es ornamentation as the recursi e operation with forms that organi5es the mediums of time and space or their dou!ling within imaginary worlds%L This #ind of operation is for $uhmann &'''the smallest unit in the artistic $rocess()* one that is shared !y arts of all #inds% /n distinction to this operati e concept( a functional one distinguishes ornamentation from the artwor#s& composition( structure or form( where artistic !eauty might !e achie ed% Assuming this second ersion of the concept( an ornamented o!?ect )that is( an o!?ect that is seen to correspond to the operati e concept of ornamentation* would !e classified !y o!ser ers as ornamental art if in their reconstruction of it the social function of art ' which( according to $uhmann( consists on &'''demonstrating the com$elling forces of order in the realm of the $ossi+le) , ' doesn&t ha e preeminence o er any other function%

L M E

$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HCD% /!id%( CCG% /!id%( HLG%

Anli#e o!ser ations !ased solely on the operati e concept of ornamentation( this concept of ornamental art forms corresponds to heteronomous ornamental systems in general% ,owe er( it is not a aila!le as a semantic distinction that might guide the o!ser ation of ornamental systems in situations where art has not !ecome autonomous% As such( it is only applied !y o!ser ers who( ha ing !een trained in the o!ser ation of autonomous art forms( decide that they cannot assume that the o!?ect at hand has !een created &for the sake of +eing o+ser%ed-) . so that it would !e e-pected from them that they let their e-perience !e guided !y this o!?ect&s self-programmed formal com!inations% Assuming that sociocultural e olution has led to the replacement of ornamental art forms !y autonomous ones( $uhmann argued that this category is only applied in retrospecti e% For us( it signals other #inds of art in the en ironment of the social system of art%

This concept of ornamental art has guided the production of art historical narrations a!out the local school of painting that emerged during the 0long eighteenth century1 )c% HEGD ' c% HGDD* in 7usco at least since the third decade of the twentieth century% 2y means of further distinctions( each te-t in this tradition has had to ma#e sense of this form that guides its o!ser ations% One way in which this has !een done ' and the only one that is rele ant for this research ' is !y ma#ing reference to the social conte-t of art% /n this respect( when reading these te-ts we can distinguish !etween erifia!le e ents( narrations and the latent theories or models that gi e them structure% The latter can also !e conceptuali5ed
J /!id%( HHJ%

as the distinctions that guide the formation of structures in historical narrations% Among these( this research is interested in the models that represent the relation !etween colonial art )as an ornamental art form* and society in this region% 6ethodologically( it aims at differentiating the most rele ant of such models( e aluating their claims in the light of current historical and sociological research( and reinterpreting them from the point of iew of the theory of social systems in relation to the aforementioned distinction !etween ornamental art forms and the social system of art%

The most influential of these models was presented !y Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert in the second edition of their /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a- from HFGC%G While the first edition of their study had put emphasis on the formation of an interregional mar#et of religious images during the first half of the eighteenth century(F the second one saw this as a late e ent in a process that had !een triggered !y the separation of the /ndian mem!ers of the painters& guild of 7usco in the last decades of the pre ious century% The main conse+uence of this latter e ent was recogni5ed in the le el of artistic style: according to these authors( the /ndian painters& opportunity to practice this trade without Spanish or 7reole super ision regarding the artistic +ualities of their wor# would e-plain the a!sence of central perspecti e and chiaroscuro and the preference for decorati e alues that characteri5ed the 7usco school of painting% /n this conte-t( a letter from
G F Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( C ols%( Cnd ed% )$ima: Fundaci@n Augusto "% Wiese( 2anco Wiese( HFGC*% Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( Hst ed% )2ueno Aires: /nstituto de Arte Americano e /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFEC*%

HEGG that implied that the /ndian painters had !een allowed to separate themsel es from the guild was interpreted as the !irth certificate of this local artistic tradition%HD Thus( the thesis de eloped !y these authors recogni5es in the /ndian painters& separation from the guild a necessary cause of the emergence of the 7usco school and( !y e-tension( of other local schools in the Andean highlands during the 0long eighteenth century%1

Almost thirty years later( the thesis presented !y Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert is still highly influential( specially for wor#s of synthesis and diffusion% ,owe er( despite its sustained influence( this thesis has only rarely !een confronted against empirical e idence% /n this research / attempt to shed new light on this matter !y critically assessing 6esa and <is!ert&s argumentation% 2ased mainly on an analysis of the sources used !y these authors and on Francisco Iuiro5&s research on the situation of guilds in colonial $ima( HH / argue that( whereas the /ndian mem!ers of the painters& guild of 7usco might effecti ely ha e separated themsel es from this organi5ation around HEGG( the historical narration constructed !y 6esa and <is!ert around this fact may ha e o erestimated the capacity of this guild to enforce( !efore this e ent( the o!ser ance of ordinances that are supposed to !e identical to the ones appro ed for the painters& guild of $ima in HELF% /n conse+uence( / thin# it is a mista#e to understand this e ent as a cause of the Andean traditions of painting and( specially( of the 7usco school%
HD This letter was pu!lished in: ,oracio Villanue a Arteaga( 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura(1 8olet9n del Archi%o :e$artamental del 0uzco H )HFGM*: HH-HK% HH Francisco Iuiro5( Gremios- razas y li+ertad de industria Lima colonial )$ima: Facultad de 7iencias Sociales( Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( HFFM*%

/nstead of loo#ing at this e ent in terms of a cause of stylistic e olution( we can as# for the social system that made it pro!a!le% /n this manner( an alternati e model can !e constructed that o!ser es this conflict in the painters& guild as ?ust another symptom of a more encompassing social conte-t( in the same le el as ariations in painterly style%

6esa and <is!ert&s e-planatory model is !ased on a typology that doesn&t seem to correspond to the social reality of the iceregal central Andes( as far as it assumes the guild to !e an effecti e administrator of artistic e-pertise( understood the latter as the e aluation of art according to differentiated artistic criteria% We can o!ser e that such criteria may ha e !een implied in the e-aminations that were contemplated !y the ordinances of the painters& guild of $ima( which are assumed !y the authors& model to !e alid for 7usco% These e-aminations were focused on the correct use of coloration( on the achie ement of anatomical plausi!ility and on the construction of perspecti e% The criteria of correctness here implied may correspond to a conte-t in which art has !egun to differentiate itself as a social systemN that is( to a situation in which the e aluation of artistic communications has !een made dependent on the application of criteria that are only rele ant to art% This form of o!ser ing art necessarily puts the wor# in +uestion in the conte-t of an artistic tradition% ,owe er( as it has !een pointed out( / argue that we shouldn&t assume that the guild of 7usco would ha e enforced the o!ser ance of such ordinances !efore the HEGDs%

2ased on the typology put forward !y Francisco Stastny( HC we can o!ser e that the guild&s role as administrator of artistic e-pertise is e-traneous to colonial peripheries( where the production and appreciation of art doesn&t ta#e into account the difference that the wor# in +uestion ma#es in relation to an artistic tradition% 8uring the early formation of the main structures of world society( only in artistic centers was ariation directed !y a differentiated memoryN that is( !y a 0history of art%1 /n peripheries( local artists and audiences did not re?ect old accomplishments in fa or of newer ones( nor did they comprehend their wor# as esta!lishing a dialogue with the first% A different modality of artistic e olution too# place in the peripheries( where stimuli from di erse centers could !e integrated with solutions that had !ecome o!solete according to metropolitan e-perts ' a situation that characteri5es artistic production in the colonial central Andes according to se eral authors% According to Stastny( in colonial peripheries )as distinguished from peripheries in general*( artistic inno ation could also !e triggered !y the cultural di ersity that results from the con+uest of non-western ci ili5ations or cultures%

Adapting Stastny&s refle-ions to the conte-t pro ided !y the distinction !etween ornamental art forms and a social system of art( / suggest that art worlds in colonial central Andes corresponded to a situation in which the e olution of art wasn&t guided !y a differentiated artistic memory% There( the function of guilds and academies as administrators of e-pertise was therefore mostly irrele ant% Artistic
HC Francisco Stastny( 0Arte colonial(1 in 4l arte en el #er; o+ras en la coleccin del Museo de Arte de Lima )$ima: 6useo de Arte de $ima( CDDH*( GK-HCE%

institutions such as the guild seem to ha e !een coupled to the operations of more differentiated social systems( such as politics and religion( where complementary roles had !een esta!lished% Thus far they seem to correspond to "i#las $uhmann&s typification of occupational and economic organi5ations in societal systems where religion has assumed the representation of the unity of societyN that is( in complesocieties that ha en&t undergone a differentiation !ased on the operations of functional su!systems%HK /n this conte-t( ariations ' including artistic inno ations ' would ha e had to pro e themsel es against a primarily religious representation of the world instead of relying on differentiated criteria%HL

/ propose that( in such a societal conte-t( painting constituted itself as communication through the tight coupling of forms in the medium that was made a aila!le !y the ornamentation of sym!ols% This step re+uires us to introduce( in relation to the concept of ornamental art forms( the distinction !etween sign and sym!ol as it was adopted !y Pulia >riste a HM and "i#las $uhmann%HE /n this respect( / propose we distinguish !etween le els of signification% On a first le el( an art that is primarily sym!olic ma#es present in the immanent world the transcendental o!?ect it represents% This o!?ects& meaning is not constructed each time again through formal com!inations( as it occurs with signs according to Pulia >riste a&s conceptuali5ation% /t is pro ided !y tradition( so that the sym!ol is anchored in its
HK $uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte(1 HML% HL /!id%( HMC% HM Pulia >riste a( Le te<te du roman' A$$roche s=miologi1ue d>une structure discursi%e transformationnelle )The ,ague( 3aris( "ew Qor#: 6outon 3u!lishers( HFJF*( CM-KM% HE $uhmann( Art as a Social System( HEJ-JGN "i#las $uhmann( 0Sign as Form(1 in #ro+lems of ?orm( ed% 8ir# 2aec#er( trans% 6ichael /rmscher and $eah Edwards )7alifornia: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( HFFF*( LE-EK%

HD

gi en shape% On a second le el that highlights the immanent conditioning of this hierophany( ornament !ecomes decoration( for it has to !e distinguished from the sym!ol in its gi en form% Ornamental relationships can still esta!lish a dense networ#( the meaning of which ' understood as the achie ement of order ' would only !e apprehended as a result of formal decisions that ha e to deal with strong conte-tual limitations% Thus( sym!olic art can only !e considered ornamental art inasmuch as sym!ols allow and call for supplementary ornamentation%

Within such conte-tual limitations( which are esta!lished !y the sym!ol&s gi en form( a secondary medium for ornamentation is created% At first( this medium could !e e-ploited to further support religious communications% Thus( in the colonial central Andes one o!ser es that rich ornamentation was seen as ha ing some effect on the efficacy of sym!olic images% /n this manner( art participates of a sphere of social reality in which e ery e-perience or action can !e communicated as contingent in the light of transcendence( so that it triggers a search for meaning that is religious proper%HJ Still( as 2a-andall o!ser ed in reference to the /talian Iuattrocento(HG this medium allowed for the de elopment of ornamentation !eyond religious criteria% When this alternati e is actuali5ed( the distinction !etween material su!stratum and prototype that corresponds to the religious sym!ol gi es way to the distinction !etween fit and lac# of fit that corresponds to
HJ "i#las $uhmann( 0Ausdifferen5ierung der 9eligion(1 in Gesellschaftstruktur und Semantik' Studien zur @issenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft ( ol% K )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGF*( CMF-KMJN "i#las $uhmann( :ie Religion der Gesellschaft )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( CDDD*% HG 6ichael 2a-andall( #ainting and 4<$erience in ?ifteenthA0entury Btaly( Cnd ed% )O-ford: O-ford Ani ersity 3ress( HFGG*%

HH

the operations of ornamentation that constitute the smallest unit in the artistic process% /n ,ans 2elting&s terms( the aura of the sacred is replaced !y the aura of art%HF

,owe er( the medium made a aila!le !y the ornamentation of sym!ols esta!lished which ariations in painting could !e successful in the central Andes during most of the colonial period% E en though different modalities of painting could !e directed to different audiences according to a primarily stratified differentiation of society( this medium esta!lished a common denominator for what was possi!le to e-pect from painting in !oth sides% This medium could !e used for the tight-coupling of forms that show di erging le els of autonomy or ornamental self-programming: from 0mere decoration1 to pieces that esta!lish different le els of communication: one that corresponds to the sym!ol in its gi en form and the other where the e-ploration of a differentiated medium for art can !e underta#en( e-posing in this manner the whole piece to re?ection if the artificiality of art attracts too much attention( to the point that it o ershadows the sym!ols they are meant to support( as Victor /% Stoichita has o!ser ed regarding the pro!lems faced !y some of 9u!ens& wor#s%CD

This situation made pro!a!le the consolidation of a special case of ornamental art that characteri5es the production of the 7usco school% An o!ser er might recogni5e
HF ,ans 2elting( 8ild und Cult eine Geschichte des 8ildes %or dem Deitalter der Cunst )6Rnchen: 7% ,% 2ec#( HFFD*% CD Victor /% Stoichita has analy5ed this pro!lem in connection to some wor#s !y 9u!ens: Victor /% Stoichita( La in%encin del cuadro' Arte- art9fices y artificios en los or9genes de la $intura euro$ea ( trans% Anna 6aria 7oderch( 7ultura Art:stica )2arcelona: Ediciones del Ser!al( CDDD*( JE ff%

HC

that a heteronomous ornamental system uses another ornamental system as medium% 9eplacing Francisco Stastny&s concept of re-archai5ation( CH / propose we call 0parasitic ornamental systems1 those cases in which( while the host is assumed !y another o!ser er to ha e !een created with a history of art in mind( the same o!ser er decides that the same assumption cannot !e made in reference to the parasite% Thus( the parasite is seen to ha e transformed its host into ornamental art% This characteri5ation can !e applied to the 7usco school( where pictures that are assumed to ha e underta#en an at least incipient e-ploration of a differentiated medium for art were adopted as point of departure for the creation of mostly religious ornamental art%

/n this societal conte-t( what art historical te-ts highlight as moments of artistic glo!alism that set the e olution of colonial art in motion ' such as the wor#s of the /talian mannerist masters and those of 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 3umacallao ' are interpreted as accidents that didn&t lead to structure formation in the direction of a differentiated system of art% ,owe er( for sociocultural e olution( these were not altogether failed ariations( as they were +uic#ly adopted !y series of parasitic ornamental systems% The critical point is that a shift in the system of reference of sociocultural e olution has to !e e-pected when comparing the colonial periphery with the European metropolis in this epoch% /n the central Andes( such 0modern1 pictures that correspond to an art that already aims towards autonomy posed
CH Francisco Stastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 in La $resencia de la modernidad art9stica euro$ea en Am=rica( ed% <usta o 7uriel 64nde5( 9enato <on5Sle5 6ello( and Puana <uti4rre5 ,aces( ol% K )presented at the Arte( historia e identidad en Am4rica : TV/ 7olo+uio /nternacional de ,istoria del Arte( 64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( /nstituto de /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFFL*( FKF-FML%

HK

interesting inno ations for a program of ornamentation of sym!ols when pro ing themsel es against a mainly religious and moral representation of the world%

This situation came to and end towards the last decades of the eighteenth century% /n this respect( / propose that what has !een o!ser ed as 0a modernist hecatom!1CC amounts to the o!ser ation of the wor#s of the Andean local schools according to the form of ornamental art and to their corresponding de aluation in the face of modernity% Ornamental art would ha e !ecome isi!le as such for the first time in this region% /n those conte-ts in which it was no longer meaningful to #eep these paintings as sym!ols or as decorations of sym!ols( they could !e replaced with ones that responded to an artistic program of ornamentation% This doesn&t mean that other #inds of art wouldn&t ha e sur i ed in the latter&s en ironment( !ut that they would ha e continued to !e reproduced in conte-ts where artistic communication wasn&t e-pected: specially among the peasant populations that remained e-cluded from the operations of the functional systems and in other functional realms( li#e religion( science and tourism%

CC 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CH%

HL

1.

Regional traditions of art in the periphery of an emerging world society

As part of a societal system that is continually actuali5ed in interactions all o er the Earth( the art system of society has regionally di ersified its mode of ariation% "oUl 7arroll has clearly descri!ed this situation as a new phase of artistic glo!alism: &'''it does no" seem to +e the case that the %arious national and regional centers of serious or am+itious fine art are +eginning to +e fashioned into a single "orld E a unified- transnational institution of art') 5F The situation of non-Western artists has changed dramatically in this conte-t% /nstead of triggering ariations in the history of art from its outside( they ha e found themsel es( &'''incor$orated into 4uro$ean art narrati%es or artistic canons') 5G /t is not that criteria for inclusion ha e changed so that what was once seen as an outsider is now included in art% Ta#e the cu!ist interest on "egro art as an e-ample: one could e-plore primiti ism when searching for morphological models or for a renewed understanding of semantic constructions( !ut one would a oid +een primiti e%CM E en today( fol#lore is e-cluded from the transnational institution in which the art world has !ecomeN
CK "oUl 7arroll( 0Art and <lo!ali5ation: Then and "ow(1 Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism EM( no% H )CDDJ*: HKG% CL /!id%( HKJ% CM Q e-Alain 2ois and >atharine Streip( 0>ahnweiler&s $esson(1 Re$resentations( no% HG )Spring HFGJ*: KK-EGN 9o!ert P% <oldwater( #rimiti%ism in Modern #ainting )"ew Qor# and $ondon: ,arper V 2rothers 3u!lishers( HFKG*N 3atricia $eighten( 0The White 3eril and $&Art nWgre: 3icasso( 3rimiti ism( and Anticolonialism(1 The Art 8ulletin JC( no% L )8ecem!er HFFD*: EDFEKDN Arthur 7oleman 8anto( 0Outsider Art(1 in The Madonna of the ?uture )Ani ersity of 7alifornia 3ress( CDDH*( CLC-CLF%

HM

"oUl 7arroll does indeed limit his diagnosis to centers of what he calls 0serious or am!itious fine art(1 e en if it is not +uite clear in his te-t how one may operate with this distinction% What is crucial here is that wor#s of art from regions that were once thought of as mere sources of fol#lore and nai ety can today !e e-pected to !e included under the same criteria as wor#s of art from the main centers of the art world%CE /n this sense we can affirm that we are in presence of an unprecedented regional dispersion of artistic no elty: a fundamental change in the form of artistic e olution that corresponds to the emergence of a world society%

These o!ser ations are rele ant for a theory of social systems such as the one initiated !y "i#las $uhmann( that descri!es art as an autopoietic su!system of a functionally differentiated world society% Iuite understanda!ly( gi en that his main interest lay on reconstructing the history of modernity as a peculiar form of societal differentiation and e olution that had its origin in Europe( the analyses of art underta#en !y $uhmann were centered on the historical differentiation of the fine arts as a self-e ol ing system in this region% CJ To !e certain( the concept of 0fine art1 IschJne CunstK doesn&t appear often in $uhmann&s te-ts on this su!?ect% 6ore often( he would use concepts such as &Cunst)&Cunstsystem)-

CE Pames 6eyer et al%( 0<lo!al Tendencies: <lo!alism and the $arge-Scale E-hi!ition(1 Art ?orum Bnternational )CDDK*: HMC-HEKN <erardo 6os+uera( 0<ood-!ye identidad( welcome diferencia: del arte $atinoamericano al arte desde Am4rica $atina(1 in Arte en Am=rica Latina y 0ultura Glo+al )Santiago de 7hile: Facultad de Artes Ani ersidad de 7hile( $O6 Ediciones( CDDC*( HCKHKJ% CJ $uhmann systemati5ed his reflections on art in :ie Cunst der Gesellschaft )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( HFFM*% This te-t was translated to English !y E a 6% >nodt and pu!lished as Art as a Social System% /n the following /&ll !e referring to this translation% Other te-ts !y $uhmann on art were recently edited in a single olume !y "iels Wer!er under the title Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( ed% "iels Wer!er )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG*%

HE

&Communikationssystem Cunst) or &Sozialsystem Cunst)' /n a rele ant pu!lication from HFGE( he was conceptually more precise !y ma#ing reference to art in terms of &'''das soziale System des /erstellens und 4rle+ens %on Cunst"erken ICunstsystemK')5L ,owe er( in the same te-t we find a reference to this system as the system of 0the fine arts1( a concept that !elongs rather to the self-description of art: &4ine gesellschaftliche Ausdifferenzierung der schJnen Cunst zu einem Sozialsystem mit eigener ?unktionsautonomie''') 5M The use of this term ma#es it more clear where the frontier should !e drawn that demarcates the social domain that "i#las $uhmann was trying to gi e account of: 0the high arts of the West1 or 0the Western( 9enaissance-deri ed notion of art(1 as Perrold $e inson has called it%KD /n this conte-t( $uhmann o!ser ed that )western high* art is not only the product of the sociocultural e olution of the societal system ' for its operations are made possi!le !y the functional differentiation of society '( !ut also the product of its own ta#e off as an e olutionary !ranch in early modern Europe% /n $uhmann&s words( &?or the art system- '''such a take off E "hich differentiates the art system from religion- $olitics- and the economy and initiates an e%olution of irresisti+le structural changes E ha$$ened only once in "orld history- namely- in early modern 4uro$e')F7 ,e understood the 0modernity1 of art as the result of a shift in the primary system of reference of sociocultural e olution% As a result of this process( change in art ceased to !e steered !y mechanisms of ariation( selection and reCG "i#las $uhmann( 08as >unstwer# und die Sel!streprodu#tion der >unst(1 in Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( ed% "iels Wer!er )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG*( HLC% CF "i#las $uhmann( 08ie E olution des >unstsystems(1 in Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( ed% "iels Wer!er )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG*( HGE% KD Perrold $e inson( 0E-tending Art ,istorically(1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism MH( no% K )Summer HFFK*: LHH-LCK% KH $uhmann( Art as a Social System( CKE%

HJ

sta!ili5ation in the le el of society as a system and specified its own mechanisms as a su!system of society%

Qet this description implies that other #inds of art ha e coe-isted with the system of art e er since its differentiation( which are specially rele ant outside Europe% /n this regard( $uhmann passingly mentioned 7hinese painting and /ndian music as cases regarding to which( %%%one cannot spea# of e olution XYZ( nor of structural changes heading toward an e er-increasing impro!a!ility% On the contrary( what impresses us in art forms of this #ind is the constancy of the perfection accomplished% To !e sure( there are de elopments in 7hinese painting that could !e interpreted as e olution - especially the shift from a linear and distinctly ornamental style of contours to a spontaneous style that e-presses the unity of the !rush stro#e and the painterly result% 2ut one can hardly claim that such changes lead to the differentiation of a self-e ol ing art system% 9ather( 7hinese painting is an indication of what #inds of e olutionary opportunities reside in ornamental art formsNKC /n general( non-European and medie al art forms are regarded from this theoretical standpoint as heteronomous or 0functionally unspecific1 KK ornamental traditions whose artistry may only !e identified in retrospecti e% /t should !e #ept in mind that these last o!ser ations !y $uhmann a!out 7hinese painting and /ndian music were done ?ust passingly ' in a footnote[ /ndeed( the category of

KC /!id%( note JG in chapter E% KK <erhard 3lumpe( 0Systemtheorie und $iteraturgeschichte% 6it Anmer#ungen 5um deutschen 9ealismus im HF% Pahrhundert(1 in 4$ochensch"ellen und 4$ochenstrukturen im :iskurs der LiteraturA und S$rachhistorie )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGM*( CMH-CEL%

HG

ornamental art used in this passage is not tightly related to this author&s analysis of the ornament as a !asic operation of art ' 0modern1 or otherwise% KL This pro!lem will !e e-amined in more detail ahead )see chapter H%M*% For the moment( it suffices to point out that these o!ser ations !y $uhmann are concerned with the other side of the history that he was most interested on reconstructing%

A research program that assumes that the functional differentiation of society coincided with its conformation as a world system KM calls for a more compleanalysis of the history of these other #inds of art in relation to the 0catastrophe1 that a change in the main form of societal differentiation entails% KE E-panding on $uhmann&s analysis( these other #inds of art can !e seen as ha ing a history of their own in the en ironment of the system of art% /n this respect( the following reconstruction of the history of painting as it was produced and e-perienced in the South American central Andes from the si-teenth to the eighteenth century( that adopts the standpoint of such a theory of social systems( aims at contri!uting to a !etter understanding of the situation of these different #inds of art during the early formation of a world societal system%

KL $uhmann( Art as a Social System( HHM( HCD( CHE( CCJ% KM "i#las $uhmann( 0<lo!ali5ation or World Society: ,ow to 7oncei e of 6odern Society.(1 Bnternational Re%ie" of Sociology A Re%ue Bnternationale de Sociologie J( no% H )HFFJ*: EJ-JFN "i#las $uhmann( 08ie Weltgesellschaft(1 in Soziologische Aufklrung( ol% C( Cnd ed% )Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGC*( MH-JHN 9udolph Stichweh( :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD*% KE A catastrophe is understood as a change in the form of sta!ility of a system% /n the case of social systems( this form is the system&s primary form of differentiation% "i#las $uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( HFFJ*( EMM( note HDK%

HF

1.1 Introduction to the history of painting in viceregal central Andes

The history of painting in the region of the central Andes in western South America from the second half of the si-teenth century to the end of the eighteenth century presents a fascinating case of emergence( apogee and decline of an influential regional tradition in the en ironment of European art% This is foremost the case of the 7usco school of painting( which played a ma?or influence on other centers of artistic production( from Iuito to Santiago( 7hile% The period that goes from the differentiation of this local school in the last decades of the se enteenth century to the decline of its regional influence towards the end of the eighteenth century is commonly descri!ed in art historical te-ts as ha ing ta#en place !etween two epochs in which the production of paintings in the central Andean region( then centered on the 7ity of the >ings )$ima*( was seemingly attuned to the e olution of art in Europe: European criteria of artistic e aluation are seen to ha e !een adopted( e en if they were not entirely fulfilled in particular cases% 2y following this topic( this section presents a !rief introduction to the history of painting in this region during the iceregal period that will ser e as a !ac#ground for a sociological reconstruction of the models that ha e guided its comprehension in relation to its social conte-t%

CD

1.1.1

Immigrant masters, imported images

From the last +uarter of the si-teenth century to the first half of the se enteenth century( the production of paintings in this Andean region was dominated !y the influence of three /talian painters that are depicted as ha ing set the e aluati e standards for generations to come: 2ernardo 2itti )HMLG-HEHD* )/mage C on page CGD*( 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio )HMLJ-c%HEHE* and Angelino 6edoro )HMEJ-HEKK*% The constant migration of these painters and of their apprentices across the region may ha e helped to achie e an important stylistic homogeni5ation( which played against the differentiation of local schools%KJ The glo!alist character of this early phase has !een clearly underlined !y Porge 2ernales 2allesteros: %%%la etapa del manierismo de los maestros italianos signific@ la incorporaci@n de aut4nticas f@rmulas pict@ricas de similar aceptaci@n contemporSnea en las capitales mSs importantes de Europa% 3or esos a;os( en torno a HMFD( $ima pudo tener pinturas como las +ue se efectua!an en 9oma( Am!eres y Se illa( de las +ue esta!an muy le?os de tener capitales como $ondres o Viena% KG X%%%the mannerist stage of the /talian masters signified the adoption of authentic pictorial formulas that were similarly accepted at the time in the most important capitals of Europe% 8uring those years around HMFD( $ima could ha e paintings li#e the ones that were !een produced in 9ome( Am!ers and Se ille( which could not !e found in capitals li#e $ondon or Vienna%Z

KJ 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( JDN Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0El Arte del Siglo TV/ en 3erB y 2oli ia(1 in Arte i+eroamericano desde la colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( ol% H( Cnd ed%( Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte )6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM*( KHG f% KG Porge 2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( JD%

CH

The influence of these /talian masters was later on complemented !y an increase in the num!er of imported paintings% Francisco de Zur!arSn played an important role in this respect !y sending to $ima at least four large shipments with paintings from his wor#shop in Se ille%KF 2ased on their rare su!?ect matter and on their low price and +uality( some authors ha e suggested that these paintings may ha e !een specially produced for the American mar#ets%LD 8uring the second half of the se enteenth century( !esides massi e importation of images !y secondary Se illian painters(LH there was a small mar#et for wor#s produced in the wor#shops of renowned painters such as 2artolom4 Este!an 6urillo( LC Puan de Vald4s $eal(LK and 3eter 3aul 9u!ens%LL Foremost( there was a mar#et for prints that pro ided iconographic sources for local wor#shops%LM
KF 2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato1N 74sar 3acheco V4le5( 0Zur!arSn en $ima(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CEM-CGHN Puan 6iguel Serrera( 0Zur!arSn y Am4rica(1 in Dur+arNn )6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG*( EK-GL% LD Q es 2ottineau( 0A atares 7r:ticos de Francisco de Zur!arSn: 9efle-iones e /nterrogaciones(1 in Dur+arNn )6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG*( LEN Ponathan 2rown( 06ecena5go y 3iedad: El Arte 9eligioso de Zur!arSn(1 in Dur+arNn )6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG*( KDN 8uncan >in#ead( 0The $ast Se illian 3eriod of Francisco de Zur!arSn(1 Art 8ulletin EM( no% C )Pune HFGK*: KDG% LH 8uncan >in#ead( 0Puan de $u5@n and Se illian 3ainting Trade with the "ew World in the Second ,alf of the Se enteenth 7entury(1 Art 8ulletin EE( no% C )Pune HFGL*: KDK-KHD% LC 2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato%1 LK Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0Seis cuadros in4ditos de Vald4s $eal en $ima(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% HJ )HFEM*: JL-JGN 8uncan >in#ead( 0Vida de San /gnacio de $oyola por Vald4s $eal(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CGK-KDH% LL Puan 6anuel Agarte El4spuru( 0$os 9u!ens de la Orden Terciaria Franciscana de $ima(1 in #inacoteca de la Venera+le Orden Tercera de San ?rancisco de Lima )$ima: 7asa de Osam!ela( HFGE*( HH-LEN Puan 6anuel Agarte El4spuru( 09u!ens en la 3inacoteca Franciscana(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CKF-CEKN Francisco Stastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial(1 Re%ista #eruana de 0ultura( no% L )HFEM*: M-KM% LM This topic has !een treated e-tensi ely in the speciali5ed literature% A data!ase of the correspondences !etween engra ings and Spanish colonial art is currently !eing de eloped !y the 3ro?ect on the Engra ed Sources of Spanish 7olonial Art )3ESS7A*( which is a aila!le at: http:\\artecolonial%org% For a re iew of this matter( see: Francisco Stastny( 0El <ra!ado 7omo Fuente del Arte 7olonial: Estado de la 7uesti@n(1 #roPect on the 4ngra%ed Sources of S$anish Art ( CDDF( http:\\colonialart%org\essays\el-gra!ado-como-fuente-del-arte-colonial-estado-de-lacuestion%

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1.1.2

Mesti o paintings

After a series of earth+ua#es seriously damaged the city of 7usco in HEMD( the main center of artistic production shifted from the 7ity of the >ings to this city that had hosted the imperial core of the /nca empire until the first +uarter of the si-teenth century%LE /n this setting( in the words of Francisco Stastny( painting in $ima appears to ha e e-perienced a 0pro incial regression1 LJ ' one that mar#s the emergence of a regional style that turned its !ac# on the European history of art )/mage H on page CGD*%

At least since the third decade of the twentieth century it has !een possi!le to use the concept of mestizaPe to indicate the distinction !etween this regional tradition and European art' A good e-ample is offered !y a te-t pu!lished !y ]ngel <uido in HFLC( according to which this tradition of painting( &'''la mestiza- en su gran $arte annima- constituye $ara nosotros la mNs interesante $roduccin cuz1ue2a y digna de ocu$ar un ca$9tulo mNs en la historia de la $intura uni%ersal') GL 3'''the mestizamostly anonymous- is for us the most interesting $roduction of 0usco one that is "orthy of occu$ying a cha$ter of its o"n in the uni%ersal history of $ainting'6 The concept of mesti5a?e underlines the fact that Andean painters made e-tensi e use of European pictorial techni+ues ' such as procedures for color preparationLF '
LE Teresa <is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( C ols%( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( FF-HLK% LJ Stastny( 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana(1 KE% LG ]ngel <uido( 0Estimati a moderna de la pintura colonial(1 in Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte( Krd ed% )2uenos Aires: El Ateneo( HFLL*( CGE% LF Alicia 6% Seldes( 0A "ote on the 3igments and 6edia in Some Spanish 7olonial 3aintings from Argentina(1 Studies in 0onser%ation KF( no% L )"o em!er HFFL*: CJC-CJEN Alicia 6% Seldes et al%( 02lue 3igments in South American 3ainting )HEHD-HJGD*(1 Hournal of the American Bnstitute for

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and iconographic sourcesMD !ut didn&t produce images that could !e su!sumed to any contemporary European style% Thus( it is not so much that the region !ecame isolated from European artistic influences( !ut that the form of this influence seems to ha e changed( so that a regional tradition emerged that !ecame alien to it%

Adopting "oUl 7arroll&s scheme( MH one would say that this regional tradition !ecame one that could only ha e constituted a source of e-ternal influence for European art% For the moment we shall not deal with how this distinction is traced when ma#ing reference to actual paintings% /t will suffice to o!ser e its adoption as an operati e semantic% A clear distinction !etween these two #inds of art can !e found already in a te-t written in HJGG !y /gnacio de 7astro( rector of the 7olegio 9eal de San 2ernardo in 7usco: ,ay tam!i4n especial inclinaci@n Xde parte de los /ndiosZ a la 3intura y Escultura( y un reciente ingl4s( cuya o!ra en orden a la Am4rica se nos ha dado poco ha( ertida en italiano( asegura +ue los cuadros del 7u5co han merecido alguna e5 aprecio en /talia% "o se puede negar +ue estos pintores tu ieron algBn fuego( imaginati a( y tal cual gustoN pero ignoran enteramente todo lo +ue es instrucci@n relati a a este Arte( no sa!en enno!lecer a la naturale5a( ni hacen la esfera de sus pinceles( sino las /mSgenes Sagradas en +ue reluce mSs la imitaci@n +ue la in enci@nNMC
0onser%ation- KG( no% C )Summer HFFF*: HDD-HCKN Alicia 6% Seldes et al%( 0<reen( Qellow( and 9ed 3igments in South American 3ainting( HEHD-HJGD(1 Hournal of the American Bnstitute for 0onser%ation- LH( no% K )Autumn - Winter CDDC*: CCM-CLC% MD 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HDE-HDN Stastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial%1 See footnote LM% MH 7arroll( 0Art and <lo!ali5ation: Then and "ow%1 MC /gnacio de 7astro( Relacin de la fundacin de la Real Audiencia del 0uzco 7.LL y de las fiestas 1ue esta grande y fidel9sima ciudad cele+r este a2o A 4scr9+ela el :r' :on Bgnacio de 0astro

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X%%%X/ndiansZ also had a notorious inclination for painting and sculpting% 9ecently( an Englishman whose wor# a!out America we ha e ?ust !een a!le to read in an /talian translation( has affirmed that paintings from 7u5co ha e once deser ed appreciation in /taly% /t cannot !e denied that these painters had some fire( imagination( and e en tasteN !ut they thoroughly ignore any instruction related to this Art( they don&t #now how to enno!le nature( nor can they draw the sphere with their pencils% They rather create Sacred /mages where imitation is more notorious than in ention%Z "oUl 7arroll&s scheme results illuminating in this conte-t% On the one side( there is the assertion that paintings from 7usco were alued !y a European audience% The reference to /taly( that may !e considered one of the most rele ant cradles of modern painting( and to an e-ternal source ' an English o!ser er '( may ha e !een included in this conte-t ?ust to underline this point% On the other side( important emphasis is put on the fact that these paintings were not alued according to the same criteria as images done according to 0the Art of painting1 ' a pro!lem that could ha e !een a oided( it seems( through proper instruction% This distinction is de eloped through a second one: 7usco paintings are not meant to enno!le nature through in%ention( these are sacred images that imitate other images%

1.1.!

"ecline of the Cusco school of painting

Towards the end of the eighteenth century( a!out the same time when /gnacio de 7astro( rector of the 7olegio 9eal de San 2ernardo in 7usco( wrote this account(

Rector del 0olegio Real de San 8ernardo''' )6adrid: Se!astiSn de la 3ali5a( cura propio de 7opora+ue( HJFM*( MM%

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this regional school of painting was e-periencing an irre ersi!le decline% MK /n the nineteenth century( the old mestizo images from the colonial period had to !e distinguished from the images that were done !y contemporary painters in the highlands% The memoirs pu!lished !y two French tra elers gi e us a clear representation of the situation of painters in 7usco in the first half of the nineteenth century% Also( the distinctions that these authors use gi e us alua!le information regarding how these paintings could !e understood from a European perspecti e%

9ecounting his tra el through 3eru and 2oli ia in the HGKDs( ^tienne <il!ert EugWne( comte de Sartiges( wrote that the paintings that decorated the interior of churches in 7usco weren&t as !rilliant as the colors and the gilding that were used to paint and frame them: $es ta!leau- ne !rillent +ue par l_4clat de leurs couleurs et de leur dorure: ils sont pour la plupart sortis de l&ancienne 4cole royale de peinture( o` le gou ernement de la m4tropole entretenait ?adis un certain nom!re de ?eunes /ndiens( che5 les+uels on a ait reconnu des disposition pour le dessin% /l a sans dire +ue de cette 4cole il n&e-iste plus +ue le nom( et +ue les seuls peintres du 7usco sont des !ar!ouilleurs indiens +ui ous endent pour +uel+ues piastres( les portraits 4rita!les des di- incas de la dynastie de 6anco 7apac( copie certifi4e authenti+ue et d&aprWs nature[ML Sartiges& claim( that most of the images that he encountered in churches in 7usco
MK 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CHG% ML E% S% $a andais( 0Voyage dans les r4pu!li+ues de l&Am4ri+ue du sud(1 Re%ue des :eu< Mondes( HGMH( http:\\fr%wi#isource%org\wi#i\Voyageadansalesarb7KbAFpu!li+uesadeal bECbGDbFFAmb7KbAFri+ueaduasud%

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were done !y artists trained in a royal school of painting( has not !een corro!orated !y contemporary historical research% To my #nowledge( the last te-t to mention the e-istence of an organi5ation in iceregal 7usco that could !e descri!ed as a school of painting was Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado&s 4nsayos de Arte Virreinal- pu!lished in $ima in HFKG% E er since( the concept of school has !een reser ed to ma#e reference to the tradition of painting that is seen to !e characteristic of this region%%

6ore rele ant for our present conte-t is Sartiges& clear distinction !etween the paintings that he found in the inside of colonial churches in 7usco and the /nca series that some 0/ndian dau!ers1 seem to ha e offered him for a few coins: not only the 0royal school of painting(1 !ut also ' and more importantly ' the tradition that generated these ornamental paintings had not sur i ed into the nineteenth century%MM For Sartiges( the ornamental elements of 7us+ue;o paintings from the eighteenth century o erweighted their artistic alue% Another passage of his

memoirs( this time dedicated to a description of the churches and con ents that he isited in Are+uipa( further ela!orated on idea% A!o e e ery altar( he noted( there was a reta+lo%%%un troph4e de colonnes du tra ail le plus lourd et le plus tortill4( le tout entremcl4 de saints en !ois ou en pierre in4 ita!lement dor4s% "ulle part l&on
MM 2y failing to note this ma?or difference !etween a school as an organi5ation )which seems to !e what Sartiges meant* and as a local tradition( the translation offered !y Teresa <is!ert ris#s ascri!ing Sartiges a discourse that isn&t his% According to her translation( Sartiges would ha e written( 04s demNs decir 1ue esta escuela Ila cuz1ue2aK no e<iste mNs 1ue de nom+re- y 1ue los ;nicos $intores del 0uzco son em+adurnadores indios') )<is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HKK% Emphasis is mine*%

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n&a pouss4 aussi loin la manie des dorures et des paillettes% $a ro!e de saint $uc est !rod4e d&or N saint 6atthieu( a ec sa !ar!e pointue( son chapeau sur l&oreille et son pourpoint de elours rouge( est 4galement cou ert d&4toiles d&or du haut en !as N dans l&4glise des P4suites( on oit une adoration des mages dans la+uelle la crWche( l&dne et la paille sont 4galement dor4s%ME /t is +uite clear that( for Sartiges( the use of gold as a pigment in painting was outmoded% And reasona!ly so: according to 6ichael 2a-andall( the use of precious pigments had !een replaced !y the demonstration of pictorial s#ill as the primary criterion for the e aluation of paintings in /taly already in the second half of the fifteenth century%MJ According to Al!erti&s treatise On $ainting- &'''to re$resent the glitter of gold "ith $lain colours +rings the craftsman more admiration and $raise') *L Sartiges& insistence in noting how generali5ed the &manie des dorures) was in Are+uipa may gi e us an idea of the profound difference that he drew !etween himself and the outmoded peoples of the Andes%

Also much to his disappointment( Sartiges couldn&t find in these churches and con ents paintings from the Spanish school: &Au milieu de cette e<$ositionP>es$=rais retrou%er 1uel1ues ta+leau< de l>=cole es$agnole ( mais Pe n>ai %u 1ue des images $eintes- dont la $rinci$ale fa+ri1ue =tait Padis dans la %ille de 0usco'& *M ,e could only find paintings from 7usco( a city that was also affected !y the &manie des dorures'),Q Sartiges seems to ha e !een e-pecting another #ind of pictorial
ME MJ MG MF ED $a andais( 0Voyage dans les r4pu!li+ues de l&Am4ri+ue du sud%1 2a-andall( #ainting and 4<$erience in ?ifteenthA0entury Btaly( HL% As +uoted in /!id%( HE% $a andais( 0Voyage dans les r4pu!li+ues de l&Am4ri+ue du sud%1 See footnote ML%

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dependence in the American iceroyalties ' one in which the metropolitan models were more clearly recogni5a!le%

/n the chronicles of the French tra eler $aurent Saint-7ric+ )pu!lished under the name 3aul 6arcoy* ' who tra eled e-tensi ely through 7hile( 3eru( 2oli ia and 2ra5il pro!a!ly !etween HGKG and HGLEEH ' we learn that !y mid-nineteenth century the situation of painters in 7usco had !ecome critical: ?ust two or three painters were left in the city ' Sartiges& 0/ndian dau!ers(1 we could suppose '( whose !usiness consisted on sporadically selling series of religious images to dealers and conductores de tro$as' Saint-7ric+ offers a description of the wor#shop of one of these /ndian painters: %%%el suelo desaparec:a !a?o una capa de desperdicios de legum!res( +ue se disputa!an gallinas y cuyes% An perro de espina5o saliente dorm:a al lado del artistaN un gato negro sin cola y sin ore?as( seme?ante a un :dolo ?apon4s( ronronea!a so!re su hom!ro mientras 4l pinta!a( acosado por los insultos de su mu?er( india retaca y mofletuda( a la +ue una erisipela ha!:a enro?ecido la cara( y +ue le lan5a!a in ecti as por cual+uier cosa mientras hac:a her ir su marmitaNEC X%%%the floor disappeared !elow a layer of waste the chic#ens and the guinea pigs fought for% A s#inny dog slept !y the artistN a !lac# cat with no tail and no ears( that loo#ed li#e a Papanese idol( purred on his el!ow while he painted( pestered
EH P%-3% 7haumeil( 0An ia?ero sin prisa a mediados del siglo T/T% $aurent Saint-7ric+ )3aul 6arcoy*(1 in ViaPe a tra%=s de Am=rica del Sur :el oc=ano #ac9fico al oc=ano AtlNntico ( trans% Edgardo 9i era 6art:ne5( ol% H )$ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( 2anco 7entral de 9eser a del 3erB( 7entro Ama5@nico de Antropolog:a Aplicada( CDDH*( HM-LE% EC 3aul 6arcoy( ViaPe a tra%=s de Am=rica del Sur del Oc=ano #ac9fico al Oc=ano AtlNntico ( trans% Edgardo 9i era 6art:ne5( ol% H )$ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( 2anco 7entral de 9eser a del 3erB( 7entro Ama5@nico de Antropolog:a Aplicada( CDDH*( LDK%

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!y his woman: a chu!!y-chee#ed /ndian( whose face had !een turned red !y the erysipelas( and who insulted him for anything while she !roiled something in her pan%Z /n the illustration that accompanies Saint-7ric+&s description )/mage K on page CGH*( religious images hang from the walls of a hum!le wor#shop ' pro!a!ly paintings offered to the passing clients( or may!e engra ings and drawings that could !e used as iconographic sources for the production of imitati%e sacred images( as /gnacio de 7astro had written half a century !efore%

Saint-7ric+&s opinion regarding these paintings was remar#a!ly consistent with /gnacio de 7astro&s( e en though his academic e-pectations were more accentuated: ,a!lar de los pintores de hoy Xen 7uscoZ de anatom:a y de osteolog:a( de estudios segBn el yeso( las figuras sin piel o el modelo i iente( de perspecti a lineal o a4rea( ser:a para ellos un lengua?e incomprensi!le y e-ponerse a reci!ir de su parte una mala acogida% Esta falta a!soluta de las primeras nociones del arte les eda toda creaci@n original y los o!liga a recurrir a los lien5os e-istentes para tomar all: las diferentes partes con las +ue forman un todoN EK XTal#ing with today&s painters Xfrom 7uscoZ a!out anatomy or osteology( a!out studies !ased on plaster( s#in-less figures or li e models( a!out lineal or aerial perspecti e( would !e for them an incomprehensi!le language% We would thus e-pose oursel es to their re?ection% This a!solute lac# of the most !asic notions of the art !loc#s them e ery possi!ility for original creation and forces them to recur to old can ases( where they find the parts with which to form the whole%Z
EK /!id%( H:KFF%

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The distinction in ention\imitation has here !een clarified !y using the distinction original\copy% According to these authors( originality can only !e achie ed !y underta#ing academic studies% For Saint-7ric+( lac#ing an academy( the few painters left in 7usco could only compose their paintings !y putting together the elements they too# from older images%

2y the first half of the nineteenth century( the tradition of religious images that had conformed the 7usco school had come to an end% As Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert o!ser ed more than a hundred years after Saint-7ric+( $a pintura( pro!a!lemente en manos de maestros indios( llega a una simplificaci@n casi infantil( produciendo pie5as e-presionistas de e-traordinaria calidad% Es el fin de la pintura religiosa irreinal( regalada a los pue!los indios( en tanto +ue las ciudades repu!licanas traen pintores afrancesados para llenar sus necesidades est4ticasNEL X3ainting( pro!a!ly in hands of /ndian masters( achie ed an almost childish simplification( producing e-pressionist pieces of e-traordinary +uality% /t is the end of iceregal religious painting( which was passed down to /ndian towns% 6eanwhile( repu!lican cities !rought in Frenchified painters to fulfill their aesthetic needs%Z At the same time that this mesti5o tradition from the highlands decayed( and after a !rief 9ococo period that had !een fa ored only !y the highest spheres of iceregal authorities(EM the elite clientWle( specially in the city of $ima( turned towards French neoclassical academicism%
EL 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HFD f% EM 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CH%

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1.1.#

The modernist hecatomb and the creole cosmopolitans

This latter de elopment( which predates the declaration of political independence of South American States( has !een descri!ed as a modernist hecatom!( for it replaced the old colonial pieces with ones that pretended to follow a more clean( rational and less ornamental style% EE This implied a heightened interest on drawing and on academic formation in general(EJ as we ha e seen in testimonies !y /gnacio de 7astro and $aurent Saint-7ric+%

An academy of drawing for the /ndian population of the pro ince of 6o?os( 2oli ia( was founded in the town of San 3edro in HJFD%EG ,is director( the painter 6anuel de O+uendo( successfully instructed his students in the copy of prints !y Anni!ali 7arraci and 7harles $e 2run% /n HGDL( these institutions had !een founded in almost e ery town in this pro ince% /n the same spirit( the Se illian painter Pos4 del 3o5o is said to ha e founded an academy of drawing and painting in $ima in HJFH%EF /n HGHD( the iceroy A!ascal founded another academy of painting in $ima that was run !y Pa ier 7ort4s( from Iuito%JD

This situation implied a completely different relation !etween local painters and the European worlds of art% From HGKG to HGMD( A!ascal&s academy was directed
EE /!id%( CH f% EJ 2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato(1 EL% EG Pos4 6% 6arilu5 Ar+ui?o( 0$as Escuelas de 8i!u?o y 3intura de 6o?os y 7hi+uitos(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas F )HFME*: KJ-MHN Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 06anuel de O+uendo y la pintura en 6o?os(1 Signo M )HFMG*: EG-JK% EF The historical account of Francisco del 3o5o&s academy is treated in more detail on pages HKM ff% JD Francisco Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana )$ima: Editorial Ani erso( HFEJ*( MD%

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!y the 3eru ian painter /gnacio 6erino 6u;o5( who had completed his artistic formation in 3aris% /n HGMM( /gnacio 6erino and Francisco $aso de los 9:os ' a former student of 6erino at the academy( who had also completed his studies in 3aris ' represented 3eru at the fine arts section of the 4<$osition Rni%erselle in 3aris% 9egarding their participation( 7laude Vignon wrote that( 66% $aso et 6erino( +ui repr4sentent le 34rou e l&E-position uni erselle( ont en oy4 tous deu- des portraits remar+ua!les% 7eu- de 6% $aso X The Bnha+itant of the 0ordillera of #eru )/mage L on page CGH* and #ortrait of Gonzalo #izarroOne of the Most ?amous 0on1uerors of #eru- 8rother of ?rancisco #izarro Z sont d&une ferment4 et d&une igueur d&e-4cution +ui frappent e premiWre ue et promettent pur l&a enir% Outre un portrait et un 4pisode de la ie de 7hristophe 7olom!( 6% 6erino e-pose une /alt d>Bndiens #=ru%iens +ui est d&un asse5 !on aspect% 6% 6erino cherche des effets e la <oya( et arri e au moins e le faire oir N mais son ta!leau est trop som!re( c&est-e-dire +ue l&heure e la+uelle 6% 6erino place sa /alte n&est pas asse5 franchement indi+u4eN ainsi son ciel annonce une heure asse5 a anc4e de la soir4e( tandis +ue ses personnages( encore 4clair4es( feraient croire seulement au d4clin du ?our%JH /n Vignon&s account we can see not only the internationalist orientation of these painters& wor#( !ut also that these were o!ser ed as pieces of +eau<Aarts' We certainly can no longer refer to these images as corresponding to a form of art that is e-ternal to Western fine arts% They correspond to the new cosmopolitan situation of art and art criticism% As EugWne $audun wrote: &'''the s$irit of uni%ersality "hich tends to efface distinct characters and to melt a"ay all nuances in

JH 7laude Vignon( 4<$osition Rni%erselle de 7L**' 8eau<AArts )3aris: $i!rairie d&Auguste Fontaine( HGMM*( HHH f%

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a yet undecided ensem+le3(6 these are the ne" conditions for criticism and for art') .5 ,owe er( one shouldn&t !e so enthusiastic% 9eadings li#e these may ha e !een an e-ception% As "atalia 6a?luf o!ser ed( these paintings !y the 7reolle cosmopolitans were more commonly alued for their capacity to represent a cultural difference: &Bn their search for difference- critics looked not at the $aintings on e<hi+it +ut at the distant lands they could +e made to re$resent' Bf the signs of the e<otic had to +e sought some"here outside the $ictorial frame- it "as +ecause the $aintings themsel%es "ere found to +e de%oid of significance').F This same search for a cultural difference would undou!tedly ha e !een satisfied with pictures+ue drawings( pre-,ispanic o!?ects and colonial paintings( specially those mar#ed as proceeding from the eighteenth-century school of 7usco% 2ut the conte-t in which this distinction was made( and( therefore( its meaning( had radically changed% / would ad enture saying that the o!ser ation of the paintings presented !y the creole cosmopolitans raises the +uestion of the differentiation of centers and peripheries in a world system of art( and not that of the presence of paintings in the en ironment of this system anymore% The social processes that lay !ehind this profound difference in the manner in which these paintings could !e o!ser ed will !e the su!?ect matter of the following pages% Strategically( they will attempt to de elop a synthesis of the a aila!le literature on this su!?ect from a sociological iewpoint%

JC EugWne $audun( 4<$osition uni%erselle des +eau<Aarts Le Salon de 7L** )3aris( HGMM*( HC% Translated !y: "atalia 6a?luf( 0f7e n&est pas le 3erou(f or( the Failure of Authenticity: 6arginal 7osmopolitans at the 3aris Ani ersal E-hi!ition of HGMM(1 0ritical Bn1uiry CK( no% L )Summer HFFJ*: GJL% JK /!id%( GGL%

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1.2 The centrality of the social context of colonial painting in historical narrations and the need for a systematic review

/t is no surprise that the social conte-t of art has occupied a central position in historical accounts of colonial paintings from the central Andes% A primarily formal history of styles could !e attempted only until it !ecame e ident that these images showed no concern with the historicity of styles% As Francisco Stastny wrote( %%%los artistas irreinales tienden con e-tra;a facilidad a ol er al preciosismo manierista de los inicios o( inclusi e( a soluciones +ue recuerdan lengua?es art:sticos de 4pocas de considera!le mayor antigRedad%%% +uien o!ser e el panorama desde el lado de Europa tendrS la impresi@n de estar mirando el arte occidental en un espe?o +ue lo distorsiona% JL X%%% iceregal artists tend with great facility to return to the mannerist preciosity of the !eginnings or e en to solutions that remind us of considera!ly older artistic languagesY those who o!ser e this landscape from the European side will get the impression of !eing loo#ing at western art through a distorting mirror%Z /n the ,ispanic iceroyalties in America( artistic styles could not !e distinguished from each other according to the same categories that were assumed !y histories of European art% One could( as Porge 2ernales and 9am@n 6u?ica ' among se eral other authors ' ha e proposed( adopt the concept of !aro+ue when ma#ing
JL Stastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FKF% This is a highly consensual o!ser ation% See also: Puan 6anuel Agarte El4spuru( 0/ntroducci@n a la 3intura Virreinal(1 in #intura Virreinal( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( HFJK*( CC-KN $eopoldo 7astedo( 0El arte colonial(1 in /istoria del Arte B+eroamericano( ol% H )6adrid: Alian5a Editorial( HFGG*( CDJN 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CC-CLN 9o!erto Samane5 Argumedo( 0$as portadas reta!lo en el !arroco cus+ue;o(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( HGC%

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reference to the artistic traditions of the eighteenth century in this region( !ut then only with the condition that one didn&t imply a set of formal characteristics that these paintings would ha e shared with !aro+ue paintings from other regions% Whereas Porge 2ernales argued in fa or of a concept of !aro+ue in the conte-t of a history of mentalities(JM 9am@n 6u?ica understood the !aro+ue as an epoch in which no style e-cluded another( for each de iation would ha e !een em!raced as popular e-pressions within &'''a uni%ersal /a$s+urg order')JE "either did Francisco Stastny refer to the formal aspects of a style when noting the <othic character of local schools of painting in this region% According to him( these were <othic in their de otional( sentimental and idealistic +ualities% JJ /n all these cases( concepts of style ha e !een replaced !y ones that ma#e reference to non-artistic phenomena% /n their te-ts one o!ser es that( lac#ing what seems to ha e !een e-perienced as a sense of cumulati e directionality that could !e pro ided !y a history of styles in reference to the European arts(JG a representation of the unity of art history in the central Andes was loo#ed for in non-artistic domains% JF This left open the +uestion
JM Porge 2ernales 2allesteros( /istoria del Arte /is$anoamericano( ol% C( Hst ed% )6adrid: Editorial Alham!ra( HFGJ*( G% JE 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CJ% JJ Stastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FML% For another ersion of this argument( see: Francisco Stastny( S9ntomas Medie%ales en el S8arroco AmericanoS( 8ocumentos de tra!a?o EK )$ima: /nstituto de Estudios 3eruanos( HFFL*( CM( http:\\www%iep%org%pe\te-tos\88T\ddtEK%pdf% JG This is of course a de!ata!le matter( and so did most authors understand it% As it can !e seen in Stastny&s o!ser ation a!o e )footnote JL*( this assertion fulfilled a merely argumentati e function in these authors& te-ts( inasmuch as it pro ided a countere-ample of what they intended to descri!e% A passage !y 9am@n 6u?ica may illustrate this: &Si en el arte euro$eo ya es $ro+lemNtico definir los l9mites 1ue fiPan el inicio y el final del !arroco( en los reinos del #er; los estilos no e%olucionan de unos a otros- ni se suceden cronolgicamente- ni una tendencia estil9stica necesariamente se im$one o anula a las demNs') 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CC% JF The historians& representation of the unity of historical processes in narrati es is clearest in 7hris $oren5&s presentation of the narrati e e-planatory model of historical hermeneutics: &4s ist seine Aufga+e Xof the historianZ- in einer 4rzhlung einen Dusammenhang E einen TGesamtzusammenhang& A z"ischen einer Menge ?akten herzustellen und so ein 2ild dessen zu

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regarding how to represent the unity of the historical process that was !eing constructed !y historical research on colonial painting in the central Andes( or in other words( how to construct a unified narration of it%

Stylistic analyses of colonial paintings could not !e systemati5ed in histories that pro ided directionality to this process unless one too# other conte-ts into consideration or attempted other analytical strategies% At least since HFCC( with the pu!lication of Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar&s doctoral dissertation 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co(1 one can find te-ts that complement structural and stylistic analyses of colonial images with hypotheses regarding the influence that the psychological( racial and social conte-ts had on them% The formal analysis remained howe er the main concern of histories of colonial painting during the first half of the century%

At first one sought for a representation of the unity of history in the indi idual process of learning: after the Spanish con+uest( Amerindian craftsmen had to !e trained in the European art of painting( and this re+uired time ' a fact that could e-plain the difference !etween their paintings and their European models during the first decades of the colonial period% /n this conte-t( the concept of mesti5a?e could !e used to e-plain the distincti e features of local paintings during the last
schaffen- T"ie es eigentlich ge"esen ist&') )7hris $oren5( Construktion der Vergangenheit 4ine 4infhrung in die Geschichtstheorie( 2eitrgge 5ur <eschichts#ultur HK )>=ln Weimar Wien: 2=hlau Verlag( HFFJ*( HCG%* For a refle-ion on this matter from the point of iew of the theory of social systems( see: "i#las $uhmann( 08as 3ro!lem der Epochen!ildung und die E olutionstheorie(1 in 4$ochensch"ellen und 4$ochenstrukturen im :iskurs der LBteraturA und S$rachhistorie( ed% ,ans-Alrich <um!recht and Arsula $in#-,eer )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGM*( HH-CF%

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two iceregal centuries% 2y doing so( historical narrations were grounded on racial distinctions: mesti5os ' persons of mi-ed /ndian and Spanish ancestry GD ' could ser e as a sym!ol of a difference that was o!ser ed in the domains of art%GH

This was still an interesting option in the HFLDs and HFMDs( as writings !y ]ngel <uido and Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar demonstrate% GC At the same time( an alternati e was pro ided !y the distinction !etween artistic centers and their pro inces( as it can !e found in te-ts !y Enri+ue 6arco 8orta and 6artin Se!astian Soria% GK /nstead of loo#ing at cultures and races( one analy5ed the situation of the media of diffusion of artistic inno ations: great distances implied stylistic and

iconographical noise and chronological distortions% 3ro incial artistic forms could !e understood as echoes of metropolitan in entions% This latter framewor#
GD Since the second half of the si-teenth century( the term mestizo signaled a person of mi-ed /ndian and Spanish ancestry% As Pean-Pac+ues 8ecoster o!ser es( from the !eginning the term had negati e moral connotations that identified the mesti5o population with notions of illegitimacy and wea#ness% 7orrespondingly( they were mostly e-cluded from the ecclesiastical hierarchy )Pean-Pac+ues 8ecoster( 0$a sangre +ue mancha: la /glesia colonial temprana frente a indios( mesti5os e ileg:timos(1 in Bncas e indios cristianos elites ind9genas e identidades cristianas en los Andes coloniales )7u5co: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( CDDC*( CME%*% They were also in a ulnera!le legal situation( for they were not under the ?urisdiction of the &$rotector de naturales-) who was responsi!le for representing the interests of the /ndian communities !efore the 9eal Audiencia in $ima )Pos4 de la 3uente( 0"otas so!re la Audiencia de $ima y la fprotecci@n de los naturalesf )siglo TV//*(1 in #asseursmediadores culturales y agentes de la $rimera glo+alizacin en el Mundo B+=rico- siglos UVB A UBU ( ed% Scarlett O&3helan <odoy and 7armen Sala5ar-Soler )presented at the 7ongreso internacional $as 7uatro 3artes del 6undo en $ima en agosto de CDDC( $ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDM*( CLG%*% 2y e-tension( the concept has !een applied to cultural forms that are seen as resulting from the contact !etween European and /ndian cultures% GH This paradigm is discussed in chapter C%C% GC ]ngel <uido( Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte( Hst ed%( Serie 7onferencias y Te-tos HE )Santa F4: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFLD*N Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar( Arte del #er; 0olonial )64-ico - 2uenos Aires: Fondo de 7ultura Econ@mica( HFMG*% GK Enri+ue 6arco 8orta( 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia(1 in /istoria del Arte /is$anoamericano( ol% C( K ols% )2arcelona( 6adrid( 2uenos Aires( 9io de Paneiro: Sal at Editores( HFMD*( LLK-LFLN 6artin S% Soria( La $intura del siglo UVB en Sudam=rica )2uenos Aires: /nstituto de Arte Americano e /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFME*N 6artin S% Soria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HC )HFMF*: CL-KL% These alternati es will !e discussed in chapter C%K%

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pro ided what appeared to !e a general law that could su!sume the American arts as mere cases that were compara!le to other pro incial e-pressions% And( as long as this general law wasn&t e-plicitly formulated( analy5ed and critici5ed( it ga e space for meticulous iconographical analyses that compared sources and outcomes% At the same time( this law made it unnecessary to complement the results of these analyses with an iconological one( as it was suggested !y 3anofs#y%GL Since it seemed not to re+uire one to ma#e as much assumptions regarding the influence of other aria!les in art )!e them cultural( psychological( social or racial in nature* as the theories of mesti5a?e did( the center\periphery paradigm ga e art history a scientific aura as it had ne er en?oyed in this field of research%GM

,owe er( while one could match images with their pro!a!le sources and outline the tra?ectory of indi idual motifs( one still could not gi e account of the 0pro incial echoes1 in their historical specificity% A footnote in a te-t pu!lished !y 6artin Se!astian Soria in HFMF pro ides a remar#a!le e-ample of this pro!lem: 9asgo t:pico de la pintura del Alto 3erB y del 7u5co( es la inclusi@n de pS?aros en el cielo y de plantas en perfil a lo largo de la colina% 7omo los pS?aros generalmente no e-isten en los modelos europeos y se a;aden en el Antisuyu de!en ha!er tenido significado especial( +ui5Ss mSgico para los ind:genas% 8e!o
GL Erwin 3anofs#y( 0/#onographie und /#onologie(1 in Bkonogra$hie V Bkonologie 8ildinter$retation nach dem :reistufenmodell( trans% Wilhelm ,=c# )>=ln: 8u6ont( CDDE*( KKMF% GM /n an e-tremely rare e ent( the methodological distinctions that guided the application of this paradigm were presented in an a!stract form !y Francisco Stastny in HFEM% /nterestingly( he ma#es no reference to the center\periphery distinction that guided his own empirical analyses in an early stage% These are re iewed in chapter L !elow% Francisco Stastny( 4stilo y moti%os en el estudio iconogrNfico ensayo en la metodolog9a de la historia del arte ( $etras JC-JK( HFEM%

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al 3rofesor <eorge >u!ler la o!ser aci@n de +ue los pS?aros a!undan en la poes:a y la mBsica incaica y colonial% hSerSn almas o esp:ritus del cielo. GE XA typical trait of paintings from Alto 3eru and 7u5co is the inclusion of !irds in the s#y and of plants in the foothills% Since generally there are no !irds in the European models and they are added in the Antisuyu( they could ha e had some special meaning( may!e a magical meaning( for the /ndians% / owe 3rofessor <eorge >u!ler the o!ser ation that !irds a!ound in /nca and colonial poetry and music% 7ould they !e souls or spirits from hea en.Z This +uestion surpassed the limits of the center\periphery paradigm% /n the second half of the HFEDs( a solution was found in the integration of the center\periphery paradigm with that of mesti5a?e% At first( this re+uired to translate a tradition of thought into empirically erifia!le arguments regarding the influence of e-ternal aria!les in art% Thus( e en when +uestions of art historical method had to !e considered( there was a re i al of the central hypotheses that had !een put forward since the third decade of the century% Authors li#e Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( who were specially interested in !uilding a !ridge !etween these two paradigms( adopted during these years a more s#eptical tone when dealing with the influence of Amerindian cultures in colonial architecture and painting% The same holds true for te-ts pu!lished !y Francisco Stastny( who was e en more s#eptical regarding such influences and remained closer to the center\periphery paradigm throughout the HFEDs and HFJDs%

This was the situation of research a!out the history of painting in the central
GE Soria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 KD f%

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Andes in the iceregal period when the Social ,istories of Art e-perienced a re i al% These research programs still aimed at reconstructing the range of meaning that artwor#s had in their conte-t of origin ' as one reads in ,elena W% $epo it5&s article in the Encyclopedia of Social ,istory% GJ ,owe er( after HFEG( the determination of art )and of art history itself* !y its social conte-t !ecame the primary focus of much research( and not merely an e-cursus that aimed at complementing the analysis of artwor#s%GG

7orrespondingly( an increased emphasis on the social conte-t of paintings in the colonial central Andes too# place during the HFJDs% As a result( in HFGC( Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert offered a synthesis of art historical research on the school of 7usco that pro ided a unified narration of the emergence of this local tradition% This synthesis was e-plicitly grounded on an analysis of the institutions that determined the production of art%GF As their !oo# !ecame the main point of reference for su!se+uent pu!lications( their thesis regarding the direct effects that the di ision of the guild of painters of 7usco !etween Spanish and /ndian mem!ers around HEGG had on the differentiation of the 7usco school of painting has !ecome commonplace: free from the super ision of the Spanish painters who used the guild&s ordinances to impose their aesthetic canon( the /ndian painters were free to
GJ ,elena Waddy $epo it5( 0Art(1 in 4ncyclo$edia of Social /istory( ed% 3eter "% Stearns( <arland 9eference $i!rary of Social Science JGD )"ew Qor# and $ondon: <arland 3u!lishing( HFFL*( MLM% GG "or!ert Schneider( 0>unst und <esellschaft: 8er so5ialgeschichtliche Ansat5(1 in Cunstgeshichte 4ine 4infhrung( ed% ,ans 2elting et al%( Jth ed% )2erlin: 8ietrich 9eimer Verlag( CDDG*( CEJ-CFEN Ponathan ,arris( The !e" Art /istory A critical introduction )$ondon and "ew Qor#: 9outledge( CDDH*% GF 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56% Their argument will !e discussed in detail in chapter K%C%

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create a style that responded to their own sensi!ility and world- iew while continuing to use European techni+ues and iconographic sources% According to a 0strong1 ersion of this thesis( this style( that corresponds to the 7usco school of painting( would ha e increasingly responded to primiti e and pre-,ispanic canons% $et me +uote the passage in which 6esa and <is!ert e-pose their theory ' in a 0wea#1 ersion that does not mention the sur i al of pre-,ispanic canons ' with greatest clarity: $a ra5@n Xde la diferenciaci@n de un estilo regional en 7usco a finales del siglo diecisieteZ es o! iaN hasta entonces los lineamientos generales de la tendencia est4tica ha!:an sido dados por los espa;oles y en el caso de los pintores indios como Iuispe Tito y Santa 7ru5( 4stos segu:an formas europeas( el primero lo flamenco y el segundo la escuela madrile;aN a partir de entonces los pintores indios e-ploraron un camino propio( si !ien siguen la copia de gra!ados y usan procedimientos t4cnicos aprendidos de Europa( su tendencia est4tica estS li!rada a su criterio y 4sta se empie5a a desarrollar en forma independiente( acercSndose cada e5 mSs a una creaci@n no occidental( como se puede ?u5gar por los resultados del siglo TV///( +ue es el tiempo de auge de la pintura local propiamente dichaNFD XThere is an o! ious reason Xfor the differentiation of a regional style in 7usco at the end of the se enteenth centuryZN until then( the general aesthetic guidelines had !een esta!lished !y the Spaniards% /n the case of /ndian painters li#e Iuispe Tito and Santa 7ru5( they had followed European formsN from Flanders and 6adrid( respecti ely% Since then( the /ndian painters e-plored their own way% E en though they continued to copy engra ings and to use European technical procedures( their aesthetic tendency was li!erated to its own criteria and !egins to de elop independently( getting closer and closer to a non-western
FD /!id%( HKG%

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creation( as one can see in wor#s from the eighteenth century( when the pea# of this local form of painting too# place%Z Ta#en in its fundamental form( 6esa and <is!ert&s model poses no inno ation% Elements from the center\periphery and the mesti5o paradigms ha e !een !lended into a unified narration% When doing so( they ha e adopted lines of argumentation that go !ac# to the HFCDs% ,owe er( what made their ersion so uni+uely con incing was its grounding in original empirical documentation% The #ey piece of e idence was a document from HEGG( in which we learn that such a di ision of the guild had pro!a!ly ta#en place in recent years% ,owe er( as / will argue e-tensi ely in chapter K%C%H( / thin# that this document&s alue as a proof of 6esa and <is!ert&s theory has !een o erestimated%

Adopting 6esa and <is!ert&s theory at least partially( other authors ha e continued to e-plore the social determinations of colonial paintings in the central Andes% When o!ser ing images in their conte-t( the concept of function has gained centrality%FH Already in an article !y 6ariano 3ic@n Salas( pu!lished in HFKH( we find a clear statement that the function of these images wasn&t art% FC /n recent decades( se eral authors ha e e-plored in more detail these images& definition as a function of other societal realms( such as religion and politics% Thus( according to /sa!el 7ru5( colonial images in this region were constructed according to a program of arte sacra that anticipated a heightened sym!olic e-perience of the
FH 9egarding the history of the concept of function and its use in the o!ser ation of artwor#s in their conte-t( see: ,ans 2elting( 08as Wer# im >onte-t(1 in Cunstgeshichte 4ine 4infhrung( ed% ,ans 2elting et al%( Jth ed% )2erlin: 8ietrich 9eimer Verlag( CDDG*( CCF-CLE% FC 6ariano 3ic@n Salas( 0El medie alismo en la pintura colonial(1 Sur( /n ierno HFKH%

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world( characteristic of indigenous cultures in the Andes%FK These reflections ha e more recently !een complemented !y 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla&s analyses of the operation of colonial paintings as sym!ols ' mar#s that ma#e present within the immanent world the transcendental realm they represent ' and as allegories% FL

Finally( a more am!itious e-planatory effort that ta#es into account the social conte-t of images in the colonial central Andes has continued to !e attempted !y Francisco Stastny )see chapter L*% Adopting the renowned thesis a!out the hacienda )colonial state* put forward !y 3a!lo 6acera(FM Stastny argued that local artistic inno ation in the highlands resulted from a situation of cultural misunderstanding that responded to the dual structure of colonial society% The hacienda functioned as a lin# !etween the semi-capitalist world economy in which its produce was traded and the semi-feudal economic and political relations that were reproduced !y the local population that wor#ed and li ed within its limits% 2y e-panding this thesis( Stastny argued that images were part of the relations !etween colonial society and its outer en ironment% As such( imported images responded to a societal and cultural reality that wasn&t the one e-perienced !y most of the colonial populations who wor#ed and li ed within the haciendas%
FK /sa!el 7ru5 de AmenS!ar( 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano(1 in Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q )Santiago: Ediciones Ani ersidad 7at@lica de 7hile( HFGE*( HF-HHE% FL 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla( 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica(1 in Santa Rosa de Lima y su Tiem$o( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( HFFF*( MK-CHHN 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano1N 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla( 0El arte y los sermones(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( C ols%( 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CHF-KHKN 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla( 0/dentidades aleg@ricas: lecturas iconogrSficas del !arroco al neoclSsico(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% C( C ols%( 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK*( CMG-KCF% FM 3a!lo 6acera( 0Feudalismo 7olonial Americano: El 7aso de las ,aciendas 3eruanas(1 in Tra+aPos de /istoria )$ima: /nstituto "acional de 7ultura( HFJJ*( HKF-CCJ%

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7orrespondingly( these didn&t ha e the means to comprehend the original meaning of the imported images% Therefore( when local artisans created new images !ased on their reading of these( it led to the differentiation of archaic local schools of painting%FE

For almost a hundred years( the social conte-t of colonial paintings in the central Andes has !een the topic of academic reflection% /n this short account / ha e only mentioned what / see as the main trends in this literature% 2ut in any gi en point( se eral !ranches can !e distinguished% These differentiate themsel es not only in the elements that they recogni5e in the social conte-t of paintings and in the models they !uild( !ut also in the manner in which they relate to the art historical tradition to which they !elong% 6ost te-ts( specially during the first decades of the century( treat this tradition as a common pool of #nowledge that they transmit either to new generations of art historians or to a !roader pu!lic% /n comparison( the HFEDs was an e-ceptional decade in which authors adopted a more critical stance% There was an increase in the le el of comple-ity of the proposed models( which included more detailed iconographical analyses and references to e-ternal documentation% With the few e-ceptions / ha e already mentioned( following Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert&s pu!lications from the first half of the HFGDs( inno ations in this topic ha e !ecome rare% /t is not( howe er( that it has ceased to occupy a central position in art historical te-ts( !ut rather that this theory that depicts the difference !etween the European and the local traditions in the central
FE Stastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial%1

LM

Andes as a result of the di ision of the guild of painters in the final decades of the se enteenth century has !ecome a sort of fact( specially when reproduced !y populari5ing literature )e%g%( e-position catalogs* and adopted !ac# again into research% As a result( alternati es that at least in my opinion are worthy of careful attention ha e passed mostly unnoticed% To o ercome these pro!lems we must ta#e a closer loo# at this still young tradition of research% The models that represent the relation !etween colonial art and society in this region ha e to !e differentiated and their claims ha e to !e e aluated under the light of current #nowledge%

2ased on such a critical re iew( a synthesis of this literature will !e attempted% ,owe er( such a synthesis of the a aila!le literature on the relation !etween a local tradition of painting and its social conte-t that aims not only at restating what has !een pu!lished( !ut at gi ing a unified account( has to !e theoretically dri en% Foremost( it has to adopt a uni+ue and e-plicit point of iew regarding how this relation !etween art and society will !e understood% 7hapters H%K to H%M present the theory of social systems as the point of iew from which a

reconstruction of this art historical tradition will !e attempted% 7hapter H%E will present the methodological framewor# that will guide the sociological reconstruction of this art historical tradition%

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1.3 The art system of society in the work of Niklas uhmann

"i#las $uhmann&s writings o!ser e social systems as self-referential systems that reproduce themsel es ' that is( the distinction !etween systems and en ironment ' through their own operations in the medium of meaning% Their !asal operation is communication( which emerges through the synthesis of three selections in this medium: a selection of an information to !e communicated( a selection of a !eha ior that may con ey that information )utterance*( and a third selection of the difference !etween the first two selections )understanding*( which is &'''o+ser%ede<$ected- understood- and used as the +asis for connecting "ith further +eha%iors')M. This is a self-determining process that continuously and recursi ely couples selfreference )utterance* and e-ternal reference )information*( and e-poses this communicated meaning to acceptance or re?ection% /t presupposes the participation of at least two conscious systems )0ego(1 the addressee( and 0alter(1 the utterer*( whose thoughts and emotions remain in the en ironment of social systems%

That communication is the !asal operation of social systems ' and of no other #ind of system ' implies that art will !e mar#ed as a social phenomenon only if it emerges as communication from the synthesis of information( utterance and understanding% /f not( artwor#s( as part of the en ironment of society( could !e understood from this sociological perspecti ( as mere themes of communications '
FJ $uhmann( Art as a Social System( HLH%

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at most% This is a fundamental point that profoundly distinguishes "i#las $uhmann&s sociology of art from other alternati es: communication through art is possi!le as long as it triggers a search for meaning that is used as a !asis for further communications or !eha iors )artistic or otherwise*( no matter if this search actually arri es at something certain: What matters is that in art( ?ust as in all other types of communication( the difference !etween information and utterance ser es !oth as a starting point and as a lin# for further artistic or er!al communications% 0What&s the point.1 ' that is the +uestion% There may !e no straightforward answer to this +uestion( or answers may ha e changed in the course of history% This is no o!?ectionN rather( it is typical of powerful and significant art% What is at sta#e in art is not a pro!lem to !e sol ed once and for all !ut a pro ocation ' the pro ocation of a search for meaning that is constrained !y the wor# of art without necessarily !eing determined in its resultsNFG Art is therefore not only a theme !ut a type of communication% The pre ious passage insists on a #ey feature of this social medium: that( to function as such( an artwor# must attract attention to its artificiality or ar!itrariness( for only then does the +uestion for social meaning arise% /ts properties must !e a!le to !e o!ser ed as decisions that can !e attri!uted to an 0alter1 who e-pects a search for meaning !y 0ego%1 /n $uhmann&s words( &Once someone Ino matter "hoK recognizesfrom the manner of $resentation- an arrangement that is $roduced for an o+ser%er- a social medium has come into e<istence''') MM The artwor# is attri!uted to the artist understood as an acti e decision-ma#er( and is anticipated !y the audience as
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something it has to e-perience%HDD /n this manner does art ma#e a aila!le a form of communication that can !e understood as a functional e+ui alent to language% /n general( communication through images already posed such an alternati e to linguistic communication: the simultaneous presence of the interrelated elements of images allows communication to circum ent the e-position of communicated meaning to acceptance or re?ection through the yes\no code that characteri5es the use of language%HDH /n the case of artistic communication( howe er( it is not simultaneity which pro ides an alternati e to the customary schema of linguistic acceptance\re?ection of intended meaning% The o!ser ation of an image as art re+uires one to reconstruct its networ# of formal com!inations step !y step% And interpretati e hypotheses ary considera!ly in time% "i#las $uhmann&s analysis of er!al art ma#es it more clear what is here meant: as art( it communicates &'''not through the $ro$ositional content of its utterances- +ut''' +y %irtue of the ornamental structure of mutually limiting references that a$$ear in the form of "ords') 7Q5 The !asic point is that the yes\no code of language is replaced !y the !asal code of art( which distinguishes !etween &'''"hat fits W does not fit under added conditions of high com$le<ity- that is to say- in the face of selfAgenerated difficulties') 7QF / will come !ac# to this%

Once each interaction with )through* art is understood as a social system and( therefore( as an episode of society( the door is open to analy5e the formation of
HDD$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( KMH-M% HDH7ornelia 2ohn( 0Sprache - Schrift - 2ild(1 in Bnklusion- 4<klusion und die #erson )>onstan5: AV>( CDDE*( HJM-CDM% HDC$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CD% HDK/!id%( CM%

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social structures in art% Artistic communications are not merely episodic !ut !uild up a networ# that is !est comprehended in terms of a su!system of a functionally differentiated societal system% Thus( according to "i#las $uhmann( art is not merely em!edded in social structures( !ut actuali5es society !y means of its selfreferential communicati e operations%

2y means of the method of functional comparison( "i#las $uhmann descri!ed art as presenting the same fundamental structures as other functional realms of society%HDL The social function of the art system( which delimits the pro!lem-sol ing realm regarding to which all other systems are considered irrele ant( consists in &'''demonstrating the com$elling forces of order in the realm of the $ossi+le')7Q* Selforgani5ation occurs !oth in the le el of the indi idual artwor#&s self-programming and in the le el of the art system&s autopoiesis( where networ#s of o!ser ations focused on art are esta!lished%

,ans 8ieter ,u!er&s proposal to distinguish !etween three le els of system formation in art( namely wor#s of art( their media and social systems )understood as the differentiation of complementary roles*( misses this fundamental point( for it mista#es the autopoiesis of communication with the loose coupling of elements that characteri5es all media upon which forms are to !e printed% ,u!er
HDL Luh#ann 'resented this #ethod as follows$ ...die Gesellschaftsbedingtheit von Befunden dadurch nachweisen, da und wie sich in vllig verschiedenartigen Funktionsbereichen (Familie und Politik, eligion und !irtschaft, kognitive !issenschaft und imaginative "unst oder normatives echt# dieselben Grundstrukturen nachweisen lassen. $as %rgument lautet dann& solche "oin'iden'en knnen sich nicht 'uf(llig ergeben) sie knnen und m*ssen auf die Form des Gesellschaftss+stems 'ur*ckgef*hrt werden., Luh#ann4 $ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft4 36& HDM$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HLG%

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correspondingly distinguishes !etween communication systems and social systems: $uhmanns 2ehauptung( das >unst ein autopoietisches System ist( das auf >ommuni#ation !asiert und nur aus >ommuni#ation !esteht( ist e!enfalls richtig% "ur !eschrei!t seine Theorie #ein so5iales System( sondern ist eine Theorie der 6ediensysteme% Wenn man da on spricht( dass >unst ein >ommuni#ationssystem ist( dann spricht man nicht on einem so5ialen System( sondern on einem >ommuni#ationssystemNHDE /n this regard / assume "i#las $uhmann&s central insight that communication is the !asal operation of social systems% 2eha ior is not e-cluded from this model: as long as it triggers a search for meaning( it is a component )utterance* of communication% 9oles can then !e comprehended as generali5ed e-pectations that ha e !een made independent from the o!ser ation of persons% HDJ According to $uhmann( the differentiation of complementary roles corresponds to an intermediate state in the differentiation of the societal realms that correspond to each sym!olically generali5ed medium of communication% HDG Thus( the presence of roles that are specific to art implies that specific situations for art ha e pre iously !een differentiated% On the other hand( such roles are a precondition for the constitution of a social system in which( for specific situations( a ariety of

mutually complementary roles are coordinated in light of a function% As 9udolf Stichweh has pointed out( four such roles can !e distinguished in the domain of
HDE,ans 8ieter ,u!er( Cunst als soziale Construktion )6Rnchen: Wilhelm Fin# Verlag( CDDJ*( LJ% HDJ"i#las $uhmann( Social Systems( trans% Pohn 2ednar5 and 8ir# 2aec#er )Stanford )7alif%*: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( HFFM*( KHM ff% HDG$uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte%1

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art( which are coordinated in the o!ser ation of the emergence of order: the role of the artist )leading role*( the role of a general pu!lic )complementary role* and the roles of amateur and connoisseur )secondary leading roles*( which mediate !etween the other two%HDF

/n the realm of generali5ed !eha ioral e-pectations( one can further distinguish !etween roles and the more a!stract $rograms' These are understood as &'''a com$le< of conditions for the correctness Iand thus the social acce$ta+ilityK of +eha%ior')77Q These specify criteria for the application of the !asal !inary codes that translate the iewpoint of the function into a guiding difference% /n art( this code consists on the distinction !etween &'''"hat fits W does not fit under added conditions of high com$le<ity- that is to say- in the face of selfAgenerated difficulties')777 The criteria that specify the application of such !asal code are determined !y the wor#s themsel es as self-programed networ#s of

distinctions%HHC /n 6onroe 7% 2eardsley&s terms one would spea# of the 0selfcreati e1 character of artwor#s: &'''each indi%idual $rocess that e%entuates in a "ork of art generates its o"n direction and momentum' ?or the crucial controlling $o"er at e%ery $oint is the $articular stage or condition of the unfinished "ork itself- the $ossi+ilities it $resents- and the de%elo$ments it $ermits') 77F The historici5ed concept
HDF9udolph Stichweh( 0/n#lusion in Fun#tionssysteme der modernen <esellschaft(1 in Bnklusion und 4<klusion Studien zur Gesellschaftstheorie )2ielefeld: Transcript Verlag( CDDM*( HK-LL% HHD$uhmann( Social Systems( KHJ% HHH$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HFM% HHC/!id%( CDC-J% HHK6onroe 7% 2eardsley( 0On the 7reation of Art(1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism CK( no% K )Spring HFEM*: CFJ% A passage !y Vincent Tomas( from HFMG( can also !e ta#en to illustrate this point &'''"e congratulate him Xan artistZ +ecause he em+odied in colors or in language something the like of "hich did not e<ist +efore- and +ecause he "as the originator of the rules he

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of style may complement the self-programming of artwor#s !y pointing to the esta!lishment of the art system as a networ# of o!ser ations focused on art% HHL That is( the system operates through the mar#ing of artwor#s as successful( so that solutions that they present may !e adopted or ta#en as a point of reference for su!se+uent artistic communications% /n this respect( $uhmann proposed a functional definition of style( according to which( 8ie Fun#tion des Stils ist es( den 2eitrag des >unstwer#es 5ur Autopoiesis der >unst 5u organisieren und 5war in gewisser Weise gegen die /ntention des >unstwer#es sel!st( die auf <eschlossenheit geht% 8er Stil entspricht und widerspricht der Autonomie des Ein5el#unstwer#s% Er respe#tiert sie und 5weigt trot5dem einen 6ehrwert a!% Er !elgOt dem >unstwer# seine Einmalig#eit und 5ieht gleichwohl Ver!indungslinien 5u anderen >unstwer#enNHHM /n retrospecti e( this means that the o!ser er must position each artwor# in an artworld: &'''an atmos$here of artistic theory- a kno"ledge of the history of art'''-) as Arthur 8anto defined it%HHE The distinction !etween originality ) ariation* and style is fundamental in this operation( for it urges the o!ser er to oscillate !etween the direct o!ser ation of the artwor# as a self-programmed o!?ect )operati e le el of
im$licitly follo"ed "hile he "as $ainting or "riting') Vincent Tomas( 07reati ity in Art(1 The #hiloso$hical Re%ie" EJ( no% H )Panuary HFMG*: H-C% HHL$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CDG% HHM$uhmann( 08as >unstwer# und die Sel!streprodu#tion der >unst(1 HMK% HHEArthur 8anto( 0The Artworld(1 The Hournal of #hiloso$hy EH( no% HF )Octo!er HM( HFEL*: MGD% With time( Arthur 8anto has come closer to <eorge 8ic#ie&s institutional definition of the artworld as &'''the social frame"ork in "hich $articular "orks are em+edded') )<eorge 8ic#ie( 0What /s Anti-Art.(1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism KK( no% L )Summer HFJM*: LHF%* This social framewor# consists on &'''a loosely organized- +ut ne%ertheless related- set of $ersons including artists Iunderstood to refer to $ainters- "riters- com$osersK- $roducers- museum directors- museumAgoers''' and others''') who confer the status of candidates for artistic appreciation% )<eorge 8ic#ie( Art and the Aesthetic an Bnstitutional Analysis )/thaca: 7ornell Ani ersity 3ress( HFJL*( KM-E%* See( for e-ample( 8anto( 0Outsider Art%1( from HFFJ%

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e olutionary ariation* and the o!ser ation of its positioning in relation to an artistic tradition )structural le el of e olutionary selection*%

/n comparison to other function systems( and !ecause of the self-programming character of artwor#s( the 0interte-tual1 networ# of artistic operations results looseHHJ - which is specially pro!lematic when considering art as a su!system of a world society )see chapter H%L !elow*% "i#las $uhmann argued that this is nonetheless the case of an autopoietic su!system of the functionally differentiated society: a system that found its e olutionary 0ta#e-off1 in the Iuattrocento with the differentiation of its !asal code and crystalli5ed as an operati ely closed communicational realm in Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century% The transition from rococo to neoclassicism mar#ed this later moment as far as criteria for inclusion were no longer class-specific !ut internal to the system% HHG At least with romanticism( &'''the only social su$$ort of art is that each functional system deals "ith its o"n function- claims $riority for its o"n function- and de%elo$s no further com$etencies that $oint +eyond the system') 77M The e olution of art is thus consistent with the functional differentiation of society% Since the European eighteenth century( the autopoietic operations of function systems( e+ual in their ine+uality( guide social structure formation and act as the main form of system differentiation%HCD Society can no longer ground its differentiation in distinctions that are e-ternal to the operations of the function systems% Only art defines what
HHJ$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CHEN $uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( KGF% HHG$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CJE% HHF/!id%( HEE% HCD$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( JKK ff%

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art is and what it is not%

1.! Art in a world society

/ affirmed a!o e that we are in presence of an unprecedented regional dispersion of artistic no elty on the side of what "oUl 7arroll calls serious and am!itious fine art and "i#las $uhmann calls the art system of society% / also affirmed that this phenomenon represents a fundamental change in the form of artistic e olution that corresponds to the emergence of a world societal system% This isn&t unpro!lematic and deser es further refle-ion !efore we deal with the difference !etween this late phase of glo!alism and pre ious ones and concentrate oursel es in the analysis of colonial art in the central Andes%

/t is clear that the #ind of artistic glo!alism that "oUl 7arroll descri!es implies certain le el of homogeni5ation of artwor#s and of their networ#s% 7arroll understood this as the conformation of a transnational artistic language( a lingua franca that is characteri5ed !y a generali5ed preference for art forms that are easy to transport ) ideo( film( photography( computer art( performance art( conceptual art*( for critical references to social structures( and for formal strategies !ased on the &'''radical Pu<ta$osition- deAfamiliarization- and the deAconte<tualization of o+Pects and images from their customary mileus') 757 From this position( one could
HCH7arroll( 0Art and <lo!ali5ation: Then and "ow(1 HLD%

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fear that such a lingua franca would threaten the possi!ilities that su!altern centers of contemporary art could still ha e to construct alternati e discourses without returning to the fol#loric cele!ration of regional identities% HCC Victoria $aurie has gi en a nice formulation of this pro!lem: &'''the @estern art "orld is yet to o%ercome its egocentricity- treating other cultural s$here as fertile hunting grounds rather than $laces "here contem$orary art "ith distincti%ely BslamicOriental- Latin American or e%en 4astern 4uro$ean roots is +eing $roduced')75F

From the point of iew of the theory of social systems one o!ser es that such a lingua franca should !e understood as a conse+uence of a more fundamental homogeni5ation: one that mar#s wor#s of art as elements of communicati e systems% We must thus resol e how to descri!e the art of world society% The o!ser ation of glo!al phenomena in this theoretical conte-t is made( in a first step( !y reference to the distinction !etween interactions and societies% As we ha e seen( communication is recogni5ed as the !asal operation of social systems% /nteractions constitute minimal social systems( or episodes of societies% Societies are the most encompassing le el of social system formation% HCL This implies that for e ery communication there can !e ?ust one societal system( !ut it doesn&t rule out the historical possi!ility of a plurality of societies among which communication is either impossi!le or would ha e no )or relati ely few* conse+uences% HCM Therefore(
HCC6os+uera( 0<ood-!ye identidad( welcome diferencia: del arte $atinoamericano al arte desde Am4rica $atina%1 HCKVictoria $aurie( 08ialogue with the Outside World(1 The Australian( Fe!ruary C( CDDF( sec% The Arts( http:\\www%theaustralian%news%com%au\story\D(CMHFJ(CLFFCGFD-HEFLJ(DD%html% HCL$uhmann( Social Systems( LDE% HCM9udolph Stichweh( 0Zur <enese der Weltgesellschaft% /nno ationen und 6echanismen(1 in :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD*( CLGN

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as 9udolf Stichweh has pointed out( one cannot mista#e( &'''the ecological interaction +et"een societies E i'e' societies +ecoming rele%ant en%ironment for other societies E "ith $rocesses of structure formation in one and the same societal system')75, "i#las $uhmann assumed that the latter would !e the case of presentday society: it has !ecome a uni+ue societal system that has !y en ironment e erything that is not communication% / thin# that this assertion o erloo#s the presence of 0lost tri!es1 on the en ironment of world society: societies that( for the most part( can only !e reached !y world society as themes of communication%HCJ ,owe er( ours is clearly a society that is actuali5ed in interactions that ta#e place all o er the Earth%HCG

As / ha e already noted( "i#las $uhmann&s focus on the western European region is particularly e ident in his analyses of the art system of society% Very few references are made throughout his wor# to pro!lems associated with the position of art in relation to the structures of a world society% Two o!ser ations are nonetheless crucial: that the o!ser ation of art wor#s from different regions is primarily directed !y the code of art and not !y cultural comparisons( and that art alliances( mo ements or groups might pro ide a mechanism that ma#es pro!a!le the emergence of stylistic meta-programs with independence from regional frontiers%
$uhmann( 0<lo!ali5ation or World Society: ,ow to 7oncei e of 6odern Society.1N $uhmann( 08ie Weltgesellschaft%1 HCE9udolph Stichweh( 0On the <enesis of World Society: /nno ations and 6echanisms(1 CDDL( http:\\www%unilu%ch\files\CEstwworldsoc%pdfN Stichweh( 0Zur <enese der Weltgesellschaft% /nno ationen und 6echanismen(1 CLJ% HCJStuart >irsch( 0$ost Tri!es: /ndigenous 3eople and the Social /maginary(1 Anthro$ological Xuarterly JD( no% C )April HFFJ*: MG-EJ% HCGStichweh( :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen%

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According to "i#las $uhmann( with the rise of cultural comparisons in the eighteenth century(HCF art fell under the la!el of culture along with religion( what re+uired including the e-clusion of cultural comparisons in the o!ser ation of art%HKD This is an interesting claim( for it stresses that the self-organi5ation of the art system is achie ed with independence from cultural or territorial criteria( so that comparisons !etween local traditions must !e primarily directed !y the code of art% This opens the possi!ility for a penetration of 0disem!edded1 or 0deconte-tuali5ed1 structures in locali5ed interactions% HKH /t follows that the art system must !e descri!ed as ta#ing part of the structures of a world societyN a point of iew that mo es to the foreground the pro!lems that specific regions must confront%HKC From this position( sociological o!ser ations aim at re ealing the structural alue that regional differences( which may !e descri!ed as the

synchroni5ed occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment( ac+uire in the conte-t of a world societal system%HKK

"i#las $uhmann o!ser ed that( gi en a glo!ali5ation of the artwor#\conte-t distinction( a regional differentiation of conte-ts wouldn&t result surprising: &!ur die Struktur @erkWConte<t hat sich "eltgesellschaftlich durchgesetzt- a+er gerade sie ermJglicht nun auch die :ifferenzierung der Conte<te- die unterschiedliche

HCF"i#las $uhmann( 0>ultur als historischer 2egriff(1 in Gesellschaftstruktur und Semantik' Studien zur @issenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft ( ol% L )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFFM*( KH-ML% HKD$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CHC% HKHStichweh( :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen( HG% HKC$uhmann( 0<lo!ali5ation or World Society: ,ow to 7oncei e of 6odern Society.(1 HEK% HKKStichweh( :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen( HK f%

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Bnno%ationen unterschiedliche AusdrucksmJglichkeiten +ieten') 7FG /f the regional differentiation of art is to !e e-pected( what mechanisms are responsi!le for it and how does art still emerge as a glo!al system. 7onsidering the self-organi5ation of art as a social system( the regional differentiation of conte-ts must !e e-plained in terms of system-internal mechanisms of e olution: as anchored in the dynamic sta!ility that characteri5es the autopoiesis of the system% Applying the distinction !etween ariation( selection and re-sta!ili5ation in the o!ser ation of the art system( "i#las $uhmann o!ser ed that e olutionary ariations occur in the le el of o!ser ations when dealing with the indi idual artwor#s& self-programing and are retrospecti ely selected in the le el of interte-tual discourse as differences of style( though without forcing structural re-sta!ili5ation: styles don&t contain recipes for the successful self-programming of artwor#s%HKM As $oren5 8ittmann pointed out( &Stil lsst sich an den schlechten @erken e+enso aufzeigen "ie an guten') 7F, "either do selections imply direct additi e or causal relations( as many critics of the application of the theory of e olution to the study of art ha e so clearly defended: Thomas 6unro hesitating o!ser ation that &Art is somewhat cumulati%e)7F. anticipates "i#las $uhmann&s proposal that &Bt is $erha$s a uni1ue feature of the art system that the &interte<tual) net"ork connecting "orks $roduced "ithin the
HKL$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( HEK% HKM$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CCE-KMN $uhmann( 08as >unstwer# und die Sel!streprodu#tion der >unst%1 HKE$oren5 8ittmann( StilASym+olAStruktur' Studien zu Categorien der Cunstgeschichte )6Rnchen: Wilhelm Fin# Verlag( HFEJ*( HMD% The distinction !etween structural and stylistic analysis( as presented !y $oren5 8ittman )structure not !eing opposed to ornament*( can further illustrate this idea: while the structural analysis ta#es the wor# of art as a closed unity and arri es at a critical e aluation( the stylistic analysis loo#s only for those properties that are characteristic of a group% HKJThomas 6unro( 08o the Arts E ol e. Some 9ecent 7onflicting Answers(1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism HF( no% L )Summer HFEH*: LHC%

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system is not %ery tight''')7FL This condition would pose a limitation to the arts& potential to differentiate a system: &:ie 8indung- die in einer Communikation erzeugt "ird- muY fr andere rele%ant sein- und z"ar so- daY erst s$ter entschieden "erden muY "ofr' :iesem 4rfordernis kann die Cunst nur sch"er gengen- und ihr System+ildungs$otential +lei+t deshal+ gering')7FM

The tightness of this self-e ol ing interte-tual networ# results specially low when considered in a glo!al conte-t% A first pro!lem relates to the conditions of inclusion in the art system% To recogni5e ariation( those who engage in the o!ser ation of art( let them !e artists or audiences( re+uire access to up-to-date information regarding the state of the artworld% 7on ersely( ariations need to achie e diffusion to integrate the ran#s of 0the imaginary museum%1 The impro!a!ility of such glo!al diffusion of the artworld is e ident% /t will ary depending on the wor#&s su!stratum( on the state of de elopment of the media of telecommunication and transportation in each region( and on the also regionally specific de elopment of the institutions of the art world ' what may !e called an 0art industry%1HLD /n this le el( the difference !etween core and periphery may pro e itself useful for the analysis of the art system of the functionally differentiated world society% 7ores are esta!lished !y the concentration of resources that ma#e
HKG$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CHE% HKF$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( KGF% HLDThe classic analyses presented !y ,oward 2ec#er show the comple-ities of these regional institutional art worlds% ),oward 2ec#er( Art @orlds )2er#eley: Ani ersity of 7alifornia 3ress( HFGC*%* $uhmann&s proposal has !een critici5ed for not dealing with this realm of artistic organi5ations( networ#s and institutions% See: ,u!er( Cunst als soziale ConstruktionN Er##i Se gnen( 0Art as an Autopoietic Su!-System of 6odern Society% A 7ritical Analysis of the 7oncepts of Art and Autopoietic Systems in $uhmann&s $ate 3roduction(1 Theory- 0ulture V Society HG( no% H )CDDH*: GJ%

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pro!a!le the inclusion of persons in artworlds: museums( galleries( e-hi!itions( theater !uildings( li!raries( academies( uni ersities( critics( art dealers( speciali5ed contacts and the li#e( which in turn ha e a say as to what stylistic traits achie e greater diffusion in regional conte-ts%HLH These factors are li#ely to lead to the morphogenesisHLC of regional differentiations% And cultural comparisons may !e not the last factor to input positi e feed!ac# into a de iation-amplifying process%

7on ersely( art associations or mo ements may !e seen as conforming a mechanism that counter!alances regional differentiation% /n this respect( "i#las $uhmann o!ser ed that art alliances( mo ements or groups consist on loose networ#s that &'''a$$ear to +e moti%ated +y the desire to find su$$ort in similar efforts for unusual $rogrammatic decisions- so that they do not come across merely as idiosyncratic mo%es +y indi%iduals')7GF They can !e thought of as transnational networ#sHLL that ma#e pro!a!le the emergence of stylistic meta-programs with independence from regional frontiers% As such( their operations are parallel to the distinction kollegiale AffinittWkollegialer Com$lementaritt of the science system: 6an mui #ollegiale Affinitgt( !ei der >ooperation durch eine sehr enge Verwandtschaft in den 3ro!lemformulierungen moti iert wird( on #ollegialer >omplementaritgt unterscheiden( die dort orliegt( wo die An ollstgndig#eit der #ogniti en 9essourcen eines ?eden Forschers >ooperation erlangt% >ollegiale Affinitgt meint eine 9elation( die fRr ein wissenschaftliches
HLH8anto( 0The Artworld(1 MGLN 3ascal <ielen( 0Art and Social Value 9egimes(1 0urrent Sociology MK( no% M )Septem!er CDDM*: JGF-GDE% HLC6agoroh 6aruyama( 0The Second 7y!ernetics: 8e iation-Amplifying 6utual 7ausal 3rocesses(1 American Scientist MH )HFEK*: HEL-HJF( CMD-CME% HLK$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HEJ% HLL$udger 3ries( :ie Transnationalisierung der sozialen @elt )Suhr#amp( CDDG*%

EH

>ommuni#ationssystem intern istN #ollegialer >omplementaritgt !e5ieht sich auf eine 3luralitgt )dis5iplingrer* >ommuni#ationssysteme( die im Verhgltnis 5ueinander Amwelten sindNHLM Art associations pro ide an art-internal system\en ironment distinction that ma#es pro!a!le the emergence of stylistic meta-programs with independence from regional frontiers when such metaprograms are not already pro ided !y other social realms% One might thin# for instance in the 02oom1 of $atin American narrati e as a loosely coupled transnational networ# that shared similar programmatic decisions in the o!ser ation of regional $atin American spo#en languages as medial su!stratum for literature% HLE Adopting the distinction drawn !y 9udolf Stichweh( we may say that art associations of this sort pro ide mechanisms of 0glo!al interrelation1 that direct e olution in the art system towards 0glo!al decentrali5ation%1

/n conclusion( the core pro!lem that the art system has to resol e is how to ma#e pro!a!le that each wor# of art triggers a search for meaning that is used as a !asis for further artistic communications% This is already a highly unli#ely situation that is only stressed !y present-day glo!alism% While regional cores may de elop( social inno ations ha e !een put to wor# that counter!alance their effect% /n this regard( artistic alliances offer a form of transnational epistemic community that deals specifically with artistic programing% $arge-scale e-hi!itions( li#e 8ocumenta and
HLM9udolph Stichweh( 0<lo!alisierung der Wissenschaft und die 9egion Europa(1 in :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD*( HHH% HLEFernando A% Valen5uela( 0Arte y Entretenimiento en la "ue a "arrati a ,ispanoamericana% Sociolog:a del 2oom(1 in O+ser%ando sistemas nue%as a$ro$iaciones y usos de la teor9a de !iklas Luhmann( ed% /gnacio Far:as and Pos4 Ossand@n )Santiago( 7hile: 9il( CDDE*( HDH-HHG%

EC

Venice( are yet another clear case of such social inno ations: organi5ed !y a professional class of curators that tra el around the world in search for artistic no elties( these glo!al e ents may !e ta#en to !e the most clear testimony of the artworld&s glo!alism%HLJ /n Pames 6eyer&s words( Within the new dispensation( it&s the curators who tra el the most( who see the greatest range of wor#( who ha e the !roadest sense of practiceN the curators whose acti ity )e-hi!ition* is closest to practice and has the greatest impact on it%%% <reen!erg used to o!ser e that it was impossi!le to !e a truly informed critic if one didn&t li e in "ew Qor#% Well( the rules ha e changed: /t&s impossi!le to !e informed if you don&t tra%el E glo!ally and constantlyNHLG 7urators feed from the geographical dispersion of artistic no elties( which( as has !een noted !y 7arroll( ta#e ad antage of the new techni+ues of mass communication% One could also thin# on cases of transnational formal organi5ations and mar#ets% Of course( all these social inno ations deser e more careful research% They lay( howe er( !eyond the limits of this research%

When analy5ing the history of art since the si-teenth century from the point of iew of "i#las $uhmann&s theory of social systems( one should not only put emphasis on the differentiation of art as a social system in western Europe in the conte-t of the functional differentiation of the societal system( !ut also on the constitution of art as part of the structures of a world society% This means that one should analy5e the mechanisms through which this system reproduces itself in a
HLJ7arroll( 0Art and <lo!ali5ation: Then and "ow%1 HLG6eyer et al%( 0<lo!al Tendencies: <lo!alism and the $arge-Scale E-hi!ition%1

EK

glo!al scale and the pro!lems that specific regions must confront% Furthermore( when o!ser ing this process from the point of iew of the peripheries of the world society( it !ecomes crucial that one gi es account not only of the operations of the social system of art( !ut also of other #inds of art that ha e continued to reproduce themsel es in its en ironment ' a phenomenon that presents itself as the synchroni5ed occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment% HLF /n the following chapters will attempt to reconstruct the history of painting in the central Andes from last decades of the si-teenth century to the end of the eighteenth century from this point of iew% 2efore dealing with the art historical te-ts( / will deal in greater detail with "i#las $uhmann&s theory of ornamentation as a social operation( so that we ha e the theoretical means to o!ser e the difference !etween the social system of art and other art forms in its en ironment in the le el of the social operations of o!ser ation%

1." Art and ornament# social system$ parasitic ornamental systems and sym%oli&ation

The ornament occupies a central position in "i#las $uhmann&s analyses of art% As a 0preadapti e ad ance(1 it is seen as an operation that( !eing characteristic of other #inds of art as well( was fundamental for the differentiation of art as a selfe ol ing social system% To understand how( from the point of iew of $uhmann&s
HLFStichweh( :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen( HK f%

EL

theory of social systems( one could deal with the distinction !etween the social system of art and other #inds of art in its en ironment( we can try to specify what he meant !y 0ornamental art forms%1 This is also a rele ant tas# gi en the centrality of the concept of ornament in descriptions of paintings and their architectural conte-ts in colonial central Andes% As / will argue in chapter C( the concept of ornamental art can indeed !e assumed as the central category that articulates this historiographic tradition%

1.$.1

%rnament as mere decoration and as unifying principle

$atent in "i#las $uhmann&s :ie Cunst der Gesellschaft there are two different !ut interrelated uses of the concept of ornament% 7larifying this distinction will allow us to !uild a sociological theory of art that incorporates the distinction !etween the system of art and other #inds of art in its en ironment%

On the one hand( following a tradition that goes !ac# to Al!erti( the ornament is seen in $uhmann&s wor# as mere decoration( in distinction from the artwor#s& composition( structure or form( where artistic !eauty might !e achie ed% $uhmann o!ser ed that the use of this notion of ornamentation since the si-teenth and se enteenth centuries indicates that the differentiation of a social system of art was already underway( for the !eauty of art had to !e distinguished from the !eauty that one could find in the world%HMD

HMD$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HCD ff%( HMG ff%

EM

A similar notion of ornamentation is used when distinguishing the non-artistic function of an o!?ect from its decoration% /n this case( howe er( the functional redundancy of decoration is not as clear% As Ernst ,% <om!rich pointed out( decoration might contri!ute to a fast recognition of the limits !etween the functional parts of an o!?ect: ornamentation pro ides a 0clarifying articulation%1HMH

This is connected with a second concept of ornament that $uhmann e-plicitly introduced in his analysis of art: the ornamental components of an artwor# are distinguished from the figurati e )representati e or illusory* ones% HMC 7lose to <om!rich&s notion of articulation( $uhmann o!ser ed that the ornament is the infrastructure that #eeps the wor# of art together: 0Bt $re%ents the "ork from falling a$art into isolated figures- on "hich one can focus or from "hich one can turn a"ay' The ornament''' holds the art"ork together- $recisely +ecause it does not $artake in its figurati%e di%ision')7*F /n this sense( ornamentation may !e defined as the recursi e operation with forms that organi5es the mediums of time and space or their dou!ling within imaginary worlds% The concept of form used in this definition has !een adapted !y $uhmann from Spencer 2rown&s La"s of ?orm it is )and signals* a distinction !etween two states )sides( spaces or contents*( together with the distinguished states and its implicit conte-t% HML 7orrespondingly( $uhmann
HMHErnst ,% <om!rich( Ornament und Cunst Schmucktrie+ und Ordnungssinn in der #sychologie des dekorati%en Schaffens( trans% Al!recht Poseph )Stuttgart: >lett-7otta( HFGC*( HJJ( CCD f% HMC/n a similar sense( Ernst ,% <om!rich insisted on noting that his analysis of the psychology of ornamentation complement his pre ious analyses of illusion% HMK$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HCD% HMLThe distinction !etween three e-plicit aspects and an implicit one has !een ta#en from: Tat?ana Sch=nwglder( >atrin Wille( and Thomas ,=lscher( George S$encer 8ro"n 4ine 4infhrung in die SLa"s of ?ormS )Wies!aden: VS Verlag fRr So5ialwissenschaften( CDDL*( JH f%

EE

presented the ornament as !eing created through the mutual limitation of similar two-sided forms( as it can !e appreciated in the following passage concerning what he called 0ornamental art:1 One form sei5es the ne-t( the side produced along with it needs to !e filled( distinctions must !e esta!lished or return !ac# into themsel es ' and all of this is dri en !y an internal dynamic that propels the e-ecution of these operations without much consideration of the o!?ect% Of course( the material must !e recepti e to such a dynamic( and it must accommodate the purpose for which one wants to use the material% 2ut the ornament decides for itself what fits and what does not fit% /t creates an imaginary space that is sta!ili5ed !y e-ternal factors without !eing determined !y themN HMM This #ind of operation is for $uhmann &'''the smallest unit in the artistic $rocess') 7*, One that is shared !y arts of all #inds: 0ornamental1 or not%

Following this distinction !etween the ornamental and figurati e elements of wor#s of art( $uhmann distinguished !etween non-figurati e and figurati e artwor#s in the conte-t of the social system of art: !etween those that only use ornamentation to organi5e space and time directly and those that !egin &'''+y $roPecting an imaginary s$ace or time in order to gain a free hand in em$loying this selfAcreated medium for $ur$oses of ornamentation and re$resentation')HMJ /n !oth cases( the ornament ser es as the guiding principle that #eeps the wor# together% One should distinguish !etween the 0imaginary space1 that ornaments in general
HMM$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CCJ% HME/!id%( CCG% HMJ/!id%( HHM%

EJ

create and the 0imaginary world1 that figurati e artwor#s pro?ect% Otherwise( the distinction figurati e\non-figurati e would collapse% /n $uhmann&s wor#( one could correspondingly distinguish !etween the ornament&s self-referential closure and the duplication of the differential nature of space and time !y intuition or imagination%HMG

1.$.2

%rnamental art and parasitic ornamental systems

What characteri5es 0ornamental art1 in the conte-t of the distinctions decorati e\structural and ornamental\figurati e. /n "i#las $uhmann&s te-t( 0ornamental art1 is simply distinguished from the social system of art of a functionally differentiated society% This opposition ma#es no sense from the point of iew of the ornamental\figurati e distinction( which has precedence in

$uhmann&s analyses% As an operation that pro ides articulation and meaning( the ornament is present in !oth sides: !oth in wor#s of art that are signaled as elements of the function su!system of art and in those that are not% The concept of 0preadapti e ad ances1 allows to sol e this pro!lem: &'''the $ractice of decoration Iin the "idest senseK a$$ears to +e a $reada$ti%e ad%ance- a de%elo$ment that initially ser%ed other functions and to "hich one can return in the course of the art system>s differentiation as if art had e<isted at all times') 7*M 7onse+uently( the distinction !etween the social system of art and ornamental art cannot !e grounded in the le el of the operation of ornamentation as such%
HMG/!id%( HHK% HMF/!id%( CHG% See also: /!id%( chap% E%i %

EG

An alternati e is posed !y the concept of function( which is closer to the realm of meaning of the decorati e\structural distinctionN that is to say( to the first usage of the concept of ornament in the wor# of $uhmann% Ornamental )or ornamented* o!?ects may !e o!ser ed and signaled as though they were created 0'''for the sake of +eing o+ser%ed)7,Q or( more specifically( for &'''demonstrating the com$elling forces of order in the realm of the $ossi+le') 7,7 Then they are called art( for the social function of art assumes priority% Ornamental o!?ects may otherwise !e o!ser ed as though they were created &'''as su$$orts for other functional circles''') 7,5 /n this case( the o!ser ation of the ornamental system is still !ased on a reconstruction of decisions concerning what fits or does not fit )the !inary code that guides the operations of the system of art*( for one still has to deal with an operation of ornamentation% ,owe er( the ornamental system would follow 0e-ternal orientation%1HEK Ernst ,% <om!rich&s o!ser ation of a 0clarifying function1 that is fulfilled !y the decoration of 0functional1 o!?ects corresponds to a situation li#e this( !ut doesn&t e-haust all alternati es% Anderstood as a category that encompasses heteronomous ornamental systems in general( ornamental art would also include( for e-ample( the utili5ation of narrati e or allegorical paintings within churches: while paintings might !e used to articulate different architectural elements( this function might !e secondary to its role as media of diffusion of religious communications%HEL The distinction !etween 0ornamental art1 and a

HED/!id%( HHJ% HEH/!id%( HLG% HEC/!id%( HLD% HEK/!id%( CCJ% HEL6arilyn Aron!erg $a in( The $lace of narrati%e )Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( HFFM*%

EF

social system of art implies the o!ser ation of a hierarchy of functions that guide the construction of the o!?ect( and not an option among mutually e-clusi e functions% /n this sense( an ornamented o!?ect would !e classified !y an o!ser er as ornamental art if in his or her reconstruction of the o!?ect the social function of art does not ha e preeminence o er any other function%

An analysis of styles can still !e attempted in this realm% ,owe er( one does no longer assume that ariation has come a!out as an e-plicit attempt to promote the self-programming of artwor#s against the !ac#ground of a history of styles% /n this sense( as / ha e noted a!o e( the 0modernity1 of the social system of art can !e understood as the result of a shift in the primary system of reference of sociocultural e olution: change in art ceases to !e steered !y mechanisms of ariation( selection and re-sta!ili5ation in the le el of society as a system and specifies its own mechanisms as a su!system of society%

/f we ta#e a function to !e a position from which comparisons are made( then the distinction !etween ornamental art and a social system of art can !e treated as an o!ser ation of second order: as an o!ser ation of an o!ser ers& o!ser ation as such%HEM An o!ser er might use the social function of art as a point of comparison to introduce the ornamental o!?ect at hand in a history of art( regardless of other comparisons that he or she might find fitting% As a sym!olically generali5ed media of communication( art ma#es it li#ely that o!ser ers proceed in such an unli#ely
HEM"i#las $uhmann( 0Wie lassen sich latente Stru#turen !eo!achten.(1 in :as Auge des 8etrachters A 8eitrge zum Construkti%ismus ?estschrift /einz %on ?oerster( ed% 3aul Wat5lawic# and 3eter >rieg )6Rnchen: 3iper-Verl%( HFFH*( EH-JL%

JD

mannerN that they assume that the o!?ect has !een created 0for the sa#e of !eing o!ser ed1 and that( in reference to this pro!lem( it is e-pected from them that they let their e-perience !e guided !y this o!?ect&s self-programmed formal com!inations% Furthermore( o!ser ers assume that( in retrospecti e( they shall accept or re?ect the proposed artistic communication only or at least primarily in reference to such e-perience%HEE /f an o!ser er decides that such assumptions are wrong( he or she can adopt the distinction !etween ornament and structure to descri!e the ornamental o!?ect at hand as 0ornamental art%1 Thus( the need for the concept of 0ornamental art1 appears only in the conte-t of a social system of art% /t is( as $uhmann pointed out( a category that is applied in retrospecti e% /t signals other #inds of art in the en ironment of this system%

There is a first special case of 0ornamental art1 that / would li#e to highlight !ecause of its rele ance for the study of colonial art in the region of the central Andes: an o!ser er might recogni5e that such a heteronomous ornamental system uses another ornamental system as medium% /n reference to this case( we might assume Pames Trilling&s definition of decoration as &'''the art "e add to art''' Bt sim$ly means that one "ork of art has +een added to another- and is therefore $hysically and %isually de$endent on it''')7,. When added to another artwor#( decoration transforms it% E ery artisan or decorator #nows this% /&ll call &$arasitic ornamental systems) those cases in which( while the host is assumed !y another o!ser er to ha e !een created with a history of art in mind( the same o!ser er
HEE$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( KMH ff% HEJPames Trilling( Ornament a modern $ers$ecti%e )Ani ersity of Washington 3ress( CDDK*( CK%

JH

decides that the same assumption cannot !e made in reference to the parasite% Thus( the parasite is seen to ha e transformed its host into ornamental art% These parasites are what Francisco Stastny has descri!ed as 0the re-archai5ation1 of painting in colonial central Andes% HEG That this has systematically !een seen !y art historians as one of the most characteristic operation of paintings that were produced in the central Andes during the se enteenth and the eighteenth centuries forces us to as# for the society in which it was made pro!a!le% Further o!ser ations regarding the religious conte-t of art can narrow down this +uestion%

1.$.!

%rnament and symbolic art

As "i#las $uhmann o!ser ed( an art that was primarily sym!olic &'''searched for a higher meaning in its condensed ornamental relationshi$s') 7,M /ts distinction from a form of art that presents itself as a sign and another one that e-periments with formal com!inations was presented !y $uhmann as an e olution in the form of artistic referentiality% /t is therefore a distinction that has to !e ta#en into consideration when analy5ing the synchroni5ed occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment in art%

"i#las $uhmann !ased his analysis of the transition from sym!ol to sign mainly on Pulia >riste a&s wor#% <i en the a!struse character of $uhmann&s discussion of this matter(HJD it is !etter to introduce these distinctions !ased on >riste a&s analyses(
HEGStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial%1 See chapter L%H !elow% HEF$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HEG% HJD/!id%( HEJ-JG% See also $uhmann( 0Sign as Form%1

JC

which can !e seen as constructing a dialogue with Ferdinand de Saussure and Walter 2en?amin% This will !e presented !riefly%

The distinction sign\sym!ol has !een drawn with the pro!lem of contingency in mind% Ferdinand de Saussure ac#nowledged this usage in his 0ourse of General Linguistics- pu!lished in HFHE: unli#e the concept of sign( the concept of sym!ol refers to a semiotic unit that( &'''is ne%er "holly ar+itrary( it is not em$ty- for there is the rudiment of a natural +ond +et"een the signifier and the signified') 7.7 The concept of sym!ol ma#es reference not to the signifier( !ut to a lin# !etween signifier and signified that is ta#en as gi en%

/n Walter 2en?amin&s wor# from HFCJ on the Trauers$iel- the 9omantic concept of sym!ol is critici5ed in similar terms( for it posits the artwor#&s capacity to reali5e the unity !etween the immanent signifier and the transcendental signified o!?ect: &'''the +eautiful is su$$osed to merge "ith the di%ine in an un+roken "hole') 7.5 This criticism seems to !e directed not against the possi!ility of sym!oli5ation as such( !ut against a self-description of art that does not fully ac#nowledge that the parado-ical material representation of the transcendental o!?ect in the form of the mystery pertains to the domain of religion and not to that of art anymore% HJK The operations of art had mo ed towards the allegorical as an un!ridgea!le gap had !een introduced !etween signifier and signified: &The XallegoricalZ signifies merely
HJHFerdinand de Saussure( 0ourse in General Linguistics( trans% 9oy ,arris )$ondon: 8uc#worth( HFGK*( EG f% HJCWalter 2en?amin( The Origin of German Tragic :rama( trans% Pohn Os!orne )$ondon( HFJJ*( HMF f% HJK/!id%( HED%

JK

a general conce$t- or an idea "hich is different from itself( the Xsym!olicZ is the %ery incarnation and em+odiment of the idea')7.G /n a world of signs( meaning was no longer self-e ident in the e-perience of reality( !ut had to !e reached out to ' though ne er e-perienced as a whole ' through a!struse semiotic constructions% As noted !y 2ainard 7owan( &Transforming things into signs is +oth "hat allegory does E its techni1ue E and "hat it is a+out E its content') 7.* The concept of sym!ol in the self-description of 9omantic art would !e a sign of a #ind of melancholy%

Pulia >riste a restated this in a historici5ed model% HJE While !oth Saussure and 2en?amin critici5ed the concept of sym!ol !efore assuming its other side ' either the sign or the allegory '( >riste a focused on the passage from sym!ol to sign as it occurred from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century% She adopted the general notion of sym!ol proposed !y 7harles S% 3eirce ' a sym!ol &'''refers to the o+Pect that it denotes +y %irtue of a law( usually an association of general ideas')7.. ' as a common ground for !oth sym!ols and signs understood as semiotic practices% That is( the sym!ol is understood as a specific case of sym!olic signs% The semiotic practice in which it parta#es is a cosmogonic one: %%%ces 4l4ments )les sym!oles* ren oinent e une )des* transcendance)s* uni erselle)s*( irrepr4senta!le)s* et m4connaissa!le)s*N des conne-ions uni o+ues relient ces transcendances au- unit4s +ui les 4 o+uentN le sym!ole ne
HJL/!id%( HEL f% HJM2ainard 7owan( 0Walter 2en?amin&s Theory of Allegory(1 !e" German 0riti1ue( no% CC )Winter HFGH*: HHD% HJE>riste a( Le te<te du roman' A$$roche s=miologi1ue d>une structure discursi%e transformationnelle( CM-KM% HJJ7harles S% 3eirce( #hiloso$hical @ritings of #eirce( ed% P% 2uchler )"ew Qor#: 8o er 3u!lications( HFMM*( HDC%

JL

&ressem!le& pas e l&o!?et +u&il sym!oliseN les deu- espaces )sym!olis4sym!olisant* sont s4par4s et incommunica!lesN HJG /n the ertical a-is( sym!ols are parado-ical units that esta!lish uni ocal and( in this sense( restricti e references to unrepresenta!le o!?ects% /n the hori5ontal a-is( sym!ols are antiparado-ical in their mutual articulation( for they e-clude one another% Since their meaning is fi-ed !efore usage( they are su!?ect to +uantitati e limitations and re+uire repetition% A sign( on the contrary( e o#es a collection of more concrete images and potential ideas( the actuali5ation of which depends on the signifying unit&s articulation with other signs% The unspecific meaning of the isolated sign is defined !y its conte-t% The temporal dimension is enriched( as the present must !e thought of as !een partially determined !y past decisions and as partially determining future states% Thus( the te-t gi es the impression of an open structure that has come to an ar!itrary end% ,ence the fictional character of artwor#s%

The operational concept of the ornament introduced !y "i#las $uhmann ' that is( the second concept of ornamentation that we distinguished in the pre ious section - is clearly related to an understanding of art as it presents itself on the era of the sign: forms in a networ# limit each other( and the meaning to which the wor# arri es depends on the course ta#en !y a self-referential operation of ornamentation% 7orrespondingly( $uhmann also proposed that wor#s that are produced within the social system of art construct a reality or a world of their
HJG>riste a( Le te<te du roman' A$$roche s=miologi1ue d>une structure discursi%e transformationnelle( CE%

JM

own( which might !e called fictionHJF ' a concept that is not limited to figurati e pieces( since it responds to the ornament&s creation of a space of its own% "owadays( when signs are understood as ma#ing no reference to an e-ternal signifier( art is seen as an e-perimentation with formal com!inations%HGD

Sym!olic art( wrote $uhmann( &'''searched for a higher meaning in its condensed ornamental relationshi$s')7L7 As Ernst ,% <om!rich commented( it is hard to see in this realm the limit that separates play from ritual%HGC /n the face of this pro!lem( / propose that we distinguish !etween le els of significationN that is( !etween different le els in which the operations of communication ta#e place% On a first le el( an art that is primarily sym!olic ma#es present( in the immanent world( the transcendental o!?ect it represents% This o!?ects& meaning is not constructed each time again through formal com!inations% /t is pro ided !y tradition( so that the sym!ol is anchored in its gi en shape% On a second le el that highlights the immanent conditioning of this hierophany( ornament !ecomes decoration( for it has to !e distinguished from the sym!ol in its gi en form% Ornamental relationships can still esta!lish a dense networ#( the meaning of which ' understood as the achie ement of order ' would only !e apprehended as a result of formal decisions that ha e to deal with strong conte-tual limitations% Thus( sym!olic art can only !e considered ornamental art inasmuch as sym!ols allow
HJF$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HLC fN "i#las $uhmann( 0Welt#unst(1 in !iklas Luhmann' Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( ed% "iels Wer!er )Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG*( HGF-CLM% HGD$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HJE% HGH/!id%( HEG% HGC<om!rich( Ornament und Cunst Schmucktrie+ und Ordnungssinn in der #sychologie des dekorati%en Schaffens( HJF%

JE

and call for supplementary ornamentation% This is a clear case in which ornamentation is applied as support for functional circles other than art%

Within such conte-tual limitations( which are esta!lished !y the sym!ol&s gi en form( a secondary medium for ornamentation is created% HGK At first( this medium can !e e-ploited to further support religious communications% The donors of precious images( frames or garments ' Sartiges& &manie des dorures)7LG E might signal their piety and achie e moral recognition% For mem!ers of the /nca elite in the colonial system( this could ha e !een a good strategy for achie ing inclusion in other social spheresN one that could !e reinforced !y ha ing oneself portrayed precisely as a con erted and pious /nca%HGM This strategy implies that rich ornamentation is seen to ha e some effect on the efficacy of sym!olic images: that it constitutes a sacrifice that might !e reciprocated% /n this form( art participates of a sphere of social reality in which e ery e-perience or action can !e communicated as contingent in the light of transcendence( so that it triggers a search for meaning that is religious proper%HGE With the support of art( one communicates within religion% This form of e aluation of a painting&s worth that ta#es into consideration( in the first place( factors li#e the utili5ation of precious pigments and the e-tension of the painted surface( isn&t primarily an indicator of opulent consumption( as 6ichael 2a-andall argued%HGJ "either is its o!ser ation in the conte-t of religion
HGK9egarding the medium\form distinction here adopted( see: $uhmann( Art as a Social System( HDC ff% HGLSee footnote ME% HGM7arolyn 8ean( Bnka 8odies and the 8ody of 0hrist 0or$us 0hristi in 0olonial 0uzco- #eru )8urham( "%7%: 8u#e Ani ersity 3ress( HFFF*% HGE$uhmann( 0Ausdifferen5ierung der 9eligion1N $uhmann( :ie Religion der Gesellschaft % HGJ2a-andall( #ainting and 4<$erience in ?ifteenthA0entury Btaly%

JJ

limited to the three functions of educating( recalling and e-citing% /t can also !e primarily a sacrifice or a gift ' in 6arcel 6auss& sense HGG ' through which a relation of reciprocity with the di inity is esta!lished%

Still( as 2a-andall correctly o!ser ed( this medium allowed for the de elopment of ornamentation !eyond religious criteria% The distinction !etween material su!stratum and prototype( that fuels the form of a sym!ol( gi es way to the distinction !etween fit and lac# of fit% When this occurs( the aura of the sacred is replaced !y the aura of art%HGF Some art will remain to !e &'''the ser%ant of religion)7MQ as long as one !elie es in the efficacy of religious sym!ols% ,owe er( as "i#las $uhmann pointed out( &'''the moment the sym+ol is communicated as a sym+ol- it raises the sus$icion of +eing a &simulacrum) that e<$loits the means of %isual $lausi+ility to create a dece$ti%e unity')7M7 That is( once the unity !etween signifier and signified that the sym!ol !rings a!out is reflected upon as an operation of signification( necessity is replaced !y contingency% Allegories achie e this% 6ore generally( the !aro+ue e-ploration of the limits of the medium that is pro ided !y the decoration of sym!ols could ha e triggered the o!ser ation of sym!ols as contingent significant forms and the corresponding iconoclastic mo ements%

This !rea# with tradition was e-traneous to the ,ispanic iceroyalties in America%
HGG6arcel 6auss( 4ssai sur le don ?orme et raison de l>=change dans les soci=t=s archaZ1ues )3aris: 3resses uni ersitaires de France( CDDJ*% HGF2elting( 8ild und Cult eine Geschichte des 8ildes %or dem Deitalter der Cunst % HFD$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HJD% HFH/!id%

JG

/n the iceroyalty of 3eru( the !iographies of St% 9osa de $ima e-acer!ate this difference to the point that she !ecame a sym!ol of the defense of the Eucharistic against the 2ritish and 8utch 0heretics1HFC and of the use of paintings as media for religious contemplation and for the esta!lishment of reciprocal relations with the represented persons%HFK

This is a good reason to #eep the concept of 0!aro+ue1 when ma#ing reference to art in the ,ispanic colonies in America during the se enteenth and eighteenth centuries% /n this region( most art was done within the medium offered !y the decoration of sym!ols% As 3edro 6orand4 pointed out( this pro ided a point of contact !etween the European coloni5ers and the Amerindian peoples%HFL While a profound distance separated the coloni5ers& written culture and the Amerindian&s oral one( a !ridge could !e constructed !etween them !ased on the pu!lic and communal reali5ation of sacrifice( as opposed to the indi iduali5ation of sacrifice that characteri5ed the enlightenment%

This description is congruent with the o!ser ation that art in this region during the colonial period had not !een differentiated as a separate social realm and that its history was guided primarily !y the e olutionary mechanisms of the social system at large% /n the le el of society( ariations had to pro e themsel es against a
HFC6u?ica 3inilla( 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica(1 HKF% HFK3% Fray $eonardo ,ansen( Vida Admira+le de Santa Rosa de Lima #atrona del !ue%o Mundo I7,,GK( trans% 3% Fray Pacinto 3arra )$ima: 7entro 7at@lico( HFGM*% HFL3edro 6orand4( 0Etapas del sociologismo latinoamericano(1 in 0ultura y Modernizacin en Am=rica Latina' 4nsayo sociolgico acerca de la crisis del desarrollismo y de su su$eracin )6adrid: Ediciones Encuentro( HFGJ*( MK-EE%

JF

primarily religious representation of the world% HFM The organi5ations of art( li#e the guilds of painters( can !e e-pected in this conte-t to ha e !een attached to more differentiated realms( li#e religion and politics( where complementary roles had !een esta!lished%HFE

This situation can !e seen as determining what / ha e called 0parasitic ornamental systems:1 the re-archai5ation )Stastny* operated !y colonial paintings in the iceroyalty of 3eru on their European sources neutrali5ed the differentiation of a space for the mere e-ploration of form com!inations )understood according to >riste a&s sense of art as a sign* and secured the centrality of the decoration of sym!ols as a medium for religious communications% The increasing importance of allegorical constructions for an elite audienceHFJ reflects what Stastny referred to as the 0dual1 structure of colonial society: a synchronous occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment within the same region% ,owe er( e en in this conte-t( the application of differentiated artistic criteria was an e-ception until the end of the eighteenth century% As we ha e seen( it re+uired the differentiation of the complementary roles of artist and art-specific pu!lic% This condition might also e-plain the rele ance of an immigrant connoisseur li#e !ishop 6anuel de 6ollinedo y Angulo%

HFM$uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte(1 HMC% HFE/!id%( HML% HFJ6u?ica 3inilla( 0/dentidades aleg@ricas: lecturas iconogrSficas del !arroco al neoclSsico1N Francisco Stastny( 0The Ani ersity as 7loister( <arden and Tree of >nowledge% An /conographic /n ention in the Ani ersity of 7u5co(1 Hournal of the @ar+urg and 0ourtauld Bnstitutes LE )HFGK*: FL-HKC%

GD

These preliminary reflections will direct my reconstruction of the art historical tradition of research that has successfully esta!lished the 7usco school of painting as a sta!le o!?ect of communication% At this point( our central +uestion can !e stated as follows: how did paintings make communication or trigger a search for meaning in the central Andes !etween the second half of the si-teenth century and the end of the eighteenth century and what societal conditions made this form of communication pro!a!le. Some methodological considerations are due%

1.' (ociological reconstruction of art history# methodological considerations

As 9udolf Stichweh has noted( a preference for constructing narrations focused on the point of iew of the indi iduals in ol ed is characteristic of historical research as distinguished from socio-historical research done within the framewor# of social systems& theory%HFG Whereas historical research is focused on the construction of processes in terms of causal se+uences of e ents( the theory of social systems o!ser es each e ent as the actuali5ation of an alternati e that has !een made a aila!le !y a system% /n "i#las $uhmann&s terms( this research program is interested in analy5ing possi!ilities: &'''die strukturellen 8edingungen der Contingenzerfahrung sel+st''')7MM That is( the emphasis is in determining the
HFGStichweh( 0Systemtheorie und <eschichte%1 See also: 2us#otte( Resonanzen fr Geschichte !iklas Luhmanns Systemtheorie aus geschichts"issenschaftlicher #ers$ekti%e( EM-JC% HFF$uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte(1 HMG% See also: $uhmann( 0<eschichte als 3ro5eO und die Theorie so5io-#ultureller E olution%1

GH

mechanisms that steer e olution as a recursi e process( in the light of which the e ents that attract the attention of art historical analyses are reconstructed as accidents( in the sense that they are a source of ariation for a system that has yet to determine their structural alue% 7his is the general fra#ework that deli#its the 'resent sociological reconstruction of art histor2& 7he 'revious considerations have atte#'ted to esta(lish so#e ke2 conce'ts in this res'ect4 which guide the #ethodological strateg2 that has (een undertaken&

0n o(serving this tradition of art historical te8ts4 we can distinguish (etween verifia(le events4 narrations and the latent theories or #odels that structure the#& 7he latter can also (e conce'tualized as the distinctions that guide the for#ation of structures in historical narrations& 0n doing a #eta-s2nthesis of art historical te8ts4 events and narrations could (e verified and then for#all2 co#(ined in a new narration that is structured according to another #odel&)** 7his #ethodolog2 is (est fitted for confronting the pro!lem of isolation of +ualitati e findings in target areas% CDH /f we define such target area as the social conditions that ha e made pro!a!le the manner in which paintings triggered a search for meaning in the colonial 7entral Andes( we can see that findings ha e !ecome isolated in the sense that new communications are only rarely !ased on a critical e-amination of pre ious ones in the same theme% This doesn&t seem to !e the case of indi idual researchers wor#ing in isolation( and there!y !een una!le to construct an epistemological
CDD6argarete Sandelows#i( 0Iualitati e meta-analysis(1 in The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( ed% 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao( ol% K )Thousand Oa#s: Sage( CDDL*( GFC% CDH6argarete Sandelows#i and Pulie 2arroso( /and+ook for Synthesizing Xualitati%e Research )"ew Qor#: Springer 3u!lishing 7ompany( CDDE*%

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community% The pro!lem appears to lie in the a!sence of an e-plicit themati5ation of the target area as a pro!lem in reference to which a !ody of #nowledge can !e differentiated and( foremost( as a pro!lem that may organi5e communications !ut may not !e 0sol ed%1 /n the literature on colonial art it is common to find answers to this pro!lem that resort to e-planatory models that pri ilege particular su!pro!lems a!o e others: the sur i al of pre-contact indigenous culture( the control of the means of production( the communication of religious !eliefs( or the pro!lems that faced the diffusion of artistic inno ation( among others% Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert&s model from the early HFGDs is perhaps the most clear e-ample of an e-planation that is nowadays accepted as final e en though its empirical grounding( its rele ance in relation to the pro!lems that it aims to sol e( and its relation with pre ious or contemporary literature has rarely !een critically e-amined% Thus far a meta-analysis is rele ant to this !ody of literature%

Would such a com!ination of results of art historical research answer our central +uestion. Would it suffice to erify e ents and narrations. For this research( the distinctions that guide the o!ser ation or construction of these e ents as elements in historical narrations are e+ually rele ant( since they pro ide a source of icarious o!ser ation of colonial paintings from a point of iew that is a!le to distinguish how these images are operati ely related to others that aim towards an e-ploration of formal com!inations ' a relation that is central to the concept of ornamental art that has !een constructed in the pre ious theoretical sections%

GK

0n line with such theoretical considerations4 we can trust conte#'orar2 e8'ert o(servers to look for structures within and a#ong these 'aintings and to #ake sense out of the#& >e can further e8'ect the# to notice when structures do not arise where the2 have e8'ected the#4 and to correct their search for #eaning corres'ondingl2& 0n cha'ter 1&; 0 have constructed the conce't of orna#ental art in this #anner$ an orna#ented o(Lect would (e classified (2 o(servers as orna#ental art if in their reconstruction of the o(Lect the social function of art does not have 'ree#inence over an2 other function& 7his conce't of orna#ental art corres'onds to a for# of o(servation and not necessaril2 to a s'ecific se#antic distinction or sign$ #an2 signs can 'oint to the sa#e o(servation& 9aivet24 archais#4 'ri#itivis#4 and decorativeness are all signs that #a2 re'lace that of orna#ental art& 0n this sense4 the2 are functionall2 eEuivalent& Iowever4 the2 guide their users to look for e8'lanations for the o'erative difference the2 o(serve in different directions&

The manner in which the concept of ornamental art has !een constructed implies that this art form can only !e o!ser ed as such in the conte-t of a social system of art( as it has !een defined in chapter H%K% We can say that the concept of ornamental art carries a representation of this system as its own shadow or unmar#ed side% This implies that ornamental art is in isi!le as such without the system of art as its other side% Thus( as /sa!el 7ru5 has pointed out( the distinction !etween arts and crafts doesn&t !elong to the conte-t of colonial art( !ut to one in which art already aims towards autonomy% CDC For the same reason( only

CDC7ru5 de AmenS!ar( 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano(1 HDD%

GL

communications that o!ser e ornamental art as such can notice how it is o$erati%ely related to forms of art that at least aim towards autonomyN and( therefore( to test the empirical applica!ility of the concept of parasitic ornamental systems% Then( from this position of second order o!ser ation( one can turn towards those communications for which ornamental art is in isi!le as such and ta#e notice of the forms that guide their o!ser ations% On this le el one deals no longer with the art historical te-ts as e-periential data !ut as communications that are structured as erifia!le narrations% Thus( this form of sociological

reconstruction of art history is careful not to assume historical research as a mere source of raw data% The distinctions that guide art historical communications are also informati e regarding how paintings are structured as communication in comparison )and in operati e relation* to what is e-pected from art forms that at least aim towards autonomy% The historical narrations that attempt to gi e account of the distinction o!ser ed can later on !e erified%

/n section H%H%K we had already seen the concept of ornamental art in operation in the memoirs of ^tienne de Sartiges and $aurent Saint-7ric+% /n chapter C we will see that this concept fuels this whole art historical tradition and( specially( the o!ser ation of art in its social conte-t% Each te-t in this tradition has to ma#e sense of this o!ser ational form% One way in which this has !een done ' and the only one that is rele ant for this research ' is !y ma#ing reference to the social conte-t of art% This implies that the specific manner in which the concept of ornamental art is conte-tuali5ed shows the social conte-t of art under a different light% Therefore(

GM

the ) erifia!le* e ents and the narrations in which they gain meaning are shaped differently%

The choice for a chronological analysis and e-position of the social histories of painting from the iceregal central Andes responds to this appro-imation to

colonial art through the distinction !etween a social system of art and other artistic forms in its en ironment% This alternati e has the ad antage of conser ing the theoretical conte-t that gi es structure to the narrations in which erifia!le historical e ents ha e ac+uired meaning% /n the light of the pre ious refle-ions regarding the concept of ornamental art that / ha e assumed( this means that this strategy allows me to coordinate the analysis of art historical te-ts ' ta#en as second order o!ser ers that use the form of ornamental art ' with the analysis of the historical sources to which they ma#e reference when attempting to reconstruct how paintings made communication in their conte-t of origin )where ornamental art is e-pected to !e in isi!le as such* and the #ind of society that made this pro!a!le%

The criteria applied when attempting to erify e ents and narrations is +uite straightforward% They are resumed !y <aye Tuchman&s +uestions regarding the +uality of primary data:

H% Are the data appropriate to the theoretical +uestion !eing posed.

GE

C% ,ow were these data originally collected( or what meaning were em!edded in them at the time of collection.

K% ,ow should these data !e interpreted( or what meanings do these data hold now.CDK

As it has !een noted( such e ents and narrations will !e reconstructed as accidents in relation to the e olutionary mechanism that esta!lish the modality )!ut not the direction* of change in social systems%

The analysis of the distinctions that structure art historical narrations re+uire a few considerations% /n this respect the method of te-tual interpretation that / followed remained close to the procedure outlined !y Pens 9asmussen for a conte-t of radical hermeneutics%CDL This procedure consists in three steps that direct the research to methodologically controlled statements regarding the meaning of te-ts% /n a first step of em$irical construction- the te-ts that deal mainly with paintings from colonial $ima )7iudad de los 9eyes* and 7usco were read in iew of the distinctions they use when o!ser ing or ma#ing reference to colonial painting from the Viceroyalty of 3eru in a conte-t that ta#es into account the e olution of painting in Europe% Atterances within the scope of these differences were e-tracted from the te-ts and related to the historical narrations and e ents
CDK<aye Tuchman( 0,istorical 6ethods(1 in The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( ed% 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao( ol% H )Thousand Oa#s: Sage( CDDL*( LEC% CDLPens 9asmussen( 0FO9A6: Te-tual interpretation and comple-ity% 9adical hermeneutics(1 !ordisk #edagogik K )CDDL*: HJJ-HFK%

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that they made reference to% /n a second step that corresponds to what Pens 9asmussen calls hy$othetical construction- these utterances were organi5ed into !roader categories that ser ed as hypothesis regarding to how they might !e designated% These categories correspond to forms that delimit spaces that are shared !y se eral te-ts%CDM 8ependencies were thus recogni5ed among o!ser ers% 2ased on this step( a narration could !e constructed that tries to reduce the comple-ity of the history of this o!?ectN that is( of colonial painting in this region as an o!?ect of the specific reality of history as a discipline and form of communication% This narration follows a primarily diachronic criteria that aims at reconstructing the conte-t of each te-t% This already corresponds to the third step in 9asmussen&s outline: an interpretation of the sum of the constructed differences%

Two main ris#s of meta-analyses in general also apply to the one !eing attempted here% The first ris# has !een identified as the 0file drawer pro!lem1 or 0pu!lication !ias') /t affects the alidity of meta-syntheses as the researchers &'''generally are not a+le to retrie%e and include the entire population of studies that "ere conducted on the to$ic of interest')5Q, This pro!lem is !ased on the fact that certain studies ha e higher pro!a!ilities of pu!lication than others and that the researchers may not ha e access to pu!lished ones% The 0file drawer pro!lem1 will !e present in this research( as studies in the different topics go rapidly out of print or are
CDMThe concept of 0shared space of o!ser ation1 has !een ta#en from: $uhmann( Art as a Social System( ML% /t designates the situation in which se eral o!ser ers select a certain distinction% /n such a case( we may say that the form is the o!ser er% CDE,annah 9% 9othstein( 0File drawer pro!lem(1 in The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( ed% 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao )SA<E( CDDL*( KGG%

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pu!lished in ?ournals of limited circulation in 3eru( 2oli ia and Argentina( that ha e not !een digitali5ed% This is specially the case of studies done some twenty years ago or !efore that% /t is of course difficult to ma#e an estimation of the magnitude of this population%

The !ody of literature that has !een analy5ed is composed !y te-ts )!oo#s( chapters( articles and catalogs* that ma#e reference to paintings from $ima and 7usco in the si-teenth( se enteenth and eighteenth centuries% Te-ts a!out other regions in South America during the same period were also ta#en into consideration when they were mentioned !y the main !ody of literature that deals with $ima and 7usco% The sample grew primarily !y following citations% / !egan !y re iewing the te-ts included in three classic !oo#s in the su!?ect: the sur ey on South American colonial art pu!lished !y 8amiSn 2ay@n and 6urillo 6ar-( CDJ and the essays included in the two olumes of 4l 8arroco #eruano5QL and in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;'5QM Following their citations / was a!le to compose a first sample of fundamental te-ts and authors( which led me to their own sources and points of reference% To ha e access to important pu!lications on $atin American colonial art( / spent two months as guest researcher at the li!rary of the /!eroAmerican /nstitute of the 3russian ,eritage Foundation in 2erlin% Their collection guards almost e ery te-t that is cited !y the main literature as !een of importance%
CDJ8amiSn 2ay@n and 6urillo 6ar-( /istoria del arte colonial sudamericano Sudam=rica his$ana y el 8rasil )2arcelona: Ediciones 3oligraf:a( HFGF*% CDG2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( ed%( 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( C ols% )$ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC*N 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( ed%( 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% C( C ols% )$ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDK*% CDF$uis 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( ed%( #intura en el Virreinato del #er;' 4l Li+ro de Arte del 0entenario( Cnd ed% )$ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC*%

GF

This corpus was complemented !y te-ts / found there and in other li!raries( which were not cited !y the main !ody of literature% Of course( chance was not a!sent from this process% The final sample of te-ts that was consulted starts with the dissertation presented !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar at the Ani ersidad del 7usco CHD in HFCC and ends in the first decade of the CDDDs% An estimation of the alue of specific te-ts is !ased on my o!ser ation of the information they contri!uted to the tradition: how they made a difference in relation to pre ious te-ts% 2ased on this / ha e structured the following chapters% The reader will note that after dealing with the decades of HFMD and HFED( / ha e structured my account !ased on only three authors: Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert )chapter K* ' who ha e coauthored the most influential te-ts in this area ' and Francisco Stastny )chapter L*% This decision has !een made not without difficulty% 6any other authors ha e pu!lished important research in this area during the last decades% ,owe er( for the sa#e of the re+uired argumentati e clarity( / ha e presented their wor# in dialogue with these three ma?or authors that / see as ha ing esta!lished the main directions of research%

CHDFelipe 7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1 )Tesis para optar el grado de doctor en filosof:a( historia y letras( Ani ersidad del 7u5co( HFCC*%

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2.

Colonial paintings in the central Andes seen through the form of ornamental art

2.1 )esti&o architecture as context for the history of painting

8uring the twentieth century( communications a!out mesti5o architecture were the main conte-t of reference for communications a!out paintings in the Viceroyalty of 3eru% "ot only was the main su!?ect matter defined in a similar manner in !oth areas of research( !ut also the su!ordinated thematic pro!lems that organi5ed these communications were !asically the same% 7orrespondingly( many authors ha e sought to gi e account of !oth artistic forms as part of a common phenomenon% Anderstanding the historiography of painting in central Andes re+uires one to ta#e this conte-t into account% For this reason( this chapter presents a !rief outline of this !ody of literature% 7hapter C%H%H see#s to esta!lish the !asic definition of 6esti5o architecture as an inno%ati%e ornamentation of o+solete architectural structures' As intended in the construction of the definitions of ornamental art and parasitic ornamental systems( this definition aims at gi ing account of the ariations that are found in these te-ts from a position of second order o!ser ation% 7hapters C%H%C and C%H%K offer a diachronic organi5ation of the main models that ha e !een used to e-plain the emergence of this form of

FH

architecture%

2.1.1

Mesti o architecture as inno&ati&e ornamentation of archaic structures

The semantic form arte mestizo was pro!a!ly first used in the first decades of the twentieth century%CHH E en if some authors spo#e of a mesti5o style of painting I$intura mestizaK in the HFLDs(CHC this semantic was initially limited to the o!ser ation of an architectural style that was characteristic of a !road geographical area that reached from Are+uipa to 3otosi( including the 7ollao region and the shores of la#e Titicaca !etween HEMD and HJGD )/mage M on page CGK*%CHK At least since the HFEDs( this semantic form( which implies the o!ser ation of a difference !etween this style and its European contemporary counterpart( has pro ided a common ground for art historical research%CHL
CHHThe use of the term mesti5o in the history of Andean architecture has !een outlined in: 6ario P% 2uschia55o( 0El 3ro!lema del Arte 6esti5o: 7ontri!uci@n a su Esclarecimiento(1 in Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVB A 7M,G( ol% K )presented at the 7ongreso /nternacional de Americanistas TTTV/ - HFEL( Espa;a( HFEL*( CCF-CLLN <eorge >u!ler( 0/ndigenismo( indianismo y mesti5a?e en las artes isuales como tradici@n americana clSsica y medie al(1 Re%ista /istrica TTV/// )HFEM*: KE-LLN 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano%1 CHC]ngel <uido( 4stimati%a moderna de la $intura colonial )9osario: Academia "acional de la ,istoria( HFLC*% CHK/t must !e noted that( as an architectural style( mestizo art was not assimilated in $ima and 7usco% See: Samane5 Argumedo( 0$as portadas reta!lo en el !arroco cus+ue;o(1 HGKN Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 08eterminantes del llamado estilo mesti5o y sus alcances en Am4ricaN !re e consideraci@n del t4rmino(1 in Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVBB A 7M,,( ol% K )presented at the El 2arroco en Am4rica% 7ongreso /nternacional de Americanistas TTTV// - HFEE( 9epB!lica Argentina: $i!rart( HFEG*( CCLN Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 09enacimiento y manierismo en la ar+uitectura fmesti5af(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% K )HFEM*: F f% CHLThe centrality of this form was documented !y the sur ey conducted !y the 7entro de /n estigaciones ,ist@ricas y Est4ticas )Ani ersidad 7entral de Vene5uela* in HFEK( which aimed at capturing academic opinions regarding the historical and regional peculiarities of $atin American iceregal architecture% Only <eorge >u!ler and 9icardo 2o!ina spo#e against the use of the term ar1uitectura mestiza )+uestion J* due to its racist connotations% ,owe er( these authors& description of this architectural form is !asically the same% See: <ra5iano <asparini(

FC

$uis Enri+ue Tord has pro ided a remar#a!le description of this architectural style( as it can !e encountered in Are+uipa: %%% de los aspectos mSs sugesti os de la ar+uitectura are+uipe;a colonial es el contraste entre las amplias y claras superficies lisas de los edificios y la e-u!erante concentraci@n de la decoraci@n en el relie e de las portadas% El lien5o soporte comBn es la porosa te-tura de los sillares de la a olcSnica de cSlidas tonalidades !lancas y !lanco-almendradas% Estas al!as superficies contrastan agrada!lemente con el a5ul intenso del cielo( su!rayando con e-tremada precisi@n las l:neas cur as de las cBpulas( las +ue!radas de los remates escalonados de contrafuertes y frontispicios( y los rectos tra5os de torres( cornisas y estri!os de las !@ edas de ca;@n% A ello hay +ue sumar el apro echamiento de la lu5 en la proyecci@n de la som!ra de los relie es de tal forma +ue( en diferentes momentos del d:a( las e-ornaciones en la piedra encalada su!rayan lenta y serenamente las formas antropomorfas( 5oomorfas y fitomorfas +ue adornan las portadas% A determinadas horas pareciera e-tenderse a la ista un tapi5 s@lido( so!re un fondo oscuro( en el +ue se desarrolla un con?unto de dise;os de resonancia plateresca cuyo tratamiento planiforme y isual recuerda los te-tiles ind:genas prehispSnicos y colonialesN CHM X%%% one of the most suggesting aspects of colonial architecture in Are+uipa is the contrast !etween the !uildings& wide and pale surfaces and the e-u!erant concentration of relief decoration on their facades% The common support is the porous te-ture of olcanic la a in white and white-almond tonalities% These pale surfaces ma#e a nice contrast against the intense !lue s#y( underlining with e-traordinary precision the cur ed lines of the domes( the stepped coping of
0Encuesta so!re la significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca hispanoamericana(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% H )HFEL*: F-LC% One might as well add <ra5iano <asparini to the opponent&s side% See: <ra5iano <asparini( 0AnSlisis cr:tico de las definiciones fAr+uitectura popularf y fAr+uitectura mesti5af(1 in Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVB A 7M,G( ol% K )presented at the 7ongreso /nternacional de Americanistas TTTV/ - HFEL( Espa;a( HFEL*( CCH-CCJ% CHM$uis Enri+ue Tord( Are1ui$a art9stica y monumental )$ima( HFGJ*%

FK

!uttresses and facades( and the straight design of towers( cornices and !arrel aults% One must add the use of light for the casting of shadows that underline the anthropomorphic( 5oomorphic and phitomorphic motifs on the facades% At moments a solid tapestry seems to emerge against a dar# !ac#ground% The flatted character of its motifs reminds the plateres+ue architecture and the indigenous pre-,ispanic and colonial tapestry%Z Tord emphasi5es the use of car ing to decorate the e-terior surfaces of !uildings in a manner that reminds him of !oth ,ispanic I$lateres1ue architecture* and indigenous )tapestry* traditions% These are echoes of a !ody of literature that had !een pu!lished since the second +uarter of the twentieth century !y americanist authors li#e Ariel <arc:aCHE( ]ngel <uidoCHJ and Alfredo 2ena ides%CHG An emphasis on decorati e +ualities is symptomatic of this literature% We may ta#e the classic te-t !y 6arco Antonio 8orta( from HFLM( as an e-ample: This style offers nothing new in the sol ing of structural pro!lems% "or were the masters of Andean !aro+ue capa!le of creating effects of spatial composition or
CHEAriel <arc:a( 4l !ue%o Bndio' 4nsayos indianistas so+re la sierra sur$eruana )7u5co( HFKD*N Ariel <arc:a( 0$a ar+uitectura colonial del 7u5co(1 Re%ista de Arte //( no% F )HFKE*: G-HK% CHJ]ngel <uido is one of the most prominent authors in this tradition% ,is analyses of $atinAmerican architecture as resulting from the fusion of ,ispanic and Amerindian cultures date !ac# to at least HFCM )]ngel <uido( ?usin his$anoAind9gena en la ar1uitectura colonial W #refacio de Martin S' !oel )9osario: $a casa del li!ro( HFCM*%*% $ater pu!lications !y <uido on this su!?ect were highly successful% These include: 4urindia en la Ar1uitectura Americana )Santa F4: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFKD*% and Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte% 3ointing to a conference pu!lished in HFKG )]ngel <uido( 0El estilo meti5o o criollo en el arte de la 7olonia(1 in Actas del BB 0ongreso Bnternacional de /istoria de Am=rica )2uenos Aires( HFKG*( MGH-MFH%*( 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla has claimed that Angel <uido was the first author to use the term mestizo or criollo to descri!e some manifestations of colonial $atin American architecture )6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 H-C%*% / disagree with him% Felipe 7ossio del 3omar had already o!ser ed architecture and sculpture in colonial 7usco as a result of mestizaPe in HFCC and HFCG )7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1N Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a )7u5co: 9o5as( HFCG*%* 9egarding the use of the term criollo in this conte-t- it can !e found at least in a pu!lication !y Alfredo 2ena ides( from HFKE )see footnote CHG*% CHGAlfredo 2ena ides( 0An aspecto t4cnico del !arroco en general y en especial del hispanoa!origen(1 Re%ista de Arte //( no% F )HFKE*: C-J%

FL

plastic recession( either in their plans or in their richly car ed reta!lo-li#e frontispieces% They produced completely frontal fajades in which the architectural mem!ers are lined up in one single plane( ser ing as a frame for the e-u!erant decoration put flat on the wall li#e tapestry% These men were not so much real architects as they were decorators( and in their !ig ornamental ensem!les ' church fronts and interiors ' they ga e the style its truest e-pression for its true essence is decorationNCHF /n this te-t( on the other side of ornament there is structure% And !oth sides are seen as offering an incongruent unity in mesti5o architecture: their authors ha e applied a characteristic form of ornamentation to classical architectural structures of European origin% 6esti5o architecture is therefore defined !y its

e-perimentation on the ornamental le el of uncritically adopted structural forms: &'''so+re el es1ueleto tectnico his$ano la decoracin americana fue im$rimiendo su sello hasta alcanzar %alores de e<$resin $ro$ia- regional') 55Q 3'''the American decoration $ut its stam$ u$on the /is$anic tectonic skeleton until achie%ing its o"n regional e<$ression'6 There is a consensus regarding this description( which is !ased on the distinction !etween ornament and structure and !etween inno ation and repetition% 6ore pro!lematic has !een the +uestion regarding the factors that may e-plain the historical differentiation of this style%

CHFEnri+ue 6arco 8orta( 0Andean 2aro+ue 8ecoration(1 Hournal of the Society of Architectural /istorians M )HFLM*: KK% CCD6ario P% 2uschia55o( 0El pro!lema del arte mesti5o(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas V/( no% CC )HFEF*: GL-HDC% This article had !een pre iously pu!lished as: 2uschia55o( 0El 3ro!lema del Arte 6esti5o: 7ontri!uci@n a su Esclarecimiento%1 /n this te-t( /&ll ma#e reference to the first% 9egarding this affirmation !y 2uschia55o( see also: 6esa and <is!ert( 09enacimiento y manierismo en la ar+uitectura fmesti5af(1 F-HDN <ra5iano <asparini( 0Significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca en hispanoam4rica(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% K )HFEM*: LM-MD%

FM

2.1.2

'ormal disintegration and the influence of pre(contact indigenous traditions

/n the HFKDs( a first successful e-planatory model read artwor#s as political discourses of either /ndian re!ellion or Spanish dominion% The most clear e-ample of this perspecti e is the interpretation of the caryatids in the mesti5o facade of the church of San $oren5o in 3otosi as 0indiatids1 IindiNtidesK that sym!oli5ed the situation of /ndians in an e-ploitati e colonial system: mitayos are represented in the form of columns that sustain the colonial edifice )/mage E on page CGL*%CCH /n a more general sense( for Ariel <arc:a( whereas the structural definitions of 6esti5o architecture represented European oppression( its ornamental systems allowed for an ironic re enge%CCC

/n HFLG Alfred "eumeyer proposed an alternati e model that made use of the notion of emergence( according to which a unity is more than the sum of its parts% Ornamentation in mesti5o architecture( he argued( was achie ed through the disintegration of emerging unities in a process of ?ormens$altung or formal

CCH]ngel <uido( Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte( Cnd ed% )9osario: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFLH*( HLE% Pos4 $e5ama $ima&s renowned reference to the indiNtide in his essay La 4<$resin Americana from HFEF has led 74sar Augusto Salgado to affirm that the 7u!an writer coined the term )0,y!ridity in "ew World 2aro+ue Theory(1 The Hournal of American ?olklore HHC( no% LLM )Summer HFFF*: KCK%*% ,owe er( $e5ama $ima was twenty years old ' and had not !egun to pu!lish ' when the term was introduced !y Ariel <arc:a in HFKD )4l !ue%o Bndio' 4nsayos indianistas so+re la sierra sur$eruana( HLL%*% For an updated discussion of this facade( see: Thomas 8a7osta >aufmann( 0The Fajade of San $oren5o( 3otos:: /ssues of /nterpretation and /dentification(1 in To"ards a Geogra$hy of Art )Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( CDDL*( CJE-FG%( pre iously pu!lished in: Thomas 8a7osta >aufmann( 06aktrise ou m4tissage . Vers une interpr4tation de la fajade de San $oren5o de 3otosi(1 Re%ue de l>Art HCH( no% H )HFFG*: HH-HG%% CCC<arc:a( 0$a ar+uitectura colonial del 7u5co(1 F% 6ore a!out this perspecti e can !e found in: Antonio 2onet 7orrea( 0/ntegraci@n de la cultura ind:gena en el arte hispanoamericano(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: HM-HE%

FE

disintegration%CCK The concept had !een introduced a decade !efore !y Adolph <oldschmidt% /n the latter&s terms( &:er Vorgang +esteht darin- dass eine ?orm- sei es in der !atur- sei es in einem Cunst"erk- %on dem 8etrachter nicht in ihrem organischen Dusammenhang- sondern nur als eine Summe %on 4inzelheiten erfasst "ird')55G This definition is focused on the o!ser er who disintegrates the form !y ignoring its emergence as a unity that is more than the sum of its parts% /n $uhmann&s terms( the o!ser er o erloo#s the ornament% According to Alfred "eumeyer&s account of mesti5o architecture( /ndian artists were such o!ser ers who disintegrated imported forms !y o erloo#ing the ornament% The distinction !etween ornament and structure is treated !y "eumeyer as a difference !etween two #inds of system: &@hile this $rocedure remains $rimarily a negati%e element in architectural structure +ecause the fragmentized units are not recom$osed into a ne" entity- the $rocedure in the decorati%e system is from disintegration to integration')55* /ndian artists wouldn&t ha e !een a!le to distinguish the structural system as such: closer to 6arco Antonio 8orta&s and <ra5iano <asparini&s terms we could say that they were incapa!le of introducing new spatial concepts in dialogue with the now disintegrated forms% That was a #ind of inno ation that could only !e e-pected to come from Europe% On the other hand( /ndian artisans did participate in the creation of the ornamental or decorati e systems of these !uildings% /n this le el ' "eumeyer argued '( the reintegration of elements would
CCKAlfred "eumeyer( 0The /ndian 7ontri!ution to Architectural 8ecoration in Spanish 7olonial America(1 The Art 8ulletin KD( no% C )Pune HFLG*: HDL-HCH% CCLAdolf <oldschmidt( 08ie 2edeutung der Formenspaltung in der >unstentwic#lung(1 in Bnde$endence- 0on%ergence- and 8orro"ing in Bnstitutions- Thought and Art ( ,ar ard Tercentenary 3u!lications )7am!ridge( 6ass%: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFKJ*( H% CCM"eumeyer( 0The /ndian 7ontri!ution to Architectural 8ecoration in Spanish 7olonial America(1 HHG%

FJ

ha e !een reali5ed according to /ndian traditions: To call this techni+ue 0primiti e1 or 0!ar!aric1 does not help much% While incision and cutting-out are indeed primiti e techni+ues( they can ta#e on the same high degree of ela!oration as any other more 0de eloped1 approach( as the case of oriental art on its long road from 2a!ylon to the Alham!ra indicates% The same is true for the groo ing and !e eling techni+ue of the /ndians% What remains unchanged during the e olution of techni+ue is a way of seeing things which forces the nati e craftsman to adopt su!consciously his own manner to the alien design and to modify this alien design until the two ha e merged into a new entity% Where the stone under the hands of the European car er would ha e !een rounded( with the /ndian the edges remain flat% All forms tend to !e on the same plane( and flow into each other without accentuated points( as the treatment of the lea es and the chain !elow indicate% The groo es cut in e+ual depth create a shadow !and of e+ual dar#ness which accompanies the lighted surface of the stone with the corresponding dar# design% The flowers are not concei ed as !elonging to !otanical reality !ut are ad?usted to a design which is pre-Spanish% While the eye was loo#ing at the European sample )presuma!ly there was one*( the mind conducted the artisan&s hand into the traditional calligraphyNCCE The ornament was o!ser ed !y "eumeyer as a place where the sur i al of pre,ispanic motifs in colonial architecture was possi!le% CCJ /ndeed( pre-contact indigenous designs and ways of wor#ing the stone( together with the /ndians& nonrecognition of the unity of structural forms( are presented as sufficient causes
CCE/!id%( HDF% CCJThis idea was ta#en up again in a classical te-t !y ,arold Wethey: &Mestizo or creole art is the most original contri+ution of the /is$anic colonial $eriod' Bts distinguishing and fla%orsome 1ualities "ere those of the Bndian>s heritage' Mestizo is the more accurate term- +ecause this art like the ne" race "as $rocreated +y the cross+reeding of t"o races' 0reole is the term generally em$loyed- although its meaning fails in ade1uacy- since creole in Latin America refers to a $erson of 4uro$ean +lood- +orn in the !e" @orld') ,arold E% Wethey( 0olonial Architecture and Scul$ture in #eru )7am!ridge: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFLF*( CD%

FG

of the emergence of this regional style%

This e-planatory model was se erely critici5ed in the decade of HFED( specially !y the American art historian <eorge >u!ler% CCG On the one hand( this author&s o!?ections were directed against the concept of ar1uitectura mestiza' For >u!ler( this concept was misleading inasmuch as it suggested that architectural phenomena had !iological causes: &>Mestizo> architecture is a regretta+le intrusion from racial diction- and it says nothing a+out architectural form' Bt is misleading in suggesting that architecture is su+Pect to +iological >la"s'>)55M According to him( this concept wrongly suggested that this regional architectural style was produced !y indi iduals of mi-ed Amerindian and Spanish ancestry%CKD

>u!ler&s o!?ection to the concept of 6esti5o architecture found little acceptance in an academic community that wasn&t interested in this concept&s racial connotation !ut rather in its reference to a process of cultural syncretism% CKH >u!ler also raised
CCG<eorge >u!ler and 6artin S% Soria( Art and Architecture of S$ain and #ortugal and their American :ominions )2altimore( HFMF*( FH f%N >u!ler( 0/ndigenismo( indianismo y mesti5a?e en las artes isuales como tradici@n americana clSsica y medie al%1 CCF<asparini( 0Encuesta so!re la significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca hispanoamericana(1 KD% CKD>u!ler and Soria( Art and Architecture of S$ain and #ortugal and their American :ominions ( FH f% CKHThe answer gi en !y 6esa and <is!ert to <asparini&s sur ey may !e ta#en as an e-ample: 0 8iensi >mestizo> se entiende como mezcla de $roductos culturales' /i+ridacin de formas es$a2olas con ind9genas' 4l t=rmino estar9a mal a$licado si se entiende $or >ar1uitectura mestiza> una ar1uitectura $roducida $or mestizos' 4sto es falso $ues los monumentos de este estilo fueron construidos indistintamente $or es$a2oles- criollos- mestizos e indios') )<asparini( 0Encuesta so!re la significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca hispanoamericana(1 KH%* A similar position was presented !y 3Sl >elemen two years later: &0uando ha+lamos de arte mestizo no hay alusin racial' 4sta $ala+ra- cuando es referida al arte- no $lantea cuestin alguna de &raza)' 4n este caso estamos ante el t=rmino correcto 1ue define con e<actitud- ya sea su uso %ernNculo o erudito- la im$erecedera cultura 1ue ha resultado de la fusin de dos grandes ci%ilizaciones- la ind9gena y la

FF

important criti+ues in this respect% The thesis of cultural syncretism re+uired one to erify !oth the effecti e participation of /ndians in the decoration of 6esti5o architecture and the presence of pre-contact indigenous motifs in the resulting ornamental systems% The first pro!lem was e-plored with some success !y a few te-ts !y ,arold Wethey(CKC Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( CKK and $uis Enri+ue Tord%CKL / ha e already +uoted Alfred "eumeyer&s argument regarding the second pro!lem% According to this author( instead of resem!ling natural models( the flatedged car ing of e-terior walls continued pre-,ispanic traditions% ,owe er( as it was noted !y <eorge >u!ler and others( such an influence could not !e esta!lished with enough certainty% On the contrary( according to >u!ler( the data show a gradual e-tinction of pre-,ispanic moti es during the colonial period:

es$a2ola') )3Sl >elemen( 0El !arroco americano y la semSntica de importaci@n(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% HF )HFEE*: HFGC%* Also according to <ra5iano <asparini( this style constitutes a manifestation that integrates different cultures )<asparini( 0AnSlisis cr:tico de las definiciones fAr+uitectura popularf y fAr+uitectura mesti5af(1 CCC%* CKCWethey e-pressed his discontent in this respect: &Rnfortunately fe" contracts relating to these monuments ha%e +een disco%ered and $u+lished' @hate%er is kno"n of the artists sho"s them to ha%e +een Bndians') Wethey( 0olonial Architecture and Scul$ture in #eru( G% CKK6esa and <is!ert made reference to two documents from the eighteenth century that argued in fa or of the /ndians&s artistic a!ilities( which would suppose their participation% A first one !y 2artolom4 de Ar5ans( from HJHL( says that( 0Verdad es 1ue a1uellos indios no alcanzaron en sus fN+ricas el medio $unto del arco- y lo hac9an como un remate de $unta- $ero de columnas- +asasca$itales- cornisas- frisos- ar1uitra+es y lo demNs con $rimor lo o+ra+an y finalmente si en a1uellos tiem$os fa+rica+an mara%illas con su natural ingenio no es mucho 1ue en este se hayan tanto adelantado con el trato es$a2ol') )2artolom4 Ar5ans y Vela( /istoria de la Villa Bm$erial de #otos9( ol% K )3ro idence( HFEM*( HE%* A second one from his son 8iego( from HJKE( says: &cuyas o+ras fueron mePores 1ue el de las naciones muchas del mundo- y hoy no son menos en la ha+ilidad 1ue muestran $ara todo- $ues todos los oficios mecNnicos y a;n las artes li+erales las tienen ellos- llegando los mNs a alcanzar con la razn natural Iha+lo de los al+a2ilesK en un edificio lo 1ue corres$onde la latitud- altura y longitud') )/!id% LDK*% See: Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0$o ind:gena en el arte hispanoamericano(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: KM% CKLTord has noted that authorities in the city of Are+uipa forced the encomenderos of the region to send /ndians to wor# in the reconstruction of !uildings that had !een damaged !y recurrent earth+ua#es% See: $uis Enri+ue Tord( 0El 2arroco en Are+uipa y el Valle del 7olca(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% C( 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK*( HJL%

HDD

The e-tinction was gradual !ut its pace changed% /n the si-teenth century the rush to European con entions of representations and !uilding( !y colonists and /ndians ali#e( precluded any real continuation of nati e traditions in art and architecture% /n the se enteenth century( so much had !een forgotten( and the e-tirpation of nati e o!ser ances !y the religious authorities was so igorous( that the last gasps of the !earers of /ndian rituals and manners e-pired unheardNCKM To !e certain( <eorge >u!ler did recogni5e cases of continuation of pre-,ispanic artistic motifs in other colonial manifestations( CKE !ut he openly critici5ed Alfred "eumeyer for not analy5ing the sur i al of thematic motifs in mesti5o architecture in enough detail%CKJ

This meant that the concept of ?ormens$altung ' as it had !een adopted !y "eumeyer ' had to !e re iewed if it was to sur i e% 2y depri ing this concept of the reference to racial mi-ture and cultural syncretism that the notion of mesti5a?e pro ided( >u!ler came closer to <oldschmidt&s dispassionate formalism% CKG /nstead of these references( the core\periphery distinction functioned as main theoretical

CKM<eorge >u!ler( 0On the colonial e-tinction of the motifs of pre-7olum!ian art(1 in 4ssays in $reA 0olum+ian art and archaeology( ed% Samuel >ir#land $othrop )7am!ridge: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFEH*( HL% 9egarding the situation in "ew Spain( >u!ler wrote that( &?rom the Bndian %ie"- e%erything started as if from zero('''$ainters had to learn the $rinci$les had to learn the $rinci$les of 4uro$ean oneA$oint $ers$ecti%e construction as "ell as the rendering of forms in graduated color to simulate their a$$earances in light and shade' Any Bndian sense of need or $ro+lem sur%i%ing from $reA0on1uest life "as dri%en underground or out of e<istence' At the same time e%ery e%idence sho"s the Bndian craftsmen eagerly turning to learn the su$erior techni1ues and re$resentational ha+its of their 4uro$ean teachers') <eorge >u!ler( The Sha$e of Time' Remarks on the /istory of Things )"ew ,a en and $ondon: Qale Ani ersity 3ress( HFEC*( MG% CKE>u!ler( 0On the colonial e-tinction of the motifs of pre-7olum!ian art(1 HF f% CKJ/!id%( HE% CKGThis characteri5ation of <oldschmidt&s history of art !elongs to 7hristopher Wood( 0Art ,istory&s "ormati e 9enaissance(1 in The Btalian Renaissance in the T"entieth 0entury )presented at the Acts of an /nternational 7onference( Florence( Villa / Tatti: Olsch#i( CDDC*( JJ%

HDH

conte-t%CKF Accordingly( cases of mesti5o art were e-plained in terms of %%%deri aciones pro inciales hechas por artesanos primiti os !asadas en fuentes mucho mSs antiguas y transmitidas desde remotas capitales a tra 4s de arias fases intermediarias de simplificaci@n y reducci@nNCLD X%%%pro incial deri ations done !y primiti e craftsmen !ased on much older sources( which had !een transmitted from remote capitals through many intermediary phases of simplification and reduction%Z ,ere( the disintegration of forms is understood as a recursi e process that leads !y itself to a simplification of the elements of the original forms% The process was thus implicitly adopted as a general law% Accordingly( this position does not assume that the artists in ol ed in this process are necessarily /ndians( !ut primiti e craftsmen ' a position that had !een e-plicitly critici5ed !y "eumeyer%

2.1.!

Artistic centers, pro&inces and peripheries

This de!ate seemed to come to an end !y HFEL at the KEth /nternational 7ongress of Americanists% /n this occasion( a closing discussion concluded that it was not possi!le to o!ser e with enough confidence the sur i al of pre-contact indigenous

CKFThomas 8a7osta >aufmann o!ser es >u!ler&s adoption of the core\periphery distinction as his main contri!ution to the discussion of the geography of art )Thomas 8a7osta >aufmann( To"ard a geogra$hy of art )Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( CDDL*( chap% V//%*% While 8a7osta does note that >u!ler adopted the concept of ?ormens$altug from Adolf <oldschmidt in his te-t from HFEH )>u!ler( 0On the colonial e-tinction of the motifs of pre-7olum!ian art%1*( / thin# it is important to note that he might ha e !een influenced not only !y "eumeyer&s te-t from HFLG( !ut also !y his colleague 6artin S% Soria( who had applied a similar scheme to the analysis of colonial painting in 7usco and the Andean highlands only two years !efore )Soria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD%1*% CLD<eorge >u!ler( 07iudades y cultura en el per:odo colonial de Am4rica $atina(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% H )HFEL*: GL%

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motifs in colonial architecture%CLH 2esides noting this empirical limitation( se eral authors argued that the sur i al of an indigenous tradition was not a necessary condition for the differentiation of what was #nown as mesti5o architecture( inasmuch as this style closely resem!led architectural traditions from other continents and epochs% As such( it was part of a more general phenomenon that responded to the formation of artistic pro inces%CLC /n words of >u!ler( %%%un anSlisis mSs cuidadoso s@lo ad ertir:a la reela!oraci@n pro incial de temas europeos% $as a;adiduras &nati as& son dif:ciles de pro!ar: el arte en cuesti@n es caracteri5ado por la misma proli?idad y formas planas +ue se repiten en los dise;os pro inciales y rurales en todas partes del mundo( independientemente de la ra5aNCLK X%%%a more detailed analysis would o!ser e the pro incial re-ela!oration of European motifs% 0"ati e1 add-ons are difficult to pro e: the art in +uestion is characteri5ed !y the same details and flat forms that are repeated in pro incial and rural designs all o er the world( independently from race%Z
CLH UUUVB 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas actas y memorias( 4s$a2a 38arcelona- MadridSe%illa- F7 de agosto a M de se$tiem+re6- 7M,G( ol% K )Se illa( HFEE*% CLCSee also: Erwin Walter 3alm( 0Elementos Salom@nicos en la Ar+uitectura del 2arroco(1 in Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVBB A 7M,,( ol% K )presented at the El 2arroco en Am4rica% 7ongreso /nternacional de Americanistas TTTV// - HFEE( 9epB!lica Argentina: $i!rart( HFEG*( CKK-CLDN Erwin Walter 3alm( 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas( no% HL )HFJC*: CM-KDN <ra5iano <asparini( 0$a ar+uitectura colonial como producto de la interacci@n de grupos(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: HG-KHN <ra5iano <asparini( 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas ( no% HL )HFJC*: F-CLN 9o!ert 7% Smith( 07omments on the paper presented !y <ra5iano <asparini(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: KF-LLN Francisco Stastny( 0An art m4tis.(1 in L>Am=ri1ue latine dans son art ( $&Am4ri+ue latine dans sa culture )3aris: A"ES7O( HFGD*( HDM-HHL% 6uch later( 6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a Sa:5 o!ser ed that one couldn&t discard the hypothesis that motifs suggesting pre-,ispanic origins were purposely introduced !y the intellectual authors of these compositions: non-/ndian mem!ers of religious orders who were interested in the construction of conceptual !ridges that could allow nati e populations to comprehend imported religious traditions )6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a SSi5( 0Ana contri!uci@n andina al !arroco americano(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( CDC-CDK%* CLK>u!ler( 07iudades y cultura en el per:odo colonial de Am4rica $atina(1 GK%

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The argumentation de eloped !y the <erman scholar Erwin Walter 3alm CLL in the conte-t of the core\periphery distinction is specially interesting in this respect% /n HFJC( 3alm argued that the history of colonial art and architecture could !e organi5ed in three phases according to the form that guided the process of stylistic diffusion% /n a first phase( the diffusion of European art in the iceroyalty of 3eru was led !y religious orders that run wor#shops for nati e artisans in the hinterland( where European techni+ues were rapidly adopted% 7apital cities too# the leading role in a second phase when they( as &administrators of an im$orted canon of decorum-)5G* !ecame channels of diffusion of imported models instead of centers of critical reception% The creati e role in this history is reser ed to the hinterland&s reinterpretation of these imported forms in a third phase that stretched from the last +uarter of the se enteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century% /n concordance with <eorge >u!ler&s description of the process of ?ormens$altung( the resulting mesti5o style is understood as an &'''eco de la $ro%incia 1ue a la %ez sim$lifica y com$lica las se2ales 1ue $arten del centro')5G,3'''echo of the $ro%ince that sim$lifies and com$licates at the same time the signals that come from the center'6 This is still understood as a form of pro incial art that( without transforming the architectural system( alienates the surface of construction%

Anli#e most common applications of the center\periphery distinction to the study


CLL3alm( 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas%1 CLM/!id%( CG f% CLE/!id%

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of $atin American art history at that time( CLJ 3alm&s depiction of the history of colonial art as a simple three-phased process implied a distinction !etween two #inds of pro inces ' a distinction that closely resem!les the one drawn !y Arnold ,auser ?ust a couple of years later when analy5ing art in relation to 0the cultural stratum1 of their intended audiences%CLG For !oth 3alm and ,auser( the difference !etween the #ind of art that was produced for the pro incial elites and the one that was produced for the people in the hinterland )3alm* ' or the difference !etween pro incial and fol# art ),auser* ' lies on the criteria that guided the appropriation of metropolitan artistic inno ation !y particular groups in each of these localities%CLF Following a model similar to the one used !y Pan 2ialostoc#i more than a decade later(CMD we can distinguish !etween artistic centers( their pro inces and artistic peripheries ' a distinction that would later !e fundamental to Francisco Stastny&s comprehension of the history of painting in colonial central Andes( as he presented it as late as HFFF% CMH /n e ery case( what characteri5es the
CLJFor a short reference to the history of the application of this distinction to the history of art( see 8a7osta >aufmann( To"ard a geogra$hy of art ( chap% M( J% CLGArnold ,auser( Soziologie der Cunst ( Krd ed% )6Rnchen: 7% ,% 2ec#( HFGG*% CLF,auser understood fol# art as a poor imitation IA+klatschK that destroys( decomposes and simplifies the arts of the cultural elite% The fol# is thus o!ser ed as a sort of !lac# !o- that acti ely selects and decomposes its sources from the fine arts% 8espite this dialectic relation( the #ind of influence that the fine arts ha e on the fol# arts is seen as a source of creati e inspiration that may cause the complete discontinuation of an earlier tradition% The contrary occurs when the fine arts are influenced !y the fol# arts% /n this case( the latter merely pose opportunities for inno ation within an artistic tradition% 2esides this intrinsic interrelation( !oth art forms remain distinct inasmuch as they respond to different criteria of e aluation: whereas the cultural elite e aluate 0art as art1 with regards to 0artistic icissitudes(1 it is the e-ternal reference of communication which capti ates attention in the fol# arts% /n this sense( ,auser o!ser ed that one must not mista#e fol# art for pro incial art( for the first doesn&t depend on the taste of the metropolis( e en when it recei es important and undenia!le influences from the arts of the metropolitan or pro incial elites% /!id%( MGL-EDL% CMDPan 2ialostoc#i( 0Some Values of Artistic 3eriphery(1 in @orld Art' Themes of Rnity and :i%ersity( ed% /r ing $a in( ol% H )presented at the TTV/th /nternational 7ongress of the ,istory of Art( 3ennsyl ania( HFGF*( LF-ML% CMHSee chapter L%L%

HDM

pro inces is an adoption of the metropolitan canon and not a process of ?ormens$altung- to use <oldschmidt&s concept% The latter would only !e characteristic of the peripheral reception of metropolitan artistic forms%

This threefold typology would later allow for an integration of the mesti5o and the center\periphery models( as it ga e space for rich analyses regarding the criteria that guided the o!ser ation of art !y specific groups in each locality% The focus could again !e on the /ndian and 6esti5o populations of the hinterland( for whom mesti5o architecture was !uilt% For authors li#e Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( CMC for e-ample( such a sur i al was made possi!le !y the peripheral situation that conditioned the artists& access to metropolitan inno ations through copies of copies% The greater isolation of rural /ndian communities in the Viceroyalty of 3eru( as compared to the situation e-perienced !y similar communities in the Viceroyalty of "ew Spain( would e-plain that 6e-ican artistic manifestations remained closer to ,ispanic sources than 3eru ian ones( which partly responded to pre-,ispanic traditions%

There is a clear parallelism !etween this art historical tradition and the one that deals with painting in roughly the same region and time frame( as it has !een outlined in chapter H%C% /n !oth cases we can o!ser e the same general process that led towards the reintegration of the notion of mesti5a?e within the framewor# that had !een pro ided !y the center\periphery distinction% 6esti5o architecture
CMC6esa and <is!ert( 08eterminantes del llamado estilo mesti5o y sus alcances en Am4ricaN !re e consideraci@n del t4rmino(1 CCM% This pro!lem will !e dealt with in more detail in chapter K%

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and painting are in many respects seen as part of a uni+ue phenomenon ' specially so in the hinterland( where imported mesti5o paintings from 7usco are used to decorate the interior of mesti5o architecture( as Sartiges noted%

2.2 *hy didn+t native artisans learn to paint like ,uropeans -and produced ornamental art instead./ -1021 2 10!1.

From HFCD to HFLD( a first discourse structured the history of painting in the colonial period which assumed the point of iew of the social system of art as uni ersally alid% From this position( references to the social conte-t of art aimed at confronting the +uestion: Why wasn&t the European tradition of painting fully adopted if locally produced images were clearly inferior. E en in their !rightest period( when they re ealed a s#illful application of technical procedures and a correct understanding of the re+uirements of composition( paintings produced in the Viceroyalty of 3eru were mere imitations of European or metropolitan models% This is the common framewor# that we find in te-ts pu!lished !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar )HFCC*CMK and $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta )HFKK*%CML

A short essay pu!lished !y 6ariano 3ic@n Salas )HFKH* CMM offered an alternati e
CMK7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co%1 This doctoral dissertation from HFCC was pu!lished in a re ised edition in HFCG )7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a%*% The main arguments presented here are the same in !oth te-ts% /n this te-t / +uote the HFCG edition% CML$uis Al are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial )Santiago de 7hile: 8irecci@n <eneral de 3risiones( HFKK*% CMM3ic@n Salas( 0El medie alismo en la pintura colonial%1

HDJ

point of

iew% /nstead of attempting to e-plain why local paintings from the

si-teenth( se enteenth and eighteenth centuries failed as artistic communications( this author merely o!ser ed that they resem!led European paintings from the thirteenth century% 2y so doing( his essay anticipated a comprehension of this history in terms of the synchroni5ed occurrence of asynchronous le els of artistic de elopment% While 6iguel SolS&s te-t )HFKM* CME clearly followed 7oss:o del 3omar&s dissertation( in it we can also see a rela-ation in the application of e-ternal artistic criteria of acceptance\re?ection to iceregal paintings%

7orrespondingly( his reference to e-terior determinations of artistic practice didn&t aim primarily at e-plaining artistic failure( !ut came closer to an attempt to gi e account of a difference !etween artistic forms% ,is adoption of the notions of hieratism and nai ety were central in esta!lishing this form of posing the pro!lem( which would !e adopted !y su!se+uent authors%

A pu!lication !y Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado from HFKG CMJ shows the influence that SolS&s te-t had% /t also allows us to o!ser e how this influence was e-erted% / propose in this respect that( with the possi!le e-ception of 6ariano 3ic@n Salas& re iew of 7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t( these te-ts from the second +uarter of the twentieth century treated their e-ternal references as part of a common pool of #nowledge that they handed down to future generations or to a !roader pu!lic with only minor ariations% /n this sense( / see that art historical communications
CME6iguel SolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB )Editorial $a!or( HFMG*% CMJPuan 3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 in Lima $recolom+ina y %irreinal )$ima: Artes <rSfica - Tipograf:a 3eruana S% A%( HFKG*( JF-HJH%

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on this su!?ect matter had not yet structured themsel es as a scientific program in the sym!olically generali5ed medium of truth% Following "i#las $uhmann( / ta#e this medium to !e a constellation of !eha ioral e-pectations in which an author aims at triggering( through the communication of his or her e-perience( a corresponding e-perience in his or her audience%CMG This medium corresponds to a situation in which the acceptance of communicated #nowledge as a premise for further !eha ior is at sta#e: &:er +esondere semantische A$$arat eines @ahrheitsmediums mu[ nur dann ent"ickelt und in Ans$ruch genommen "erden"enn es darum geht- neues- unerhJrtes @issen durchzusetzen( oder "enn man %on %orgefundenem @issen a+"eichen oder es kritisieren "ill')5*M This is not the conte-t of the te-ts that we are going to re iew in this chapter% Their intention was neither to esta!lish new #nowledge nor to critici5e old one% As we will see( the historical narration that they reproduced was still highly dependent from un erified #nowledge that had !een passed down since ^tienne de Sartiges& days%

/n o!ser ing the influence of these te-ts( we can distinguish !etween erifia!le e ents( narrations and the theories or models that gi e them structure% /n this chapter / will highlight four #ey e ents: that the oldest son of 6urillo taught painting in an academy in 7uscoN that 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio was trained at the wor#shop of 6ichelangelo 2uonarrotiN that he was the cham!er painter of pope <regory T///N and that Pos4 del 3o5o founded an academy of drawing and painting

CMG$uhmann( :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft ( KKE%: &Alter lJst durch Communikation seines 4rle+ens ein ents$rechendes 4rle+en %on 4go aus') CMF/!id%( KKF%

HDF

in the 7ity of the >ings shortly after HJFD% The first e ent was seemingly forgotten shortly after !eing included in Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado&s pu!lication from HFKG% The second and third e ents were e-plicitly confronted against empirical data decades later% E en though the second one is now considered to !e pro!a!ly false as a result of such confrontation( it has continued to !e echoed in recent years% The fourth one has continued to !e a #ey e ent in art historical narrations% / ha e selected these e ents !ecause they were highly rele ant for the art historical te-ts re iewed in this section: they esta!lish a direct and personal lin# !etween the European history of art and local history% /n chapter C%C%E( a re ision of the history of these e ents will pro ide e-periential data regarding the conformation of art historical communications a!out this su!?ect according to a scientific program% At the same time( it will demonstrate the necessity of reali5ing a critical synthesis of these communications that highlight the social conte-t of art%

On the le el of the distinctions that gi e structure to these narrations( this period was highly rele ant( as far as it esta!lished the o!ser ation of colonial paintings as ornamental art% Although this form is already recogni5a!le in 7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t( it wasn&t until SolS&s te-t from HFKM that the o!ser ation of colonial paintings was clearly esta!lished as an e-perience of nai ety and hieratism and not merely as an o!ser ation of unsuccessful artwor#s%

HHD

2.2.1

'elipe Coss)o del *omar

The doctoral dissertation presented !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar at the Ani ersidad del 7usco in HFCC o!ser es colonial painting in 7usco in terms of a regional school( the &4scuela 0us1ue2a de #intura') This is not understood in Sartiges& sense ' which is nonetheless still present in his te-t '( !ut as a local tradition that had to !e distinguished from contemporary European art% 2y assuming the criteria of e aluation pro ided !y the social system of art( this te-t as#ed why the European tradition of painting wasn&t successfully adopted in this region( gi%en that it "as +etter than "hat "as +eing $roduced locally'

Adopting the most simple form to draw a historical process( CED this te-t presented a ersion of the history of the 7usco school of painting organi5ed in three epochs% Art historical research on this su!?ect continued to !e !ound to this scheme for decades% /ndeed( 7oss:o del 3omar&s ersion of it was assumed almost literally !y other te-ts during the ne-t two decades CEH and it has continued to !e echoed later on%CEC

7ommon to all three epochs in this narration is a reference to the nati e painters& 0realistic tendency%1 This is ne er a!solutely une+ui ocal% /ts argumentati e role in
CED$uhmann( 08as 3ro!lem der Epochen!ildung und die E olutionstheorie%1 CEHAl are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial( HFN 6iguel SolS( /istoria del Arte his$anoAamericano Ar1uitectura- 4scultura- #intura y Artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB( Hst ed% )2arcelona( 6adrid( 2uenos Aires( 9io de Paneiro: Editorial $a!or( HFKM*( CKF f%N 3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 HEE% CEC$ate resonances of it can !e found in a passage !y Erwin Walter 3alm( from HFEE: Erwin Walter 3alm( 0El Arte del "ue o 6undo despu4s de la con+uista espa;ola(1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas //( no% L )HFEE*: KG% See +uotation in page HGJ%

HHH

7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t is nonetheless clear: within a general process that is represented !y the indi idual process of learning( a reference to the nati e artisans& realistic tendency allowed to gi e account of the fact that( in each epoch( local paintings didn&t fulfill the artistic criteria of e aluation in which these artisans were !eing educated%

According to 7oss:o del 3omar( paintings from a first epoch denote a complete a!sence of artistic techni+ues due to a lac# of proficient educators% /n this conte-t( the nati e artisans& realistic tendency made them o erloo# the 0acti e structures1 of the models they followed% "eumeyer&s appropriation of <oldschmidt&s concept of ?ormens$altung E as discussed in chapter C%H%C ' has here a clear predecessor% / propose that we can understand this reference to the 0acti e structures1 of models as a reference to composition or ornamentation in a luhmannian sense: it is what #eeps the wor# together% This is congruent with 7oss:o del 3omar&s o!ser ation that this realistic tendency was inflected with a primarily religious )a non-artistic* sentiment: El primer per:odo se caracteri5a por los tanteos( imperfecciones y faltas +ue atestiguan la ausencia de educadores en un arte +ue tiene necesidad de !ases fundamentales% Andan a tientas en torno de la t4cnica( e ignoran la perspecti a( el di!u?o( el modelado y la anatom:a% Su mayor caracter:stica es la tendencia hacia el realismo( +ue perdura a tra 4s de todas las etapas de su desarrollo% El sentimiento religioso pre alece en este realismo( +ue los induce a copiar formas ignorando la estructura acti a( sin inter enci@n de la italidad% 7uando tratan de ser originales en sus temas( son pueriles y c@micos( desconocen en a!soluto las

HHC

reglas de la composici@nNCEK XThe first period is characteri5ed !y imperfections and flaws that testify the a!sence of educator in an art that re+uires !asic training% They si5e up the techni+ue( ignore perspecti e( drawing( modeling and anatomy% Their most defining characteristic is the realistic tendency( which lasts through all stages of its de elopment% A religious feeling pre ails in this realism( which leads them to copy forms ignoring the acti e structure( without inter ention of itality% When they try to !e original in their themes( they are puerile and comic( they ignore e erything a!out the rules of composition%Z A second period !egun with the arri al of a group of European painters that introduced the nati e artists to the 9enaissance tradition% This author claimed that an academy of fine arts was esta!lished at this point( where a son of the Se illian master 2artolom4 Este!an 6urillo would ha e !een appointed as a teacher of painting: Entonces se fund@( a principios del siglo( una academia de !ellas artes +ue tu o profesores espa;oles( entre ellos un hi?o de 6urillo +ue( como era costum!re en a+uella 4poca( hered@ la profesi@n de su padre( aun+ue no el talentoN CEL XThen( at the !eginnings of the century( an academy of fine arts was founded( which had Spanish teachers% Among them( a son of 6urillo that( as it was usual( pursued the career of his father( although without the talent%Z This is an important e ent within this historiographic tradition% E en though it lac#s reference to a source that could !e ta#en to !e independent from this narration( it will !e adopted !y $uis ]l are5( 6iguel SolS and Puan 6anuel 3e;a% /t
CEK7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a( EL f% CEL/!id%( EE%

HHK

will not( howe er( sur i e the decade of HFKD )see chapter C%C%E*% These may !e the last echoes of the historical ersion that the count of Sartiges adhered to in his memoirs from HGMH: according to him( the school of 7usco had !een a royal organi5ation in which talented nati e artisans had !een trained in the art of painting%CEM

As a conse+uence of the presence of these European masters( nati e artists would ha e !ecome familiar with the fundamental principles of the art of painting% ,owe er( &'''el realismo de sus tendencias continu siendo un o+stNculo $ara el desarrollo de sus facultades imaginati%as')5,, 38ut their realistic tendencies continued to +e an o+stacle for the de%elo$ment of their imaginati%e faculties'6 We can also read this passage in the light of the form\content distinction that highlights art&s self- and e-ternal-reference in the luhmannian model% As we ha e seen( in the first epoch( their realistic tendency had forced nati es artisans to o erloo# the acti e structures of the models they followed% /n this second epoch( these tendencies continued to !e an o!stacle in a similar sense% 7oss:o del 3omar seems to point out that( e en though these artisans had ac+uired some !asic s#ills( the images they produced continued to lac# ornamentation as an operation that creates a world of its own that would ha e to !e distinguished from an outside "orld and which could( from the perspecti e of ego( !e ascri!ed to the artist as a product of his or her imagination%

CEMSee citation in page CM% CEE7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a( EE%

HHL

This already anticipates 7oss:o del 3omar&s depiction of a third epoch in which this school would ha e e-perienced massi e impro ements% 7us+ue;o paintings from this last period are regarded as perfect imitations )though with a distincti e 0touch1* of European masterwor#s% ,owe er( despite their authors !eing technically proficient in the art of painting ' including the perception and reproduction of composition '( they would not ha e reached the le el of spontaneous creation: $legaron en este per:odo a imitar a la perfecci@n las o!ras maestras( dSndoles un sello originalN conocieron las leyes de la perspecti a y del di!u?o( dominaron la t4cnica de los empastes y glac:s( aplicSndolos sa!iamente( o!teniendo as: transparencias maestras( supieron emplear el arte del claro oscuro( tirando admira!les efectos art:sticos( y en la composici@n llegaron a la perfecci@n% En este per:odo nuestros artistas comen5aron a infundir carScter i o a la l:nea y dar alor art:stico a los tonos( como resultado( mSs !ien de la concepci@n total de la o!ra( +ue como senda propicia para llegar a su parto% "o pudiendo comprender los inocentes artificios de los pre-rafaelistas( se inspiran en el realismo er:dico y profundo de la escuela flamencaNCEJ X/n this period they were a!le to imitate the masterwor#s with perfection( gi ing them an original touchN they #new the laws of perspecti e and drawing( they mastered the techni+ues for fillings and glacis( applying them wisely( and thus o!taining masterful transparencies% They #new how to use the chiaroscuro( drawing admira!le artistic effects% And they reached perfection in composition% /n this period our painters !egan to gi e life to the lines and artistic alues to the tones% This was done as the result of the conception of the whole piece( rather than a way to arri e to its !irth% "ot !een a!le to comprehend the innocent artifices of 3re-9aphaelites( they were inspired !y the
CEJ/!id%( EE f%

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eridical and profound realism of the Flemish school%Z The #ey a!ilities that had !een a!sent in pre ious periods were then achie ed: lines were infused with itality and tonalities ac+uired artistic alue% The elements of the image were su!ordinated to a whole ' an 0acti e structure1 that guides composition% The realistic tendencies of nati e artists are again present( !ut( in this last epoch( they merely e-plain a preference for the Flemish school( with its &'''%eridical and $rofound realism')

For 7oss:o del 3omar( if nati e artists didn&t reach in this third epoch the le el of spontaneous creation( it was due to changes in the social conte-t of art that would ha e led to this school&s decay and( ultimately( to its disappearance% CEG /t is possi!le that in descri!ing this third epoch this author shifted from the o!ser ation of the self-programming of artwor#s to the emergence of 0interte-tual1 structures% ,ere one o!ser es once again that in this author&s wor# the notion of 0realistic tendencies1 is related to that of 0acti e structures1 or composition% When ma#ing reference to the a!sence of originality )what he calls 0spontaneous creation1*( he has to ma#e reference to other conte-tual factors( this time under an am!iguous category of 0social conditions(1 which he left une-plored%

Anli#e his allusion to such social conditions( this author&s reference to the nati e authors& 0realistic tendencies1 implied the use of racial distinctions that( in the following decades( would gi e way to theories of cultural mesti5a?e' Felipe 7oss:o
CEG/!id%( EE%

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del 3omar claimed that mesti5os were the most original and fertile interpreters of South American art during the se enteenth century !ecause they had inherited the !est features of Andean and Spanish ethnic groups ' the sense of harmony of the first and the creati e initiati e of the second%CEF At this point we find again the distinction !etween realistic tendencies and imaginati e faculties: the !est e-amples of colonial Andean art( specially in the field of sculpture( could !e understood as a fusion of /nca canon and simplicity with Spanish fantasy and ariety%CJD

7oss:o del 3omar&s distinction !etween racial and social conditions may correspond to the distinction !etween the self-programming of artwor#s and their interrelation in the le el of the art systems& autopoieis% /t is also possi!le that the notion of 0spontaneous creation1 encompasses !oth ' an alternati e that will !e clearly adhered to !y $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta% /n any case( these conditions are meant to e-plain the frustration of !oth le els of structure formation: worlds of fiction are )not* created that are )not* new in relation to the system&s memory% As such( they re eal this te-t&s structuration as part of the self-description of the
CEF &4n los $rimeros tiem$os del coloniaPe- la raza mestiza fue el $roducto- $rinci$almente en el 0uzco- de soldados fuertes y de indios sanos- muchas %eces de sangre real( heredaron mNs las cualidades 1ue los defectos de sus antecesores y en muchos casos se $roduPo el accident hereu< de 1ue nos ha+la :ar"in''' #oseyendo la iniciati%a creadora del criollo- Punto con la fantas9a e intuicin de armon9a con 1ue esta+a dotado el indio- el mestizo lleg a ser el int=r$rete mNs original y fecundo del arte sudAamericano durante el siglo UVBB') /!id%( KM% CJD &Acom$a2ando a estos ar1uitectos- no slo %inieron artistas escultores y $intores- $ara adornar los tem$los( sino 1ue traPeron consigo lienzos originales y co$ias de los grandes maestros del Renacimiento''' ?u= en el desarrollo de estas dos artes donde $rimero triunf el mestizaPe' :e estos santos =ticos y $o+remente tallados( de los adornos $laterescos y +arrocos- nacieron los mara%illosos $;l$itos- los reta+los- artesonados- encaPes de molduras- 1ue son milagros de +uen gusto' \- este $rodigio- se de+i a la fusin de las dos artes' 4l arte Bncaico le $rest la sana fuerza de sus cNnones y de su sim$licidad- el arte euro$eo contri+uy con su fantas9a y %ariedad') According to +uotation !y Al are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial( HG%

HHJ

social system of art% /t will !e interesting to see if such a distinction !etween le els of structure formation in art crystalli5es in this art historical tradition% We can e-pect that the main difficulty will lie in the integration of !oth le els( for which 7oss:o del 3omar could ha e adopted the concept of spontaneous creation% /n the literature on mesti5o architecture( we can see that such an integration was achie ed !y "eumeyer !y adapting the concept of ?ormens$altung' When >u!ler cleansed this concept from its references to Amerindian cultures ' a reference that supplied the means to as# for the meaning of the indi idual artwor#s '( this concept&s integrati e function was lost%

A second edition of Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar&s dissertation from HFCC was pu!lished in 7usco in HFCG%CJH This edition reached a !roader academic audience in South America% 2y loo#ing at pu!lications from the decade of HFKD( we can reconstruct the dialogue that defined some !asic features of the social history of painting in colonial central Andes% / will loo# at four authors in chronological order that !uilt upon the wor# of 7oss:o del 3omar ' although they tended not to e-plicitly ac#nowledge this common source% These authors wrote from different cities in South America: Santiago de 7hile )6ariano 3ic@n Salas and $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta*( 2uenos Aires )6iguel SolS* and $ima )Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado*% The !oo# !y 6iguel SolS( pu!lished in HFKM and again in HFMG !y Editorial $a!or in

CJHSee footnote CMK%

HHG

2arcelona( reached an e en !roader audience and esta!lished itself as a fundamental point of reference for future pu!lications% /ndeed( it was through this !oo# !y 6iguel SolS that the ideas put forward !y 7oss:o del 3omar were pu!lished again in 3eru in HFKG( paraphrased !y Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado%

2.2.2

Mariano *ic+n ,alas

/n HFKH( the Vene5uelan intellectual 6ariano 3ic@n Salas pu!lished in 2uenos Aires( in the first olume of the influential 9e ista SA9( a short !ut interesting commentary on 7oss:o del 3omar&s !oo# from HFCG% For him( e en though 7oss:o del 3omar&s !oo# had limited critical alue( it constituted a rich source of historical documentation%CJC 2ased on the information pro ided !y this !oo#( he claimed that colonial painting could !e understood in terms similar to medie al art in Europe: "o s@lo en la t4cnica primiti a( la frontalidad y el detallismo ingenuo( el carScter narrati o de la pintura( el amor con +ue trata el episodio sin su!ordinarlo al con?unto( recuerda esta pintura la de los primiti os europeos% 7omo los pintores de la /talia del siglo T/// reaccionando contra el r:gido arte !i5antino para darle a las escenas religiosas mayor intimidad( descu!ren ya ingenuamente la realidad italiana( los pintores coloniales de El 7u5co isten a la Virgen con el tra?e de una mesti5a rica( o hacen +ue presida la procesi@n de 7orpus( el /nca Sairi Ttupacc% El goce moderno del Arte 3uro( de la li!re in enci@n est4tica( no corresponde
CJC &Recientemente- el escritor $eruano ?' 0ossio del #omar ha reunido en un li+ro de rica iconograf9a I#intura 0olonial' 4scuela 0uz1ue2a' /' G' Rozas- editor- 0uzcoK algunas de las o+ras mNs caracter9sticas de a1uella escuela %ernNcula de $intura' 4l li+ro no ali%ianado de un gran lastre retrico- tiene escaso %alor cr9tico- $ero suministra curiosas noticias so+re la %ida de los $intores coloniales y un material grNfico $ro$icio al Puicio com$arati%o') 3ic@n Salas( 0El medie alismo en la pintura colonial(1 HEL f%

HHF

naturalmente a esta pintura reali5ada con pasi a honrade5 de artesano% El pintor )suele ser un lego +ue !e!e la sopa de un con ento( o un mesti5o +ue tiene ha!ilidad para otras artes manuales* pinta por+ue ha ocurrido en la ciudad un milagroso suceso de +ue con iene a la 9eligi@n guardar memoria( o un rico se paga un cuadro religioso a manera de e- oto( o !ien el cuadro cumple una didSctica de de oci@n descri!iendo en impresionantes episodios las penas del /nfiernoNCJK XThis painting recalls that of the primiti e Europeans not only in its frontality and in its nai e concern for details( in its narrati e character( in the lo e with which it treats each episode without su!ordinating it to the whole% $i#e /talian painters from the thirteenth century( who( reacting against the rigid 2y5antine art in their search for more intimacy in religious scenes( nai ely disco ered the /talian reality( did colonial painters in 7usco put the Virgin gorgeous dresses( or made the /nca Sairi Ttupacc precede o er the procession of the 7orpus% The modern en?oyment of 3ure Art( of free aesthetic in ention( does not naturally correspond to this painting that is reali5ed with the passi e honesty of the craftsman% The painter )who is usually a layman who drin#s from the cup of a con ent( or a mesti5o who has the s#ills for other manual arts* paints !ecause something miraculous has occurred in the city( the memory of which 9eligion is interested in #eepingN or a wealthy man pays with a religious painting an e-otoN or the can as fulfills a didactic of de otion !y descri!ing( in horrific scenes( the sorrows of ,ell%Z This short essay offered a more clear presentation of the central distinction that has guided the understanding of this local tradition of painting% ,e o!ser ed this as a primiti e and nai ely narrati e form that aimed primarily at documenting the presence of the sacred in the world% Thus far was this local tradition similar to that
CJK/!id%( HEM%

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of the 0primiti e Europeans1 from the thirteenth century% This form of painting was distinguished from a 0modern1 one that was rooted in the Iuattrocento and which corresponded to an unrestricted aesthetic e-perience: the seeds of an Art 3ure% 9e?ecting 7oss:o del 3omar&s theory regarding the influence of the nati e artists& realistic tendency( 3ic@n Salas merely claimed that this second form of painting didn&t ta#e root in colonial $atin American soil !ecause of an unfa ora!le social conte-t% /n this respect( his short essay only offered a list of en ironmental factors that included: the medie al mentality of Spanish soldiers( /ndian superstitions( geographical isolation( and social unrest ' all factors that will !e ta#en up again !y later pu!lications%

2y offering ?ust a short list of en ironmental factors( this author a oided constructing an e-planatory model li#e the ones that fueled the analyses of his contemporaries% 7orrespondingly( neither does this te-t appear to parta#e of an o!ser ation of this regional tradition of painting from a point of iew that assumes the priority of the differentiated criteria of the social system of art% ,owe er( / see how one could easily read this te-t as implying such position( insofar as the 7usco school of painting is presented as corresponding to an early phase of the e olution of painting as it too# place in Europe: as such( it was one that had not yet achie ed the full potential of art( which corresponds to what we understand as its social differentiation% / prefer to a oid this reading and highlight instead the clear presentation of a fundamental distinction as 6ariano 3ic@n Salas& contri!ution to this historiographic tradition% This distinction !etween two forms of painting( one

HCH

' primiti e and nai e ' inscri!ed in the conte-t of religion and the other aiming towards autonomy( is depicted as the simultaneous occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment in different regions of the world% Following ]ngel <uido&s pu!lications in the HFLDs it will !e possi!le to draw this distinction within the same region( !e it in terms of the difference !etween official and mesti5o )fol#* art or according to the difference !etween the pro incial adoption of European artistic criteria and the differentiation of a local school in the periphery%

2.2.!

-uis .l&are /r0uieta

/n a !oo# from HFKK( $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta further de eloped 7oss:o del 3omar&s thesis of mesti5a?e( which he complemented with a few o!ser ations regarding the lac# of communication !etween the main centers of artistic production in Europe and this region in South America'5.G The integration of !oth forms of analysis was achie ed !y introducing the figure of the genius( which seems to !e nothing more than an adaptation of 7oss:o del 3omar&s notion of spontaneous creation% With it( any reference that there could ha e !een to the distinction !etween two le els of structure formation in art was lost% The main framewor# continued to !e pro ided !y the self-description of a social system of art% Artwor#s and traditions were ?udged according to differentiated artistic criteria% This resulted( as it has already !een noted( in a negati e e aluation of locally produced paintings as compared with imported ones%CJM ,is analysis was correspondingly guided !y the +uestion:
CJLAl are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial% CJM &Los lienzos realmente %aliosos 1ue e<ist9an en estos $a9ses cuando se $roclamaron inde$endientes- %inieron de 4s$a2a- Btalia o ?landes- com$rados con dinero remesado en

HCC

Why wasn&t the European tradition of painting successfully adopted( gi en that it was !etter than the paintings that were !eing produced locally.

For ]l are5( a first cause was the fusion of the European tradition ' represented !y Spain( /taly and Flanders ' with Asian and local ones% ,e called the result of this synthesis 0American Art'1 This author&s recognition of Asian influences in colonial art in the central Andes( which would ha e !een recei ed from the ,ispanic colonies in the 3hilippines( didn&t find much echo% CJE /t was( howe er( an interesting o!ser ation( as much as it e-plicitly included an o!ser ation of 0American Art1 in terms of decorati e art: $a influencia asiStica se caracteri5a( principalmente( por el sentimiento decorati o( por las tonalidades del color( generalmente i oN por el deficiente estudio del claro-oscuroN por la ausencia de e-presi@n de las figurasN por la profusi@n de los dorados y por la afici@n de reproducir o!?etos%%%N CJJ XThe Asiatic influence is characteri5ed( mainly( !y a decorati e sentiment( !y the generally i!rant tonalities of colorN !y the deficient study of chiaroscuroN !y the a!sence of e-pression in their figuresN !y the profusion of gilding and !y their lo e for reproducing o!?ects%%%Z This Asian artistic tradition( with its primarily decorati e sentiment( is depicted !asically in opposition to the Spanish representati e tradition% CJG /n turn( regional South American traditions were characteri5ed ' closely following 7oss:o del 3omar
Am=rica') B+id'- . f' CJE/n this respect( ]l are5 Ar+uieta was strongly influenced !y the o!ser ations made !y <iulio Ar:stides Sartorio in a letter to the 6inister of E-ternal 9elations of the <o ernment of Ecuador in HFCL% See /!id%( CD% CJJ/!id%( HD% CJG/!id%

HCK

' !y their simplicity and their emphasis on the representation of local customs%

/n this framewor#( to mar# a painting as successful re+uires one to recogni5e that it satisfies what has !een defined as the European or Spanish criteria% /n the scheme proposed !y ]l are5( paintings inscri!ed in the resulting 0American Art1 the description of which was already done in the same terms used !y more recent pu!lications ' were not fully successful: the influence of Spanish art wasn&t strong enough to neutrali5e the Asian and local influences: Esta pintura incipiente( este arte americano adolece( en la mayor:a de los casos( de defectos y fallas +ue se e-plican% "o es Bnicamente la falta de estudio de la lu5( de los matices y de las som!ras( o( me?or dicho( de los tonos luminosos y sus contrastes lo +ue se echa de menos en la pintura colonial americanaN es tam!i4n la deficiencia en la perspecti a y en las proporciones( +ue son isi!les%%%N CJF XThis incipient painting( this American art( suffers( in most cases( defects and flaws that can !e e-plained% /t is not only an insufficient study of lighting( of graduations and shadows( or( in other words( of the tones of light and their contrasts( what one misses in colonial American paintingN !ut one can also find deficiencies in the representation of perspecti e and proportion%Z At this point( when trying to e-plain why the Spanish tradition wasn&t fully adopted !y local artisans( $uis ]l are5 went !ac# to 7oss:o del 3omar&s threephased narration( which he paraphrased almost literally% CGD ,e introduced( howe er( some interesting changes% First( he interpreted the latter&s rather am!iguous reference to an ideal stage of 0spontaneous creation1 - a characteristic
CJF/!id%( HH% CGD/!id%( HF%

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that would ha e !een frustrated in the third epoch of the 7usco school( according to 7oss:o del 3omar ' as meaning that none of the local artists was a genius% Second( he made a more e-plicit argument regarding the social conditions that could e-plain this state of affair: not only were the s#ills of the immigrant masters critical for the formation of local artists( !ut also was the possi!ility to esta!lish communications !etween the local centers of production and the metropolitan ones( specially in the form of imported models and of spiritual interchange% Without these( local artisans( &'''carec9an de es$acio $ara los %uelos de la imaginacin' Ten9an 1ue limitarse a re$roducir lo 1ue %e9an''') 5L7 3'''lacked enough s$ace for the flights of imagination' They had to limit themsel%es to re$roduce of "hat they sa"'''6 This could !e another echo of 7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t( which insisted on the local artisans& realistic tendency% <eniality and imagination encompass in this model the two le els of structure formation in art: worlds of fiction are )not* created that are )not* new in relation to the system&s memory%

Finally( it is interesting to note how( when adopting some central features of 7oss:o del 3omar&s description of this historical process( ]l are5 also adopted references to historical e ents that( with time( would !e forgotten% Among these( / want to highlight the reference to that son of 2artolom4 Este!an 6urillo who( it was claimed( was a teacher in an academy of painting in this region: &'''un hiPo de 8artolom= 4ste+an Murillo- 1ue hered la $rofesin de su $adre- sin 1ue llegara a $isar las gradas a 1ue ascendi el autor de sus d9as')5L5 3''' a son of 8artolom=
CGH B+id'- 7Q' CGC/!id%

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4ste+an Murillo- "ho inherited the $rofession of his father- "ithout getting to stand on the ste$s to "hich the author of his days ascended'6 The author is clearly +uoting 7oss:o del 3omar(CGK the sources of whom we don&t #now( !ut may go !ac# to Sartiges& conte-t in mid-nineteenth century%

2.2.#

Miguel ,ol1

Only two years after $uis ]l are5&s pu!lication( 6iguel SolS pu!lished a new ersion of 7oss:o del 3omar&s narration of the history of painting in 7usco% CGL /n this te-t we find again a clear ascription to the three-phased narrati e model that depicts a progression in the nati es& pictorial s#ills throughout the colonial centuries% The critical independent aria!le in this model is once again the

immigration of European painters% The +uestion that guides the o!ser ation of the conte-t of art is also why were these painters not fully successful in deli ering the European tradition% ,owe er( this +uestion is no longer triggered !y a pre ious negati e ?udgment regarding the artistic +uality of locally produced paintings% / propose that this decisi e insight is indicated !y the replacement of 7oss:o del 3omar&s notion of realistic tendency with the notions of hieratism and nai ety( which might ha e !een adopted from the essay pu!lished !y 6ariano 3ic@n Salas some years !efore%

/f we ta#e a closer loo# at each of the three epochs in 7oss:o del 3omar&s model( we
CGKSee footnote CEL% CGLSolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB%

HCE

can see that interesting inno ations ha e !een introduced( some of which will !e decisi e for su!se+uent te-ts% For SolS( the first epoch( %%%tiene un intenso carScter hierStico( pro eniente de su estado primiti o y de su falta de realismoN pero cuando la pintura de esta 4poca se muestra realista( ofrece la mSs pura ingenuidad( como en la 07oncepci@n de la Virgen 6ar:a1( +ue mSs +ue todo es un aca!ado cuadro de costum!res populares del 7u5coN CGM X%%%has an intense hieratic character( which corresponds to its primiti e state and to its lac# of realismN !ut( when painting in this epoch present itself as a realistic enterprise( it offers the most pure nai ety( li#e in the 07onception of the Virgin 6ary1( which is a!o e all a well finished painting of popular customs from 7usco%Z 7oss:o del 3omar&s insistence on the nati e artisans& realistic tendency has here !een replaced !y a reference to a lac# of realism% This is no contradiction( for different notions of realism are used !y each of these authors when ma#ing reference to this epoch% Anli#e 7oss:o del 3omar( SolS opposed realism to hieratism% /n this respect( this author adopted some #ey insights from the short essay that 3ic@n Salas had pu!lished in 2uenos Aires% ,ieratic paintings situate the represented persons in a higher le el of reality( in a sense that resem!les the sacred\profane distinction% /n this sense( most paintings from this epoch are not realistic( meaning that they do not ma#e direct reference to e eryday reality% When these paintings from the first period do represent e eryday reality( they are nai e% This notion of nai ety( so difficult to define( will !e a constant in the literature on colonial art: / propose that it signals that the o+ser%er has decided that heWshe
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cannot assume that the image "as $roduced according to differentiated artistic criteria or in reference to a memory of art' ,ence( in SolS&s te-t( these early paintings are e-clusi ely alued for recording regional customs: for someone who e-pects parta#ing in artistic communication through images( these images ha e lost themsel es in a reference to their en ironment% /n this sense( SolS&s o!ser ations don&t merely coincide with 7oss:o del 3omar&s refle-ions% 2y adopting the concepts of hieratism and nai ety( they ha e de eloped these in a direction that will !e highly successful%

According to this narration( the end of the first period coincides with the immigration of European painters( who would ha e founded an Academy of 3ainting% Among them( SolS still mentioned the eldest son of 6urillo( who would ha e arri ed to 3eru in the last years of the eighteenth century% This is pro!a!ly a typographical error( for a son of 6urillo )HEHJ-HEGC* would ha e !een more than a hundred years old !y then% /nterestingly( SolS did no longer claim that this son of 6urillo was less s#illful that his father( as pre ious authors had done pro!a!ly guided !y the notions of spontaneous creation and geniality%

The final historical period( in which painters in 7usco reached their clima-( is again characteri5ed !y the imitation of these artists& wor#s% Qet an interesting difference !etween imitations and their models was drawn !y 6iguel SolS: 0$os cuadros religiosos estSn e-entos del dolor cristiano( +ue los pintores cu5+ue;os no sintieron( como tampoco sintieron el desnudo ni les interes@ el

HCG

paisa?e( +ue s@lo utili5aron como fondoN1 CGE X9eligious paintings lac# 7hristian sorrow( which painters from 7u5co didn&t feel( ?ust as they didn&t feel the nude% "either were they interested in landscape( which was only used as a !ac#drop%Z That these claims a!out the artists& feelings are !oth am!iguous and un erifia!le tells us a great deal a!out how SolS understood his intellectual tas#% The manner in which he dealt with his sources( either !i!liographical or e-ternal to the historical narrations( is symptomatic of these te-ts from the second +uarter of the twentieth century% SolS&s te-t doesn&t seem to ha e !een written anticipating that its readers would assume a critical position in relation to communicated #nowledge% /nstead( they seem to relate to art historical #nowledge as a traditional !ody of information that they pass down either to new generations of art historians or to a general pu!lic% /n this sense we can infer that a scientific program of art history had not yet !een fully de eloped in relation to this su!?ect matter% The decisi e analyses done !y 6artin S% Soria in the HFMDs seem to ha e achie ed this% Antil then( art historical te-ts on this su!?ect matter were nonetheless highly successful in positioning their communicated #nowledge as premise for further communications( e en if this didn&t re+uire them to ma#e use of the structures that a sym!olically generali5ed medium of truth could ma#e a aila!le% The almost literal adoption of 7oss:o del 3omar&s model !y !oth ]l are5 Ar+uieta and SolS indicates that this was the case% /n turn( SolS&s te-t was also successful in this manner( as one can see in a pu!lication !y Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado from HFKG%
CGE/!id%( CLD%

HCF

2.2.$

2uan Manuel *e3a *rado

/n HFKG( Puan 6anuel 3e;a 3rado pu!lished an essay that paraphrased the same section that SolS seems to ha e ta#en from 7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t% Again( there is no e-plicit ac#nowledgment of the sources used% The resem!lance to SolS&s ersion of this section is unmista#a!le: En la escuela cu5+ue;a( se distinguen tres per:odos: El primero tiene carScter hierStico( pro eniente de un estado primiti o y de su falta de realismoN pero cuando se muestra realista( presenta un aspecto original( por+ue mSs +ue realista son cuadros de costum!res( como sucede con el lien5o de la 7oncepci@n de la Virgen en la capilla de ,uar@n( de la pro incia de 7alca% $a Virgen estS acostada en una cu?a( atendida por San Pos4( mientras una partera atiende al reci4n nacido% El segundo per:odo empie5a a principios del siglo TV///( en +ue se funda la Escuela de la 3intura +ue tu o arios maestros espa;oles( entre ellos un hi?o de 6urillo% 6arca el tercer per:odo la imitaci@n y copia de los grandes maestros europeos( sin de?ar los cu5+ue;os de poner el sello de su originalidad( per:odo en +ue la pintura alcan5@ un gran adelanto( ya tratSndose de o!ras religiosas( hist@ricas( mitol@gicas o retratosN CGJ XThree periods can !e distinguished in the 7usco school: the first one has a hieratic character that comes from its primiti e state and from its lac# of realismN !ut when it is realistic( it results original( since rather than !eing realistic( these paintings represent customs( li#e it happens in the can as of the 7onception of the Virgin in the 7hapel of ,uar@n( in the pro ince of 7alca% The Virgin is laying down in a cuPa( attended !y Saint Poseph( while a midwife attends the new!orn !a!y% The second period !egins early in the eighteenth century( when the School of 3ainting was founded which had many Spanish teachers( among them a son of 6urillo% This third period was mar#et !y the
CGJ3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 HEE%

HKD

imitation and the copy of the great European masters( without the 7u5+ue;o painters withholding from putting their original touch% This is a period in which painting made great ad ances( !e it in religious( historical( or mythological paintings or in portraits%Z While the main characteristics of each period in SolS&s ersion are #ept intact( 3e;a 3rado introduced minor modifications% There are three interesting changes% First( we are gi en a more concrete description of an image from the first period ' !ut( unfortunately( not a reproduction of it% Second( while the reference to the School of 3ainting from early eighteenth century is #ept( we are gi en e en less information a!out 6urillo&s son% While 7oss:o del 3omar and ]l are5 Ar+uieta had written that he had !een less talented than his father( CGG and SolS had claimed that he had arri ed to 3eru at the end of the eighteenth century ' more than a hundred years after the death of his father '( 3e;a 3rado #ept ?ust a !asic reference to his participation in this institution a!out which we will ne er read again% E en this son of 6urillo was forgotten !y later communications% Finally( 3e;a 3rado didn&t adopt SolS&s reference to the nati e artists& e-perience of 7hristian sorrow% ,owe er( he did claim that nati e artists could ne er sincerely portray sorrow ' a characteristic that would e-plain( according to this author( their preference for the wor# of 6urillo: Sus o!ras se adaptaron a nuestro medio me?or +ue las de ningBn otro artista( por ese sentimiento de nuestros pintores( agenos XsicZ al dolor( y +ue cuando lo reprodu?eron( ?amSs fueron sincerosNCGF
CGGSee +uotation in page HHC% CGF3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 HLC%

HKH

XTheir wor#s were !etter adapted to our milieu than those of any other artist( !ecause of that sentiment that our painters( alien to sorrow( had% When they did reproduce sorrow( they were ne er sincere%Z These three changes suggest that this author might ha e !een more concerned than his predecessors with the pro!a!ilities of acceptance of this information% ,owe er( he still pretended to pass down this ersion of history without ma#ing reference to his !i!liographical and empirical sources% And( in some respect( this e-pectation was met%

2.2.4

5anding o&er history

While the participation of a son of 6urillo in the history of painting in 3eru seems to ha e !een ruled out soon after 3e;a 3rado&s pu!lication( other elements in this history were reproduced for decades without reference to documents not produced !y art history itself% / want to !ring attention to three such elements( which are particularly meaningful for a ersion of colonial art history such as the one held !y these te-ts from the first half of the twentieth century: that the /talian painter 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio had !een an apprentice of 6ichelangelo 2uonarrotiN that he was a cham!er painter of 3ope <regory T/// !efore tra eling to $ima in HMGG or HMGFN and the less contro ersial claim that the Se illian painter Pos4 del 3o5o founded an academy of drawing and painting in $ima after his arri al in HJFD% /t is outside the limits of this study to follow in detail the history of these claims% ,owe er( some !rief remar#s regarding how this information was treated

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!y rele ant te-ts in twentieth-century literature will help us understand how #nowledge a!out the history of colonial painting in this region was constructed% At the same time( they will demonstrate the necessity of reali5ing a critical synthesis of these communications that highlight the social conte-t of art%

An important source for twentieth-century scholars was 7eSn 2ermBde5&s dictionary of painters( pu!lished in 6adrid in HGDD% According to this source( &#=rez de Alesio IMateoK 3es6 $intor y natural de Roma - donde estudi en la escuela de Miguel ]ngel 8uonarota')5MQ 3#=rez de Alesio IMateoK 3is6 $ainter and natural from Rome - "here he studied in the school of Michelangelo 8uonarota'6 7eSn 2ermBde5 mista#enly added that friar Antonio de la 7alancha had awarded 34re5 de Alesio( in his chronicle from HEKG( the title of cham!er painter of 3ope <regory V/// )HHGJ*%CFH /n fact( friar 7alancha had claimed that 06ateo de Alesio1 had !een the painter of 3ope <regory T/// )HMJC-GM*% CFC ,owe er( 7eSn 2ermBde5&s ersion was passed down to the te-ts pu!lished !y our authors in the first half of the twentieth century% /n 6iguel SolS&s !oo# from HFKM we find that:

CFDPuan Agust:n 7eSn 2ermBde5( :iccionario histrico de los mNs ilustres $rofesores de las 8ellas Artes en 4s$a2a( ol% L )6adrid: 9eal Academia de San Fernando( HGDD*( JM% CFH/!id%( L:JJ% CFCThis corresponds to a wonderful description that friar 7alancha made of an image of St% Augustine !y 06ateo de Alesio1 that was part of the decoration of the con ent of St% Augustine in $ima: &4l arco toral $or la $arte de la Bglesia estN adornado con un grand9simo lien^o- 1ue del techo de la Bglesia asta el arco toral +aPa ar1ueado- en 1ue estN nuestro #adre san August9n sentado en un trono con un Sol en la mano dando luces a ocho o diez :otores de la Bglesia- 1ue reci+en los rayos en las $lumas con 1ue escri%en- i todos estNn en cuer$os gigantes( o+ra de a1uel ;nico i raro $intor Mateo de Alesio- 1ue lo fue del #a$a Gregorio :ecimotercio' 4l liencio es fine^a del arte i $rimor del $incel') Antonio de la 7alancha( 0ornica Moralizada del Orden de San Agust9n en el #er; con Sucesos 4Pem$lares en esta Monar1u9a( ol% C )Archi o y 2i!lioteca "acionales de 2oli ia( CDDF*( HJK( CDD%GJ%HJ%CKM\! ic\7aptura\upload\7ronicC%pdf% 9egarding 34re5 de Alesio&s painting in the Sistine 7hapel( see: Francisco Stastny( 0A "ote on Two Frescoes in the Sistine 7hapel(1 The 8urlington Magazine HCH( no% FCH )8ecem!er HFJF*: JJE-JGK%

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El primero y mSs ilustre de los pintores +ue tra!a?aron en $ima fu4 6ateo 3edro de Alesio( disc:pulo de 6iguel ]ngel y pintor de cSmara de <regorio V///( nacido en 9oma en HMLJ% 7eSn 2ermBde5 y los archi os de la catedral de Se illa le llaman 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio% 8espu4s de tra!a?ar en la 7apilla Si-tina( lle @ a Se illa el arte de su maestroNCFK XThe first and most notorious of the painters that wor#ed in $ima was 6ateo 3edro de Alesio( disciple of 6ichelangelo and cham!er painter of <regory V///( !orn in 9ome in HMLJ% 7eSn 2ermBde5 and the archi es of the cathedral of Se ille call him 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio% After wor#ing in the Sistine 7hapel( he !rought the art of his master to Se ille%Z This reinforced ersion of 7eSn 2ermBde5&s te-t was then echoed !y 3e;a 3rado( who again failed to cite his source: &4ntre los $rimeros $intores 1ue tra+aParon en Lima- estN #edro Mateo de Alesio- nacido en Roma en 7*G.- disc9$ulo de Miguel Angel- $intor de 0Nmara de Gregorio VBBB') 5MG 3Among the first $ainters "ho "orked in Lima there is #edro Mateo de Alesio- +orn in Rome in 7*G.- disci$le of Michelangelo- cham+er $ainter of Gregory VBBB6'

$ater generations would recei e this #nowledge almost intact% /n HFJH( in a te-t !y Ernesto Sarmiento( the reference to 3ope <regory V/// had !een corrected: 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio fue un pintor romano( +uien tra!a?@ en el estudio de 6iguel Angel segBn 7eSn 2ermBde5( y es muy posi!le haya sido pintor de cSmara del 3apa <regorio T///NCFM
CFKSolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB( CKM-E% This section was left intact in the second edition of HFMG( in pages CKM f% CFL3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 HLM% CFM"ote that in Sarmiento&s te-t the num!er of pope <regory is !ac# to T///% ,e doesn&t mention 7alancha&s chronicle( howe er% Ernesto Sarmiento( 4l Arte Virreinal en Lima )$ima: Editorial

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X6ateo 34re5 de Alesio was a 9oman painter who( according to 7eSn 2ermBde5( wor#ed in the wor#shop of 6ichelangelo% /t is possi!le that he was a cham!er painter of 3ope <regory T///Z% / dou!t that Sarmiento used 7eSn 2ermBde5&s dictionary as he claims( since he didn&t mention 7alancha&s chronicle% At the same time( we can o!ser e that the general tone of his ersion is completely different from SolS&s and 3e;a 3rado&s% While Sarmiento echoed earlier te-ts( he seems to ha e su!tly +uestioned the eracity of their claims%

A year later( Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( after carefully e-amining the a aila!le sources( pointed out that this ersion of history was pro!a!ly false% CFE They ga e four reasons% First( that 6ichelangelo died in HMEL( when Alesio was only HJ years old% Second( that none of 6ichelangelo&s !iographers mention Alesio% Third( that in Alesio&s !iography there are no traces of transmission of 6ichelangelo&s fame( as it occurred to all his #nown apprentices% And forth( that none of the !iographers who met Alesio in person )3acheco and Van 6ander* mentioned his studies with 6ichelangelo% ,owe er( an unpro!lematic reference to Alesio&s apprenticeship in the wor#shop of 6ichelangelo can still !e found in a te-t !y 7lara 2argellini from CDDE%CFJ The idea that the /talian painter 34re5 de Alesio(
Arica( HFJH*( EL% CFEPos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 4l $intor Mateo #=rez de Alesio )$a 3a5: Ani ersidad 6ayor de San Andr4s( HFJC*( CF f% CFJ &Mateo #=rez de Alesio I7*GQAc'7,F5K- no" identified as Matteo Godi da Leccia- +orn near Volterra in Tuscany- also accom$anied a %iceroy to the !e" @orld- Garc9a /urtado de Mendoza"ho took him to Lima in 7*MQ' Matteo Godi had +egun his career "ith Michelangelo in 7*,Qs- "as an engra%er as "ell as a $ainter''') 7lara 2argellini( 03ainting in 7olonial $atin America(1 in The Arts in Latin America- 7GM5A7L5Q( ed% Poseph P% 9ishel and Su5anne $% Stratton )Qale Ani ersity 3ress( CDDE*( KCM%

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who has !een presented as the central a-is of the field of painting in the 7ity of the >ings during his stay from c%HMGF to HEHE( CFG had maintained such a direct contact with a central figure of European art history( was e-tremely attracti e% This was specially so in the conte-t constructed !y the te-ts pu!lished in the second +uarter of the century( which reconstructed the history of colonial painting in the image of an indi idual process of learning%

6eanwhile( Francisco Stastny carefully analy5ed Alesio&s authorship of a mural in the Sistine 7hapel% This author noticed that Alesio pro!a!ly !egun his mural during the papacy of 3ius V and finished it shortly after his death( during the papacy of <regory T///% ,is supposed position as 7ham!er 3ainter would ha e !een limited to this contri!ution%CFF

A second element in this history that / want to highlight !elongs to its other end: to the era of the foundation of academies in the last decades of the eighteenth century% The first of such academies of drawing was( according to the consensual narration ' which has forgotten that earlier academy in which( it had !een claimed( a son of 6urillo would ha e !een a teacher '( the one Pos4 del 3o5o founded in the 7ity of the >ings in HJFH after a!andoning the scientific e-pedition of Ale?andro 6alaspina% Antil today( to my #nowledge( references to this academy lac#
CFGSimilar words were used !y Esta!ridis 7Srdenas: &Alesio %i%i en la calle Mantas- frente al 0on%ento de La Merced- donde esta+leci taller y tu%o muchos disc9$ulos entre los 1ue se cuentaa$arte de #edro #a+lo Morn- su hiPo AdriNn- el agustino ?rancisco 8eParano- :omingo Gil?rancisco Garc9a- 0osme ?errero y ?igueroa y ?rancisco SNnchez !ieto entre otros- con%irti=ndose en el ePe de la $intura lime2a de entonces') 9icardo Esta!ridis 7Srdenas( 0/nfluencia /taliana en la 3intura Virreinal(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC*( HKK% CFFStastny( 0A "ote on Two Frescoes in the Sistine 7hapel%1

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grounding in sources produced outside art historical narrations% An important source is again 6iguel SolS&s te-t from HFKM( where he wrote that: En HJFH se esta!leci@ en $ima el profesor de pintura Pos4 del 3o5o( indi iduo de la 9eal Academia de Se illa( +ue forma!a parte de la e-pedici@n mar:tima de Ale?andro 6alaspina% "o pudiendo continuar el ia?e por falta de salud( solicit@ del irrey licencia para esta!lecer una escuela de di!u?o( +ue se a!ri@ el CM de mayo de ese a;o en la calle de Santo 8omingo% Pos4 del 3o5o decor@ el Tri!unal del 7onsulado y pint@ en templos y casas particulares( donde +uedan muchas o!ras suyas%KDD XThe teacher of painting Pos4 del 3o5o arri ed to $ima in HJFH% ,e was a mem!er of the 9eal Academia of Se ille( and mem!er of the sea e-pedition of Ale?andro 6alaspina% When he couldn&t continue his ?ourney due to health pro!lems( he as#ed the iceroy for a license to esta!lish a school of drawing( which he opened on the CMth of 6ay of the same year( in Santo 8omingo street% Pos4 del 3o5o decorated the Tri!unal del 7onsulado and painted in temples and pri ate residences( where many paintings done !y him can still !e found%Z ,is wording suggests that he might ha e followed the entry on Pos4 del 3o5o in 6anuel 6endi!uru&s :iccionario /istricoA8iogrNfico del #er; &#ODO- :' HOS_ :4L' A #rofesor de $intura- indi%iduo de la real academia de Se%illa- %ino al #er; como comisionado $ara el ramo de di+uPo y $intura en la e<$edicin''')FQ7 3#ODO- :' HOS_ :4L E teacher of $ainting- mem+er of the royal academy of Se%ille- he came to #eru as mem+er of the dra"ing and $ainting +runch of the e<$edition'''6 SolS didn&t cite
KDDSolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB( CKG-F% KDH6anuel de 6endi!uru( :iccionario histricoA+iogrNfico del #er;( ol% F( Cnd ed% )$ima: /mprenta fEnri+ue 3alaciosf( HFKH*( CKG% The second edition of this dictionary( which /&m +uoting( was pu!lished in $ima( with additions !y E aristo San 7rist@ al( !etween HFKH and HFKM( when 6iguel SolS was pro!a!ly preparing his !oo#%

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his sources% "either did 3e;a 3rado( who wrote that: En el a;o de HJFH( llega a $ima el pintor espa;ol Pos4 del 3o5o( miem!ro de la 9eal Academia de Se illa y +ue forma!a parte de la e-pedici@n mar:tima de Ale?andro 6alespina( y ha!i4ndose enfermado y no pudiendo continuar ia?e( pidi@ al Virrey permiso para +uedarse y esta!lecer una escuela de di!u?o( la +ue fu4 instalada solamnemente XsicZ el CM de mayo de dicho a;o% KDC XThe Spanish painter Pos4 del 3o5o arri ed to $ima in HJFH% ,e was a mem!er of the 9oyal Academy of Se ille( and mem!er of the sea e-pedition of Ale?andro 6alaspina% ,a ing !ecome sic# and una!le to continue his ?ourney( he as#ed the iceroy for permission to stay and to esta!lish a school of drawing( which was solemnly inaugurated on the CMth of 6ay of the same year%Z /n the HFEDs we find ariations of this claim !een echoed !y se eral renowned authors( such as Emilio ,arth-Terre and Al!erto 6Sr+ue5 A!anto( KDK Francisco Stastny(KDL and 9u!4n Vargas Agarte%KDM /n HFGC( 7armen Sotos Serrano pu!lished the most complete te-t a!out Pos4 del 3o5o that we ha e today% KDE ,owe er( while she uses a wide range of sources to inform a!out the different aspects of del 3o5o&s !iography( she resorts to the authority of 9u!4n Vargas Agarte regarding the
KDC3e;a 3rado( 0Ensayos de arte irreinal(1 HMC% KDK S#ODO- Hose$h del' A Se%illano- indi%iduo de la Academia de 8ellas Artes de esa ciudad- %ino a Lima en 7.MQ con la e<$edicin cient9fica de AlePandro Males$ina- en la cor+eta S:escu+iertaS' XuedNndose en esta ciudad $or enfermedad( falleci en 7L57- luego de ha+er cum$lido muchas la+ores de ense2anza y arte') Emilio ,arth-Terre and Al!erto 6Sr+ue5 A!anto( 03inturas y pintores en $ima irreinal(1 Re%ista del Archi%o !acional del #er; CJ( no% H )HFEK*: CDM-E% KDL S'''e<ist9an en Lima en esos a2os al menos dos academias hacia las cuales $od9a dirigir sus $asos un Po%en as$irante a $intor' La Academia del $intor se%illano Hos= del #ozo- 1ue funcion de 7.M7 a 7L57( y la Academia de :i+uPo y #intura- fundada $or el Virrey A+ascal en 7L7Q y dirigida $or el 1uite2o Ha%ier 0ort=s'S Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+inacolonial y re$u+licana( MD% KDM9u!4n Vargas Agarte( 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices de la Am=rica meridional( Cnd ed% )2urgos: /mpr% de Aldecoa( HFEG*( LLL% KDE7armen Sotos Serrano( 0Pos4 del 3o5o(1 in Los $intores de la e<$edicin de AlePandro Malas$ina ( HFGC( EG-JM%

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foundation of an academy of drawing% KDJ /n HFGC( Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert recurred to 3e;a 3rado as an authoritati e source in this respect% KDG /n their te-t from HFGM( howe er( they no longer cite their source% KDF /n HFGF( 8amiSn 2ay@n seems to ha e followed the encyclopedia that had !een edited !y Vicente <esualdo in HFEF(KHD while Porge 2ernales 2allesteros seems to ha e resorted to Sotos Serranos& account%KHH This information has !een repeated( with no traces of its
KDJ SLas condiciones $ersonales de #ozo como hom+re $rocedente de la escuela se%illana y $erteneciente a la Academia de 8ellas Artes- influyeron +astante $ara 1ue fuera conocido entre la no+leza lime2a' As9- una %ez en la ciudad de los Reyes- no sinti ning;n deseo de %ol%er a 4s$a2a y la %ida se le hizo cada %ez mNs grata- lo 1ue culmin con su asentamiento definiti%o en dicha ciudad y la fundacin de una escuela de $intura en la calle de Santo :omingo- gracias al $ermiso concedido $or el Virrey- con 1uien manten9a gran amistad- $ese a los ruegos 1ue le ha+9a hecho Malas$ina de 1ue no se le concediera $ermiso $ara 1uedarse en Lima'S /!id%( JK% 8espite the clear resem!lance to SolS&s ersion( the only source she cites in this respect is the HFEG edition of Vargas Agarte&s dictionary: &Seg;n este autor la escuela era $ri%ada y comenz a funcionar en mayo de 7.M7') The information she gi es echoes SolS&s te-t from HFKM% KDG &3#e2a #rado6 :ice cmo en 7.M7 llega a Lima el $intor es$a2ol Hos= del #ozo- miem+ro de la Academia de Se%illa- y 1ue se 1ueda en la 0iudad de los Reyes- fundando el 5* de mayo de dicho a2o una escuela de di+uPo') 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CMF footnote M% KDF &4n 7.M7 se inaugur en Lima la escuela dirigida $or Hos= del #ozo- autor se%illano 1ue %ino con la e<$edicin de Malas$ina I7.LMK( $idi $ermiso $ara radicarse en la ca$ital del %irreinato y esta+lecer una escuela de arte''') Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0El 2aroco Tard:o del Siglo TV/// en 3erB y 2oli ia(1 in Arte i+eroamericano desde la colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( ol% C( Cnd ed%( Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte T/T )6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM*( EDD% KHDThis encyclopedia introduces an interesting ariation when claiming that del 3o5o&s academy was officially recogni5ed in HGDE: &:el #ozo fund la Academia de :i+uPo y #intura de Lima- en 7.M7- oficializada en 7LQ,') )Vicente <esualdo( 4nciclo$edia del arte en Am=rica )Argentina: O6E2A( HFEF*( ol% C( KCH%* 9emem!er that Francisco Stastny( in HFEJ( had distinguished !etween del 3o5o&s academy and the one that was founded !y Viceroy A!ascal in HGHD% )See footnote KDL*% 8amiSn 2ay@n agrees with Vicente <esualdo&s encyclopedia when writing a!out 0Francisco del 3o5o1: &Rna referencia ahora- aun1ue mNs no sea- al $intor y di+uPante se%illano ?rancisco del #ozo I7.*MA7L57K- 1uien lleg a Am=rica en la e<$edicin de Malas$ina- y se %io o+ligado a desem+arcar en 4l 0allao $or razones de salud' 4ste artista- a la larga- se radic en Lima y a+ri academia de di+uPo en 7.M7- institucin 1ue fue oficializada $or el %irrey Amat en 7LQ,') )2ay@n and 6ar-( /istoria del arte colonial sudamericano Sudam=rica his$ana y el 8rasil ( CLM%K This ersion( howe er( has not !een adopted !y su!se+uent communications% KHH &4n 7.MQ lleg a Lima el se%illano Hos= del #ozo- formado en la Academia de Artes del AlcNzar de Se%illa +aPo la direccin de :' Hos= 8runa' #ozo se ha+9a em+arcado en la e<$edicin de Malas$ina como $intor +otNnico- de ti$os raciales y de $aisaPes( $ero causas desconocidas- 1uizN su tem$eramento de artista- $oco af9n a un r=gimen de %ida casi militar- le decidieron a a+andonarla' :esem+arc en el 0allao dis$uesto a %i%ir de su arte y en 7.M7 fund la una 3sic6 escuela de $intura en Lima en la 1ue mantu%o su estilo $ersonal- fiel a ciertos amaneramientos del +arroco final y aun del rococ') Porge 2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Hst ed% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( HFGF*( EE% This section wasn&t modified for the second edition of CDDC )p% EE*% 8o note that 2ernales&

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sources( again in CDDK(KHC CDDMKHK and CDDG%KHL /t is until today a ital part of the core narration of the history of colonial painting in central Andes( which has !een handed down at least since our authors from the first half of the twentieth century% Time and again ha e these communications !een accepted as premises for further communication without themati5ing their lac# of grounding in documents that could !e ta#en to !e independent from this narration%

/ ha e made special reference to four elements in the history of painting in colonial central Andes: the participation of a son of 2artolom4 Este!an 6urillo in an academy of painting founded in $ima in early eighteenth-century ' although neither 7oss:o del 3omar nor ]l are5 Ar+uieta mention precisely where or when this academy was founded '( the training of 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio in the wor#shop of 6ichelangelo and his position as cham!er painter of 3ope <regory T///( and the foundation of another academy in $ima !y Pos4 del 3o5o in HJFH% Only the first of
affirmation a!out del 3o5o&s temperament was li#ely !ased on Sotos& te-t( where all other information is also to !e found: &La disci$lina de un %iaPe como =ste- 1uizN result e<cesi%a $ara un hom+re como #ozo- $oco constante en sus $ro$sitos') Sotos Serrano( 0Pos4 del 3o5o(1 JC% KHC S!o estN clara su formacin Xla de Pos4 <il de 7astroZ- aun1ue se a$unta 1ue $udo a$render con alg;n retratista lime2o o 1uizN con el se%illano Hos= dle #ozo- 1ue ha+9a fundado en Lima una Academia de #intura en 7.M7'S /nmaculada 9odr:gue5 6oya( 09ostros mesti5os en el retrato i!eroamericano(1 in B+eroam=rica mestiza' 4ncuentro de $ue+los y culturas )SEA7ET( CDDK*( HEH( http:\\www%seace-%es\catalogo%cfm.idE-posicionlHHF% KHK S'''la introduccin del neoclasicismo $ictrico se de+i a dos artistas es$a2oles de influyente acti%idad en la ca$ital' 4llos fueron el se%illano Hos= del #ozo- 1uien a+andon la e<$edicin de Malas$ina en 7.M7 $ara fundar en Lima una academia $ri%ada( y Mat9as Maestro- ar1uitecto y $intor'''S $uis Eduardo Wuffarden( 0$as Escuelas 3ict@ricas Virreinales(1 in #er; ind9gena y %irreinal )SEA7ET( CDDM*( GJ% KHL S@hen Malas$ina>s shi$s reached Lima>s $ort of 0allao in 7.MQ- #ozo a+andoned the e<$editioneither due to $oor health or- according to Malas$ina>s Pournal- +ecause the artist "as insufficiently $re$ared for the rigors of na%al life( the ca+in +oy 0ordero assumed his duties' #ozo remained in Lima- "here his academic credentials mattered more to the lime2o elite than his disaffection for military rigor' /ence- #ozo esta+lished a $ri%ate dra"ing and $ainting school in 7.M7- "hich +ecame #eru>s first art school to recei%e %iceregal a$$ro%al'S >elly 8onahue-Wallace( Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America- 7*57A7L57 )A"6 3ress( CDDG*( CKE%

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these historical e ents was mentioned !y 7oss:o del 3omar and $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta% That they mentioned only this e ent in sections speciali5ed in 7usco suggests that they thought that the academy of 6urillo&s son was located in this city% / thin# that these four e ents share the same precise meaning in these te-ts: they mar# the esta!lishment of ma?or lin#s !etween the colonial and the European artworlds% 2y so doing( they underline the importance of !een trained !y people who impersonate the European tradition% The son of 6urillo ' who doesn&t e en ha e a name '( 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio and Pos4 del 3o5o are depicted as teachers who ha e !een trained in institutions that are seen as rele ant to the reproduction of the European canon: the wor#shops of 6urillo and 6ichelangelo and the Academy of 3ainting of Se ille( respecti ely% /n the a!sence of painters li#e these( local artists turned to images left !y them and to their imitations until a new artist entered the scene and reformed the state of the art( reesta!lishing the !ro#en lin# with history%

The more meaningful each of these elements was in this narration( the more stri#ing it seems to ha e !een for future generations and( correspondingly( the more pressing and easy it may ha e !een to erify its accuracy against e-ternal data% /n this order( the presence of a son of an internationally renown master is more rele ant than the presence of a minor apprentice of his% /n turn( the latter is more rele ant than a former mem!er of a modern academy in Se ille( e en if he was the son of its director%KHM
KHMThis was the case of Pos4 del 3o5o according to Sotos Serrano( 0Pos4 del 3o5o%1

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/n HFLH( Eli5a!eth Wilder( from the ,ispanic Foundation of the $i!rary of 7ongress( pu!lished a 0all for $ioneers that declared that $atin American art history was waiting for scholars who could !uild its most !asic foundations as a field of academic research% "ot only was this history almost completely a!sent from colleges in the Anited States of America( !ut there was also an urgent and more !asic need for cataloging this tradition and ma#ing it a aila!le for Englishspea#ing audiences% As she drastically o!ser ed: &There are certain essential studies to +e undertaken- "ithout "hich comment on Latin American art "ill remain amateur fancy')F7, Among these( she included photographic studies( analyses of materials( and e-plorations of the a aila!le documentary e idence%

She specifically mentioned colonial paintings from 7usco as an e-ample of an under-e-plored field: E+uipped with photographs( documents( and #nowledge of materials( the historian of art can !egin to speculate fruitfully at a thousand interesting points% /n a city li#e 7u5co in 3eru( for instance( the colonial paintings ha e ne er e en !een counted% Who painted all these pictures. ,ow were they taught. What European artists came there. What European models did they follow( and how did they depart from them. ,ow was the iconography of European art aried and e-tended here( and how do these ariations relate to /ndian mythology. Finally )and this is the point of organi5ation for the School of 7u5co*( to what e-tent were the painters collected into wor#shops from which came stoc# types
KHEEli5a!eth Wilder( 07all for 3ioneers(1 0ollege Art Hournal H( no% H )"o em!er HFLH*: J%

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and compositions. From the !ac#ground of an essentially popular art( what artistic personalities ultimately emerge. What characteristics can !e isolated( to distinguish the school as a whole. What conclusions may !e drawn from the whole panorama a!out the meaning of pro incialism in art( the meaning of style itself. "one of these +uestions ' here related to a single school and a single techni+ue ' none ha e !een answered% Why are the faculties of art not urging their students into this field( which cries for pioneers.KHJ These +uestions correspond to a different manner of understanding art history that e-pects communications to !e critically assessed regarding their reference to documented e-perience% An answer to Wilder&s +uestions would not !e articulated in this same manner until the decade of HFMD( with the pu!lication of 6artin S% Soria&s analyses% From this point of iew( the te-ts that we ha e re iewed in this section would pro!a!ly !e considered amateur fancy% They were howe er highly influential for future generations%

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2.3 Is ornamental art the product of cultural syncretism or isolation/ -10!1 2 10'1.

2.!.1

.ngel 6uido

The !eginning of the decade of HFLD mar#ed a shift in the literature on South American colonial painting% For more than a decade( ]ngel <uido had !een one of the most rele ant authors in the americanist perspecti e( which analy5ed $atin American colonial art in general( !ut specially architecture( in terms of a mesti5o tradition%KHG /n HFLD( he pu!lished Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte- a !oo# that was pu!lished again in HFLH and in HFLL% KHF This !oo# included the transcription of a conference entitled 0Estimati a moderna de la pintura colonial1( that <uido had gi en at the 2i!lioteca Argentina )9osario* on August the HJth( HFLD%KCD This te-t is a landmar# in the adoption of the historiographical tradition on mesti5o architecture for the appreciation of colonial painting in central Andes% We must understand this te-t in connection to pre ious literature on this su!?ect( specially to te-ts !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar and $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta that o!ser ed colonial South American paintings as the fusion of imported )European and Asian* and autochthonous traditions% 2y o!ser ing the mesti5o form of painting as an alternati e to the European tradition and not as a transitory phase
KHGSee footnote CHJ% KHFThe first two editions )HFLD( HFLH* were pu!lished !y the Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( Santa F4% The third corrected and e-tended edition )HFLL* was pu!lished !y El Ateneo in 2uenos Aires% KCDThe te-t of this conference was also pu!lished in a separate edition !y the Academia "acional de ,istoria in HFLC: <uido( 4stimati%a moderna de la $intura colonial% Iuotations to this te-t !y ]ngel <uido will !e made to the HFLL edition pu!lished !y El Ateneo%

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anymore( <uido was a!le to integrate the notion of mesti5a?e with the position that had !een put forward !y 6ariano 3ic@n Salas and 6iguel SolS( who o!ser ed a synchronous occurrence of asynchronous le els of de elopment% ]ngel <uido was a!le to do so !y understanding mesti5o painting as fol# art( which he distinguished from the official arts of the cultural elites that intended to imitate the arts of the metropolitan centers in Europe% As such( this te-t will !e fundamental for the appropriation of the distinction !etween pro inces and peripheries%

This author o!ser ed that( from the si-teenth to the eighteenth centuries( America didn&t offer artwor#s that could !e regarded as !een truly successful from the point of iew of the European canon: En t4rminos generales( como en el caso de la ar+uitectura( Am4rica no puede ofrecer durante la colonia o!ras de ?erar+u:a de artistas espa;oles o e-tran?eros capaces de soportar una se era cr:tica mediante el corta!@n estimati o del arte europeo% 3or eso( pinturas y catedrales renacentistas o !arrocas en Am4rica son( casi podr:amos decir en general( inferiores a las le antadas en el continente europeo( siempre +ue se las estime dentro del 2arroco y 9enacimiento europeosNKCH X/n !road terms( as it happens in the case of architecture( America cannot offer during the colonial period artwor#s of the same le el as those produced !y Spanish or foreign artists( which would !e a!le to undergo se ere criticism from the point of iew of European art% For this reason( 9enaissance and 2aro+ue paintings and cathedrals in America are almost all inferior to the ones produced in Europe( as far as one o!ser es them as part of the same European 2aro+ue and 9enaissance periods%Z
KCH<uido( 0Estimati a moderna de la pintura colonial(1 CGL%

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/n this passage it is already e ident that <uido had adopted a critical position in relation to pre ious literature on this su!?ect( specially in relation to the te-ts !y 7oss:o del 3omar and ]l are5 Ar+uieta( which applied the e aluati e criteria of an art that aims towards autonomy to American colonial paintings% For ]ngel <uido( this appraisal would !e appropriate only for the o!ser ation of colonial artwor#s that imitate metropolitan e-pressions%KCC This tradition corresponds to the official taste culti ated !y the local elite of iceregal authorities% 2esides this artistic form( another one emerged from the fusion of /nca and ,ispanic traditions: $a segunda corriente( la mesti5a( en su gran parte an@nima( constituye para nosotros la mSs interesante producci@n cu5+ue;a y digna de ocupar un cap:tulo mSs en la historia de la pintura uni ersal% Se trata de la e?ecuci@n de lien5os +ue se cuentan por cientos desde el 7u5co hasta 3otos: y +ue fueron e?ecutados por criollos( indios y mesti5os% "os referimos e-actamente a esa pintura 0mesti5a1( connu!io feli5 de la t@nica espa;ola con la t@nica ind:gena% \ A esta corriente 0mesti5a1 pertenecen ca!almente los llamados 0primiti os coloniales1( calificaci@n no ale?ada( sin duda( de su ?usta apreciaci@n hist@ricoest4ticaN KCK XThe second ' mesti5o ' tradition( which is mostly anonymous( is for us the most interesting production from 7usco% /t deser es a chapter of its own in the uni ersal history of painting% /t consists on the production of hundreds of paintings from 7usco to 3otosi( which were e-ecuted !y 7reoles( /ndians and 6esti5os% 06esti5o1 painting is the ?oyful union of the Spanish and the /ndigenous accents% \ The so-called 0colonial primiti es1 !elong to this current%
KCC,e descri!es this tradition in a form that recalls the te-t !y 7ossio del 3omar: &Res$ecto a la $rimera corriente citada- en el 0uzco se imit con di%ersa fortuna a los grandes euro$eos desde Dur+arNn- Ri+era y Tintoreto hasta Van :yck y Murillo''' La $intura oficial de la $rimera corriente E a$reciada- re$etimos- desde una estimati%a euro$ea E no $osee esa gracia &sui generis) de la $intura seis y setesentista' Tam$oco re%ela un conocimiento $rofundo del desnudo- un aPuste decisi%o en su com$osicin') B+id'- 5L,' KCK/!id%( CGL%

HLE

This classification is certainly not alien to its appropriate historic and aesthetic appreciation%Z As a direct continuation of the literature on colonial architecture( the 7usco school of painting !ecomes in this te-t an &escuela cus1ue2a mestiza)F5G that reali5ed &''' the Poyful union of the S$anish and the Bndigenous`) Anli#e the arts of the colonial elites( this local fol#KCM tradition &'''deser%es a cha$ter of its o"n in the uni%ersal history of $ainting')F5,

]ngel <uido had completely modified the framewor# used !y his predecessors while still #eeping contact with them ' specially with Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar& highly influential te-ts% What pre ious authors had o!ser ed as consecuti e stages in the e olution of painting in this region was understood !y <uido as parallel de elopments: !oth artistic currents( the official and the popular( are represented as ha ing !een contemporaneously rooted in the European immigration% <uido also insisted on the primiti e character of some paintings from colonial 7usco as earlier authors had done% $i#e 6iguel SolS( he used this ad?ecti e in a conte-t that implied that differentiated criteria of e aluation must !e put aside when engaging in the o!ser ation of these paintings% Thus( the concept of ornamental art that had pre iously !een used !y 6iguel SolS in terms of nai ety( had !een fully assumed !y <uido as the cornerstone of a model that recogni5es the coe-istence of these two
KCL/!id%( CFE% KCMThe distinction !etween the official and the fol# arts is !est e-pressed !y ]ngel <uido in the following passage: &4l arte colonial en Am=rica E ya lo hemos re$etido en %arias ocasiones E ado$ta dos $osturas o corrientes %inculadas o des%inculadas entre s9- seg;n los casos' !os referimos a las corrientes del arte oficial y del arte r;stico- $o$ular o cam$esino' La $rimera orientada $or las autoridades %irreinales' La segunda- $or el $ue+lo') B+id'- 5MF' KCE/!id%( CGL%

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trends: mediocre imitations of European paintings and original mesti5o paintings that reali5e the cultural synthesis of European and /ndian world iews%

As ,4ctor Schenone has critici5ed(KCJ a conse+uence of this framewor# is that more attention will !e payed to mesti5o o!?ects than to other manifestations that are seen to resem!le European art% /n the realm of painting( this is reflected in the literature&s preference for paintings from 7usco and 3otosi( in detriment of paintings from $ima% Among 7us+ue;o paintings( the more nai e( primiti e and decorati e wor#s are selected as e-amples of the local school% Thus( ornamental art had !een situated as the preferential o!?ect of art historical research%

The distinction made !etween alien and original forms of art !ecame an important contri!ution for later pu!lications% The distinction can !e e-pressed as the difference !etween the imposition ' this !een implied !y <uido&s o!ser ation of an official art ' and the creation of style% Future pu!lications will ela!orate on this su!?ect of discipline and control in colonial worlds of art( to the point of positioning it as the cornerstone of today&s most widely held account of the differentiation of the 7usco school of painting: the emergence of this local school is e-plained as a result of the institutional li!eration of the nati e painters from the imposition of a European canon%

KCJ,4ctor Schenone( 0Escuelas 3ict@ricas Andinas(1 in Arte %irreinal leos y tallas del Virreinato del #er; ( colecciones de Lima y 8uenos Aires )presented at the 2uenos Aires: 7entro de Artes Visuales del /nstituto Torcuato di Tella del HL de ?unio al HD de ?ulio de HFEE( 2uenos Aires: /nstituto Torcuato di Tella( HFEE*( CD%

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The notion of mesti5a?e wasn&t ta#en up again until the end of the decade of HFMD in a new !oo# !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar% The same happened with the idea of a parallel de elopment of painterly traditions in the same region% /n the meanwhile one finds ariations !ased on pre ious models ' some of which would ha e important conse+uences% / will mention three authors who wor#ed in this tradition of thought during the decade of HFMD: Enri+ue 6arco 8orta( 6artin Se!astian Soria( and 9icardo 6ariStegui Oli a%

2.!.2

7nri0ue Marco "orta

An interesting contri!ution in this direction was made !y the Spanish scholar Enri+ue 6arco 8orta in the second olume of /istoria del Arte /is$anoamericanopu!lished in HFMD under the direction of 8iego Angulo /;igue5% KCG ,is te-t is a direct continuation of the literature from the HFKDs% ,owe er( what is most appealing in it is the e-plicit adoption of the core\periphery distinction( which had played a minor role in <uido&s te-ts from the HFLDs% According to 8orta( the e olution of pro incial e-pressions depended on the e olution of the ,ispanic tradition% /n his words( &'''todas las escuelas locales americanas son $ro%incias del arte his$alense durante la =$oca colonial') F5M 3''' all American local schools are $ro%inces of /is$anic art during the colonial $eriod'6 8orta eliminated the distinction that <uido had !een a!le to draw within the pro ince !etween official and fol# or mesti5o art( which would !e so important for the comprehension of
KCG8orta( 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia%1 KCF/!id%( LJF f%

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colonial art in later decades%

According to this te-t !y 8orta( art in the pro inces may originate inno ation under special circumstances% Artistic ariation can !e triggered either !y e-ternal factors such as the presence of foreign painters( imported paintings and prints or !y an internal stri e for no elty% /n the case of the 7usco area( e-ternal sources of inno ation were limited !y geographical isolation and internal sources were a!sent% The result was a continuous state of archaism that is nonetheless recogni5ed as the source of these paintings& greatest charm: Sin grandes maestros y sin o!ras de alor superlati o( la escuela cu5+ue;a tiene su mayor encanto en ese arca:smo mantenido a lo largo de mSs de dos siglos( fiel refle?o de una mentalidad colecti a +ue sigue sus cauces sin +ue alguna influencia e-terna o un afSn de no edad le se;ale nue os caminos o le impulse a !uscarlosNKKD X$ac#ing great masters or artwor#s of superlati e alue( the 7usco school&s greatest charm lies in this archaism that was maintained for more than two centuries: true reflection of a collecti e mentality that follows its own currents with neither outside interference nor an eagerness for no elties that could show it new paths or ma#e it loo# out for them%Z Archaism ' yet another form of the concept of ornamental art ' is here understood as a state of continuous repetition that neither adopts inno ations produced in other regions nor produces its own ariations% Anfortunately( this te-t doesn&t ela!orate on the conditions that should !e met for a 0collecti e mentality1 to stri e
KKD/!id%( LGD%

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for artistic no elty% One is reminded of 7oss:o del 3omar&s scheme from HFCC: an internal aria!le )realistic tendency* is complemented !y a couple of e-ternal aria!les( among which the presence of immigrant painters is the most rele ant one% ,owe er( unli#e 7oss:o del 3omar( it isn&t li#ely that this author understood this internal aria!le as a racial characteristic of the nati e peoples% /n fact( in Enri+ue 6arco 8orta&s argument there is almost no reference to indigenous factors that could ha e influenced the history of painting in this region% The only role they play ' one that is posed with seeming uneasiness ' has !een introduced in the form of an inclination for the use of golden !ac#drops on can ases ' Sartiges& manie des doruresa '( which had #ept their alidity in Spain only in the popular taste of local( peripheral schools: &'''esa %istosa ri1ueza de fondos dorados so+re ta+la 1ue- tal %ez $or ser del gusto de los ind9genas- se sigui em$leando so+re el lienzo')FF7 3''' that eyeAcatching richness of golden +ackgrounds $ainted on "ood "hich- may+e +ecause of +eing of the taste of Bndians- continued to +e used on can%as'6 The other aria!les in 8orta&s analysis had also !een mentioned !y $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta% 7oinciding with the latter( this te-t assumes that( had there !een a greater num!er of painters( masterpieces and copies informing a!out the state of art in the metropolis( artistic ariation would ha e occurred% /n this manner( the distinction !etween an artistic metropolis and its pro inces articulates a general law% /n the light of this law( colonial art from the central Andes can !e understood as merely another case of ornamental art( which is to !e e-pected in the pro inces where the said e-ternal and internal conditions are met% A reference to the
KKH/!id%( LJF%

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Amerindian populations would ha e !een redundant in this conte-t%

Thus far 8orta&s account of the emergence of the local school of 7usco is an inno ati e ariation of the central narration ascri!ed !y earlier authors from the HFKDs% ,is wor# can !e seen as offering an alternati e to the theory of mesti5a?e that ]ngel <uido had proposed in the pre ious decade% While <uido guided art historical research towards the o!ser ation of the sur i al of pre-,ispanic tradition( 8orta focused on the o!ser ation of media of transportation and diffusion% "onetheless( the latter&s model left open the possi!ility to o!ser e internal aria!les( which in his te-t were mar#ed as the presence\a!sence in a gi en region of an autonomous stri e for no elty% 8ecades later( this would allow for an integration of !oth models in a manner that recalls Alfred "eumeyer&s te-t from HFLG%KKC

2.!.!

Ricardo Mari1tegui %li&a

/n HFMHKKK and HFML(KKL the 3eru ian historian 9icardo 6ariStegui Oli a pu!lished a couple of short te-ts dedicated to the series of the 7orpus 7hristi )/mage J on page CGM* that was painted around HEJD-HEJE KKM and was originally part of the
KKC"eumeyer( 0The /ndian 7ontri!ution to Architectural 8ecoration in Spanish 7olonial America%1 See chapter C%H%C a!o e% KKK9icardo 6ariStegui Oli a( #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB los mara%illosos lienzos del 0or$us e<istentes en la Bglesia de Santa Ana del 0uzco )$ima: Alma 6ater( HFMH*% KKL9icardo 6ariStegui Oli a( #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB en 0hile los %aliosos lienzos del 0or$us cuz1ue2o de $ro$iedad de 0arlos #e2a Otaegui en Santiago )$ima: Alma 6ater( HFML*% KKMScarlett O&3helan <odoy( 0El estido como identidad 4tnica e indicador social de una cultura material(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% C( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK*( HCC%

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ornamentation of the 3arish of Santa Ana in 7usco% These te-ts are rare e-emplars in this tradition% On the one hand( they insist in signaling training( specially under the direction of European painters and in contact with imported paintings and prints( as the main factor that could lead the de elopment of painting% On the other hand( they proposed that the can ases that compose this series are successful e-amples of the 2aro+ue stylistic program in ,einrich W=lfflin&s sense:KKE El !arro+uismo ha sido e-presado rotundamente( ha!i4ndose fundido los elementos en unidad de partes insepara!les( +ue constituye la caracter:stica del estilo y de la 4poca YNKKJ XThe 2aro+ue character has !een fully e-pressed( ha ing melted the elements in a unity of insepara!le parts( what constitutes the characteristic of the style and of the period%%%Z What he saw as a certain degree of primiti ism in the representation of hieratic attitudes( was e-plained !y reference to the nati e painters& early stage in their formati e process: painters were not yet su!?ect to rigid pictorial rules% KKG We can see that while this author attempted to gi e sense of these paintings in the conte-t of the European history of styles( he still e-plained the distinction !etween an art that aims towards autonomy and ornamental art !y ma#ing reference to the indi idual formati e process% As such( failing to adopt the central insights of <uido and 8orta( 6ariStegui tempori5ed the form of ornamental art in the manner of the

KKE,einrich W=lfflin( Cunstgeschichtliche Grund+egriffe das #ro+lem der Stilent"icklung in der neueren Cunst ( Lth ed% )6Rnchen: 2ruc#mann( HFCD*% KKJ6ariStegui Oli a( #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB los mara%illosos lienzos del 0or$us e<istentes en la Bglesia de Santa Ana del 0uzco( KM% KKG/!id%

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HFKDs%

2.!.#

Martin ,ebastian ,oria

Throughout the HFMDs( the <erman scholar 6artin Se!astian Soria( then a professor at the 6ichigan State Ani ersity( KKF pu!lished a series of te-ts on $atin American colonial painting that too# ad antage of 8orta&s model and e-plored its limitations% The metropolis\pro ince distinction allowed him to underta#e detailed iconographical analyses that ga e account of the influence e-erted !y metropolitan centers upon the local schools of the central Andes% These analyses were characteri5ed !y the application of a scientific program to art historical research that was e-ceptional in this su!field% This program would ha e two main conse+uences for su!se+uent communications% On the one hand( this su!?ect matter !ecame the o!?ect of a differentiated field of e-pert #nowledge% On the other hand( the resulting speciali5ed communications re+uired the pu!lication of populari5ing ones that could confront the pro!lem of inclusion of the system of science%KLD This later conse+uence will !e e-plored in more detail in chapter C%K%M% At this point /&ll highlight two results of Soria&s research that were rele ant for the comprehension of colonial painting as ornamental art: that the artistic centers of reference of this local production were not primarily ,ispanic( !ut Flemish and /talianN and that their iconographic sources were not primarily European
KKF8ictionary of Art ,istorians( 0Soria( 6artin S(1 in :ictionary of Art /istorians( n%d%( http:\\www%dictionaryofarthistorians%org\% KLD9udolph Stichweh( 08ie ielfgltigen 3u!li#a der Wissenschaft : /n#lusion und 3opularisierung(1 in Bnklusion und 4<klusion Studien zur Gesellschaftstheorie )2ielefeld: Transcript Verlag( CDDM*( FM-HHH%

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masterwor#s( !ut estam$es $o$ulaires'

/n a !oo# from HFME( Soria offered an outstanding study of the iconographic sources of si-teenth century $atin American painting% E-tremely rele ant for the study of the history of Andean painting was his disco ery( in HFMD-HFMH( KLH of some paintings done !y the /talian Pesuit 2ernardo 2itti )HMLG-HEHD* )/mage J on page CGM*( whom Soria framed as the most important mannerist painter in 3eru% KLC 2itti&s influence was noted !y Soria in paintings !y <regorio <amarra and $S5aro 3ardo $agos )acti e in 7usco from HECG to HEEFKLK*( among other non-identified authors% /n 3ardo $agos& ?ranciscan Martyrs in Ha$an )/mage G on page CGM*( from HEKD( Soria recogni5ed the introduction of a !aro+ue style that departed from 2itti&s mannerism% This application of stylistic concepts that refer to the European history of art is meaningful in a model centered on the metropolis\pro ince distinction( as far as pro incial art echoes the signals that it recei es from the center% ,owe er( Soria doesn&t seem to ha e !een interested in this #ind of analysis( !ut on carefully determining the iconographic sources of colonial painting%

KLH &4n 7M*QA7M*7- descu+r9 el arte de 8itti Ib7*G,A7,7QcK en Lima- Are1ui$a- la ri+era del lago Titicaca y Sucre') ,e first pu!lished reproductions of these wor#s in HFMC )6artin S% Soria( 03ainting and sculpture in $atin America from the si-teenth to the eighteenth century(1 \ear 8ook of the American #hiloso$hical Society )HFMC*: CJG-CGH%*% ,e pu!lished a more careful study in HFME )Soria( La $intura del siglo UVB en Sudam=rica%*( which he complemented in HFMF )Soria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD%1*% KLC/!id%( CM% To my #nowledge( 2ernardo 2itti had entered the twentieth-century historiography of colonial painting in central Andes in 9u!4n Vargas Agarte&s dictionary from HFLJ: 9u!4n Vargas Agarte( 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices coloniales de la Am=rica Meridional )$ima( HFLJ*( EJ( HDM% KLKSoria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 CF%

HMM

Soria confirmed what had !een #nown at least since the HFCDs: local artistic production was !ased on the imitation of imported images% While copying paintings was a common practice in many regions of this early world society( Soria o!ser ed that local copies of European models were e en more e-act that European copies of the same models% The focus is e idently once again on the lac# of artistic e olution and on its causes% For Soria( the cause was +uite simple: &#or lo general los artistas coloniales co$ia+an mNs e<actamente 1ue los euro$eos- y en todas $artes los +uenos artistas suelen a$artarse mNs del modelo 1ue los mediocres')FGG 3Bn general- colonial artists made more e<act co$ies than 4uro$eansand e%ery"here do good artists follo" the model more freely than mediocre ones'6 7oinciding with 7oss:o and ]l are5( Soria sees the source of artistic e olution in the a!ilities of the indi idual artist% As we ha e seen( this theme goes !ac# to Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar&s o!ser ation of the lac# of creati ity that local painters seemed to ha e hadN or( more e-actly( of their pronounced realistic tendencies in the le el of the relation !etween artwor#s%KLM

6ore interesting is Soria&s o!ser ation that local painters were not only worse than European ones( !ut also less demanding in their choice of iconographic models: Q no s@lo se copia!an por todas partes gra!ados de autores conocidos( sino las estampas europeas an@nimas llamadas estam$es $o$ulaires- de Flandes( Francia( 7atalu;a( Valencia( etc%( crean el estilo popular fol#l@rico en el 7u5co( en
KLL/!id%( CF% KLMSee a!o e chapter C%C%H( page HHM%

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el Alto 3erB( y en los demSs centros pict@ricos de Sudam4rica% As:( con e-cepci@n de la muy marcada influencia de Zur!arSn y su taller desde 64-ico hasta <uatemala y de $ima hasta 2uenos Aires( casi no e-isten para la pintura colonial ni fuentes espa;olas ni fuentes ind:genas%%% $a pintura colonial se presenta como hi?a pro incial del arte europeo no-espa;ol( sal o la e-cepci@n mencionada anteriormente de Zur!arSn% Este arte europeo( no-espa;ol( en:a en su mayor:a de Flandes y de /talia%KLE XAnd not only were prints from renown authors copied e erywhere( !ut also did the anonymous european prints called estam$es $o$ulaires- from Flanders( France( 7atalonia( Valencia( etc% create the popular-fol#loric style in 7usco( in Alto 3eru( and in the other pictorial centres in South America% Thus( with the e-ception of the strong influence that Zur!arSn and his wor#shop had from 6e-ico to <uatemala and from $ima to 2uenos Aires( there were almost no influences in colonial painting from either Spanish or /ndian sources%%% 7olonial painting can !e seen as the pro incial child of non-Spanish European art( with the e-ception of Zur!arSn% 6ost of this European( non-Spanish art came from Flanders and /taly%Z ,ere lies in my iew the most important contri!ution done !y Soria to this historiographic tradition% $ocal schools of painting from 7usco and Alto 3eru are descri!ed as ascri!ing to a popular-fol#loric style that would ha e !een !ased on an almost e-act imitation of popular prints in the medium of oil on can as% The ariations that one can notice respond to this transference from one medium to the other( which is done with no reference to matters of style% The artistic result is( therefore( for Soria as a contemporary o!ser er( &'''ingenuamente

$rimiti%o)FG. 3'''nai%ely $rimiti%e'6


KLESoria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 CF f% KLJ/!id%( KH%

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/t is important to highlight Soria&s categorical re?ection of theories that see in these paintings the confluence of Spanish and /ndian traditions( which had found in <uido their !rightest e-ponent% "either tradition is seen as ha ing e-erted a decisi e influence on these local schools of ornamental art% /n this conte-t( Soria&s reference to the /ndian painter 8iego Iuispe Tito as the most important painter from se enteenth-century 7usco is particularly meaningful% As he noted( the can as that represents Aries and 8ecem!er )/mage F on page CGE* in the series of the 6onths that Iuispe Tito painted for the 7athedral of 7usco in HEGH is an almost e-act copy of an engra ing made !y Adriaen 7ollaert in HMGM according to a design !y ,ans 2ol: Hose$h and Mary Arri%e at the Bnn I0a$ricornK FGL )/mage HD on page CGE*% Iowever4 Iuispe Tito&s copies triggered an important +uestion% E en though Soria e-plicitly discarded any influence of /ndian sources on colonial paintings( he did wonder if /ndians might ha e read these paintings according to a different criteria% ,e specifically posed this +uestion in relation to the introduction of !irds in paintings whose sources included none( as it occurs in wor#s !y Iuispe Tito%KLF 7ould the !irds that were inserted in these images ha e a magical meaning for the /ndians. This +uestion( that would !e fully e-plored !y 6u?ica 3inilla and Teresa <is!ert decades later(KMD wasn&t confronted !y Soria% What&s important to highlight at this point is the tacit reinsertion of the pro!lem of mesti5a?e in a
KLGThe print !elongs to the series: 4m+lemata 4%angelica' The correspondences !etween Iuispe Tito&s and 7ollaert&s series ' along with hundreds of correspondences !etween European prints and colonial art ' can !e consulted in /nternet in the site of the 3ESS7A pro?ect: http:\\colonialart%org KLFSee +uotation in page KF% KMD9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla( ]ngeles a$crifos de la Am=rica %irreinal( Cnd ed% )$ima: Fondo de 7ultura Econ@mica( HFFE*N Teresa <is!ert( 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina )$a 3a5: 3lural Ed%( HFFF*%

HMG

conte-t that understands colonial painting as the pro incial child of European nonSpanish art% /t is interesting that( according to our theoretical framewor#( !y descri!ing these local traditions as popular-fol#loric and nai ely primiti e styles( Soria had merely stated that one cannot assume that the primary function of these images was art( nor that they aimed towards autonomy% The +uestion regarding how these images made communication was thus left open% As a possi!le solution( Soria alluded to a sym!olic meaning today lost: that( for /ndians( !irds mediated !etween the o!ser a!le and the uno!ser a!le% At the end( one couldn&t rule out the influence of pre-contact indigenous heritage in these nai e pro incial traditions%

2.!.$

'elipe Coss)o del *omar and the populari ation of art history

/n HFMG( a new !oo# !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar was pu!lished in 6e-ico and 2uenos Aires( which had a direct reach to a much !roader audience than his pre ious wor#s on this su!?ect% KMH 6ost of the !oo# deals with architecture and sculpture%KMC Qet a short section discusses colonial paintings from the 7usco region% The model that this te-t de eloped is centered on the concept of hy!ridi5ation( which is meant to replace that of mesti5a?e ' a concept that had too strong racial

KMH7oss:o del 3omar( Arte del #er; 0olonial% KMCAs Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert noted( 7oss:o del 3omar( in his discussion of sculpture( &'''admite sin reticencia la influencia asiNtica') )Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0XAntitled re iew of Arte del 3erB colonial( !y Felipe 7ossio del 3omarZ(1 The /is$anic American /istorical Re%ie" KF( no% L )"o em!er HFMF*: ELF%* ,ere we can recogni5e the influence of $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta( who had !ased his own pu!lication in 7oss:o del 3omar&s dissertation%

HMF

connotations( as <eorge >u!ler would famously complain a year later% KMK Thus far( this te-t offers a continuation of the line of thought de eloped !y ]ngel <uido during the decade of HFLD ' one that had little or no resonance in other te-ts in the decade of HFMD% ,ence( one might see this te-t as a reaction against that new !ranch of pu!lications that assumed the core\periphery distinction as central category( mostly ignoring the pro!lem posed !y the /ndian influences on colonial art% As we ha e seen( this pro!lem wasn&t tri ial for understanding how colonial paintings made communication% We can add another reason that $atin American authors could ha e had for re?ecting these models: !y ma#ing ornamental art deri ati e of the social system of art( these models didn&t allow to present colonial art as an alternati e to European art: as a sym!ol of the cultural idiosyncrasy of the region and( !y e-tension( of $atin America%

7oss:o del 3omar&s arguments did not follow the criteria of alidity that had !een esta!lished !y 6artin S% Soria% Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert made it clear in their re iew of 7oss:o&s te-t that they had e-pected a more detailed analysis of iconographic influences and a utili5ation of speciali5ed

terminology%KML Furthermore( an ac#nowledgement of the centrality of 2itti( 6edoro( and Iuispe Tito was already to !e e-pected% As it turns out( 7oss:o del 3omar&s te-t wasn&t 0up to date%1 This !oo# was alued for its illustrations and for its intention to reach a !road audience%KMM We can o!ser e in 6esa and <is!ert&s
KMK>u!ler and Soria( Art and Architecture of S$ain and #ortugal and their American :ominions % KML6esa and <is!ert( 0XAntitled re iew of Arte del 3erB colonial( !y Felipe 7ossio del 3omarZ%1 KMM$iterally( 6esa and <is!ert wrote that: &4l li+ro es ina$recia+le $or la cantidad y calidad de las ilustraciones' Re$resenta un $ositi%o esfuerzo $ara interesar a un e<tenso $;+lico $or el arte %irreinal $eruano- 1ue es una de las glorias de Am=rica') B+id'- ,*Q'

HED

e-pectations that the literature on this su!?ect may had !egun to differentiate itself along two lines% One that addressed an informed epistemic community and another one that was meant to reach a general audienceN that is( to perform the function of inclusion in art history as a scientific program% Among the later( critical for Andean artistic historiography are olumes that offer a synthesis of current #nowledge )for education and for an interdisciplinary pu!lic* and e-position catalogs )directed at an artistic ' and rarely scientific ' pu!lic*%

As 9udolf Stichweh has o!ser ed( the populari5ation of scientific #nowledge may ha e retroacti e effects%KME 3edagogical te-ts contri!ute to the systemati5ation of the results of centrifugal research% 3opular communications also ha e an asserti e tone that does not correspond to the s#eptical tone of science% Furthermore( the populari5ation of science may ha e a selecti e effect( as themes that are attracti e for popular pu!lications might !e pri ileged in research%

/ thin# that( in the su!-field of art history concerned with the si-teenth( se enteenth and eighteenth centuries in the central Andes( the populari5ation of science may ha e had retroacti e effects in the comprehension of the social conte-t of art% The theories that handle the relation of painting with its social conte-t typically fall outside the scope of the critically-oriented research that has conformed a speciali5ed literature% They tend to occupy a latent position( gi ing structure to o!ser ation without !eing su!?ect to critical re ision% 6eanwhile( due

KMEStichweh( 08ie ielfgltigen 3u!li#a der Wissenschaft : /n#lusion und 3opularisierung(1 HDK%

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to their structuring function( they do play a more

isi!le role in te-ts of

populari5ation% /ndeed( olumes that offer a synthesis of historical #nowledge ' typically organi5ed according to political territories and periods ' may !e regarded as the most fertile )re-*producers of such e-planatory models% /n turn( te-ts aimed at a general pu!lic often contri!ute to the diffusion of these models in terms of esta!lished facts% Finally( it is possi!le that te-ts of populari5ation ha e had a selecti e effect in this area of research( as they emphasi5e models that are more attracti e for a general audience% This may also e-plain a growing preference for models that highlight the influence of Amerindian indigenous cultures in colonial art% E en though empirical research on this topic has once and again pro en it to !e e-tremely difficult to find strong e idence of such influence( it continues to !e a #ey element in the e-planatory models adopted !y popular communications and to attract historical research% This is not to say that such influences are not a rele ant topic for research% On the contrary( it is a pressing matter precisely !ecause it cannot !e treated as a fact%

The te-t pu!lished !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar in HFMG( Arte del #er; 0olonial- can !e seen as a case of populari5ing literature% KMJ As such( it cle erly synthesi5ed the different positions that ha e !een presented so far% / ha e already noted that it was rooted on the concept of hy!ridi5ation% Accordingly( this author re?ected his earlier proposal of a linear de elopment guided !y the nati e painter&s training in the

KMJFor another e-ample of populari5ing literature produced during this decade( see the te-t contained in the catalog: 3an American Anion( The 0uzco school of $ainting a selection' Hune 7. to Huly 7*- 7M*L )Washington( 8%7%: 3an American Anion( HFMG*%

HEC

European tradition%KMG Following ]ngel <uido(KMF this te-t recogni5es the de elopment of parallel traditions of painting in colonial 3eru% These can !e resumed in two opposite styles: one that copied European models for an elite audienceKED and another one in which &'''el indio $atentiza su $rotesta- sus inclinaciones y de%ociones- su ingenio $ara armonizar la frmula cristiana y su $asin tradicional')F,7 3'''the Bndian e<$resses his $rotest- his inclinations and de%otions- his ingenuity to harmonize the 0hristian formula and his traditional $assion'6 As it could !e e-pected( the latter 0hy!rid tradition1 is descri!ed as a nai e style that was e-traneous to the laws of perspecti e( composition( drawing and western aesthetic fla or%KEC For 7oss:o del 3omar( this indigenous e-pression in colonial paintings was made possi!le !y the wea#ness or total lac# of organi5ational mechanisms of control of artistic production: nati e artists( !eing free from the super ision of the academy( the church and the guild( didn&t follow representational programs: El pintor no supedita su o!ra a las ense;an5as acad4micas o al dictado estricto de preceptos morales o religiososN no o!edece a concilios u ordenan5as( crea al
KMG7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1N 7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a% See chapter C%C%H a!o e% KMF<uido( 4stimati%a moderna de la $intura colonial% KED/t is worth noting a distinction that is made within European sources !etween naturalism and neoprimiti ism% The first consists on the copy of the style of <irlandaggio and Andrea del Sarto% /ndian influences in this current are limited to the estofado- to the representation of autochthonous flora and to certain racial features li#e s#in tone% The other current is a &#intura de tradicin hierNtica y afectacin +izantina''') Following SolS and 3e;a 3rado( 7oss:o del 3omar claimed that /ndians wouldn&t ha e understood the sorrow that characteri5es this tradition: &Misticismo renegrido- o+scura monoton9a tonal- angustia de ultratum+a 1ue mal $rende en tierras de Am=rica tan llenas de sal $agana' Toda esa tristeza 1ue es incom$rensi+le $ara el indio y 1ue el indio imita y conduce hN+ilmente hacia su $aganismo') 7oss:o del 3omar( Arte del #er; 0olonial( CDE% KEH/!id%( CDM f% KEC/!id%( CDE%

HEK

margen de los moldes +ue se desprenden de las Sagradas Escrituras y los principios teol@gicos% Es un arte +ue de?a de lado las f@rmulas y deso!edece los cSnones% El pintor desen uel e un proceso de creaci@n personal% $a forma +ue ela!ora es una deducci@n de sus propios ideales est4ticos o de su propia isi@nN en una pala!ra( es o!ra +ue se funda en conceptos independientes de a+uellos impuestos por la iglesia o el gremio y +ue demuestran el acatamiento o el recha5o del artista a las formas y creencias +ue pre alecen en la sociedad en +ue i e%KEK XThe painter doesn&t condition its artwor# to academic teachings or to the dictates of strict moral or religious preceptsN it does not o!ey councils or regulations% ,e wor#s at the margin of the limitations that come from the 2i!le or from theological principles% /t is a #ind of art that lea es formulas aside and diso!eys cannons% The painter undergoes a process of personal creation% The form that he creates is deduced from his own aesthetic ideals or from his own isionN in a word( it is a wor# of art that is founded on concepts that are independent from the ones imposed !y the 7hurch or the guild( and that demonstrate the painter&s acceptance or refusal of the forms and !eliefs that pre ail in the society in which he li es%Z /n this passage( 7oss:o del 3omar seems to !e reading ]ngel <uido&s te-t in the light of his own representation of artists as !eing potentially re olutionary in a political sense%KEL /t is the artists& self-e-pression through art( made possi!le !y wea# or none-istent organi5ational mechanisms of artistic control( that defines this culturally hy!rid form in which an /ndian world- iew can !e recogni5ed%

/ronically( the model proposed !y Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert in the HFGDs
KEK/!id%( CDJ f% KELFelipe 7oss:o del 3omar( La Re+elin de los #intores 4nsayo $ara una Sociolog9a del Arte )64-ico: Editorial $eyenda( HFLM*%

HEL

echoes this te-t !y 7oss:o del 3omar( a!out which they had written that: &!o e<$lica +ien las diferencias ni utiliza la terminolog9a e<acta') F,* 3Bt neither e<$lains "ell the differences nor does it use the e<act terminology'6 As it turns out( this !oo# wasn&t alua!le ?ust for its illustrations and its a!ility to reach a !road audience ' as these authors wrote in their re iew '( !ut for the manner in which it articulated the distinction !etween ornamental and non-ornamental art in a historical narrati e% The +uestion is( of course( if their model can !e seen as successfully grounded in erifia!le narration of historical e ents%

2.! Coda: Jos de Mesa, Teresa Gisbert and Francisco Stastny

The +uestion left open !y 6artin S% Soria in HFMF called for an integration of the models of mesti5a?e and core\periphery% The alternati e e-plored !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar ?ust one year !efore couldn&t !e e-plicitly assumed !y the young epistemic community for it didn&t pro ide enough internal redundancy within a !ody of e-pert #nowledge: authors that had !ecome fundamental players in the historical narrations were ignored and( perhaps more importantly( the speciali5ed language wasn&t used: that is( the theoretical distinctions that ga e structure to mainstream narrations were o erloo#ed% /n the ne-t chapters /&ll discuss the models de eloped !y three authors in response to this pro!lem: the 2oli ians Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( and the 3eru ian Francisco Stastny( who ha e
KEM6esa and <is!ert( 0XAntitled re iew of Arte del 3erB colonial( !y Felipe 7ossio del 3omarZ(1 ELF%

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authored the most influential pu!lications in this area%

/t is rare to find references to the influence of pre-,ispanic cultures or sensi!ilities on colonial painting during the decade of HFED% /n the first edition of their /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a )HFEC*- 6esa and <is!ert presented the school of 7usco as the conse+uence of the production of religious images for an interregional mar#et% This can !e seen as a de elopment of 6artin S% Soria&s o!ser ation of the centrality of estam$es $o$ulaires for this local tradition% Also in continuation of Soria&s wor#( Francisco Stasty focused on the form of diffusion and utili5ation of iconographic information%

This was the situation of research a!out the history of painting in the central Andes in the iceregal period when the Social ,istories of Art e-perienced a re i al% After HFEG( the determination of art )and of art history itself* !y its social conte-t !ecame the primary focus of art historical research( and not merely an e-cursus that aimed at complementing the analysis of artwor#s% KEE 7oinciding with this process( e en though the theoretical models that guided research continued to !e !asically the same( historical narrations that o!ser ed the history of painting in colonial central Andes in relation to its social conte-t started to !e e-plicitly grounded on empirical data% With time( this led to the e-ploration of alternati e models% This is particularly the case of research done !y Francisco Stastny% Whereas 6esa and <is!ert continued to e-plain the distinction !etween
KEESchneider( 0>unst und <esellschaft: 8er so5ialgeschichtliche Ansat51N ,arris( The !e" Art /istory A critical introduction%

HEE

ornamental and non-ornamental art !y ma#ing reference to the distinction !etween the /ndian and the non-/ndian populations of colonial central Andes( Stastny e-plained it !y alluding to the dual structure of peripheral-colonial society( which e-cludes most of its population from modern artistic communications% / see in the second model the opportunity for a dialogue with the theory of social systems% As / will try to demonstrate( 6esa and <is!ert&s narration has to !e modified in the light of empirical e idence in a manner that puts at ris# their main theoretical model% ,owe er( their pu!lications offer important insights in the social determinations of colonial painting in this region%

!.

2os8 de Mesa and Teresa 6isbert9 Indians in colonial artworlds

The 2oli ian architects Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert ha e coauthored the most e-tensi e !i!liography on iceregal arts in the central Andes% Their earliest

pu!lications on colonial painting date to the second half of the HFMDs% These were focused on Alto 3eru%KEJ The most remar#a!le of these early writings is( in my opinion( a history of painting in Alto 3eru focused on 6elchor 34re5 de ,olgu:n )HEEM-HJKC*( a 5ur!aranes+ue painter of the /mperial 7ity of 3otosi% KEG /n HFEH(
KEJAlto 3eru corresponds to a region that was part of the Viceroyalty of 3eru until HJJE( when it !ecame part of the Viceroyalty of $a 3lata% /t roughly corresponds today to the territory of 2oli ia% KEGPos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( /olgu9n y la $intura alto$eruana del Virreinato( 2i!lioteca pace;a : Serie Artes y artistas )$a 3a5: Alcald:n 6unicipal( HFME*% A re ised ersion of this te-t was pu!lished in HFJJ: Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( /olgu9n y la $intura %irreinal en

HEJ

after doing e-tensi e field wor# in 3eru(KEF these prolific authors started to pu!lish a series of monographs on painters that wor#ed in this region during the colonial period%KJD /n HFEC( they pu!lished the first edition of their most influential wor#( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a- which was !ased on research done in colonial archi es and on the e-isting literature% The relation !etween these two sources is rele ant( for it illustrates the critical stance that was e-pected from academic literature in the field% An e-tended edition was pu!lished in HFGC under the same title% 7ompared with the first edition from twenty years !efore( this ersion

presented one ma?or modification in the comprehension of the social conte-t that supported the emergence of the 7usco school of painting and of other local schools in the central Andes during the 0long eighteenth century1 ) c' HEGD ' c' HGDD*% While the first edition put emphasis on the formation of an interregional mar#et of religious images during the first half of the eighteenth century( the second saw this
8oli%ia )$a 3a5: $i!r% Ed% Pu entud( HFJJ*% Other articles on colonial painting written !y 6esa and <is!ert during this early period include: 0$a pintura !oli iana del siglo TV//(1 4studios Americanos' Re%ista de S9ntesis e Bnter$retacin HH( no% MC )HFME*: HM-LCN 0$a pintura altoperuana del siglo TV///(1 Chana' Re%ista Munici$al de Arte y Letras C( no% HJ )HFME*: CDDCCCN 0Poa+u:n 7ara!al( un nue o disc:pulo de ,olgu:n(1 0ordillera C( no% J )HFMJ*: MC-MLN 0"ue as O!ras y "ue os 6aestros en la pintura del AltoperB(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HD )HFMG*N 06anuel de O+uendo y la pintura en 6o?os1N 0The 3ainter( 6ateo 6e-:a( and ,is Wor# in the 7on ent of San Francisco de Iuito(1 The Americas HE( no% L )April HFED*: KGM-KFEN 0El pintor Paramillo y el Bltimo manierismo de la escuela lime;a(1 0ultura #eruana )August HFEC*: HEJ-HJD% KEFAccording to 03A73 m 3remio Southern 3eru m Sem!lan5a del Ar+% Pos4 de 6esa Figueroa(1 n%d%( http:\\www%pucp%edu%pe\premio\southern\mesa%htm% KJDPos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( Rn $intor orure2o en el 0uzco ?ray ?rancisco de Salamanca )Oruro: Ani ersidad T4cnica de Oruro( HFEH*N Melchor #=rez /olgu9n( Hst ed%( 2i!lioteca de arte y cultura !oli iana : Serie Arte y artistas H )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEH*N 8ernardo 8itti( Arte y artistas C )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEH*N Gregorio Gamarra( Arte y artistas )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEC*N Gas$ar 8err9o( Artes y artistas )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEC*N Leonardo ?lores( 3intores )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEK*N Gas$ar de la 0ue%a( Escultores )$a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEK*N 4l $intor Mateo #=rez de AlesioN 4l $intor Mateo #=rez de Alesio%

HEG

as a late e ent in a process that had !een triggered !y the separation of the /ndian mem!ers from the painters& guild of 7usco in the last decades of the pre ious century% These historical processes will !e discussed in chapters K%H and K%C%H( respecti ely% The main conse+uence of this latter e ent was recogni5ed in the le el of artistic style: the /ndian painters& opportunity to practice this trade without Spanish or 7reole super ision regarding the artistic +ualities of their wor# would e-plain the a!sence of central perspecti e and chiaroscuro and the preference for decorati e alues that characteri5ed the 7usco school of painting% /n this conte-t( a notarial document from HEGG that implied that the /ndian painters had !een allowed to separate themsel es from the guild was interpreted as the !irth certificate of this local artistic tradition% Accordingly( these authors interpreted the separation of the /ndian mem!ers from the painters& guild as a necessary cause of the emergence of the 7usco school and( !y e-tension( of other local schools in the Andean highland% Further pu!lications !y Teresa <is!ert ha e e-plored the influence of pre-,ispanic heritages on an iconographical le el% /n chapter K%C%C /&ll discuss three motifs that ha e !een central to the o!ser ation of Andean painting in its social setting: the militias of archangels or arcNngeles arca+uceros- the representations of St% 6ary as a hill or as 3achamama( and the inclusion of !irds in copied Flemish landscapes% /n chapter K%K( these discussions will lead !ac# to a consideration of the role of the !ishop of 7usco for the period HEJK-HEFF( 6anuel de 6ollinedo y Angulo( as sponsor of the arts%

HEF

3.1 3opular images for an interregional market

Since their earliest pu!lications a!out the 7usco school of painting( 6esa and <is!ert ha e framed this artistic tradition as part of a !roader phenomenon that encompassed se eral local schools of painting in the highlands( especially in the region that surrounds the la#e Titicaca in Alto 3eru% KJH All these schools had a!andoned the European canon at the !eginning of the eighteenth century( &'''$ara desem+ocar en la $intura fNcil y atracti%a de los maestros $o$ulares') F.5 3'''to arri%e to the facile and attracti%e $aintings of the $o$ular masters'6 /t is important to ha e in mind that these authors were acti e participants in the discussions a!out mesti5o architecture ' a style that spread during the same period o er roughly the same territory with the important e-ception of 7usco )see chapter C%H*% $i#e this architectural style( the popular schools of Andean painting ' with the e-ception of wor#s !y 6elchor 34re5 de ,olgu:n in 3otos: ' put emphasis on decoration( to the point that o!?ects of decoration( like +rocados-F.F !irds and ?ewelery ac+uired the
KJH &4l fenmeno de la escuela cuz1ue2a no es ;nico- tiene un $aralelo en las escuelas del Alto #er;so+re todo en la denominada 0olla- 1ue florece a orillas del lago Titicaca y en los $ue+los alti$lNnicos'') 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HC% KJC/!id% KJK3edro Iuere?a5u gi es a nice description of this important procedure: 0Bn some $aintings of the late Renaissance and early 8aro1ue $eriods- gilding made of genuine ground gold "as a$$lied "ith +oth medium and fine +rushes' More common during the 8aro1ue $eriod "as the gilding techni1ue kno"n as +rocateado- using gold leaf' There "ere t"o %ariations- the first introducing gilding in lo" relief on the surface of the $ainting- and the second "ithout relief' The former "as made "ith >size> $re$ared "ith oil- reisin- and earth or +ole- and the gold leaf "as a$$lied "hile it "as still sticky' The second "as a mi<tion or mordiente ImordentK $rocedure- using a resinousAoily mi<ture that remained sticky for some time and retained the gold leaf' Gilding on the ro+es of the figures in Andean $ainting "as often a$$lied in $atterns determined +y $lantillas or stencils' 8ut stencils are flat- and cannot folo" the fold of the ro+es or the contours of the figures' The artists $artially corrected the $ro+lem +y a$$lying glazes of um+er or trans$arent +ro"ns to $arts of the gilding') 3edro Iuere?a5u( 06aterials and Techni+utes of Andean 3ainting(1 in Gloria in e<celsis the %irgin and angels in %iceregal $ainting of #eru and 8oli%ia ( 0enter for BnterAAmerican Relations- !e" \ork- !o%' 75- 7ML*A?e+' 7Q- 7ML,( Archer M' /untington Art Gallery- Rni%' of Te<as

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same alue as the human figure%

The description of this form of painting in terms of a 0popular1 tradition could ha e !een adopted !y 6esa and <is!ert from the wor# done !y ]ngel <uido decades !efore% According to the first edition of their /istoria'''( howe er( this tradition didn&t de elop parallel to an erudite or official one( as <uido had claimed( !ut as its offspring%KJL Also unli#e <uido&s wor#( 6esa and <is!ert omitted any reference to the influence of Amerindian cultures on colonial art% Their te-t focused instead on the form of production and circulation of can ases: the change from one form of art to the other ' that is( from the erudite to the popular ' would ha e !een effected !y wor#shops that participated in an interregional mar#et of religious images%

The change from one form of art to the other ' that is( from the erudite to the popular: from an art form that aims towards autonomy to ornamental art ' would ha e !een effected !y wor#shops that produced these paintings for an interregional mar#et of religious images%

Following a tradition that goes !ac# to Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar&s doctoral dissertation from HFCC(KJM 6esa and <is!ert organi5ed this history in three epochs% A first one corresponded to the mannerist period that was initiated !y the
at Austin- March 5FAMay G- 7ML, ( 0enter for the ?ine Arts- Miami- May 7MAHuly 5Q- 7ML, )"ew Qor#: 7enter for /nter-American 9elations( HFGE*( GH% KJL6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HFH% KJM7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1N 7oss:o del 3omar( #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a%

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immigration of the /talian masters 2ernardo 2itti )HMLG-HEHD*( 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio )HMLJ-c' HEHE* and Angelino 6edoro )HMEJ-HEKK* in the last decades of the si-teenth century% /n mid se enteenth century their influence diminished and ga e way to the first signs of a local school of painting% While $S5aro 3ardo $ago&s wor# )acti e in 7usco from c' HECG to c' HEEF*KJE presented the last clear traces of a strong influence !y the /talian masters )/mage G on page CGM*( Puan Espino5a de los 6onteros& )acti e from c' HEKG to c' HEEF*KJJ was seen as ma#ing the transition to the early e-ponents of the popular school of 7usco )/mage HL on page CGF*% At this point( two /ndian painters are particularly rele ant( for each one of them represents a different side in this transition: 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 )acti e from c' HEED to c' HEFF* and 8iego Iuispe Tito )acti e from c' HECJ to c' HEGH*% Santa 7ru5 )/mage HK on page CGG* was seen as the most important e-ponent of the European form of painting during his period: &4l $intor mNs im$ortante del siglo UVBB es el indio 8asilio de Santa 0ruz- correcto y euro$eizado''') F.L 3The most im$ortant $ainter of the 7.th century is 8asilio de Santa 0ruz- correct and 4uro$ean'''6 /t is worth noting that this painter had !een thought to !e Spanish KJF until 9u!4n Vargas Agarte esta!lished his /ndian origin%KGD /n turn( Iuispe Tito was presented as ha ing esta!lished the point of departure of the 7usco school !y inaugurating a 0re!ellious1 and 0highly original1 style !ased on an almost literal copy of Flemish
KJESoria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 CF% KJJ9icardo Esta!ridis 7Srdenas( 0$a Virgen entrega el rosario a Santo 8omingo de <u5mSn(1 in #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( Cnd ed%( Arte y Tesoros del 3erB )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC*( KJL-KJM% KJG6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HC% KJFSee( for e-ample: 6ariStegui Oli a( #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB en 0hile los %aliosos lienzos del 0or$us cuz1ue2o de $ro$iedad de 0arlos #e2a Otaegui en Santiago( CLE% KGD9u!4n Vargas Agarte( 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices coloniales' A$=ndice )$ima( HFMM*( MD%

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prints%KGH ,is stylistic inno ation is found in his direct recourse to Flemish models instead of the /talian and Spanish traditions( as we ha e seen in his series of the 6onths )/mage F on page CGE*% The difference !etween his wor# and that of his contemporaries in 7usco is attri!uted primarily to his relati e isolation in the town of San Se!astiSn( outside 7usco: hIui4n es Iuispe en este panorama. An pintor de pue!lo( un tanto al margen del desarrollo art:stico ciudadano( +ue al final logra imponer una nue a modalidad en la pintura cu5+ue;a% 7on 4l entra lo flamenco%%%N KGC XWho is Iuispe in this landscape. A painter from a small rural town( somewhat in the margin of artistic de elopments from the city( who is finally a!le to impose a new modality of painting in 7usco% A Flemish character is first to !e found in his wor#%%%Z 8iego Iuispe Tito&s almost e-act imitation of Flemish prints left him in the margin of regional artistic trends% Turning away from local tradition and topography( !ut inaugurating a new tradition( he painted large landscapes with scattered citadels that were completely a!sent in his immediate conte-t( !ut were characteristic of the prints he followed% /n 6esa and <is!ert&s description of this two /ndian painters we can recogni5e the influence that the core\periphery distinction continued to e-ert in the articulation of the form of ornamental art: this art form is characteristic of isolated regions where the signals emitted !y the center arri e distorted and de oid of their original chronological order%

KGH6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HC% KGC6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( EMN 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HLH%

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According to these authors( a third epoch followed in the history of painting in 7usco( which mar#ed the emergence of a local school of religious images% /n !road terms( this local tradition was descri!ed as( &'''un conPunto de cuadros annimossiem$re de tema religioso- las mNs de las %eces so+redorados- con t=cnica de e<cesi%o linealismo y sin $ers$ecti%a')FLF 3'''a collection of anonymous $aintings- al"ays "ith religious su+Pects- usually gilded- "ith an e<cessi%ely lineal techni1ue and "ithout $ers$ecti%e'6 The crystalli5ation of this form of painting in the first decade of the eighteenth century would ha e coincided with the emergence of an interregional mar#et for religious images% 6esa and <is!ert cite three important contracts that gi e e idence of the presence of a !road mar#et of religious images% KGL The first is a contract !etween the painter Felipe de 6esa and the dealer Felipe Sicos( signed on 6ay G( HJDL%KGM This was a contract of e-clusi ity( which o!liged the painter to sell all his production to this dealer( who would in e-change pro ide him with materials and iconographic sources ) estam$as or prints*% The profit would !e shared in e+ual parts% A second contract was signed !y the painter 6auricio <arc:a )/mage HE on page CGF* and the dealer 6iguel 2lanco on 6arch HC( HJML% KGE For a total of CJG pesos( the painter would produce CHC can ases in K months( following the models pro ided !y 6iguel 2lanco% HDD pesos )KEb of the total* would !e paid in ad ance and the rest would !e paid gradually to co er production costs% The
KGK6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HGM% KGL/!id% KGM07oncierto de Felipe Sicos( Alcalde 6ayor de la 3arro+uia de San 7risto!al( con 8on Felipe de 6esa( 6aestro 3intor( para pintar lien5os chicos i grandes segBn estampas +ue se le de%1 3u!lished in: Porge 7orne?o 2ouroncle( 0Arte 7u5+ue;o(1 Re%ista del Archi%o /istrico del 0uzco C )HFMH*: CGL f% KGE07oncierto de pintura de 6iguel 2lanco con 6auricio <arc:a( maestro pintor( para pintar CHC lien5os de arias ad ocaciones%1 3u!lished in: /!id%( CGF-FH%

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third is a contract !etween the dealer <a!riel 9inc@n and the painters 6auricio <arc:a and 3edro "olasco( signed on Puly HJ( HJML% KGJ The painters were o!liged to hand <a!riel 9inc@n the impressi e sum of LKM paintings in a period of se en months during which they were not to attend any other client% The dealer would gi e them HDD pesos in ad ance )appro-imately Fb of the total*% ,e would also ma#e wee#ly payments of HD pesos( pay for the transportation of the paintings( and pro ide the iconographic models to !e followed% 2ased on these contracts( 6esa and <is!ert claimed that popular paintings from 7usco during the eighteenth century had !y main conte-t an interregional mar#et of de otional images that were produced in large wor#shops where one should e-pect an important inter ention !y painters other than the masters%KGG

The religious themes are e-plicit in the second and third contracts( as they state that paintings were to represent di erse ad%ocations% Some series specified in the third contract were to represent the li es of St% 6ary )three sets*( St% 9osa( St% Anthony( and 8a id% The estam$as or prints mentioned in the first contract are also ery li#ely to !e de otional% These estam$as are with all li#elihood similar to the estam$es $o$ulaires mentioned !y 6artin S% Soria%KGF

According to this te-t( this form of painting( characteri5ed !y the use of pale colors and the lac# of perspecti e and chiaroscuro( reached its clima- in the middle of the
KGJ07oncierto de 6auricio <arc:a y 3edro "olasco( con don <a!riel 9inc@n( para pintar cuadros de diferentes ad!ocaciones%1 3u!lished in: /!id%( CGE-F% KGG6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HGM( HFD% KGFSoria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD(1 CF%

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eighteenth century% /n this conte-t( the painter 6arcos Zapata )acti e !etween HJLG-HJEL* )/mage HJ on page CFD* is seen as &''' la $ersonalizacin de la $intura annima $o$ular')FMQ 3'''the $ersonalization of $o$ular anonymous $ainting'6 2y the nineteenth century( the clima- of the 7usco school had come to an end( its nai ety ha ing turned into plain primiti ism: En el siglo T/T la ingenuidad se con ierte en franco primiti ismo% $a pintura( pro!a!lemente en manos de maestros indios( llega a una simplificaci@n casi infantil( produciendo pie5as e-presionistas de e-traordinaria calidad% Es el fin de la pintura religiosa irreinal( regalada a los pue!los indios( en tanto +ue las ciudades repu!licanas traen pintores afrancesados para llenar sus necesidades est4ticas%KFH X/n the HFth century( nai ety !ecomes plain primiti ism% 3ainting( now pro!a!ly in hands of /ndian masters( reaches an almost childish simplification with the production of e-pressionist pieces of e-traordinary +uality% This is the end of religious iceregal painting( put in hands of /ndian towns( while the repu!lican cities !ring Frenchified painters to fulfill their aesthetic necessities%Z Only then( at the final decline of the 7usco school of painting( /ndian masters from the hinterland ma#e their entrance in this model: recipients of a great tradition of religious paintings( they transform it into an almost childish !ut e-pressionist simplification% 6eanwhile( repu!lican cities attract painters who follow the neoclassical currents%

/t is interesting how these authors distinguish !etween two forms of ornamental


KFD6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76( HFD-H% KFH/!id%( HFD-HFH%

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art( and mar# the first as a rele ant tradition and the second as a childish and primiti e simplification of the first% As it can !e seen in the pre ious passage( 6esa and <is!ert ground this distinction in formal characteristics and e-plain its historical occurrence !y reference to the distinction !etween /ndian towns and the elite audience in the repu!lican cities( ?ust li#e ]ngel <uido had done to e-plain mesti5o painting% This last model will later on !e adopted !y 6esa and <is!ert as their main framewor#% 2ut then( how can the distinction !etween a 0great tradition1 of ornamental art and its 0childish simplification1 !e sustained. / thin# that the #ey is in these authors& systematic reference to the appropriation of the neoclassical style( which others ha e descri!ed as 0a modernist hecatom!1 )see chapter H%H%L*: the appropriation of this style could ha e implied the o!ser ation of the local schools of painting according to the form of ornamental art and its corresponding de aluation in the face of modernity% Ornamental art would ha e !ecome isi!le as such for the first time in this region% /n those conte-ts in which a primarily religious o!ser ation of the world didn&t ma#e it meaningful to #eep these paintings as sym!ols or as a decoration of sym!ols( they could !e replaced with ones that responded to an artistic program of ornamentation% As always( this doesn&t mean that other #inds of art wouldn&t ha e sur i ed in the latter&s en ironment( !ut that they would ha e !een reproduced where artistic communication wasn&t e-pected: specially among the peasant populations that remained e-cluded from the operations of the functional systems and in other functional realms( li#e religion( science and tourism( as we ha e seen in Sartiges& and Saint-7ric+&s memoirs in chapter H%H%K%

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Other te-ts !y Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert pu!lished during the HFEDs and HFJDs assumed the same chronological model that they proposed in HFEC and insisted on three #ey points% First( that the 7usco school of painting was part of a !roader phenomenon ' that they would later call the Andean schools of painting%KFC 2y insisting on this point( they reinforced the dependence of this field of research on the literature on mesti5o architecture% KFK This is connected with the second point( namely that this form of painting is characteri5ed !y its lac# of perspecti e and chiaroscuro( and !y the achie ement of a stereotypical form of !eauty% As they wrote in a pu!lication from HFEG( Tal es el caso de la escuela cu5+ue;a( poco amiga del claroscuro y deseosa de mostrar una !elle5a formal totalmente estereotipada% En esto y en su planismo es el paralelo mSs ca!al de la ar+uitectura andinaN KFL XThat is the case of the 7usco school( which disli#ed chiaroscuro and was eager to show a stereotypical form of !eauty% /n this respect and in its flatness is this school parallel to the Andean architecture%Z /nterestingly( this style was fre+uently referred to as the conse+uence of an aesthetic decision: if not as the result of a stylistic decision in dialogue with the European tradition( at least as an aesthetic preference( and not as the mere

KFCTeresa <is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte )$a 3a5( HFGD*( HDLN Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia(1 Mundo his$Nnico CJ( no% KHG )HFJL*: LK% KFKSee footnote CHK in page FH% /n a te-t from HFJL( these authors insist on the commonalities !etween the local schools of 7usco( $a 3a5 and the region surrounding la#e Titicaca( all of which ta#e a lead in the new style )6esa and <is!ert( 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia(1 LK%* /n HFGD( Teresa <is!ert refers to them as Andean schools of painting )<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( HDL%* KFL6esa and <is!ert( 08eterminantes del llamado estilo mesti5o y sus alcances en Am4ricaN !re e consideraci@n del t4rmino(1 CCC-K%

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conse+uence of technical insufficiency%KFM This is connected to a third point: these authors& increasing concern with the e idence of indigenous influences on these local schools ' an issue that had !een mostly neglected in the first edition of their /istoria'''- from HFEC%

3.2 Autochthonous sensi%ilities

As we ha e seen( the +uestion regarding the sur i al of pre-contact indigenous cultures in colonial art had !een a pressing issue for se eral decades( reaching its clima- around HFED in <eorge >u!ler&s pu!lications KFE and in the KEth /nternational 7ongress of Americanists from HFEE% /n the realm of painting( it had !een a ma?or focus of art historical te-ts !ased on the notion of mestizaPe among others( this included pu!lications !y Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar( KFJ $uis ]l are5 Ar+uietaKFG and ]ngel <uidoKFF during the first half of the century% /n the HFMDs( it had !een put aside !y authors that adopted the difference !etween artistic centers and their peripheries as core analytical distinction( such as Enri+ue 6arco 8orta LDD and 6artin S% Soria%LDH
KFM/n a pu!lication from HFJL( these authors claimed that( &Se $refiere la $intura carente de $ers$ecti%a- las escenas a+igarradas y anecdticas- los rostros de una +elleza estereoti$ada y con%encional') 6esa and <is!ert( 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia(1 LK% KFE>u!ler( 0On the colonial e-tinction of the motifs of pre-7olum!ian art%1 KFJ7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1N 7oss:o del 3omar( Arte del #er; 0olonial% KFGAl are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial% KFF<uido( Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte% LDD8orta( 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia%1 LDHSoria( 03ainting and sculpture in $atin America from the si-teenth to the eighteenth century1N Soria( La $intura del siglo UVB en Sudam=ricaN Soria( 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-

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The latter&s wor# is !ehind much of 6esa and <is!ert&s pu!lications from the HFEDs% ,owe er( in an article from HFEM on mesti5o architecture( 6esa and <is!ert already noted that( &4s $ro+a+le 1ue estas diferencias con el estilo de origen se de+an a un $unto de %ista distinto- 1ue res$onde $lenamente a la sensi+ilidad ind9gena')GQ5 3Bt is likely that these differences in the style of origin are due to a different $oint of %ie"- "hich "holly corres$onds to the indigenous sensi+ility'6 A few years later( they claimed that( 7omo se e en las formas +ue su!sisten en la llamada ar+uitectura mesti5a son renacentistas en general y manieristas a eces( es decir europeas( lo +ue deri a de la sensi!ilidad ind:gena es el arca:smo +ue hace +ue estas formas per i an tres siglos estati5Sndose sin dar lugar a un cam!io sustancialNLDK XAs it can !e o!ser ed in the forms that ha e sur i ed in mesti5o architecture( they are generally 9enaissance and seldom 6annerist( that is to say( European% What has deri ed from indigenous sensi!ility is the archaism that ma#es these forms last three centuries without suffering any su!stantial change%Z They confronted this pro!lem again in HFJH( more concerned with the erifia!ility of their arguments: 3ara admitir +ue los indios empe5aron a e-presarse con cierta li!ertad en el siglo TV///( ha!rS +ue demostrar pre iamente +ue en este siglo los nati os eran respetados como artistasNLDL XTo admit that /ndians !egan to e-press themsel es with a certain amount of
HJDD%1 LDC6esa and <is!ert( 09enacimiento y manierismo en la ar+uitectura fmesti5af(1 F-HD% LDK6esa and <is!ert( 08eterminantes del llamado estilo mesti5o y sus alcances en Am4ricaN !re e consideraci@n del t4rmino(1 CCC-K% "ote this passages& resem!lance to Enri+ue 6arco 8orta&s: see footnote KKD in page HLF% LDL6esa and <is!ert( 0$o ind:gena en el arte hispanoamericano(1 KM%

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li!erty during the eighteenth century( we must first demonstrate that in that century nati es were respected as artists%Z They alluded in this respect to the testimonies of 2artolom4 and 8iego de Ar5ans( from HJHL and HJKE respecti ely( which indeed ma#e an argument in fa or of the /ndians& artistic a!ilities( !ut didn&t ma#e reference to their influence on artistic style%LDM "onetheless( without ma#ing reference to further documentation that could support their claim( the pro!lem appears to ha e !een settled !y ne-t year when 6esa and <is!ert o!ser ed that the image of the Virgin of the 7andlestic# car ed !y Francisco Tito Qupan+ui around HMGL ' the Virgin of 7opaca!ana )/mages HG and HF* ' corresponded to a peculiar form of /ndigenous de otion: Aun+ue Qupan+ui se inspir@ en una imagen espa;ola( hay +ue ad ertir +ue e-iste una gran distancia entre la Virgen de Santo 8omingo +ue le sir i@ de modelo y la de 7opaca!ana% Esta distancia se plasma en el arca:smo de la imagen nati a y su calidad de icono( en ella se ad ierte +ue el artista le?os de e-presar el humanismo de su tiempo manifiesta una peculiar manera de arraigo ind:gena% $a Virgen estS conce!ida con esa distancia con +ue de!ieron er los ind:genas las cosas di inas y +ue pro iene de los tiempos anteriores a la con+uistaNLDE XE en though Qupan+ui !ased his design Xfor the Virgin of 7opaca!anaZ on a Spanish image( one must note the great distance that separates the Virgin of Santo 8omingo( which he used as a model( and that of 7opaca!ana% This distance can !e o!ser ed in the nati e image&s archaism and iconic character% Far from e-pressing the ,umanist tradition of his time( the artist manifests his peculiar indigenous traditions% The Virgin has !een concei ed from the same
LDMSee footnote CKK in page FF% LDEPos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 4scultura %irreinal en 8oli%ia )$a 3a5: Academia "acional de 7iencias de 2oli ia( HFJC*( GK%

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distant position from where the nati e peoples may ha e seen di ine things( and which comes from pre-,ispanic times%Z 7ompared to the Spanish original( Qupan+ui&s archaic image of Saint 6ary was seen to resem!le an icon: an unrealistic representation of a sacred person% And this was seen as characteristic of pre-contact indigenous religions%

/n HFJL( 6esa and <is!ert applied these ideas to the o!ser ation of colonial painting in the central Andes: the emergence of a mesti5o style of painting during the last two decades of the se enteenth century was e-plained as a conse+uence of a greater proportion of /ndians in the guilds of painters% LDJ /nterestingly( while the focus was placed in the same institution( this argument is the e-act in ersion of the one that would !ecome mainstream after HFGH% 6eanwhile( the idea that this style corresponded to an indigenous sensi!ility was reinforced again in HFJJ LDG and in HFGD( when <is!ert argued that the characteristics of the Andean schools were present in the 7usco school of painting( &'''la cual estN com$uesta en mNs de un .Qd

LDJ &4n el ;ltimo tercio del siglo UVBB la sociedad %irreinal se ha+9a esta+ilizado- los artistas italianos y flamencos- tan numerosos a fines del siglo UVB han desa$arecido' Los es$a2oles 1ue se2orean el arte hasta 7,*Q- em$iezan a escasear- en tanto 1ue mestizos e indios son cada d9a mNs numerosos en los gremios de $intores' 4s entonces 1ue el arte em$ieza a tomar un giro $ro$io y a diferenciarse nota+lemente de los modelos euro$eos' 0uzco- La #az y la zona del lago Titicaca- son las ca+ezas del nue%o estilo') 6esa and <is!ert( 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia(1 LK% The year !efore( Puan 6anuel Agarte El4spuru had pu!lished an introduction to the history of iceregal painting that fully reincorporated the thesis of mesti5a?e )Agarte El4spuru( 0/ntroducci@n a la 3intura Virreinal%1* 7ould this te-t ha e influenced 6esa and <is!ert. LDG &4n $intura- en cam+io- todo cuanto significa $intura de ca+allete es totalmente nue%o y se re1uiere un tiem$o relati%amente largo hasta 1ue los artesanos dominen los medios de e<$resin y la nue%a terminolog9a formal +asada en moldes euro$eos' 4ste $roceso es lento y los rasgos americanos- as9 como la sensi+ilidad ind9gena en las formas de e<$resin- se mantienen hasta fines del siglo UVBB 1ue es cuando se manifiesta el &estilo mestizo)- muy significati%o en la ar1uitectura y detecta+le en la $intura $or la $resencia de algunos caracteres no occidentales como la falta de inter=s $or la $ers$ecti%a y el claroscuro- la tendencia a la estilizacin y figuras estereoti$adas') 6esa and <is!ert( /olgu9n y la $intura %irreinal en 8oli%ia ( HF%

HGC

de indios y la 1ue tiene ace$tacin en todo el continente') GQM 3'''the .Qd of "hich is com$osed +y Bndians and is $o$ular all o%er the continent'6 While they had presented a similar claim already in HFJL(LHD the numerical alue that had !een associated with it ' which does not seem to ma#e reference to an actual +uantitati e analysis ' ga e this claim an aura of e-actitude that might trigger greater credi!ility% All in all( in the first years of the HFGDs( 6esa and <is!ert seemed to !e loo#ing for empirical data in which to ground their interpretation of Andean painting in terms of a mestizo tradition that was mar#ed !y the influence of Amerindian peoples%

!.2.1

5ow an institutional conflict led to differences in style

/n HFGH( perhaps while still preparing the second edition of their /istoria''' that was going to !e pu!lished during the following year- Teresa <is!ert included a short article in the 7hilean newspaper 4l Mercurio- in which she announced a ma?or finding: %%%e-iste un documento fechado en HEGG por el +ue conocemos las diferencias entre los pintores espa;oles y los pintores indios de la ciudad incaica% $os malentendidos pro ocan el retiro de estos Bltimos( creSndose dos grupos paralelos: el de los ind:genas( +ue al parecer se dedic@ e-clusi amente a la pintura( y el de los espa;oles( +ue formaron un gremio comBn con escultores y doradores%LHH
LDF<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( HDL% LHD6esa and <is!ert( 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia%1 LHHTeresa <is!ert( 03intores ,ispanos y 3intores /nd:genas en la 7iudad del 7u5co(1 4l Mercurio( "o em!er CF( HFGH( sec% Artes y $etras%

HGK

X%%%there is a document dated on HEGG through which we #now the differences !etween the Spanish painters and the /ndian painters in the /nca city% The misunderstandings pro o#ed the retirement of the later% Two parallel groups were created: that of the /ndians( which seems to ha e dedicated itself e-clusi ely to painting( and that of the Spaniards( who formed a shared guild with sculptures and gilders%Z This letter from HEGG was interpreted !y <is!ert as the first of a series of documents that ga e testimony of a gradual decay of the guild of painters of 7usco since the last decades of the se enteenth century% As part of this series( she cited a second document from HJDL( through which the Maestro Mayor Puan Este!an ]l are5 had as#ed the local authorities that all painters( sculptors and architects should !e e-amined prior to their !eing gi en permission to open a shop% LHC According to <is!ert( this restriction could ha e forced many /ndian painters to sell their production through dealers that could reach more distant mar#ets% The main cases that support this hypothesis had already !een gi en account for in 6esa and <is!ert&s te-t from HFEC( !ased on contracts from HJDL and HJML signed !y the painters Felipe de 6esa( 6auricio <arc:a and 3edro "olasco% LHK <is!ert also cited documents from HJGE that suggest that there were !oth an Alcalde of painters and a 0aci1ue of painters and sil ersmiths in the city of 7usco% The first position was occupied !y /gnacio <amarra( who( according to 9am@n <uti4rre5( was also the Maestro Mayor of the guild%LHL As mentioned !y Pos4 de 6esa and
LHC/n HFGC( 6esa and <is!ert cited the following document as their source in this respect: 3apeles sueltos del Fondo Vega 7enteno( Archi o 8epartamental del 7u5co% 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CCE% LHKSee page HJK a!o e% LHL9am@n <uti4rre5( 0"otas so!re organi5aci@n artesanal en el 7usco durante la colonia(1 /istrica ///( no% H )HFJF*: J% 9am@n <uti4rre5 cites the following document as his source: Archi o

HGL

Teresa <is!ert( Sim@n de Ze allos signed a document that same year presenting himself as &0aci1ue del Gremio de #lateros- #intores''') G7* For these authors( this document also suggests that the indigenous painters could ha e organi5ed themsel es in a separate guild after HEGG% Finally( according to a document signed !y Pos4 2err:o( Maestro Mayor of the guild of painters and sculptors of 7usco( there was no acti e painter left in the guild in HGHD% 2err:o complained that the aforementioned restriction wasn&t sufficiently enforced !y local authorities% LHE According to 6esa and <is!ert&s interpretation( /ndian painters would ha e !een a!le to practice this trade without ha ing !een trained in the Western canon that was imposed !y the Spaniards& guild%

This argumentati e conte-t ga e meaning to the petition presented !y the Spanish painters to the corregidor of 7usco ' the representati e of the royal ?urisdiction in the city council ' in HEGG: the formation of separate institutions for Spaniards and /ndians would ha e had ma?or conse+uences in artistic style( for /ndian painters would no longer ha e !een re+uired to pass the Spaniards& e-aminations !efore !eing gi en official permission to practice this trade% 7onse+uently( /ndian painters would ha e !egun to practice a more free and e-pressi e style% According to a strong ersion of this thesis( this style( which corresponds to the 7usco school of painting( would ha e increasingly responded to pre-contact indigenous canons%
8ocumental de 7u5co% Archi o del 7olegio de 7iencias( leg% HD( 9emate de $ien5os% 8esignaci@n del CH-V///-HJGE% LHM6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CCG% LHE/n HFGC( 6esa and <is!ert cite the following document as their source in this respect: 3apeles sueltos del Fondo Vega 7enteno( Archi o 8epartamental del 7u5co% /nforme presentado por Pos4 2err:o( 6aestro 6ayor del <remio de pintores( escultores y doradores% /!id%( CCE%

HGM

6esa and <is!ert&s arguments in this respect will !e discussed in chapter K%C%H%H%

This finding opened an interesting +uestion: if the emergence of the School of 7usco could !e e-plained as a conse+uence of this conflict( how could one e-plain its similarities with other local schools in the Andean highlands. /n HFGH( Teresa <is!ert proposed that these other local schools( which also presented a high proportion of /ndian artists( could ha e !een influenced !y the school of 7usco% 7ommercial routes could ha e pro ided the means of diffusion% LHJ Two decades later( echoing a pu!lication !y /sa!el 7ru5(LHG <is!ert argued that a similar institutional conflict could ha e ta#en place in 3otosi( e en though she presented no e idence to support her claim%LHF

6esa and <is!ert&s interpretation of these documents( specially in its strong ersion( reinforced the o!ser ation of indigenous cultures and sensi!ilities or( at least( of the presence of dense /ndian populations( as causes of the emergence of the local school of 7usco and( !y e-tension( of similar traditions of painting in the highlands% We can clearly see that this interpretation was em!edded in a framewor# that 6esa and <is!ert had recei ed from pre ious generations and which had !een attracting their analytical efforts for more than a decade% These documents( and specially the one from HEGG( alidated this ersion of history !y reference to historical data%
LHJ/!id%( CM% LHG/sa!el 7ru5 de AmenS!ar( Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q )Santiago de 7hile: Ediciones Ani ersidad 7at@lica de 7hile( HFGE*( EK% LHF<is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HDE%

HGE

/t is interesting that no transcription of the letter from HEGG was included in the second edition of /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a along with the transcription of the ordinances of the guild of $ima( nor was it made a aila!le to the pu!lic outside 7usco through any other medium' ,oracio Villanue a Arteaga( former director of the Archi o 8ocumental del 7u5co( intended to correct this situation four years later !y pu!lishing a transcription of this letter in the first num!er of the !ulletin of the archi e%LCD ,owe er( / ha e found no reference either to this transcription or to the original document in pu!lications from HFGM to HFFM% /t was in the latter year that 7arol 8amian pu!lished an English translation of this letter% LCH After this date( te-ts that ha e adopted this narration either mention 6esa and <is!ert as their only source or omit to cite their sources completely% At the same time( ersions of this narration ha e sometimes slightly departed from the one proposed !y 6esa and <is!ert in directions that accentuate the influence of /ndian artisans in the emergence of mesti5o styles%

3.2.1.1 Stylistic consequences of the conflict in the guild of painters of Cusco

We must #eep in mind that 6esa and <is!ert&s thesis performs a reactuali5ation of an old topic in this art historical tradition% Already in early writings from the third
LCDVillanue a Arteaga( 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura%1 ,oracio Villanue a Arteaga( then 8irector of the Archi o 8epartamental del 7u5co( found this document in: 3apeles sueltos( 7orregimiento( Fondo Vega 7enteno( and handed it to 6esa and <is!ert )6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HKJ footnote MK%* / must than# 7arrol 8amian( who sent me a copy of the original document and of Villanue a&s pu!lication% LCH7arol 8amian( 0Artist and 3atron in 7olonial 7u5co: Wor#shops( 7ontracts( and a 3etition for /ndependence(1 0olonial Latin American /istorical Re%ie" L( no% H )Winter HFFM*: CK-MKN 7arol 8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco )6iami 2each( Fla%: <rassfield 3r%( HFFM*%

HGJ

and forth decades of the twentieth century we find the recurrent reference to training as a mechanism that could lead artistic e olution in this region !y facilitating the local artisans& adoption of European techni+ues( e en though it could not assure the achie ement of artistic originality% LCC /n this line of thought( 7oss:o del 3omar had argued that a wea# institutional conte-t )one that encompassed not only the guild( !ut also ecclesiastical authorities* had allowed the Andean artisans to e-press themsel es freely(LCK gi ing rise to a mesti5o style% Similarly( at the heart of 6esa and <is!ert&s argumentation is the claim that the fracture of the guild of painters of 7usco had decisi e aesthetic conse+uences: &The 0uzco school of $ainting "as +orn')G5G

We can distinguish !etween a wea# and a strong thesis in this respect% According to the wea# ersion( this school of painting presented an alternati e to Western art inasmuch as it showed total disregard for the s#ills that were included in the guild&s e-aminations according to the ordinances of $ima% LCM /n this ersion( the emergence of the Andean schools is e-plained mainly as a result of the a!sence of an institutionally enforced o!ligation to underta#e e-tensi e training in representational techni+ues that were #ey to the European use of painting during

LCC7oss:o del 3omar( 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co1N Al are5 Ar+uieta( La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonialN SolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitecturaescultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB % LCKSee +uotation in page HEK% LCLTeresa <is!ert( 0Andean 3ainting(1 in Gloria in e<celsis the %irgin and angels in %iceregal $ainting of #eru and 8oli%ia ( 0enter for BnterAAmerican Relations- !e" \ork- !o%' 75- 7ML*A?e+' 7Q- 7ML,( Archer M' /untington Art Gallery- Rni%' of Te<as at Austin- March 5FAMay G- 7ML, ( 0enter for the ?ine Arts- Miami- May 7MAHuly 5Q- 7ML, )"ew Qor#: 7enter for /nter-American 9elations( HFGE*( CJ% LCMSee +uotation in page 204%

HGG

this period% A strong ersion of this thesis further o!ser es that( in this situation( the resulting style would ha e increasingly responded to pre-contact indigenous canons% /t is of course this second ersion that connects most directly with the wor#s of Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar( $uis ]l are5 Ar+uieta( ]ngel <uido( and with 6esa and <is!ert&s own pu!lications from the HFJDs%

6esa and <is!ert ha e alternated !etween !oth positions% /n HFGH( <is!ert presented the strong ersion of this thesis in 4l Mercurio A partir de HEGG los pintores indios emprendieron un camino propio% Si !ien continuaron copiando gra!ados( su tendencia est4tica +ued@ li!rada a su criterio y 4ste empie5a a desarrollarse en forma independiente( acercSndose cada e5 mSs a moldes primiti os y prehispSnicos( como se puede ?u5gar por la pintura del siglo TV///%LCE XSince HEGG( the /ndian painters undertoo# a path of their own% E en though they continued to copy engra ings( their aesthetic tendency was li!erated to their own criteria( which !egan to de elop independently( !ecoming increasingly near to primiti e and pre-,ispanic molds( as it can !e ?udged from eighteenth-century paintings%Z ,owe er( already in HFGC this argument had !een slightly attenuated: %%%a partir de HEGG los pintores indios emprendieron un camino propio% Si !ien siguen la copia de gra!ados y usan procedimientos t4cnicos aprendidos en Europa( su tendencia est4tica +ued@ li!rada a su criterio y 4sta se empie5a a desarrollar en forma independiente( acercSndose cada e5 mSs a una creaci@n no occidental( como se puede ?u5gar por los resultados del siglo TV///%%% LCJ
LCE<is!ert( 03intores ,ispanos y 3intores /nd:genas en la 7iudad del 7u5co%1 LCJ6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HKG%

HGF

X%%%since HEGG( the /ndian painters undertoo# a path of their own% E en though they continued to copy engra ings and to use technical procedures that had !eing learned in Europe( their aesthetic tendency was li!erated to their own criteria and !egan to de elop independently( !ecoming increasingly near to a non-Western aesthetic( as it can !e ?udged from the results from the eighteenthcentury%Z 2oth sections are almost identical e-cept for the reference to pre-contact indigenous patterns( which has !een replaced in the second passage !y a reference to a non-Western aesthetic characteri5ed !y the ina!ility to con ey perspecti e and to represent the human !ody according to laws of proportion% LCG This was presented as an authentically nai e and spontaneous current that put emphasis on ornamentation%LCF

According to these authors& argumentation from HFGC( a first conse+uence of the di ision of the guild was that /ndian painters lost access to European sources( what forced them to restlessly repeat the motifs they had at hand% This is presented as the main cause of this school&s archaism ' a mechanism that had already !een descri!ed !y Enri+ue 6arco 8orta%LKD ,owe er( 6esa and <is!ert added that the Spanish and 7reole painters had also lost contact with the European state of the art% To distinguish !oth forms of archaism( these authors introduced the reference to pre-contact indigenous traditions% First( they noted that the #ind of archaism that characteri5ed paintings done !y /ndians was in accordance with &an ancestral
LCG/!id%( CJH% LCF/!id%( CC f%( CCE f% LKD8orta( 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia(1 LGD% See +uotation in page HLF( a!o e%

HFD

sensi+ility')GF7 Secondly( in their !oo# from HFGC we find the re!irth of an old thesis that had !een put forward !y 6iguel SolS in HFKM: that the /ndian painters could neither feel nor represent 7hristian sorrow:LKC Es un arte anecd@tico y alegre +ue hace poco caso de la pintura !arroca( por una parte grandilocuente y por otra tene!rista y empastada con gran dominio de la figura% E-ponente de esta pintura !arroca es 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 cuya o!ra estS hoy !ien delimitada y responde a los re+uerimientos de una sociedad comprometida con los conceptos de una ida como ftrSnsitof y una muerte como fli!eraci@nf( considerando el dolor y la ascesis como caminos de rendici@n% El cuerpo de San Puan decapitado( de 9i era( en la iglesia de Tinta( y la f3iedadf del con ento de Santa 7atalina( nos ha!lan de ese mundo +ue refle?a la atormentada alma hispana( contrapuesto al cosmos ind:gena( mSs ligado con la naturale5a y el mundo circundante%LKK X/t is an anecdotic and gay art that does not correspond much to !aro+ue painting: grandilo+uent yet tene!rist and filled with great dominion of Xthe humanZ figure% 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 is a representati e of this !aro+ue style in painting% ,is wor#( which is well #nown to us( responds to the re+uirements of a society that understands life as 0transit1 and death as 0li!eration1( while considering pain and ascesis as forms of surrender% The decapitated !ody of St% Poseph( !y 9i era( at the church of Tinta( and the 03iete1 at the con ent of Santa 7atalina( spea# to us a!out that world that mirrors the tormented Spanish soul ' one that is opposed to the indigenous cosmos( more in touch with nature and the surrounding world%Z For these authors( paintings done !y 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 ' himself an /ndian '

LKH6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CL% LKCSolS( /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB( CKF f% See +uotation in page HKD( a!o e% LKK6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CC-K%

HFH

according to a !aro+ue program reflect 0the tormented ,ispanic soul1N one that is e-traneous to the indigenous cosmos% The latter( more closely connected with nature and the immediate surroundings than with the affections of the soul( corresponded to the anecdotal and cheerful paintings of the school of 7usco%

A similarly 0strong1 thesis was presented !y <is!ert in HFGE: &The +reak +et"een S$anish and Bndian artists e<$lain "hy- after a gi%en moment- 0uzco $ainting +ecame more indigenous and $o$ular in its style- de%oted to old and archaic modes and to the use of gold in the 7,th century manner') GFG Two years later( 6esa repeated <is!ert&s argumentation from HFGH: %%%les da e-presi@n de su sentir art:stico ante el uni erso de las formas( +ue a partir de ese momento ad+uiere para ellos una isi@n propia !asada en la tradici@n de las culturas prehispSnicas y en lo +ue los pintores indios del siglo TV/( ha!:an acumulado en la prSctica de la t4cnica y est4tica europeaN LKM X%%%it e-presses their artistic feeling in relation to the uni erse of forms( which( from this moment on( ac+uires for them a uni+ue ision !ased on the traditions of pre-,ispanic cultures and on what the /ndian painters from the si-teenth century had accumulated !ased on the practice of European techni+ues and esthetics%Z /n later decades similar arguments ha e !een put forward !y 7arol 8amian )HFFM*(LKE 6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a )CDDD*( LKJ and 9o!erto Samane5 )CDDC*%LKG
LKL<is!ert( 0Andean 3ainting(1 CE-J% LKMPos4 de 6esa( 0$a pintura cu5+ue;a )HMLD-HGCH*(1 0uadernos de arte colonial /( no% L )HFGG*: CD% LKE8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco% LKJ6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a SSi5( 03intura y Escultura 7olonial en /!eroam4rica(1 in /istoria del Arte B+eroamericano( ed% 9am@n <uti4rre5 and 9odrigo <uti4rre5 Vi;uales )2arcelona: $unwerg Editores( CDDD*( EK-HHJ% LKGSamane5 Argumedo( 0$as portadas reta!lo en el !arroco cus+ue;o(1 HGK%

HFC

While Samane5 passingly claimed that these paintings corresponded to the aesthetic preferences )gusto or taste* of the /ndian and 6esti5o populations( 8amian and <arc:a SSi5 argued that these images ac+uire their original meaning in the conte-t of indigenous religiosity( which is rooted in pre-contact indigenous traditions%

This relation !etween an ancestral sensi!ility or an indigenous cosmos and the 7usco school of painting was not mentioned !y 6esa and <is!ert in the other te-ts they pu!lished !etween HFGMLKF and CDDC%LLD Other authors would follow this 0wea#1 ersion of their argument( such as /sa!el 7ru5 )HFGE*( LLH 7arol 8ean )HFFE*(LLC 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla )CDDC*( 6arcus 2ur#e )CDDE* LLK and 8onahueWallace )CDDG*%LLL /nterestingly( instead of focusing on the a!sence of perspecti e and proportion( 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla descri!ed the painterly tradition that is thought to ha e resulted from the di ision of the guild as a de otional genre speciali5ed in the representation of sculpted miraculous images% LLM /n turn( 7arol
LKF &4sta di%isin- 1ue en $rinci$io $arece determinada slo $or diferencias de clase y de raza con el correr de los tiem$os significa tam+i=n una manera diferente de enfocar el tra+aPo art9stico' 4l Gremio 1ue com$rende a escultores- doradores y $intores es$a2oles se sigue rigiendo $or las ordenanzas- $or las cuales los artistas esta+an o+ligados a e<aminarse $ara ePercer el oficio( en cam+io- el gru$o de indios rechaza esta modalidad- lo 1ue da lugar aun arte mNs li+re y e<$resi%o') Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0El Arte del Siglo TV// en 3erB y 2oli ia(1 in Arte i+eroamericano desde la colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( ol% C( Cnd ed%( Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte T/T )6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM*( MMH% LLD<is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HHD% /n this pu!lication( <is!ert includes an almost e-act copy of the section cited a!o e: see footnote LCJ% LLH7ru5 de AmenS!ar( 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano(1 CF% /n page GF she includes an almost e-act copy of the section cited a!o e: see footnote LCJ% LLC7arolyn 8ean( 07opied 7arts: Spanish 3rints and 7olonial 3eru ian 3aintings(1 The Art 8ulletin JG( no% H )6arch HFFE*: K% LLK6arcus 2ur#e( 0The 3arallel 7ourse of $atin American and European Art in the Viceregal Era(1 in The Arts in Latin America- 7GM5A7L5Q( ed% Poseph P% 9ishel and Su5anne $% Stratton( CDDE( JG% LLL8onahue-Wallace( Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America- 7*57A7L57 ( HLD% LLM6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CH% 7arol 8amian has proposed that the popularity of this genre could ha e !een a result of the simplicity of its

HFK

8amian has proposed that the popularity of this genre could ha e !een a result of the simplicity of its production% LLE An interesting e-ception in this series is pro ided !y 6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a SSi5&s discussion of the distinction !etween European and Amerindian styles( as it may !e applied to paintings from the Viceroyalties of "ew Spain and 3eru%LLJ 9egarding the latter( this author has noted that 6esa and <is!ert&s finding of a di ision of the guild of painters !etween an /ndian and a Spanish-7reole faction shouldn&t !e assumed as a solution to the pro!lem posed !y this distinction( !ut rather as opening further +uestions: gi en that painters from the /ndian faction could ha e opted to follow contemporary Western alues( one should as# what triggered a preference for what would later !e called an Andean style% 6ore specifically( El hecho de +ue los pintores cus+ue;os se separen en dos gremios a partir de HEGG( uno de espa;oles y criollos y otro de indios( le?os de clarificarnos la situaci@n( consigue sacar a la superficie nue os interrogantes en torno a las condiciones espec:ficas +ue de!:an darse para pertenecer a uno u otro lado% hEra la diferenciaci@n 4tnica la primordial o ten:a tam!i4n algo +ue er el tipo de tra!a?o +ue reali5a!a y la clientela para la +ue se tra!a?a!a ha!itualmente. LLG XThe fact that the painters in 7usco separated themsel es in two guilds in HEGG( a guild of Spaniards and 7reoles and another one of /ndians( instead of clarifying this situation raises new +uestions regarding the specific conditions that had to !e met to !elong to either side% Was this defined !y the ethnic differentiation or did it also ha e to do with the #ind of wor# that was done and
production 8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco( EM% LLE/!id% LLJ6ar:a 7oncepci@n <arc:a SSi5( 0Apro-imaciones conceptuales so!re la pintura colonial hispanoamericana(1 in #intura- escultura y artes ;tiles en B+eroam=rica- 7*QQA7L5* ( ed% 9am@n <uti4rre5( 6anuales Arte 7Stedra )6adrid: Ediciones 7Stedra( HFFM*( FJ% LLG/!id%

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with the clientele that was usually attended.Z To what side did a )presuma!ly* /ndian painter li#e 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 3umacallao !elong( when his wor# responds to the artistic program that was fa ored in the court in 6adrid. LLF Iuestions li#e these( that pro!lemati5e our current #nowledge of this epoch( may !e a!le to re itali5e this field of research%

There is one final aspect of 6esa and <is!ert&s treatment of the pro!lem of style that / want to call attention to% According to these authors( Andean artists !ecame conscious of the uni+ueness of their own painterly style: that is( that a specific semantic distinction was a aila!le for them( through which the difference !etween the Western and the Andean styles could !e indicated% This is connected to <is!ert&s pre ious claim that the Andean local schools presented 0a deli!erate archaism%1LMD 2ut the new claim is stronger( specially !ecause it was inferred from another historical documentN this time( from the contract signed in HJML !etween the dealer <a!riel 9inc@n and the painters 6auricio <arc:a and 3edro "olasco% According to the transcription of this contract that was pu!lished !y Porge 7orne?o 2ouroncle in HFMH( this document esta!lishes that: 8e modo +ue los referidos liensos ande ser apaisados con !uenos adornos de curiosidades y algunos de ellos !rocateados con oro fino( esto es lo +ue di-iere y nos pre iniere el referido 8on <a!riel del 9incon y de colores finos !uenos rostros( y apare?ados de toda $ey segun costum!re entre los nuestros de
LLF6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HEEN Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LH% LMD<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( HDL%

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nuestro arte%%%LMH XSo that the aforementioned can ases shall !e landscaped with fine adornments of curiosities and some of them shall !e !rocaded with fine gold( as 8on <a!riel del 9inc@n said and commanded us and a!out Xthem ha ingZ good faces XmadeZ of fine colours( and rightly stretched as it is customary among the XmastersZ of our art%%%Z 6esa and <is!ert interpreted the reference to 0our art1 as pointing to the peculiar form of painting that they called mesti5a: 0Esto indica +ue los pintores cu5+ue;os reconocen para su grupo una manera de pintar +ue los caracteri5a y +ue no se puede definir en los t4rminos conocidos para otras escuelas o para la pintura en general%1 LMC XThis indicates that the painters from 7usco recogni5ed a manner of painting that characteri5ed them as a group and that cannot !e defined using the same terminology that is used in reference to other schools or to painting in general%Z ,owe er( there is no way to #now what it was actually meant !y 0our art1 in this conte-t% One shouldn&t rule out the possi!ility that it merely meant the art of painting( as distinguished from that of sculpting and gilding( for e-ample% /n this sense( it would correspond to the traditional ac#nowledgment that was re+uired from painters in most contracts( as Pos4 <uadalupe Victoria has o!ser ed regarding the situation of painters in the Viceroyalty of "ew Spain: that he or she would paint( &'''como se acostum+ra e suele $intar')G*F
LMH7orne?o 2ouroncle( 0Arte 7u5+ue;o(1 CGJ% LMC6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CE% The same argument was included in: Pos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( 0$a pintura cu5+ue;a(1 Armitano Arte HD )HFGE*: GE% LMKPos4 <uadalupe Victoria( #intura y Sociedad en !ue%a 4s$a2a Siglo UVB( Estudios y Fuentes del Arte de 64-ico $V/ )64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFGE*( FE%

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3.2.1.2 Racial conflict in the guild of painters of Cusco

This section re iews the construction of this historical narration in more detail( focusing in the role that has !een attri!uted to the guild of painters% The analysis is organi5ed in three parts: a first one discusses 6esa and <is!ert&s interpretation of the Spanish painters& petition to the corregidor of 7usco% After recogni5ing the #ey assumptions that support 6esa and <is!ert&s thesis( a second part re iews complementary information a!out the operations of the painters& guild in 7usco% Finally( the situation of guilds in colonial $ima( as it has !een presented !y Francisco Iuiro5( is used as an inde- of the situation of the painters& guild in 7usco%

According to 6esa and <is!ert&s main ersion of this thesis( as it was presented in their /istoria''' from HFGC( the painters& guild was a #ey element in the social conte-t that made possi!le the emergence of the school of 7usco% Although there is no documented e idence of the foundation of a guild of painters in this city( this institution is e-plicitly mentioned in the notarial document from HEGG% This document contains the answer gi en !y se en non-/ndian painters LML to the city&s corregidor( who had decided to allow the /ndian painters to separate themsel es from the guild: &'''desimos 1ue es +enido a nra noticia- de 1ue los yndios $intores an $resentado $eticion en 1ue $iden a$artarse de nro Gremio- o+ligandose de haser este a2o el arco triunfal')G** 3'''"e say that "e ha%e recei%ed the ne"s that the Bndian
LML/t is possi!le that there were actually not many more than se en non-/ndian painters in the city&s guild at the time( for they say: 0''' con nros com$a2eros los doradores y escultores 1ue son $ocos ellos 1ue no $asan de dies o onse y nosotros somos otros tantos') Villanue a Arteaga( 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura(1 HC% 6esa and <is!ert ha e also proposed that they were ten% 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CJD% LMMVillanue a Arteaga( 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura(1 HC%

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$ainters ha%e $etitioned to se$arate themsel%es from our Guild- +eing o+liged to +uild this year the trium$hal arch'6 / recogni5e in this passage a second issue that could ha e !een raised !y the /ndian painters in a pre ious petition: that they should !e allowed to !uild that year the painter&s triumphal arch for the cele!rations of the 7orpus 7hristi with e-clusion of the non-/ndian painters% According to 6esa and <is!ert&s interpretation( howe er( &'''los indios se niegan a $artici$ar en la ePecucin del arco') G*, 3'''the Bndians refuse to $artici$ate in the e<ecution of the arch'6G*. At this point( howe er( this is a minor issue% The decision of the corregidor in this respect( as it was cited !y the Spanish painters( is much more clear: %%%a Vmd% pedimos y suplicamos se sir a de mandar se lle e a de ida e-%on el auto por Vmd% pro eydo en +ue se sir io de mandar +ue los dhos yndios hagan un a;o el arco triunfal del dia de 7ospus y otro a;o nosotros con dhos doradores y escultores%%%NLMG XWe as# and !eg of you that you see that your ruling !e properly e-ecuted( in which you command that the said /ndians should ma#e one year the triumphal arch for the day of the 7ospus XsicZ and that the ne-t year we should ma#e it with the said gilders and sculptors%%%Z

LME6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HKJ% LMJThe translation offered !y 7arol 8amian has radicali5ed this interpretation: 0%%%we announce the news that the /ndian painters in the presented petition as# to separate themsel es from our group( forcing us to ma#e for this year the triumphal arch%1 )8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco( FJ%*% The same interpretation has also !een presented !y: 7ru5 de AmenS!ar( Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q( GGN <is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HCCN Wuffarden( 0$as Escuelas 3ict@ricas Virreinales(1 GL% LMG/ depart from 7arol 8amian&s translation( who interprets 0dhos1 as 0dos1 XtwoZ when it stands for 0dichos1 XsaidZ: &@e ask and +eg of you to send the t"o Bndians to $ay one year of trium$hant arch in the day of 0or$us and another year for us "ith t"o gold finishers and scul$tors') )8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco- HCN emphasis is mine*

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This authority had resol ed that !oth parties should not !uild the said triumphal arch together% /t is also clear in this passage that the non-/ndian painters were not against this decision% Furthermore( since they wrote that the corregidor had gi en credit to what the /ndian painters said and that he had ruled in fa or of them( we might also infer ' along with the main interpretation of this document ' that the /ndian painters could indeed ha e separated themsel es from the guild around HEGG% ,owe er( this remains a wor#ing hypothesis re+uiring further support%

Another section of this letter deals with what has !een interpreted as the main cause of this conflict: %%%no es !ien +ue esto se nos pague con testimonios fal- \f% l %\ -sos +ue nos an le antado en descredito y desdoro de nra presuncion por acreditarse y ser admitidos en su pedimento y pues ellos no an dado prue a de lo +ue an relatado de nosotros de en ser corregidos y reprehendidos se eram%te y si lo an pro ado se nos de traslado para dar nros descargos pues en general nos an desacreditado( siendo as: +ue solos tres o +uatro hom!res son de los +ue se nom!ran por capatases y de estos el +ue fueremos culpados estamos prestos a la rrestitucion de lo +ue disen ellos +ue con iolencia se les +uita y agra ia y estamos asi mesmo a pagar la pena si lo an pro ado y de lo contrario no se de!e dar credito%%%LMF X%%%it is not right that this !e paid to us with false testimony which has !een
LMFVillanue a Arteaga( 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura(1 HC% ,ere / depart once again from the translation pu!lished !y 7arol 8amian( which says: &Bt is not Pust that this +e $aid to us "ith false testimony "hich has +een raised to our discredit and im$ediments' They ha%e not offered $roof of that "hich they ha%e said of us and so they should +e corrected and re$rimanded se%erely and they ha%e mo%ed a"ay and left us to our duties +ut discredited +y some three or four so called foremen' 8ecause of them "e ha%e +een accused of +eing guilty +ut "e are ready to regain our rights "ithout their %iolence "hich makes matters "orse') )8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco- FJ - emphasis is mine*%

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raised to our discredit and impediments( for they ha e !een gi en credit and their petition has !een admitted and they ha e not offered proof of that which they ha e said of us and so they should !e corrected and reprimanded se erely and if they ha e offered proof( we should !e allowed to present our defense for we ha e !een discredited in general( since there are ?ust three or four men who call themsel es capatases and it is them who !lame us( we are ready to gi e !ac# that which they say has !een iolently ta#en from them Xand to repair the damageZ and we are e+ually ready to pay the penalty if they ha e pro en it and otherwise they should not !e gi en credit%%%Z According to 6esa and <is!ert( the authors of this letter( in an attempt to a oid the di ision of the guild( e-pressed in this passage their willingness to repair the damage that they had admittedly committed% The Spanish and 7reole painters in 7usco would ha e feared that( following the di ision of the guild( they wouldn&t ha e !een a!le to recruit enough painters to attend the most important clients in a time when commissions were !ecoming !igger and Spanish and /ndian painters had !egun to compete on e+ual terms%LED

These authors& interpretation of this document( as well as the thesis it was meant to support( assumes that the guild was strong enough to monopoli5e the granting of the title of master( and that this title was gi en prefera!ly to non-/ndian painters% /t further assumes that the guild&s prohi!ition to sell paintings without this title was effecti ely enforced% Thus( through the operations of the guild(
LED &Los es$a2oles se dieron cuenta del $eligro 1ue corr9an al 1uedarse sin la mano de o+ra necesaria $ara res$onder a grandes contratos y $rocuran un entendimiento indicado >el 1ue fu=ramos cul$a+les estamos $uestos a la restitucin de lo 1ue dicen ellos''' y estamos $uestos as9 mesmo a $agar la $ena si lo an $ro%ado'''>) 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HKJ% See also /!id%( HKG%

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/ndians would ha e !een #ept in a su!ordinated position in the wor#shops that were allowed to sell pictures% The di ision of the guild would ha e meant that more /ndians would ha e had access to positions of authority and( foremost( that they would ha e !een a!le to run a wor#shop and sell their pictures( gi en that they wouldn&t ha e !een re+uired to recei e ad anced training in the Western tradition of painting as a condition for their !eing allowed to practice this trade% The school of 7usco would present the aesthetic conse+uences of this conflict( as it wouldn&t ha e responded to the Western tradition !ut to its adoption !y the indigenous peoples of central Andes%

2efore re iewing these assumptions more closely( / want to call attention to an alternati e reading of this last passage% / ha e already noted that we should not assume that the Spanish and 7reole painters were against the separation of the /ndian mem!ers of the guild% At least it is clear that they were not against the decision of the corregidor regarding the fa!rication of the triumphal arch for the cele!ration of the 7orpus 7hristi% / thin# that this passage contains the main petition that these painters wanted to present to the city&s corregidor% According to this document( the /ndian painters had as#ed the corregidor that the non-/ndian mem!ers of the guild' including the authors of the document ' should pay for what had !een iolently ta#en from them )we don&t #now what this is*% / propose that( through this letter( the Spanish and 7reole painters merely as#ed the corregidor to carefully re iew any e idence that could ha e !een presented !y the /ndians to support this petition and to allow them ' that is( the Spanish and

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7reoles authors of the letter ' to defend themsel es% The authors further as#ed that( should the /ndians ha e presented no e idence in this respect( they should !e reprimanded%

7ontrary to 6esa and <is!ert&s interpretation of this document( / thin# that we shouldn&t assume that( !efore this conflict too# place( the guild had !een a!le to successfully enforce the o!ser ance of ordinances that were identical to the ones that had !een appro ed for the painters& guild of $ima in HELF% This assumption not only depart from the content of this #ey document( !ut is also ery difficult to erify against other historical data% /ndeed( further documentation of the situation of guilds in colonial central Andes suggests that it is unli#ely that the painters& guild in 7usco would ha e corresponded to how it has !een depicted !y 6esa and <is!ert% To support these authors& thesis we re+uire more information a!out the situation of /ndians in the painters& guild and a!out their effecti e separation from it( a!out this institution&s ordinances and date of foundation( and a!out its capacity to enforce the o!ser ance of its ordinances prior to the decade of HEGD% Since / ha e already discussed the pro!lem of the /ndian painters& separation from the guild( in the following /&ll focus on the other three%

A first pro!lem is presented !y the a!sence of documents that deal at length with the ordinances of the guild in 7usco% This pro!lem has usually !een sol ed !y assuming that this institution was either an e-tension LEH or an imitation of the
LEH6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HKJ-GN 7ru5 de AmenS!ar( 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano%1

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guild of painters and gildersLEC of $ima( the ordinances of which were pu!lished in HELF%LEK Se eral authors ha e pro ided more details regarding the foundation of this organi5ation in 7usco( which re+uire further proof% Teresa <is!ert has argued in at least two occasions that the painters Francisco Serrano and 6arcos 9i!era founded the guild in 7usco shortly after HELF% LEL She has not mentioned her sources in this respect% 6ore recently( 6arcus 2ur#e ' who has reportedly used 6esa and <is!ert&s /istoria''' from HFGC ' seems to ha e mista#en the two guilds when asserting that the guild of 7usco was founded in HELF% LEM /n turn( >elly 8onahue-Wallace has affirmed that &#ainters in Lima and 0uzco''' did not $u+lish ordinances until 7,G. and 7,GM res$ecti%ely''')- although she later refers to &The 7,GM Lima $ainters> ordinances''')G,, This confusion re eals that further documentation regarding the history of the guild of painters of 7usco( specially !efore HEGG( is re+uired in order to support this thesis% Without it( we cannot e-clude the possi!ility that this guild was !arely a few months old when the /ndian&s petition was presented to the corregidor of 7usco% According to an article !y 9am@n <uti4rre5 from HFJF( only since HEJL are the operations of guilds in 7usco documented( which correspond to &$ul$eros- tocineros- mante1ueros$asteleros- y $anaderos 1ue erigen sus Altares $ara las fiestas del 0or$us 0hristi') G,. /f
LEC &'''el arte de $intar- dorar- encarnar- y estofar''') 03oder% "icolSs 34re5 de $e@n y otros a 2artolom4 $uis )Ordenan5as y 7onstituciones del gremio de pintores de $ima%1 3u!lished in: 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( KDF% LEKThe ordinances of the guild of painters of $ima were pu!lished in: /!id%( KDF-HH% LEL/n HFGE( <is!ert mentioned !oth Serrano and 9i!era as founders of the guild of painters of 7usco )<is!ert( 0Andean 3ainting(1 CK%*% /n CDDC( she only mentioned Serrano )<is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HHD%*% LEM2ur#e( 0The 3arallel 7ourse of $atin American and European Art in the Viceregal Era(1 JK% LEE8onahue-Wallace( Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America- 7*57A7L57 ( HLD% LEJ<uti4rre5( 0"otas so!re organi5aci@n artesanal en el 7usco durante la colonia(1 C%

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the guild of painters wasn&t older than that( we can only e-pect that its di ision would ha e had little( if any( conse+uences in style%

We also re+uire more information regarding the situation of /ndians in the guild of painters% They are not mentioned in the ordinances of the guild of $ima( whereas negros- zam+os and mulatos were e-plicitly e-cluded from it%LEG ,owe er( these ordinances did esta!lish that the alcandes %eedores XmayorsZ )two for the art of painting and two for the art of gilding* and the fiscal XattorneyZ of the guild had to !e Spanish%

/nterestingly( Porge 2ernales 2allesteros has suggested that /ndian painters in $ima may also ha e esta!lished a separate guild or a separate cofrad9a X!rotherhoodZ( &'''$ues los mNs de ellos tu%ieron %i%ienda y taller en Santiago del 0ercado') G,M 3'''since most of them had their residency and their "orksho$ in Santiago del 0ercado6- the latter !eing the town were /ndians were segregated in eastern $ima% LJD To my #nowledge( no!ody has ta#en up 2ernales& claim( which would !e hard to gi e account for in 6esa and <is!ert&s framewor# unless one insisted on demographic arguments: that the /ndian painters were more in 7usco than in $ima( or that they represented a !igger proportion of the total num!er of painters in the city( so that the aesthetic effects that are attri!uted to this situation in 7usco and in the other Andean schools couldn&t !e generali5ed to the whole central Andean region(
LEG &'''1ue ning;n $intor ni dorador maestro Ini oficialK ense2e mulatos- negros- zam+os ni otras castas- $ena de 5Q $esos $ara la congregacin del santo') LEF2ernales 2allesteros( 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato(1 LH% LJDAle-andre 7oello de la 9osa( 4s$acios de e<clusin- es$acios de $oder el cercado de Lima colonial I7*L,A7,Q,K )Fondo Editorial 3A73( CDDE*%

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including $ima%

A more important pro!lem is posed !y the lac# of e idence regarding the power of the guild in 7usco% According to the ordinances of the guild of $ima( no!ody was to use the title of maestro art9fice if he or she had not learned this art from an appro ed master and had not !een e-amined% As it has !een noted( this e-am is crucial for 6esa and <is!ert&s argument: %%%+ue el pintor o dorador +ue aprue!en y le den t:tulo de maestro art:fice( ha de dar ra5@n as: de pala!ra como de o!ra( por las preguntas siguientes: ha de di!u?ar una figura humana de pie entero de pechos y otra de medio perfil y otra de espaldas con sus partes y tama;os conforme a la simetr:a y al arteN as: mesmo un cuerpo de una mu?er y de un ni;o% $uego ha de pintar un lien5o con una o mSs figuras desnudas y esto se entiende al @leo o al fresco o al temple( como sea conforme al arteN y tam!i4n responderS de pala!ra( algunas de las preguntas +ue se le hicieren acerca de la perspecti a para historias y as: mismo del trato y uso de los colores y temples y apare?os de los lien5os( y hallSndose hS!il y suficiente( se le despacharS su t:tulo de maestro art:fice y podrS usar de 4l( li!rementeNLJH X%%%that the painter or gilder that they Xthe guildZ appro e and gi e the title of master to should answer the following +uestions in orally and practically: Xhe or sheZ shall draw a human figure once from the front( once from the side( and once from the !ac#( with its parts and si5es according to symmetry and artN li#ewise( a female and an infant !ody% Then Xthe painter or gilderZ shall paint a can as with one or more na#ed figures% This should !e done using oils( using soft dispenser( or al fresco( according to artN and Xthe painter or gilderZ shall also answer some +uestions that will !e made to Xhim or herZ regarding Xthe use ofZ
LJH6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( KHD%

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perspecti e in historias and regarding the use of colours( dispensers and stretchers( and if Xhe or sheZ is found s#illful enough( Xhe or sheZ will !e gi en the title of maestro art:fice and will !e allowed to ma#e use of it freely%Z These ordinances esta!lish that only licensed masters could practice painting and gilding as a trade% 7an we assume that these ordinances were enforced in 7usco !efore HEGG. The few pu!lished records that mention the operations of this guild in 7usco ' none of which is pre ious to HEGG ' may !e ta#en to spea# against this assumption: the document from HEGG that gi es testimony of profound internal conflicts and institutional insta!ilityN Puan Este!an ]l are5&s petition to reinforce the guild( presented in HJDLN and a document from HGHD( in which the Maestro Mayor of the arts of painting( sculpture and gilding( Pos4 2err:o( announced that there was no acti e painter left in the guild%

/f we assume that the guild&s ordinances were not enforced in 7usco more strictly than in $ima and that the painters& guild was not an e-ception in the entire population of guilds( we may ta#e the general situation of guilds in $ima as an inde- of the situation of the guild of painters in 7usco% According to Alfonso Iuiro5(LJC e en when the ordinances of the guilds in colonial $ima resem!led those in Se ille ' the ordinances of the painters& guild of $ima do ma#e e-plicit reference to this city&s guild as a model '( these were not enforced as se erely as in this city%LJK As he noted(
LJCIuiro5( Gremios- razas y li+ertad de industria Lima colonial% LJKThe contrary seems to ha e !een the case in 6e-ico% See: 6anuel 7arrera Stampa( Los Gremios Me<icanos' La organizacin gremial en !ue%a 4s$a2a 7*57A7L,7 ( Edici@n y 8istri!uci@n /!ero Americana de 3u!licaciones%( 7olecci@n de Estudios ,ist@rico-Econ@micos 6e-icanos de la 7Smara "acional de la /ndustria de Transformaci@n )64-ico( HFML*( CKJ%

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El gremio lime;o tu o escasas funciones econ@micas y limitado poder para negar el e?ercicio de los oficios a los no agremiados% En la prSctica( el gremio lime;o colonial no tu o una actuaci@n +ue pudiese ser considerada como gremial propiamente dicha% $os oficios +ueda!an 0li!res%1 "o se practic@ una erdadera persecuci@n contra todos los +ue usa!an los oficios agremiados% Tampoco contra +uienes comerciali5a!an los productos artesanales al margen de los gremios%LJL X<uilds in $ima had few economic functions and limited power to deny the e-ercise of the trade to non-mem!ers% /n practice( guilds in colonial $ima didn&t ha e a role that one could properly +ualify as that of a guild% Trades remained 0free%1 There wasn&t a real persecution of all the people who practiced the trades that had !een formed into a guild% "either were those who commerciali5ed goods in the margin of the guilds persecuted%Z Already in the last decades of the se enteenth century( guilds in $ima did rarely ta#e e-ams% According to Iuiro5( this #ey procedure in the guilds& ordinances had !een forgotten !y mid-eighteenth century% LJM Already this !road description of the situation of guilds in $ima ma#es it unli#ely that the painters& guild of 7usco would ha e operated in such an effecti e way prior to the HEGDs so that the separation of the /ndian mem!ers would ha e produced a change in style of the magnitude that is supposed !y 6esa and <is!ert%

9egarding the situation of /ndians( Iuiro5 notes that they were commonly not su!?ect to the ordinances of guilds% Their !elonging to a 0repu!lic of /ndians1 allowed them not to pay the ta-es and charges that were related to the guild&s
LJLIuiro5( Gremios- razas y li+ertad de industria Lima colonial( E% LJM/!id%( LH%

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decisions%LJE Among these were the alca+ala- a general sales ta-(LJJ and the media anata- a ta- le ied on personal income related to the holding of a pu!lic office% The latter was applied to artisans in possession of the title of master and to those holding a position of authority within the guild Ialcalde %eedor- fiscalK'G.L /ndians were also e-empted from charges related to the infringement of the guild&s ordinances ' such as the re+uirement of e-amination% 6oreo er( it was not rare that /ndians were e-empted from e-aminations and isitations !y guild authorities and that they were gi en the title of master informally and e< $ost facto in recognition of their ha ing opened a tienda%LJF

E en if Iuiro5&s research doesn&t gi e e idence of the operations of the painters& guild in colonial 7usco( it does depict a conte-t in which there is no reason to assume that the /ndian painters& separation from the latter ' what may ha e occurred around HEGG( according to the aforementioned petition ' would ha e !een decisi e in the formation of the school of 7usco as an aesthetic tradition or in the precari5ation of the /ndian painters& wor#ing conditions% Such a causal relation

LJEA similar claim has !een presented !y: <uti4rre5( 0"otas so!re organi5aci@n artesanal en el 7usco durante la colonia(1 M% LJJ8uring the se enteenth century in Spain( painters were su!?ect to the alca+ala only when they sold their products directly to the open pu!lic: Puan Pos4 6art:n <on5Sle5( 4l Artista en la Sociedad 4s$a2ola del siglo UVBB )6adrid( HFGL*( HJF% As such( it may ha e !een used for signaling painting as a no el and ingenious art distinct from )other* commercial products: 6ary 7rawford Vol#( 0On VelS5+ue5 and the $i!eral Arts(1 The Art 8ulletin ED( no% H )6arch HFJG*: EF-GEN 6ary 7rawford Vol#( 0Addenda: The 6adrid Academy(1 The Art 8ulletin EH( no% L )8ecem!er HFJF*: ECJ% This distinction was reflected in the formation of academies that were to compete with the old guilds: PuliSn <Sllego( 4l $intor de artesano a artista )Espa;a: Ani ersidad de <ranada( HFJE*% Thus( regarding the specific situation of the guilds of painters( it is not superfluous to recall that also in Spain this was a time of crisis for these organi5ations% LJGIuiro5( Gremios- razas y li+ertad de industria Lima colonial( HHM% LJF/!id%( EK-JD%

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may !e spurious% $i#e Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar proposed in HFMG( LGD for all we #now( the conflict in the guild pro!a!ly occurred in a conte-t where the ordinance of the guild( if they were similar to the ones that were appro ed for the painters& guild in $ima( were not effecti ely enforced% /n such a conte-t( /ndian artisans may already ha e en?oyed high le els of freedom prior to their separation from the guild%

/n conclusion( !ased on the ordinances of the guild of $ima alone( one could e-pect that the painters& guilds in colonial central Andes played an incipient role as administrators of artistic e-pertise( since the e-aminations that they contemplate ma#e reference to criteria of correctness that trigger an at least incipient o!ser ation of pictures in the conte-t of an artistic history% ,owe er( / ha e found no e idence to support the assumption that the painters& guild of 7usco would ha e enforced such ordinances% /n the a!sence of such documentation( we can use the situation of guilds in colonial $ima as an inde- of the situation of the painters& guild in 7usco( gi en that we assume that the guild&s ordinances were not enforced in 7usco more strictly that in $ima and that the painters& guild was not an e-ception in the entire population of guilds% /n this conte-t( it is unli#ely that the $ima ordinances would ha e !een effecti ely enforced e en !y this city&s guild( especially in what refers to the re+uirement of practical and theoretical e-aminations% E en if they were( /ndian artisans are li#ely to ha e !een e-empted from them% Therefore( 6esa and <is!ert&s thesis has to !e corrected in this respect(
LGD7oss:o del 3omar( Arte del #er; 0olonial( CDJ f%

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until new e idence is found% /n chapter L / will argue that a theoretical alternati e is offered !y a luhmannian reading of Francisco Stastny&s typology of the geography of art in the early modern period% From this point of iew( the relati e 0wea#ness1 of the guild of painters together with the stylistic characteristics of the school of painting of 7usco can !e understood as part of a more encompassing societal conte-t%

!.2.2

Traces in iconography

/n Teresa <is!ert&s !oo# from HFGD( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte- we can also o!ser e a gradual return to a model that could include /ndian traditions as a rele ant factor that influenced the emergence of the Andean schools of painting( including the 7usco school% 8uring the last decades( 6esa and <is!ert had traced this influence foremost in a formal le el: linearity( a!sence of chiaroscuro and of lineal perspecti e( together with a tendency to include gilding( had all !een seen as corresponding to an indigenous sensi!ility% As we ha e seen in the pre ious chapter( in pu!lications after HFGH( these authors would limit the conse+uences of the di ision of the guild of 7usco to this le el%

At the same time( howe er( pre-,ispanic heritages were found to ha e influenced painting in a iconographic le el% This influence was understood as ha ing ta#en place in two directions% On the one hand( colonial documents show that specific iconographic inno ations could ha e responded to the patrons& anticipation of the

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Amerindian audiences& religious representations% On the other hand( one can assume that religious representations were introduced !y the nati e artists themsel es( these motifs ha ing reflected their own religious traditions% /n this last case( iconographic ariations are understood as the result of processes of cultural syncretism%

Theoretically( !oth phenomena could trigger each other% 7ultural syncretism could result from the clerics& attempt to conte-tuali5e( within the 7hristian tradition( those indigenous sym!ols that they thought were not directly related to idolatry% "ati e artists could( in turn( introduce iconographic ariations !y using sym!ols that could not !e recogni5ed as particularly idolatrous or heretical !y ecclesiastical authorities( !ut which could actuali5e religious communications according to their own traditions%LGH

/n the se enteenth century( the suspicion that the latter was actually the case may ha e triggered ferocious campaigns against idolatry( which seem to ha e !een destined to fail:LGC after all( a suspicion of this sort could ne er !e completely ruled out% That !oth sides in this conflict could ta#e ad antage from this pro!lem is
LGHPaime $ara( 07risto-,elios americano: $a inculturaci@n del culto al sol en el arte y ar+uitectura de los irreinatos de la "ue a Espa;a y del 3erB(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% JL )HFFF*: CF-LF% LGC/n relation to the fe-tirpation of idolatries(f see specially: 3ierre 8u iols( La Lutte 0ontre Les Religions Autochtones :ans Le #=rou 0olonial SL>e<tir$ation :e L>idoletrieS 4ntre 7*F5 4t 7,,Q )$ima: /nstitut Franjais d&4tudes Andines( HFJC*N 3ierre 8u iols( La destruccin de las religiones andinas I0on1uista y 0oloniaK( trans% Al!or 6aruenda )64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFJJ*N 3ierre 8u iols( 0ultura Andina y Re$resin' #rocesos y %isitas de idolatr9as y hechicer9as 0aPatam+o- siglo UVBB( Archi os de ,istoria Andina M )7usco: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( HFGE*N 3ierre 8u iols( #rocesos y %isitas de idolatr9as 0aPatam+o- siglo UVBB( con documentos ane<os )$ima: /FEA /nst% Franc4s de Estudios AndinosN Fondo Ed% de la 3ontificia Ani % 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDK*%

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e ident in a case from HEHD( as narrated !y >aren Spalding% On that year( a kuraka )highest leader of an Andean community* was accused for idolatry !y the local priest( who claimed that the said kuraka had led the reali5ation of demonic ceremonies in front of the priest&s house( including music( dancing( drin#ing and sacrificing a ram% /n turn( the kuraka said that these actions were not idolatrousN that they had !een reali5ed according to the 7hristian festi ity of the 7orpus 7hristi( which was going to !e cele!rated two days later% According to Spalding( this am!iguity allowed the kuraka to use the mechanisms of reciprocity with the o!?ecti e of reasserting his position of authority %isAfA%is the local priest%LGK /n this cultural conte-t( the disco ery of /ndian idolatry was commonly e-perienced as a disillusionment( as we can read in the words of Francisco de A ila( from HEDF: &'''lo 1ue confieso 1ue han hecho con mucha frecuencia delante de m9 sin 1ue yo ingenuamente com$rendiera su intencin')GLG 3'''"hich B confess they ha%e done "ith much fre1uence +efore my eyes "ithout me realizing "hat their intention "as'6

From the point of iew of the theory of sociocultural e olution( all this points to the fact that iconographic ariation was su!?ect to the mechanisms of selection and re-sta!ili5ation of religion in !oth sides of the conflict: on the side of the organi5ed 7hristian religion that had ta#en e-plicit decisions on this respect in the CMth session of the 7ouncil of Trent )HMEK* LGM and on the side of the local Andean
LGK>aren Spalding( 0$a otra cara de la reciprocidad(1 in Bncas e indios cristianos elites ind9genas e identidades cristianas en los Andes coloniales( ed% Pean-Pac+ues 8ecoster )7u5co: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( CDDC*( EH-JG% LGL$etter to 8iego Al are5 de 3a5% Iuoted in: 8u iols( #rocesos y %isitas de idolatr9as 0aPatam+osiglo UVBB( con documentos ane<os( MF% LGM7hristian ,echt( Catholische 8ildertheologie im zeitalter %on Gegenreformation und 8arock' Studien zu Traktaten %on Hohannes Molanus- Ga+riele #aleotti und anderen Autoren )2erlin: <e!r%

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communities% Three analyses proposed !y Teresa <is!ert are particularly illustrati e in this respect% /n going through some #ey analyses proposed !y this and other authors( my intention is to underline that stating the e-istence of this fundamental conflict is more fertile than the attempt to pro e that any gi en motif actually responded to pre-contact indigenous traditions%

3.2.2.1 A militia of archangels

Teresa <is!ert has suggested that the representation of archangels in the form of a hea enly army ' the so-called arcNngeles arca+uceros )/mage HM on page CGF* ' could ha e !een intended to support the replacement of the indigenous worship of celestial !odies with 7hristian monotheism%LGE

The fight against polytheism was a cardinal preoccupation of colonial ecclesiastical authorities( as we can o!ser e in the testimony gi en !y the Pesuit Poseph de Acosta in his /istoria !atural de las Bndias'''- from HMFD: Xa los predicadores e ang4licosZ esles dificultos:simo de desarraigar de sus XllosZ entendimientos Xde los indiosZ +ue ninguno otro dios hay ni otra deidad hay sino uno y +ue todo lo demSs no tiene propio poder ni propio ser( ni propia operaci@n( mSs de lo +ue les da y comunica a+uel supremo y solo 8ios y Se;or% Q esto es sumamente necesario persuadilles por todas :as( repro!ando sus
6ann Verlag( HFFJ*% These decisions were adopted in the "ew World in the Second 7ouncil of $ima )HMEJ-G* 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 HK% LGEA less detailed ersion of the same argument was pu!lished in: Teresa <is!ert( La tradicin +9+lica en el arte %irreinal )$a 3a5: $os Amigos del $i!ro( HFGJ*( CG% 3ierre 8u iols has shown that the contro ersial drawing that Poan de Santa 7ru5 3achacuti included in his Relacin de las Antigedades deste reyno del #ir; has the same cathe+uetical purpose% See: 3ierre 8u iols( 06esti5a?e cultural en dos cronistas del incipiente !arroco peruano: Santa 7ru5 3achacuti y <uaman 3oma de Ayala(1 in 4l 8arroco #eruano( ol% H( C ols% )$ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC*( MF-FJ%

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errores en uni ersal de adorar mSs de un 8ios% Q mucho mSs en particular de tener por dioses y atri!uir deidad y pedir fa or a otras cosas +ue no son dioses ni pueden nada( mSs de lo +ue el erdadero 8ios( Se;or y ,acedor suyo les concede%LGJ /n this sense( archangels may represent a hea enly army that( under the authority of the only <od( rules the hea ens( the hea enly !odies and the earth% These elements could then !e understood as creatures of <od% As <is!ert pointed out( the source of this angelology could ha e !een F 4noch( also #nown as The /e+re" 8ook of 4noc-GLL which would ha e !een accessed !y the ecclesiastical authorities that guided the production of these images !efore they entered the recursi e loop of imitation and ariation that fed the interregional mar#et of religious images%

As it is characteristic of pu!lications !y Teresa <is!ert and Pos4 de 6esa( the passage that presents this argumentation in <is!ert&s !oo# from HFGD LGF was copied in a short monograph !y 6esa and <is!ert from HFGK LFD and in an article !y <is!ert from HFGJ%LFH $ess detailed ersions of this argument were also included in
LGJPoseph 8e Acosta( Vida religiosa y ci%il de los indios I/istoria natural y moral de las BndiasK( Cnd ed%( 2i!lioteca del estudiante uni ersitario GK )6e-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFFM*( HM% LGG &These are the names of the rulers of the "orld Ga+riel- the angel of fire- 8aradiel- the angel of the hail- Ruchiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the "ind- 8ara1iel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the lightningsDa>amiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the %ehemence- Di1iel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the s$arks- Di>iel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the commotion- Da>a$hiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the stormA"ind- Ra>amiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the thunders- Ra>ashiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the earth1uake- Shalgiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the sno"- Matariel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the rain- Shimshiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the day- Lailiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the night- Galgalliel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the glo+e of the sun- >O$hanniel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the glo+e of the moon- Cok+iel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the $lanets- Rahatiel "ho is a$$ointed o%er the constellations') ,ugo Ode!erg( ed%( F 4noch or The /e+re" 8ook of 4noch )7am!ridge Ani ersity 3ress( HFCG*( 3art //: KJ-G% LGF<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( GE-J% LFDPos4 de 6esa and Teresa <is!ert( Los Angeles de 0alamarca )$a 3a5: 7ompa;:a 2oli iana de Seguros( HFGK*% LFHTeresa <is!ert( 0$a pintura en 3otos: y la Audiencia de 7harcas )hoy 2oli ia*(1 0uadernos de arte

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a short article !y 6esa and <is!ert in HFGE LFC and in another !oo# !y <is!ert from HFGJ%LFK The entry written !y Teresa Villegas de Anei a on 0Asiel Timor 8ei )arcSngel arca!ucero*1 for the e-position organi5ed !y Ani@n $atina in HFFE witness the depersonali5ation of this #nowledge that is no longer attri!uted to communications !y <is!ert%LFL 6ore recently( other authors ha e sought a similar argumentation( without following <is!ert&s te-ts% Typically( their readings of angels are connected to Soria&s #ey +uestion regarding the sym!olic meaning of !irds in Andean cultures%LFM

,ere we can clearly o!ser e the presence of the fundamental conflict that / ha e tried to portray a!o e% The hypothesis that this motif was introduced as part of an ecclesiastical strategy that anticipated local !eliefs( and its counterpart( that it was !roadly adopted !y the indigenous populations !ecause it could !e interpreted in the conte-t of these !eliefs( resulting or not in true con ersion( may ne er !e confirmed or ruled out% 6ore importantly( ?ust li#e it occurred to o!ser ers in the se enteenth century( we won&t !e a!le to sol e the last pro!lem% 7onse+uently( we are forced not to include in our models of sociocultural e olution assumptions in either direction% /t must suffice to state that !oth alternati es were actually
colonial /( no% K )HFGJ*: CJ-G% LFC6esa and <is!ert( 0$a pintura cu5+ue;a(1 GG% LFK<is!ert( La tradicin +9+lica en el arte %irreinal( CG% LFLTeresa Villegas de Anei a( 0Asiel Timor 8ei )arcSngel arca!ucero*(1 4l retorno de los Nngeles +arroco de las cum+res en 8oli%ia( CDDF( http:\\dcc%unilat%org\Virtuale6useum\8atas\oeu re%asp.llEsVelangesVolCDD% See also the catalogue of this e-position: Ani@n $atina( 4l retorno de los Nngeles +arroco de las cum+res en 8oli%ia )3aris: Anion $atine( HFFE*% /nterestingly( 6esa and <is!ert don&t present this argument in their contri!ution to the catalog% LFMSee( for e-ample: 6u?ica 3inilla( ]ngeles a$crifos de la Am=rica %irreinal N Per@nimo Pos4 <ranados( 8ild und Cunst im #rozeY der 0hristianisierung Lateinamerikas )6Rnster N ,am!urg N $ondon: $/T Verlag( CDDK*%

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possi!le and that this opened the field for conflicts and negotiations%

3.2.2.2 St. Mary in the sacred landscape

A second motif analy5ed !y Teresa <is!ert consists on the representation of Saint 6ary as part of the sacred geography and( more specifically( as a sacred hill )/mages CD and CC*% According to <is!ert( this iconographic ariation may ha e fulfilled a function similar to that of the militia of archangels% ,owe er( the argument that she de eloped in this respect is less straightforward%

2efore reconstructing her argumentation( it must !e noted that( e en though this motif plays an important role in the tracing of indigenous influences in colonial art( the literal representation of 6ary as a sacred hill seems to ha e !een e-tremely rare% <is!ert cites only three cases( all of which present 6ary&s !ody !lended with the 7erro 9ico of 3otosi: the can as at the 7asa de 6oneda de 3otos:( from HJCE )/mage CD on page CFC*( a second one from HJCD currently in a pri ate collection(LFE and a replica of the first one( that <is!ert says she saw in a mar#et in $a 3a5% /n the last painting( the /nca( the sun and the moon had !een remo ed%LFJ We can add a fourth can as currently at the 6useo "acional de Arte in $a 3a5% /n the latter( the 3illars of ,ercules ' a sym!ol of the domains of 7harles V ' ha e !een added to each side of the hill )/mage CC on page CFK*% Therefore( we can say that this motif( in which 6ary is literally represented as a hill ' more specifically( as the 7erro 9ico de 3otosi '( seems to ha e !een not only rare( !ut
LFEThe author doesn&t specify the owner% LFJ<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( HJ%

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also uni+ue to this region in southern central Andes%

Two other motifs ha e !een interpreted in relation to this first one: one in which the mother of Pesus is depicted a!o e a mountain or a hill( LFG and one in which the garments of 6ary are depicted as a triangle that frames her and her child )/mages CH and CK* ' a form that has !een read as resem!ling a hill%LFF

All these motifs ha e !een seen as indicators of the sur i al of elements of /ndian cosmology in colonial art% 2asically( these images ha e !een understood as a testimony of an identification of 6ary with 3achamama( the 0earth mother%1

/ find a first clear presentation of this idea( that has too often !ecome a matter of common senseMDD( in <is!ert&s !oo# from HFGD% Teresa <is!ert&s main claim is that( &Mar9a englo+a en s9 muchas cosas- entre ellas la Madre Tierra y $or ende el es$9ritu
LFGAs e-amples of this form( <is!ert mentions a can as( held at that time at the 3arish of 7opaca!ana )3otosi*( attri!uted to Puan Francisco de la 3uente )HEMG*( and a drawing attri!uted to Francisco Tito Qupan+ui )c%HMGK*( pu!lished !y Viscarra% LFFThat this interpretation wasn&t rare in the decade of HFGD is suggested !y <is!ert in a te-t from HFGJ: 04sta Virgen- como muchas otras- ostenta manto triangular en el 1ue alg;n in%estigador ha 1uerido %er la imagen de una monta2a( efecti%amente la Virgen de Sa+aya 1ue tiene esta forma de manto sustituy al monte Sa+aya''') )<is!ert( 0$a pintura en 3otos: y la Audiencia de 7harcas )hoy 2oli ia*(1 CD%*% A thorough analysis in this direction has !een pu!lished in: 7arol 8amian( 0The Virgin and 3achamama - /mages of Adaptation and 9esistance(1 Secolas Annals A Hournal of the Southeastern 0ouncil of Latin American Studies TT/// )6arch HFFC*: HCM-HKJN 8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco% MDDA catalog pu!lished !y 6useo "acional de Arte of $a 3a5( for e-ample( descri!es illustration CC as follows: &4sta e<traordinaria $intura de la Virgen 0erro es $roducto de la sim+iosis cultural 1ue se da entre mitos ind9genas y dogmas de la Bglesia catlica' 4n este caso la #achamama o Madre Tierra y la Madre de :ios se funden en una sola imagen') )0$a Virgen del 7erro(1 Museo !acional de Arte( n%d%( http:\\www%mna%org%!o\r!-KC%html%*% The catalog of the collection of the 7asa de 6oneda in 3otosi presents illustration CD as follows: 0The Virgin Mary is $ortrayed on #otos9 Mountain Ialso called 0erro RicoK' The mountain re$resents Mother 4arth or the Bndian #achamama' Bt is a sy+iosis XsicZ of t"o cultures and t"o religions around the /oly Trinityincluding the sun and the moon') )Edgar 2ustamante 8elgado( ed%( Tesoros del arte %irreinal 0asa de Moneda de #otos9 )2arcelona: 2ustamante Editores( HFFE*( HCL% K

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de las monta2as')*Q7 3Mary encom$asses many things' Among them- she encom$asses the 4arth Mother and- therefore- the s$irit of the mountains'6 ,er argumentation can !e reconstructed in si- steps: H* 2ased on si-teenth and se enteenth-century chronicles( <is!ert assumed the e-istence of two pre-,ispanic cults: the cult of the hill of 3otosi(MDC and the cult of 3achamama at 7opaca!ana( in the shores of la#e Titicaca%MDK C* <is!ert attri!uted the design of the motif that depicts Saint 6ary in the form of the hill of 3otosi( the earliest ersions of which was pro!a!ly done around HJCD( to the allegorical 0lucu!rations1 of the Augustinian friars 7alancha and 9amos( who resided in this region in HEHD and HEHF( respecti ely% MDL K* This identification would ha e !een adopted !y local communities !y !lending the cult
MDH<is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( CH% MDC/n this respect( <is!ert +uotes a footnote in Antonius de Ega;a&s Monumenta #eruana &''' a la $arte sur el cerro rico 1ue se llama #otoch9- de una muy hermosa hechura- 1ue $arece hecha de mano y muestra ser como un montn de trigo en el color y talle- aun1ue =l- en s9 %isto y andado- es Ns$ero y desa+rid9simo y no tiene la hermosura 1ue muestra de lePos( y $or esto- o $or1ue a las minas llaman coya en lengua de los indios- 1ue 1uiere decir &reina)- llaman a este cerro $or e<celencia Reina) Antonius de Ega;a( Monumenta #eruana( ol% L( 6onumenta missionum J )9omae: apud f6onumenta ,istorica Soc% /esuf( HMGE*( EGG% This is in turn a +uotation of: Relaciones //: FF( HHJ% We can add another reference to this local cult( which can !e found in a letter sent !y 3a!lo P% 8e Arriaga to 7% A+ua i a in HMFF: 3a!lo Poseph de Arriaga( 0El 3% 3a!lo Poseph de Arriaga XE- 7ommiss%Z $ima CF de A!ril HMFF(1 in Monumenta #eruana( ol% L( 6onumenta missionum J )9omae: apud f6onumenta ,istorica Soc% /esuf( HMFF*( EGJ-G% MDKThis reference to a cult of 3achamama in 7opaca!ana is ta#en from a chronicle from HECH: Alonso 9amos <a ilSn( /istoria del Santuario de !uestra Se2ora de 0o$aca+ana )$ima: /gnacio 3rado( editor( HFGG*% See also: Ver@nica Salles-9eese( ?rom Viracocha to the Virgin of 0o$aca+ana Re$resentations of the Sacred at Lake Titicaca )Austin: Ani ersity of Te-as 3ress( HFFJ*% MDL &La relacin $lNstica VirgenA0erro se +asa en las elucu+raciones de Ramos y 0alancha en torno al $ro+lema' Am+os agustinos- cronistas del Santuario de 0o$aca+ana- estu%ieron en #otos9' 0alancha hacia 7,7Q y Ramos en 7,7M' La $arro1uia de 0o$aca+ana de la ciudad Bm$erial de$end9a de los agustinos y es muy $osi+le 1ue en su ereccin tu%ieran $arte los citados religiosos' 4l es$9ritu manierista %igente a $rinci$ios del siglo UVBB y la desmedida aficin 1ue ten9an $or el &Perogl9fico) y la alegor9a literaria hacen 1ue a tra%=s de una serie de s9miles se identifi1ue a Mar9a con un Monte' Ramos dice 06ar:a es el monte de donde sali@ a+uella piedra sin pies ni manos +ue es 7risto1 y a2ade refiri=ndose a 0risto 0esto es sin resistencia en las manos ni hu:a en los pies%%% es piedra cortada de a+uel di ino monte +ue es 6ar:a1%) <is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( HF% 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla dates image CD to HJCE )6u?ica 3inilla( 0/dentidades aleg@ricas: lecturas iconogrSficas del !arroco al neoclSsico(1 KHH%* This author alludes to the same te-t !y the Augustinian friar 9amos de <a ilSn as the source that re eals the origin and meaning of this metaphor%

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of the hill with that of Saint 6ary% L* /t spread from 3otosi to 7opaca!ana ' Saint 6ary !een identified with a different hill in each location: 3ucarini and Sa!aya )/mage CK on page CFL*( for e-ample%MDM M* Since the hills are made out of earth or soil( the identification of Saint 6ary with a hill would ha e allowed for her identification with 3achamama( the earth mother( MDE despite the distinction that local communities made !etween 3achamama and the Apus( the spirits of the mountains%MDJ E* $ocal communities would ha e adopted this identification !y !lending the cult of the earth mother with that of Saint 6ary in 7opaca!ana% MDG

E en though it does ma#e reference to e-ternal documents( this argument isn&t empirically grounded step !y step% /n my opinion( Teresa <is!ert&s core claim( that Saint 6ary was identified with 3achamama and the Apus in the eighteenth century( lac#s sufficient empirical grounding% A !rief sur ey of the literature shows that the identification of Saint 6ary with 3achamama was highly contro ersial when <is!ert made this argument( and still is% While one shouldn&t ascri!e contemporary religious representations to colonial Andean communities( one can assume that it
MDMSee footnote MDE% MDE &La identificacin de Mar9a con un monte- sea =ste #otos9- #ucarini- o Sa+aya- es simultNnea a su identificacin con la Madre Tierra' Mar9a sustituye a los es$9ritus de las monta2as identificNndose con la tierra 1ue es la materia con 1ue =stas estNn hechas') <is!ert( Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte( CH% MDJ &4s necesario ad%ertir 1ue de acuerdo a la tras$osicin %erificada en tiem$os %irreinales- la Virgen es identificada con la #achamama en tanto 1ue- $or otro lado- se la hace a$arecer cerca de los montes sagrados sustituyendo a los 9dolos 1ue en ellos se adora' La tradicin muestra 1ue los montes- achachilas o a$us- son di%inidades masculinas y locales en tanto 1ue la #achamama es una di%inidad femenina y uni%ersal( am+os estNn +ien diferenciados' 4sta antigua diferencia no $arece mantenerse en el $roceso de aculturacin al cristianismo ya 1ue hay una $rogresi%a sintetizacin- lo 1ue im$lica eliminar los dioses dis$ersos y menores en +eneficio de una sola di%inidad' #or eso Mar9a englo+a en s9 muchas cosas- entre ellas la Madre Tierra y $or ende el es$9ritu de las monta2as') B+id' MDG &4sta identificacin con la Tierra se dio mNs fNcilmente en 0o$aca+ana donde la #achamama ten9a culto esta+lecido''') B+id'

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is not li#ely that from an earlier identification of St% 6ary with 3achamama and the Apus( a differentiation would ha e occurred that was consistent with di erging religious traditions% /n HFGC( 6% P% Sallnow o!ser ed that( for the community of San Sal ador( near 7usco( pagan deities and 7hristian apparitional shrines coe-isted( each fulfilling a different function% These communities maintained not only the distinction !etween these traditions( !ut also the distinction !etween 3achamama and the Apus%MDF /n HFGJ( Pos4 <on5Sle5 6art:ne5 reported that( when as#ed regarding how they would e-plain their children who the Virgin was I&Si un hiPo suyo le $regunta 1ui=n es la Virgen b1u= le dir9ac)K- and what it meant that the Virgin 6ary is also our mother I&b#or 1u= decimos 1ue la Virgen Mar9a es tam+i=n nuestra madrec)K( fi e peasants from 3uno( in southern 3eru( made a spontaneous relation !etween 6ary and the earth and\or with 3achamama% MHD 6erlino and 9a!ey corro!orated Sallnow&s findings: there is a coe-istence of !oth traditions in the same indi iduals%MHH This claim has also !een supported !y Ver@nica Salles9eese: the cult of Saint 6ary did not replace that of 3achamama% This author further claims that a syncreti5ation of 3achamama with Saint 6ary is theoretically impossi!le due to their opposing +ualities: &'''unlike the Mother of 0hrist- the Bndian deity is not %irginal- chaste- $ure' The union of these t"o feminine deities results in a
MDF6% P% Sallnow( 0A Trinity of 7hrists: 7ultic 3rocesses in Andean 7atholicism(1 American 4thnologist F( no% L )"o em!er HFGC*: JLD% MHDPos4 $uis <on5Sle5 6art:ne5( La religin $o$ular en el #er; informe y diagnstico )3erB: /nstituto de 3astoral Andina( HFGJ*( HHK-E% This identification was not found in 7usco% 2oth +uestions are li#ely to ha e triggered in the inter iewed person a search for authoritati e and traditional answers% The second +uestion is specially tendentious for it e-plicitly assumes that the inter iewed shares the inter iewer&s !eliefs( which are sanctioned !y authority% /n my opinion( this ma#es <on5Sle5 findings in 3uno much more rele ant% MHH9odolfo P% 6erlino and 6ario A% 9a!ey( 09esistencia y hegemon:a: 7ultos locales y religi@n centrali5ada en $os Andes del Sur(1 Sociedad y Religin HD\HH )HFFK*: HLE-HEE%

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set of internal contradictions that are im$ossi+le to reconcile') *75 For Salles-9eese( !ecause of this contradiction( Saint 6ary could not assimilate all of 3achamama&s functions% Saint 6ary did( howe er( &'''re$lace other deities in the Titicaca region and slo"ly a$$ro$riated their functions')*7F She had( for e-ample( the power to produce rain to water the fields( which was the function of the idol 7opacati% /n this sense( this author o!ser es that( &As the miracles of the Virgin of 0o$aca+ana took root in Andean culture- these other idols lost their rele%ance the huacas "ere silenced fore%er')*7G Finally( Ana 6ar:a 6ariscotti de <=rlit5 supports the contending positionN that is( that a synthesis did occur% ,owe er( she doesn&t offer any reference to empirical data%MHM These o!ser ations indicate that <is!ert&s claim cannot !e done in such general terms% An identification of St% 6ary with 3achamama could indeed ha e !een made in some regions( !ut this is clearly not something that one could assume as a general phenomena( as <is!ert did in her analysis%

9egarding the argumentation presented !y <is!ert( it didn&t pro ide enough e idence in which to ground this interpretation of images of Saint 6ary( e en in those rare cases when her !ody has !een !lended with the hill of 3otosi% This author insisted on this line of argumentation again in HFGJ% /n reference to the Virgin of Sa!aya )/mage CK on page CFL*( she has claimed that(
MHCSalles-9eese( ?rom Viracocha to the Virgin of 0o$aca+ana Re$resentations of the Sacred at Lake Titicaca( KG% MHK/!id%( HJH% MHL/!id% MHMAna 6ar:a 6ariscotti de <=rlit5( 0<=tter- und ,eiligen#ult in den Zentral-Anden(1 in Cosmos der Anden @elt+ild und Sym+olik indianischer Tradition in Sdamerika( ed% 6a- 3eter 2aumann )6Rnchen: Eugen 8iederichs Verlag( HFFL*( LC-JG%

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Esta Virgen( como muchas otras( ostenta manto triangular en el +ue algBn in estigador ha +uerido er la imagen de una monta;aN efecti amente la Virgen de Sa!aya +ue tiene esta forma de manto sustituy@ al monte Sa!aya%%%N MHE XThis Virgin( li#e many others( has !een dressed with the triangular cloa# that some researcher has identified with the image of a mountainN the Virgin of Sa!aya that has this shape did in fact su!stitute the mount Sa!aya%%%Z /t seems that this information could !e attri!uted to no specific element within a networ# of scientific communications% Teresa <is!ert reinforces this popular interpretation of the triangular depiction of Saint 6ary e en though she doesn&t offer any argument to support it%

As Ver@nica Salles-9eese has noted( <is!ert&s analysis of the VirgenA0erro motif was also wea#ened !y her reference to local audiences distinct from the ecclesiastical authorities who left written testimonies% MHJ /n this sense( <is!ert&s analysis of the ArcNngeles Arca+uceros is stronger( specially if one limits it to the 7hristians& o!ser ation of idolatry% E en though he didn&t cite <is!ert&s te-t from HFGD( 9am@n 6u?ica 3inilla has limited in this sense this analysis of the VirgenA 0erro- e-panding it at the same time towards an analysis of colonial political discourses%MHG Other authors ha e pu!lished te-ts that reproduce <is!ert&s core ideas% 7arol 8amian( for instance( has claimed that( The one consistent feature that appears as a dominant stylistic and
MHE<is!ert( 0$a pintura en 3otos: y la Audiencia de 7harcas )hoy 2oli ia*(1 CD% MHJSalles-9eese( ?rom Viracocha to the Virgin of 0o$aca+ana Re$resentations of the Sacred at Lake Titicaca( KC% MHG6u?ica 3inilla( 0/dentidades aleg@ricas: lecturas iconogrSficas del !arroco al neoclSsico(1 KHH%

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iconographic trait in 7u5co paintings of the Virgin is the triangular shape of 6ary&s dress( a reference to the shape of a mountain and( especially( her role as 3achamama( the Earth 6other% Whether the su!?ect relates to her role as protector of the earth( the moon deity( or a royal +ueen( the 7u5co Virgin is most fre+uently dressed in an ela!orately decorated dress of triangular form% /t appears not only on can ases !ut on murals and statues as well% MHF 2ased on this assumption( 8amian e-plored in much more detail the different forms in which this syncreti5ation could !e e-pressed in colonial images% Per@nimo Pos4 <ranados has also followed this interpretati e model: %%%#ann man auch innerhal! der /#onographie in 3eru oder in 2oli ien eine Verschmel5ung 5wischen 6aria und der pachamama feststellen% Z%2% #ann man eine 8arstellung der 6aria in einem 2erg sehen% 8er 3otos:-2erg war eine der Sil!er+uellen der /ndianer und wurde deswegen erehrt% 8er 2erg dient als 2e#leidung der Pungfrau 6aria% 8iese 8arstellung widmet sich a!er auch gleich5eitig eindeutig dem 3achamama <lau!en% Es handelt es sich um die Verehrung der Erde unter den /ndigenen%MCD There is( howe er( a #ey distinction !etween these later te-ts and Teresa <is!ert&s Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte they adopt a stronger position regarding a process of syncretism% /n HFGD( <is!ert&s argumentation in this respect remained hesitant and put more emphasis on the role of ecclesiastical authorities%

3.2.2.3 The Antisuyu as Paradise

/n HFMF( 6artin S% Soria o!ser ed that( while pro iding almost e-act copies of
MHF8amian( The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco( MD% MCD<ranados( 8ild und Cunst im #rozeY der 0hristianisierung Lateinamerikas( HHJ-F%

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imported prints( Andean paintings include !irds that are not present in their models%MCH The same o!ser ation was echoed !y >elemen in HFEF% MCC /n HFGC( 6esa and <is!ert added that this phenomenon coincided with the introduction of parrots and mon#eys in mesti5o architecture%MCK 9egarding these !irds( Soria as#ed( &are they souls or s$irits from hea%enc) /n HFFF( <is!ert answered that these were angels( messengers from hea en%MCL / would li#e to go o er this third thesis%

4l #ara9so de los #NParos #arlantes- from HFFF( is a rare te-t in <is!ert&s production( e en though it is related to her refle-ions in Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte- from HFGD% What is most rare a!out it is that it ma#es no reference to the di ision of the guild of painters in 7usco( although it deals with iconographic changes that the author claimed too# place around HEED%MCM The main thesis / want to discuss here goes as follows: in the si-teenth and se enteenth centuries( there was the !elief that the !i!lical paradise could !e located in the /nca Antisuyu in eastern 3eru( !etween the ?ungle and the Andes( where parrots a!ound% This !elief can !e found in Antonio de $e@n 3inelo&s 4l #ara9so en el !ue%o Mundo- from HEME ' which wasn&t pu!lished until HFLK%MCE Adopting this !elief( Andeans further e+uated the 3aradise with an orchard and searched in the local flora and fauna for

MCHSee +uotation in page KF% MCC3Sl >elemen( 0The 7olonial Scene: A World Transplanted(1 in Art of the Americas Ancient and /is$anic' @ith a com$arati%e cha$ter on the #hili$$ines )"ew Qor#: Thomas Q% 7rowell 7ompany( HFEF*( CJK% MCK6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CJC% MCL<is!ert( 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina % MCMThis date is proposed !y: 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( CJC% /n her !oo# from HFFF( <is!ert says that this change too# place towards the end of the HJth century: 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina- HJK% MCEAntonio de $e@n 3inelo( 4l #ara9so en el !ue%o Mundo )Torres Aguirre( HFLK*%

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signs of this connection with hea en%MCJ ,ence !irds were seen as angels%

/ find se eral pro!lems in this argument( which / resume in four steps% <is!ert&s claim that !irds were seen as angels was grounded in an anonymous sermon included in the :octrina cristiana y catecismo $ara la instruccin de los indios from HMGL- from which she +uotes that in paradise( a place of eternal dwellings and gardens full of flowers( our !odies will !e lighter than eagles( shinier than the sun( more su!tle than the wind( and more !eautiful than the s#y: they will !e li#e angels%MCG From this( <is!ert infers that souls are associated with !oth !irds and angels( and that hea en )or paradise* is represented as a garden full of flowers% <is!ert concludes that paintings from the 7usco school ' specially those that continue Iuispe Tito&s tradition ' are representations of paradise: gardens full of flowers and !irds% ,owe er( from this +uotation alone( one cannot infer that souls and angels are represented as !irds )eagles* more than they are represented as the sun( the wind and the s#y% /n my opinion( the sources are !een forced to fit 6artin S% Soria&s hypothesis%

/ also find pro!lematic the claim that the 7hristian paradise was e+uated with the /nca Antisuyu% /t is certainly not enough to point to $e@n 3inelo&s te-t( for it does not gi e us any information regarding how spread this !elief was% <is!ert argues that the 7olla people of the arid highlands associated the concept of happiness
MCJ<is!ert( 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina ( HMD% MCG/!id%( HMH% / ha e not !een a!le to find this section in the original ersion )pu!lished !y Antonio 9icardo in HMGL* of :octrina christiana y catecismo $ara la instruccin de los indios''' )7iudad de los 9eyes: Antonio 9icardo( primero impresor en estos 9eynos del 3erB( HMGL*%

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with the image they had of the Antisuyu( the eastern lands( where medicinal plants ' including coca ' were !rought from% These are( &'''tierras calientes $o+ladas $or chunchos- regadas $or caudalosos r9os y llenas de %egetacin') *5M 3'''"arm lands $o$ulated +y the 0hunchos- "atered +y $lentiful ri%ers and filled "ith %egetation'6 Thus( the people of the arid highlands ' where Andean paintings were made ' associated the 7hristian paradise with the Antisuyu( and populated the first with the flora and fauna of the latter% ,owe er( e en though one may assert that the !irds and the flora present in these paintings corresponded with such a region( one cannot yet affirm with enough certainty( !ased on these sources alone( that this is an image of paradise%

<is!ert further argued that( corresponding to their angelic nature( these are !irds that tal#% To support this claim she mentions four sources% First( a te-t !y 7ardinal Pulio Sartorio de Santa Se erina )cHMFD*( which says that !irds( which are angels according to Salomon( are messengersN second( a fragment of Sarmiento de <am!oa&s chronicle( according to which a parrot was regarded to ha e the a!ility to predict the futureN third( the tradition according to which the /nca 6anco 7apac had another such a !irdN and fourth( 9amos <a ilSn&s notice that a !ird that had ne er !een seen in 7usco had announced that all the rites and ceremonies of the local peoples were going to perish% /n my opinion( these sources are not sufficient to support her claim%

MCF<is!ert( 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina ( HMH%

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2ased on these grounds( <is!ert affirmed that the Andean paintings that include elements of flora and fauna that are not present either in the artists& geographic conte-t or in the iconographic sources that he or she used( are meant to &'''com$ati+ilizar la doctrina cristiana con la religin de tiem$os $rehis$Nnicos') *FQ 3'''make christian doctrine com$ati+le "ith the religion of $reA/is$anic times'6 This would ha e !een intended from !oth sides in this relation: since the curas doctrineros E priests who teach the 7hristian doctrine ' and the local kurakas were important clients of these paintings and could ha e had ma?or influence in their iconographic design( <is!ert concludes that they( &'''$arecen ser los res$onsa+les de este cam+io 1ue induce a un rechazo de la modernidad de su tiem$o') *F7 3'''seem to +e res$onsi+le for this change that leads to the rePection of the modernity of its time'6 8o note that this argument aims mainly at the iconographic le el of Andean paintings% /n this le el( neither the Spanish mem!ers of the guild nor the separatist /ndian painters( and not e en this institution as administrator of the European canon( would ha e played a role in the emergence of the Andean schools of painting( !ut the patrons& intentions to adapt some elements of the 7hristian tradition to pre-,ispanic religion%

/n going through these three #ey analyses my intention has not !een to demonstrate their falsity% / propose that the attempt to pro e that any gi en motif actually responded to pre-contact indigenous traditions is destined to e-perience the same luc# as the campaigns against idolatry% Such campaigns were
MKD/!id%( HML% MKH/!id%( HJK%

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unsuccessful not !ecause their intuition was false( !ut rather !ecause it could not ' and still cannot ' !e pro en not to !e false% This fundamental uncertainty is characteristic of the colonial conte-t in this region% / propose that stating the e-istence of this state of uncertainty is more fertile than the attempt to pro e that any gi en motif actually responded to pre-contact indigenous traditions% On the one hand( colonial documents show that specific iconographic inno ations could ha e responded to the patron&s anticipation of the Amerindian audiences& religious representations% On the other hand( one can assume that religious representations were introduced !y the nati e artists themsel es( these motifs ha ing reflected their own religious traditions% Furthermore( on a theoretical le el( one must admit that !oth phenomena could ha e triggered each other% From the point of iew of the theory of sociocultural e olution( all this points to the fact that iconographic ariation was su!?ect to the mechanisms of selection and re-sta!ili5ation of religion in !oth sides of the conflict: on the side of the organi5ed 7hristian religion that had ta#en e-plicit decisions on this respect in the CM th session of the 7ouncil of Trent )HMEK* and on the side of the local Andean communities%

3.3 Adorned with all possi%le decency# the role of the %ishop of 4usco$ )anuel de )ollinedo y Angulo

When switching to a model that focused on the stylistic conse+uences of the di ision of the guild of painters in the last decades of the se enteenth century and

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on the iconographical ariations that resulted from the utili5ation of paintings in the conte-t of religion( the importance of the emergence of an interregional mar#et of religious images during the first half of the eighteenth century diminished% "ow one had to integrate this last phenomenon into a more general process% This was achie ed !y including one last player in this narration% /n this respect it has !een argued that( !etween HJKD and HJMD( artisans in 7usco saturated the local mar#et of paintings( which had !een fueled !y the restoration of the city after the earth+ua#es that occurred in HEMD and !y a ma?or patron of the arts: the !ishop of 7usco for the period HEJK-HEFF( 6anuel de 6ollinedo y Angulo%

2ishop 6ollinedo&s role as sponsor of the arts in 7usco had !een emphasi5ed already !y authors in the HFLDsMKC and HFMDs%MKK $ater on( Francisco Stastny had mentioned him as a rele ant importer of European paintings and engra ings: the prelate !rought to 7usco a collection of more than forty images that would ser e as models for important painters( such as 2asilio de Santa 7ru5% MKL /n their second /istoria'''- 6esa and <is!ert offered a more comple- account of 6ollinedo&s influence in the history of painting: he would ha e !een responsi!le for the introduction of the decorati e !aro+ue style that was fa ored in the #ing&s court in 6adrid in the second half of the se enteenth century%MKM
MKC8iego Angulo( /istoria del arte his$anoamericano( ol% H )2arcelona( HFLM*( HFE% MKK/sa!el Z% de 9u5o( 0El o!ispo 8on 6anuel 6ollinedo y Angulo 6ecenas 7us+ue;o(1 Re%ista del Bnstituto Americano de Arte F )HFMF*: GHN ,oracio Villanue a Arteaga( A$untes $ara un estudio de la %ida y o+ra de :on Manuel de Mollinedo- o+is$o Mecenas del 0uzco )7u5co: Editorial <arcilaso( HFMM*% MKLStastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LH% A list of 6ollinedo&s collection has !een included in: 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HHF-CD% MKM6esa y <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56- HHF-CK%

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According to these authors( 6ollinedo was( &'''hom+re moderno''' 1ue esta+a en la a%anzada de los sistemas y gustos de su =$oca( no fue ciertamente un conser%ador en materias art9sticas')*F, 3'''a modern man "ho "as $art of the a%antAgarde of his time in "hat refers to systems and tastes( he surely "asn>t conser%ati%e in artistic matters'6 At court( he would ha e witnessed the last period of VelSs+ue5% /n his collection of paintings( 6esa and <is!ert o!ser e a preference for /talian painting from early se enteenth century and for contemporary artists such as 7arre;o de 6iranda( ,errera and 2arnue o%MKJ

/n these authors& wor#s( the utili5ation of painting as a su!stratum in which worlds may !e constructed that respond to an internal program ' gaining what "i#las $uhmann generally descri!ed as &an o!?ecti ity of their own& MKG ' is already unmista#a!le%MKF As Pa ier 3ortBs has o!ser ed( compositional programs were still e-perienced ' at least primarily ' in this 2aro+ue era in the form of an o!?ecti e ?udgment that too# into consideration formal and narrati e dimensions% /n this sense( 0?udgment1 had priority o er 0taste%1 MLD This is the #ind of consideration that

MKE6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HCH f% MKJ/!id%( HHF% MKG$uhmann( 0Welt#unst%1 MKFVictor /% Stoichita has analy5ed Vela5+ue5 wor#s as cases of m=ta$einture' 3aintings are drawn within paints( in iting the o!ser er to see the painting as world that has a logic of its own( which includes its surroundings% Stoichita( La in%encin del cuadro' Arte- art9fices y artificios en los or9genes de la $intura euro$ea% See also: Victor /% Stoichita( 4l oPo m9stico' #intura y %isin religiosa en el Siglo de Oro es$a2ol( trans% Anna 6aria 7oderch )6adrid: Alian5a Editorial( HFFE*N Victor /% Stoichita( 02ild und Vision in der spanischen 6alerei des Siglo de Oro und die lateinameri#anische Vol#sfr=mmig#eit(1 in Theatrum mundi' ?iguren der 8arocksthetik in S$anien und /is$anoAAmerika' LiteraturACunstA8ildmedien( ed% 6oni#a 2osse and Andr4 Stoll( 2ielefelder Schriften 5u $inguisti# und $iteraturwissenschaft )2ielefeld: Aisthesis-Verlag( HFFJ*( KH-LC% MLDPa ier 3ortBs( 0$a /magen 2arroca(1 in 8arroco( ed% 3edro Aull@n de ,aro and Pa ier 34re5 2a5o )Ver!um Editorial( CDDL*( CFF-KLG%

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we ha e found crystalli5ed in the ordinances of the painters& guild of $ima%

Apon arri ing to 7usco in HEJK( 6ollinedo initiated what he descri!ed as a &'''reformacin no slo en las costum+res de los s;+ditos- sino tam+i=n en los tem$los y cosas tocantes al culto y ser%icio de :ios''') *G7 3'''reformation- not only of the customs of the 3Cing>s6 su+Pects- +ut also of the tem$les and of e%erything that is related to the cult and ser%ice of God'''6 This was accomplished mainly through se eral 0 isits1 that he and his assistants undertoo# throughout the !ishopric% MLC

For 6esa and <is!ert( this amounts to a moderni5ation of the arts in 7usco through the imposition of a !aro+ue program in architecture( sculpture( painting and other artistic e-pressions% As these authors o!ser e( this stylistic program was referred to !y 6ollinedo and other contemporary o!ser ers as what was fashiona!le: what was &al uso')MLK This meant that 0deformities1 had to !e corrected 0with all decency%1 Thus( we read in 6ollinedo&s instructions for the redecoration of the church of San Per@nimo( &'''1ue la iglesia se retePe $or de fuera- y $or de dentro se +lan1uee y adorne con toda decencia $osi+le 1uitanto toda deformidad') *GG 3'''that the church +e 3closely "o%en6 on the outside- and "hitened and adorned "ith all $ossi+le decency on the inside- remo%ing all deformity'6 3aintings were part of this
MLHWaldemar Espino5a Soriano( 0El esplendor art:stico de 7usco en la segunda mitad del siglo TV//(1 in 4nsayos Sociedad- Religiosidad y Arte en el #er; )$ima: <rupo ,istoriem( CDDH*( EL% MLC3edro <ui!o ich 34re5 and $uis Eduardo Wuffarden( Sociedad y go+ierno e$isco$al las %isitas del o+is$o Manuel de Mollinedo y Angulo I0uzco- 7,.GA7,MGK )$ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( /nstituto 9i a-AgRero( CDDG*% MLK6esa and <is!ert cite <aspar de la 7u!a( who in HEFC wrote that: &'''1ue se hagan $inturas de lienzos con marcos de cedro dorados &al uso) $ara la ca$illa mayor- en todo el cuer$o de la iglesia') 6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HCC% MLLIuoted from the 0$i!ro de FS!rica de la 3arro+uia de San Per@nimo( 7u5co1( f% HE and HJ( !y /!id%( HCK%

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general decoration of sacred spaces% As he wrote in HEJG in relation to the church of "uestra Se;ora de 2el4n( 6ollinedo aimed at( &'''adornar toda la iglesia de cuadros de $intura con sus marcos dorados de realce')*G* 3'''decorating e%ery church "ith $aintings "ith em+ossed gildedAframes'6 ,is references to paintings are always followed !y a reference to their frames( which suggests that !oth elements could ha e had e+ual decorati e alue in this !aro+ue program% This is what we ha e presented as the medium that is made a aila!le for the decoration of sym!ols that is characteristic of ornamental art% ,owe er( that 0deformities1 had to !e corrected 0with all decency1 and according to &al uso) may signal not merely that this prelate had a particular preoccupation for what was fashiona!le( !ut( a!o e all( that this medium was e-pected to !e used !y a form of art that aimed towards autonomy( for deformities would ha e had to !e identified !ased on a self-referencial decorati e program in the realm of painting% That they are signaled as 0deformities1 insinuates also the consideration of such internal programing in terms of an o!?ecti e ?udgment that could !e shared !y anyone who was informed of the state of the art% This e-pectation alone would set the #ind of art that he supported apart from the #ind of ornamental art that was usual in this region%

6ollinedo&s influence on local art history was e-erted through a selected group of artists that seem to ha e !een his main pro iders of artwor#s% Among these( 6esa and <is!ert cite the painters 2asilio Santa 7ru5( Antonio Sinchi 9oca and 6arcos 9i era%MLE The first in this list is specially rele ant% According to these authors(
MLMEspino5a Soriano( 0El esplendor art:stico de 7usco en la segunda mitad del siglo TV//(1 EG% MLE6esa and <is!ert( /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56( HHF%

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direct access to 6ollinedo&s collection of images would ha e allowed Santa 7ru5 to produce artwor#s that responded to the stylistic program that was fa ored in the court in 6adrid% /n this manner( unli#e any other author in the iceroyalty ' with the important e-ception of the /talian masters 2itti( 34re5 de Alesio and 6edoro '( Santa 7ru5 offers a sense of stylistic contemporaneity !etween 7usco and important artistic centers in Europe: Es realmente sorprendente la modernidad de 2asilio de Santa 7ru5( +uien en todas sus composiciones y manera de pintar estS perfectamente al d:aN si echamos una mirada general a la pintura peruana anterior y posterior a 4l eremos +ue - en cuanto a cronolog:a -( siempre se halla atrasada con respecto al mo imiento pict@rico contemporSneo espa;ol y europeo% 7on 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 se alcan5a simultaneidad como en ningBn otro per:odo% Si anali5amos sus composiciones( su manera de pintar y su estilo nos damos cuenta de +ue corresponde al estilo de algunos pintores de la corte espa;ola( +ue son sus estrictos contemporSneosN MLJ XThe modernity of 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 is really astonishing% ,e is up-to-date in all of his compositions and in his form of painting% /f we ta#e a loo# at all pre ious and su!se+uent 3eru ian painting( we will see that it is always !ac#ward in relation to contemporary pictorial mo ements in Spain and Europe% With 2asilio de Santa 7ru5( simultaneity was achie ed li#e in no other period% /f we analy5e his compositions( his form of painting and his style( we see that they correspond to the style of some contemporary painters in the Spanish court%Z 6ost of Santa 7ru5&s wor# )HEEK-HEFK* was done !efore the famous di ision of the guild of painters of 7usco% /n this narration( this painter represents a last point of
MLJ/!id%( HEE%

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synchroni5ation !etween painters in Europe and in 3eru !efore the emergence of the 7usco school of painting%

/n connection to our pre ious considerations on the form of decorati e and sym!olic art( we can o!ser e that he was as#ed to use the medium made a aila!le !y the decoration of religious sym!ols for the incipient e-ploration of &'''the com$elling forces of order in the realm of the $ossi+le') *GL That is( the medium of the decoration of religious sym!ols acted as su!stratum for the early e-ploration of the potentialities of a differentiated medium of art% This was( howe er( a historical e-ception% An accident( indeed( that would not lead to the generation of structures in this region( !ut would ha e conse+uences in the realm of ornamental art proper( as paintings !y the /ndian 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 would !e a aila!le for copying and formal disintegration for the centuries to come% As we will see !ased on Francisco Stasty&s analysis of the wor# of the immigrant /talian masters( this was no uni+ue accident%

MLG$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HLG%

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#.

'rancisco ,tastny9 the medie&ali ation of art

/n going through the whole corpus of te-ts on the social history of painting in the colonial cities of 7usco and 7iudad de $os 9eyes( and in their surrounding areas( from the HFCC to the present( my focus is on the distinctions that guide the construction of historical narrations% The first +uestion with which / confront each te-t is( !asically( what is it that is !eing e-plained and what assumptions are !eing made that structure this e-planation. This corresponds to a position of secondorder o!ser ation which lies at the heart of a social systems-theoretical approach to a sociology of art% 2ased on this +uestion( two analyses gain urgency when confronted !y the +uestion regarding what ha e we learned a!out society while doing this e-ercise% These two analyses correspond to the two faces of this !oo#% First( we gain access to the sociocultural e olution of art history as a discipline% Second ' and firmly grounded in an analysis of the character of this discipline '( we gain access to the sociocultural e olution of colonial painting as a form of communication% This latter analytical step corresponds to a meta-analysis of art historical te-ts that is e-plicitly guided !y a social systems-theoretical approach%

6y first thesis is that these te-ts are structured !ased on the form of ornamental art: in this le el this is not meant to refer to the form of the artistic o!?ects themsel es( !ut to the form that guides the o!ser ation of these o!?ects% This form

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is made possi!le ' and e en imposed ' !y the differentiation of art as a functional su!system of world society% The application of this form in the conte-t of science leads to important conflicts that / ha e tried to reconstruct in some detail% /n this regard( my second thesis tries to !e a sociological alternati e to the art historical narrations in which it is !ased% This second thesis will !ecome clearer in this last chapter on the wor# of Francisco Stastny%

2ased on my re ision of his wor# and on what / ha e found throughout this art historical tradition( / propose that we ree-amine the thesis of the peripheral character of painting as a form of communication in this region and the accompanying thesis of its primarily religious conte-t% 9egarding the first( we can o!ser e that the e olutionary mechanisms of painting in this region during the colonial period where different from those that guided painting in the centers of the art world in western Europe( where the models of local Andean paintings where produced% This means that( across the ocean( different criteria( applied !y different institutions( guided the ariation( selection and re-sta!ili5ation of

communication through this medium% Thus( European attempts at generating inclusion through images where necessarily redefined across the ocean and the Andes% The pre iously introduced concept of parasitic ornamental systems is aimed at descri!ing this phenomenon )Section H%M%C*% /n the colonial central Andes( paintings were alued according to a religious representation of the world% At this point( and in close connection to pre ious reflections on the relationship !etween ornament and sym!olic art )Section H%M%K*( / o!ser e that 3edro

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6orand4&s thesisMLF on the cultural su!stratum that allowed the construction of social structures in this region during the colonial period( which included all social groups in this societal conte-t )Europeans and castes*( can !e specified to the case of painting: in all groups pre ailed the utili5ation of painting for the decoration of sym!ols%

When o!ser ed in relation to the form of ornamental art( Francisco Stastny&s wor# is articulated !y his concept of 0medie ali5ation%1 ,is earliest wor# in the HFEDs continued in the direction set !y 6artin S% Soria: prints were signaled as the um!ilical cord that connected the region of central Andes with the main centers of artistic production in Europe% As Soria had o!ser ed( e en though these sources were imitated with great detail( the result was nai e and primiti e( profoundly different to the source% This is descri!ed !y Stastny as a 0medie ali5ation1 of the source ' a concept that echoes a te-t !y 6ariano 3ic@n Salas from HFKH%MMD /n this chapter /&ll e-pose how this medie ali5ation( which can !e understood as the transformation of art into ornamental art( was constructed as a pro!lem !y Stastny and the theoretical solutions that he has arri ed to% 7hapter L%H will e-pose the core pro!lem of medie ali5ation% 7hapters L%C and L%K further e-plore this pro!lem in relation to two different historical processes that Stastny has analy5ed from this perspecti e: the influence of prints that reproduce wor#s !y 9u!ens and the influence of the immigrant /talian painters from the last +uarter of the

MLF3edro 6orand4( 0ultura y Modernizacin en Am=rica Latina' 4nsayo sociolgico acerca de la crisis del desarrollismo y de su su$eracin )6adrid: Ediciones Encuentro( HFGJ*% MMD3ic@n Salas( 0El medie alismo en la pintura colonial%1 See chapter C%C%C a!o e%

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si-teenth century% Finally( chapters L%L and L%M will discuss the theoretical solutions that this author has arri ed to%

!.1 Imported art and its medievali&ation

/n continuity to 6artin S% Soria&s wor#( Francisco Stastny&s earliest pu!lications put emphasis on the function of prints as media of diffusion of iconographic information% Early on( Stastny pointed out that in some periods of 0artistic e-pansion1( these models were modified !y Andean wor#shops according to their own aesthetic preferences% ,owe er( li#e Enri+ue 6arco 8orta had done in HFMD(MMH these aesthetic preferences were treated !y Stastny as a sort of !lac# !oa!out which there is little to !e #nown with enough certainty% /n an article from HFEE( he called this 0the human factor1 and passingly o!ser ed that( in the Andean region( it corresponded to the high proportion of mesti5o and nati e populations that( &'''con su considera+le herencia $recolom+ina y colonial- ha reci+ido los estilos modernos con mucha mayor dificultad') **5 3"ith its considera+le $reA/is$anic and colonial heritage- has recei%ed the modern styles "ith much greater difficulty'6 The pre-,ispanic and colonial heritages of these populations would somehow ha e inter ened in the process of adaptation of imported images( resulting in a highly

MMH8orta( 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia%1 See chapter C%K%C a!o e% MMCFrancisco Stastny( 0$a pintura en sud am4rica de HFHD a HFLM(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HF )HFEE*: HH%

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styli5ed and ornamental pictorial language%MMK

,owe er( Stastny&s main emphasis was on the form in which European iconographic sources were made a aila!le to local wor#shops% For( as he o!ser ed( Es e idente%%% +ue los factores decisi os para la transformaci@n cultural y estil:stica de los pa:ses sudamericanos ' en conformidad con su posici@n hist@rica ' son los medios y las facilidades de comunicaci@n +ue permiten su inculaci@n con los centros del mundo e-teriorN MML X/t is e ident%%% that the media and the facilities of communication that allowed for their connection to the centers of the outside world are the decisi e factors in the cultural and stylistic transformation of the South American countries ' in conformity to their historical position%Z Anli#e 6esa and <is!ert( Stastny had not yet ta#en the leap towards a theory that could integrate the influence of 0internal1 factors( which could ha e led him at this point to ma#e assumptions a!out nati e populations% /ndeed( in an article from HFJL(MMM he openly critici5ed the point of iew that saw in the hypothetical sur i al of pre-contact indigenous motifs and autochthonous sensi!ilities a cause of the emergence of local artistic forms% Adopting <eorge >u!ler&s argumentation from the pre ious decade( Stastny o!ser ed that it has not !een possi!le to recogni5e the sur i al of pre-,ispanic motifs with enough confidence% /n the pre ious chapter / ha e de eloped a similar argument in reference to Teresa <is!ert&s wor#%
MMK/!id%( HD f% MML/!id%( HH% MMMFrancisco Stastny( 0hAn arte mesti5o.(1 in Am=rica Latina en sus artes( ed% 8amiSn 2ay@n )64-ico 7ity: Siglo eintiuno( HFJL*% A French translation of this te-t was pu!lished !y A"ES7O in HFGD: Stastny( 0An art m4tis.%1 All references will !e made to the latter%

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9egarding the influence of an autochthonous sensi!ility( Stastny stressed that /ndian painters had !een trained under the super ision of European masters and that they produced a form of art that was in accord with the most refined artistic aspirations of the iceroyalty: $es artistes +ui participWrent e l&4la!oration de ces nu res( !ien +u&ils fussent parfois d&origine indienne ou m4tisse( 4taient forc4ment des indi idus entiWrement accultur4s( +ui a aient commenc4 trWs tot e apprendre leur m4tier dans l&atelier d&un maktre europ4en et y a aient longtemps tra aill4% 8ans la mesure o` leur 4ducation pro inciale le leur permettait( ces artistes adh4raient totalement au- id4au- esth4ti+ues et au- aspirations artisti+ues fsa antesf de la ice-royaut4%MME Therefore( following >u!ler( 8orta and Soria( the distinction !etween the source and the outcome was not e-plained !y reference to any in aria!le characteristic of the nati e populations( !ut to the characteristics of artistic pro inces% ,owe er( unli#e these authors( Stastny has seen in this pro incial adaptation of metropolitan sources a more fundamental pro!lem%

2ased on the wor# of <iulio 7arlo Argan on the &stam$a di traduzione1 of the si-teenth and se enteenth centuries(MMJ Stasty later o!ser ed that the importation of images( specially engra ings and copies of successful paintings( aimed not merely at the religious con ersion of nati e populations( !ut at &'''hacer llegar a todos lo mePor de la tradicin histrica- est=tica y e%ang=lica de la ci%ilizacin de
MME/!id%( HDF% MMJ<iulio 7arlo Argan( 0/l alore critico della stampa di tradu5ione(1 in Studi e note dal 8ramante al 0ano%a( 2i!lioteca di storia dell&arte H )9oma: 2ul5oni( HFJD*( HMJ-HEM%

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Occidente')**L 3'''letting the +est of the historic- aesthetic and e%angelic tradition of "estern ci%ilization reach e%eryone'6 This implies that( to !e successful( a copy had to !e a!le to reproduce the idea or the most profound meaning of the original image( so that it could !e e-pected that( through such copies( e en indi iduals from distant regions would !e made participants of the #ind of communication that the original image made possi!le% /n this sense( engra ings and paintings that reproduced successful images were &'''instrumentos de democratizacin del sa+er''')**M 3'''instruments for the democratization of kno"ledge'''6 Asing a distinction from the theory of social systems( we can say that prints fulfilled a function of inclusion in the communicational systems that were gaining predominance as main form of societal differentiation in Europe% This will !ecome much clearer when we present Stastny&s analysis of the influence that the wor# of 9u!ens had in the colonial central Andes% At this point( / want to emphasi5e the pro!lem that is implied !y the local form of adaptation of these sources: their formal disintegration ' to use <oldschmidt&s concept MED ' indicate that strategies of inclusion were systematically frustrated e en when these sources were( in Stastny&s words( %%%el punto de contacto con los fundamentos de su arte% Verdadero cord@n um!ilical +ue un:a a Am4rica con Europa y a tra 4s del cual llega!a el plasma
MMGFrancisco Stastny( 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo(1 in #asseurs- mediadores culturales y agentes de la $rimera glo+alizacin en el Mundo B+=rico- siglos UVB A UBU( ed% Scarlett O&3helan <odoy and 7armen Sala5ar-Soler )presented at the 7ongreso internacional $as 7uatro 3artes del 6undo en $ima en agosto de CDDC( $ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDM*( GCF% See also: Stastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FMH f% MMFStastny( 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo(1 GCF% MED<oldschmidt( 08ie 2edeutung der Formenspaltung in der >unstentwic#lung%1

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+ue alimenta!a las corrientes art:sticas del "ue o 6undo% MEH X%%%the point of contact with the foundations of its art% True um!ilical cord that united America with Europe and through which the plasma arri ed that fed the artistic currents of the "ew World%Z The frustration of strategies of inclusion occurred in two forms that Stastny would later call 0the archai5ation1 and 0the re-archai5ation1 of art( MEC which is a distinction that gi es more density to his earlier descriptions of a process of 0medie ali5ation%1MEK On the one hand( prints from the late 6iddle Ages or the early 9enaissance were still used in the se enteenth and eighteenth centuries% On the other hand( contemporary models were transformed in a manner that recalls the representational system of the late <othic period% This description coincides with what / ha e referred to in pre ious sections as the formation of 0parasitic ornamental systems1 )section H%M%C*%

For Francisco Stastny( this process of medie ali5ation corresponds to the <othic world- iew that pre ailed in colonial central Andes% This has !een presented in two manners% First( this author presented this in relation to 8ago!ert Frey&s analysis of the transition from the <othic to the 9enaissance% MEL /n <othic images( space is not represented as ha ing its own( independent geometric reality( !ut as !eing indissolu!ly associated with time in narration: space is gi en e-istence and
MEHStastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial(1 HG% See also: Francisco Stastny( 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica(1 ?anal( HFEE( HL% MECStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FMK f% MEKFor e-ample( in: Stastny( 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana(1 KE% MEL Gotik und Renaissance als Grundlagen der modernen @eltanschauung )Augs!urg: 2enno Filser Verlag( HFCF*%

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content in time% This dependency would ha e !een !ro#en !y the 9enaissance representation of the world: time and space !egan to !e treated as independent dimensions% Thus( whereas <othic images are structured according to a se+uentiality that must !e read( the 9enaissance image allowed for an instantaneous comprehension% Stastny&s argument of the 0medie ali5ation1 of art is grounded in this description:MEM a <othic representation of the world seems to ha e pre ailed in colonial central Andes( which guided the adaptation of imported images% ,ere( the emphasis on rhetoricsMEE and on narrati e structures o ershadowed any other criteria of o!ser ation%

/n a later pu!lication( Stastny affirmed that the re-archai5ation of art was done according to the de otional aspect of the international Gothic- which put emphasis on the sentimentality of e angelic history and in the representation of an idyllic worldMEJ ' a description that recalls early pu!lications !y 6iguel SolSMEG and had !een further de eloped !y /sa!el 7ru5( according to whom sacred images made use of easily recogni5a!le mar#s( put emphasis on narrati e structures( and e-acer!ated pictorial elements that could trigger an affecti e or emotional response of de otion( anticipating the characteristic mentality of nati e
MEMStastny( S9ntomas Medie%ales en el S8arroco AmericanoS( CM% MEEAs rhetorical weapons( allegories were used to defend antagonistic positions in colonial society( leading to the generation of no el iconographies% See: Francisco Stastny( 0Pardin Ani ersitario y Stella 6aris% /n enciones iconogrSficas en el 7u5co(1 /istoria y 0ultura HM )HFGC*( http:\\museonacional%perucultural%org%pe\fpHM%shtmlN Stastny( 0The Ani ersity as 7loister( <arden and Tree of >nowledge% An /conographic /n ention in the Ani ersity of 7u5co1N Francisco Stastny( 0El arte de la no!le5a inca y la identidad andina(1 in Mito y Sim+olismo en los Andes' La ?igura y la #ala+ra( ed% ,enri+ue Ar!ano )7usco: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( HFFK*% MEJStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FML% MEGSolS( /istoria del Arte his$anoAamericano Ar1uitectura- 4scultura- #intura y Artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB%

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populations%MEF

The pro!lem of the medie ali5ation of art in the colonial central Andes has !een constructed !y Francisco Stastny !ased on an analysis of two historical processes that deser e closer attention: the influence of prints !ased on the wor# of 3eter 3aul 9u!ens( and the influence of the immigrant /talian artists 2itti( 34re5 de Alesio and 6edoro during the last +uarter of the si-teenth century% / will present each of these processes separately%

!.2 3rints as strategies of inclusion

According to an influential te-t !y Francisco Stastny( from HFEM( 3eter 3aul 9u!ens was a #ey reformer of engra ing as a medium for the dissemination of painting( who wor#ed closely with engra ers trying to adapt this medium to his own style of painting%MJD ,e also made simpler designs for illustrating religious te-ts% Either through these illustrated te-ts or through lesser copies of the prints that were produced in his wor#shop( 9u!ens& designs were made a aila!le for a !road audience in South America that could not ha e e-perienced his can ases directly% 3rints were( in Stastny&s words( the um!ilical cord that connected America and Europe%MJH They supported religious de otion and education MJC and were an
MEF7ru5 de AmenS!ar( 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano(1 JM f% MJDStastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial%1 MJH/!id%( HG% See also: Stastny( 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica(1 HL% MJCStastny ma#es reference to the illustrated frontispiece of Friar Puan de Tor+uemada&s

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in alua!le source of iconographic models for local wor#shops% / thin# that Stastny&s claim regarding the function of inclusion that prints could fulfill must !e attenuated in sight of the #ind of prints that were made a aila!le to local wor#shops in this region: these are either simple religious illustrations or lesser copies of the engra ings that had !een prepared under the super ision of 9u!ens for the diffusion of his designs among an elite audience in Europe% ,owe er( as this author has pointed out( these 0estam$es $o$ulaires) incorporated in each period the changes that too# place in the systems of representation( in reflection of an epoch&s mentality and world- iew%MJK

For Stastny( in their selection of sources and in their adaptation( local artists in the central Andes demonstrated a preference for the representation of dream-li#e landscapes filled with pleasant details% One #ind of !eauty was preferred o er another and con ention was preferred o er reality: &#refiere nota+lemente la hermosura a la +elleza( y la con%encin a la realidad') *.G Fairness IhermosuraK is the #ind of !eauty that is to !e found in the pleasant details of ornamental pieces% Stastny has also referred to it as( &'''una fNcil +elleza terrestre) 3'''a facile earthly kind of +eauty6 and as &'''una $erfeccin $uramente formal) *.* 3'''a $urely formal
Monar1u9a Bndiana as an illustration of the didactic use of paintings in the conte-t of religious sermons: &'''se %e a un fraile franciscano ense2ando a un gru$o de ind9genas en el N+side de una iglesia' 0on un $untero en la mano el religioso se2ala hacia una $intura 1ue cuelga de la $ared' #or su gesto se com$rende 1ue estN e<$licando la leccin con ayuda de las imNgenes del cuadro') B+id'- 77' <ra5iano <asparini pu!lished an interesting article on the rhetorical function of !aro+ue art in the American colonies: <ra5iano <asparini( 02arroco( Arte /nstrumentali5ado(1 Re%ista !acional de 0ultura I0aracasK( no% CDD )HFJH*: KM-MH%% MJKStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FLH f% MJLStastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial(1 CM% MJMStastny( 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica(1 HFN Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LC%

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$erfection'6

This #ind of !eauty was perfected through the constant repetition and progressi e simplification of a reduced num!er of archetypes or motifs: MJE El arte colonial era un arte apegado a su tradici@n( repetiti o( +ue no !usca!a inno aciones estil:sticas( sino +ue tend:a mSs !ien a una depuraci@n cada e5 mSs refinada de los mismos moti os% "unca se produce esa reno aci@n refrescante y igori5ante de las formas por la uelta a la naturale5a y la imitaci@n de la realidad( leitmotif de las re oluciones art:sticas en EuropaN MJJ X7olonial art is attached to its tradition% /t is repetiti e% /t doesn&t search for stylistic inno ations( !ut tends towards a progressi e simplification of the same motifs% /t ne er occurs the refreshing and in igorating reno ation of forms that results from the o!ser ation of nature and the imitation of reality( which is the leitmotif of artistic re olutions in Europe%Z Once again the focal point is on the a!sence of the #ind of ariation that one e-pects from non-ornamental art% A similar argument had !een made !y 8orta: as a result of its isolation and lac# of stri e for no elty( a local school !ecomes static )see chapter C%K%C*% According to this early te-t !y Stastny( the emergence of the 7usco school of painting is understood as the conse+uence of the a!sence of the /talian masters( which coincided with the massi e importation of Flemish prints: $a llegada masi a de estampas y la desaparici@n de los pintores italianos del hori5onte art:stico traerS como consecuencia( a comien5os del siglo TV//( un momentSneo desapego de los modelos manieristas y una aceptaci@n sin l:mites
MJEStastny( 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica(1 HF-CDN Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LC-L% MJJStastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial(1 HF%

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de las ense;an5as +ue traen consigo los gra!ados flamencosN MJG XThe massi e entry of prints and the disappearance of the /talian painters from the artistic hori5on will produce( in the !eginning of the TV// century( a momentaneous detachment from the mannerist models and the total acceptation of the teachings that the Flemish engra ings !ring with them%Z While the mechanism of production of paintings would ha e remained unaltered( its point of reference would ha e shifted toward these Flemish engra ings% Among the latter( there would ha e !een a predominance of reproductions of the highly influential designs made !y 9u!ens%

Of course( the painter 8iego Iuispe Tito )/mages J and HH* is seen as the main author who introduced this shift: %%%un maestro pro inciano( sin s@lida formaci@n acad4micaN pero cuyas deficiencias de dise;o y poca sutile5a en el uso del color( estSn ampliamente compensadas por el alor e-presi o +ue o!tiene a tra 4s de deformaciones ingenuas de perspecti a y cierto amaneramiento altamente emocional en el tra5ado de sus figurasNMJF X%%%a pro incial master with no solid academic formationN !ut whose deficiencies in design and scarce su!tlety in the use of color are compensated !y the e-pressi e alue he ac+uires through nai e deformations of perspecti e and certain highly-emotional mannerism in the drawing of his figures%Z Again( it is in the uns#illed deformation of imported models ' determined !y the

MJGStastny( 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica(1 HGN Stastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( KF% MJFStastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LD%

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artist&s pro incial position and lac# of academic formation ' that these paintings ac+uire their autochthonous character% 9u!en&s influence on Iuispe Tito is e ident in his Return from 4gy$t- from HEGD )/mage HH on page CGJ*% As noticed !y Francisco Stastny(MGD the central figures correspond to an in ersed copy of an engra ing made !y $ucas Vorsterman the Qoungest )HECD* after a design !y 3eter 3aul 9u!ens )/mage HC on page CGJ*%MGH The ,olly Family from Vorsterman&s engra ing has !een surrounded !y two di erging landscapes( suggesting that this painting was constructed !y adding parts from di erse compositions% Puan Espino5a de los 6onteros )/mage HL on page CGF* is also presented as leading this transition% Finally( 2asilio de Santa 7ru5 )/mage HK on page CGG* would ha e introduced more changes due to his access to no el ru!enian engra ings and to Spanish paintings( that would ha e !een imported to the region either through large shippings )e%g%( Zur!arSn* or !y pri ate collectors( such as the !ishop 6ollinedo%MGC

/n these early writings( Francisco Stastny managed to update the model that we found in te-ts from the HFCDs and HFKDs% This model had !een passed down !y Enri+ue 6arco 8orta and 6artin S% Soria% This latter author seems to ha e had the strongest influence on Stastny during this period% $i#e these authors had done in the HFMDs( Stastny left the pro!lem of the influence of Amerindian traditions on
MGDStastny( 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial(1 HF% MGHStastny cites as a possi!le source of this in ersed copy an engra ing !y Francis Van den Steen )c%HECM-HEJC*: Return from 4gy$t' Engra ing after $ucas Vorsterman( HECD( after 9u!ens( The 9eturn from Egypt( Wadsworth Atheneum( ,artford( 7T% See: http:\\colonialart%org\correspondences\CDa-EK! MGCStastny( 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y re$u+licana ( LH% See chapter K%K a!o e%

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colonial painting in a parenthesis and focused on how iconographic information reached and was recursi ely transformed in this region% ,is insistence in pointing out that this transformation had !een done according to ornamental or decorati e criteria is unmista#a!le% ,owe er( much li#e those pre ious authors( the appropriation of the core\periphery distinction seems to ha e relie ed Stastny from the necessity to further e-plore the conditions that determined this reconstruction of imported sources%

!.3 )annerism and the Italian masters in the Andes

/ntending to a oid a simplistic e-planation of the history of colonial painting in central Andes that would regard it as a mere result of the copying of Flemish engra ings( !eginning in HFEF( Francisco Stastny&s attention shifted towards the period !efore the emergence of local schools of painting in the second half of the se enteenth century% /nstead of focusing on the influence of engra ings as sources of iconographic information( he analy5ed the role played !y the immigrant artists 2ernardo 2itti( 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio and Angelino 6edoro in the history of painting in central Andes( and on their relation with artistic de elopments in si-teenth-century /taly%

As we ha e seen( the Pesuit 2ernardo 2itti )HMLG-HEHD* was the first of these three to arri e to the region% ,is arri al in $ima in HMJM( when he was CJ years old(

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responded Pesus%MGK

to

organi5ational he

re+uirements was fre+uently

of

the

7ompany to

of

7orrespondingly(

transferred

different

esta!lishments that this order administered in $ima( 7usco( Puli( 7hu+uisaca and Are+uipa( ma#ing his wor# a aila!le to artists all o er the region%

6ateo 34re5 de Alesio )HMLJ-c%HEHE* arri ed to $ima around HMGG-F% /n HMFD( after ma#ing a portrait of the Viceroy <arc:a ,urtado de 6endo5a( he was already in a position to call himself &#intor de su Se2or9a el Virrey')*LG /n HMGK( 34re5 de Alesio could ha e painted La Virgen de la Leche*L* )/mage CM on page CFM*- which Francisco Stastny saw as the head of a highly popular series of images with the same motif% 6any authors( including Stastny( affirm that this is one of the images in the collection of de la 6a5a that( according to Friar $eonardo ,ansen( were regarded as miraculous !y St% 9osa de $ima% MGE Alluding to this painting( Stastny has argued that 34re5 de Alesio had an indeli!le influence on 2ernardo 2itti( who was in $ima for a short period from HMFC to HMFK )/mage CL on page CFM*%MGJ 2itti had !een wor#ing in remote regions of the Viceroyalty of 3eru for the last ten

MGKEsta!ridis 7Srdenas( 0/nfluencia /taliana en la 3intura Virreinal(1 HHL-CG% MGL/!id%( HKH% MGMThe authorship of this painting is contro ersial% For our purpose in this section it would suffice to note that Francisco Stastny attri!uted it to 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio% The painting was made on a cooper sheet where a copy of 9aphael&s /olly ?amily "ith an Oak Tree )6useo del 3rado* had !een engra ed% 8amiSn 2ay@n adds that this engra ing has !een signed Matheus #'?' Romae Ano :ni 7*LF )6ateo 34re5 Fecit%%% Anno 8omini HMGK* )2ay@n and 6ar-( /istoria del arte colonial sudamericano Sudam=rica his$ana y el 8rasil( HDM%* This has !een confirmed !y 9icardo Esta!ridis )Esta!ridis 7Srdenas( 0/nfluencia /taliana en la 3intura Virreinal(1 HKM%* 6esa and <is!ert ha e claimed otherwise( noting that there&s an e-act duplicate of this painting in Sucre that has !een signed !y 3edro 3a!lo 6or@n( apprentice of 34re5 de Alesio )6esa and <is!ert( 4l $intor Mateo #=rez de Alesio( HHC%* MGESee pages CJC ff% MGJFrancisco Stastny( 034re5 de Alesio y la pintura del siglo TV/(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas V/( no% CC )HFEF*: KC%

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years and had left /taly in HMJK still young and ine-perienced% 34re5 de Alesio( on the other hand( had departed from Se ille to $ima at age forty% For 2itti( who had !een in America for the last se enteen years( the wor# of 34re5 de Alesio would ha e !een highly inno ati e( for it responded to the stylistic inno ations that had ta#en place in 9ome during the last decades%

#.!.1

5igh Maniera and Counter(Maniera

This step in Francisco Stastny&s argument( which he first de eloped in a conference paper in HFJE(MGG is !ased on Sidney P% Freed!erg&s te-t a!out si-teenth-century painting in /taly )HFJH*%MGF Freed!erg&s account of this period in art history allowed Stastny to accurately situate his o!?ect in a much !roader conte-t than pre ious enterprises% ,e claimed that painting in this region during the last decades of the si-teenth century and !efore the emergence of local schools in the last +uarter of the se enteenth century( %%% se inscri!e en la l@gica de un mo imiento art:stico comBn a todo el Sm!ito de influencia de una iglesia comprometida con la lucha contrarreformista( dentro y fuera de EuropaNMFD

MGGFrancisco Stastny( 06aniera o contra-maniera en la pintura latinoamericana(1 in )presented at the 7olo+uio so!re la 8ispersi@n del 6anierismo( /nstituto de /n estigaciones Est4ticas de la Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFJE*% ,is argumentation is fully de eloped in an article from HFJJ: Stastny( 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana%1 All references are made to this ersion% /n HFGH( it was pu!lished as a !oo#: Francisco Stastny( 4l manierismo en la $intura colonial latinoamericana )$ima: Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( HFGH*% MGFAll references to this te-t will !e made to its third edition from HFFK: Sydney Poseph Freed!erg( #ainting in Btaly- 7*QQA7,QQ( Krd ed%( 3elican ,istory of Art )"ew ,a en and $ondon: Qale Ani ersity 3ress( HFFK*% MFDStastny( 4l manierismo en la $intura colonial latinoamericana ( CG%

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X%%%is inscri!ed in the logic of an artistic mo ement that was common to all territories under the influence of a church that was engaged in the fights of 7ounter-reformation( inside and outside Europe%Z According to Freed!erg( the 9oman 7ounter-6aniera style from the third +uarter of the si-teenth century pro ided de otional images and illustrations to the 7ounter-9eformist 7atholic 7hurch%MFH This style is understood !y Freed!erg in opposition to the Florentine high 6aniera( which was dominant in that region from HMKM to HMJM%MFC

To e aluate the importance of Francisco Stastny&s contri!ution( we must first present this distinction% The high 6aniera( which Freed!erg e-emplifies in the wor#s of Agnolo 2ron5ini )/mage CE on page CFE*( Francesco de& 9ossi )Sal iati* and <iorgio Vasari( is characteri5ed !y 0''' an e%ident effect of conscious artifice A indeed of artificiality A not only in form +ut in the character of content') *MF These highly styli5ed and purposely artificial images had replaced the classical aim for pictorial plausi!ility with a new #ind of intense con incingness that was achie ed through the interrelation of formal elements% This resulted in the confrontation of
MFHFreed!erg warns against understanding this as a causal relation !etween religion and art: 00ounterAManiera and the 0ounterAReformation came to +e reci$rocal to one another- and a similarity of terms for them is thus informati%e- +ut the style of art must not +e thought of as no more than a function of the mo%ement in religion') )Freed!erg( #ainting in Btaly- 7*QQA7,QQ( LCF%*% One should not read a causal relation !etween the two( specially if one o!ser es that the decrees of the 7ouncil of Trent( which called for an instructi e use of images( could ha e !een understood as a mere restatement of tradition% See in this respect: ,echt( Catholische 8ildertheologie im zeitalter %on Gegenreformation und 8arock' Studien zu Traktaten %on Hohannes Molanus- Ga+riele #aleotti und anderen Autoren% See also: 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 F( HC% A similar argument has !een made in relation to "ew Spain !y Elisa Vargas $ugo( 0$a e-presi@n pict@rica religiosa y la sociedad colonial(1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas T///( no% MD )HFGC*: EH-JE% MFCFreed!erg( #ainting in Btaly- 7*QQA7,QQ( LKD% MFK/!id%( LCC%

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two systems of references within high 6aniera images: one that was inaugurated !y the image itself in its formal interrelations )content* and another one that was implied !y its religious theme )su!?ect*% /nstead of !een treated as a su!?ect matter to !e illustrated( the latter acted as ?ust another distinction a sym+ol- writes Freed!erg in the networ# of distinctions that determined the meaning of the image% 7orrespondingly( content and su!?ect matter had to !e distinguished from each other in order for the image to ma#e communication% MFL Freed!erg&s reading of Agnolo 2ron5ino&s #ietf )/mage CE on page CFE* is done in these same terms( as he o!ser es that &Art does not narrate the tragedy +ut re$laces it') *M* This distinction !etween content and su!?ect( that is accomplished !y a high 6aniera image( re+uires a trained o!ser er: 0Rnless the %ie"er +rings to the $ainting the refinement of sensi+ility- the "it- and the so$histicated resource that the "ork of art contains +eneath its mask- it "ill not deign to make communication') *M,

The distinction !etween content and su!?ect that calls for such a refined o!ser er was suppressed !y the 9oman 7ounter-6aniera a style that Freed!erg found most e-emplary in the wor# of <irolamo 6u5iano MFJ )HMKC-HMFC* )/mage CJ on

MFL/!id%( LCM f% MFM &8ronzino im$oses on the inesca$a+le tragedy of the su+Pect the discreet su$$ressions re1uired +y the high Maniera>s code- muting grief until its tenor is diminished and acce$ta+le and endo"ing its +earers "ith such +eauty of countenance- attitude- and ornament that it irradiates their $aled residue of feeling- and then stands +efore it in our contem$lation like a mask' An a+solute techni1ue asserts at the same time the intense $lastic $resence of the scene and the aesthetic factors that transform it' 0olour- cold and luminous as ice- sym+olizes "hat has +een made of $assion' 8oth this form and colour- in the intensity of sheer aesthetic sensation they $roducetranscend illustrati%e meaning and in $art dis$lace it' Art does not narrate the tragedy +ut re$laces it') B+id'- GF*' MFE/!id%( LCE% MFJ/!id%( EMG%

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page CFE*%MFG This was a dissenting style that( unli#e the high 6aniera( sought 0'''clarity in formal order and legi+ility in content''') *MM while continuing to use the descripti e oca!ulary of the 6aniera% 2y suppressing the construction of meaning through formal interrelations and !y !ringing the con entional meaning of the reproduced motif as su!?ect matter to the foreground( these paintings were welcomed 0'''to the aims of a religious art that "as intended to +e less art than illustration'),QQ

Trained artists could switch !etween !oth modalities of images depending on what was re+uired of them: %%%despite its increasing role( the 7ounter-6aniera of the third +uarter of the 7in+uecento did not change the fact of the continuing pre-eminence of high 6aniera in this time: high 6aniera and 7ounter-6aniera prospered side !y side% The choice !etween them was sometimes a temperamental one( !ut the same painter might find it practica!le according to occasion to wor# in either mode ' the !est proof of the essential affinity !etween them which we ha e stressed% The determining occasions came to !e ' more or less generally( !ut without any rigid scheme ' those of patronage and purpose% Secular su!?ects and painting of which the primary purpose was decorati e )whether or not in a religious place* tended to follow the aesthetic of the high 6anieraN wor#s of de otion and some large-scale religious illustration tended towards the 7ounter-6aniera&s more so!er style% 2ut the formulae of high 6aniera endured well towards the end of
MFGAt the 7on ento de Santo 8omingo( $ima( there is a large anonymous copy on can as of this painting !y 6u5iano% 6esa and <is!ert proposed that 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio would ha e painted it shortly after HMFC for the Aliaga chapel in the /glesia de Santo 8omingo% 9icardo Esta!ridis 7Srdenas has noted( howe er( that this image has !een painted on a HF th-century French can as% See: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( #intura en el Virreinato del #er; HKC( KFG% To my #nowledge( its stri#ing resem!lance to 6u5iano&s painting has not yet !een addressed% MFFFreed!erg( #ainting in Btaly- 7*QQA7,QQ( LCF% EDD/!id%( LGM%

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the century in 9ome( with not much adulteration%EDH Freed!erg e-plains this difference of style as a response to purpose( which could !e either decorati e or de otional and illustrati e( independently of its placement in a primarily religious conte-t% This stylistic decision was up to the patrons( e en when an artist could !e a specialist in )or ha e a preference for* one of these two modalities%

#.!.2

The use of art for religious illustration and propaganda in the central Andes

The 7ounter-6aniera style was( according to Francisco Stastny( the style of the images done !y 2ernardo 2itti in central Andes !efore HMFC( for this was the program in which he had !een trained in the decade of HMED% 8uring his stay in $ima in HMFC( 2itti would ha e !een e-posed to the wor# of 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio that corresponded to a new Anti-6aniera style: a program of arte sacra that( continuing the search of the 7ounter-6aniera( put more emphasis on the plausi!ility of the represented realm% This was a missionary art that Freed!erg identified as 7ounter-9eformation propaganda%EDC /ndeed( according to Stastny( 34re5 de Alesio&s Virgin of the Milk )/mage CM on page CFM* would !e a synthesis of two designs made !y Scipione 3ul5one( whom Freed!erg regards as the creator of this style%EDK A third /talian immigrant( Angelino 6edoro( who wor#ed in this region
EDH/!id%( LKD% EDC/!id%( EMG% EDKStastny( 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana(1 HM% Stastny( 034re5 de Alesio y la pintura del siglo TV/%1 Stastny( 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo(1 GCH%

CMM

during the first +uarter of the se enteenth century( is also seen as ha ing continued to wor# in this so!er and mostly illustrati e style( e en when his earlier wor# in Spain demonstrates an interest in the 6aniera%

These o!ser ations posed Stastny an important +uestion: What can e-plain a preeminence of images in the 7ounter- and Anti-6aniera styles !oth in the Viceroyalty of 3eru and in the Viceroyalty of "ew Spain. Francisco Stastny&s main answer can !e e-pected from Freed!erg&s framewor#: these images were intended for an unrefined audience for whom high 6aniera images wouldn&t ha e made communication: the nati e populations that had to !e incorporated in 7hristianity and the Spanish immigrants whose world- iew was more in accord with the 6iddle Ages than with the 9enaissance%EDL

This situation would ha e !een common to "ew Spain and 3eru% ,owe er( in a second phase( the main artistic centers in !oth regions would ha e followed different directions: A diferencia de lo +ue sucedi@ en "ue a Espa;a( en la 7iudad de los 9eyes no se di@ una transferencia tan ininterrumpida del estilo pict@rico entre maestros y disc:pulos% Todo lo contrario( la generaci@n siguiente de artistas americanos mostr@ una fuerte regresi@n pro inciana en relaci@n a los modelos italianos% $a diferencia de mentalidad y de clima social y religioso fue tan grande( +ue se perci!e una especie de fmedio ali5aci@nf en el arte de estos primeros pintoresNEDM
EDLStastny( 4l manierismo en la $intura colonial latinoamericana ( CM f% At this point of Stastny&s argumentation( the influence of 6ariano 3ic@n Salas is unmista#a!le% See chapter C%C%C% EDM/!id%( KE%

CME

XAnli#e what happened in "ew Spain( no direct transfer of pictorial style !etween masters and disciples occurred in the 7ity of the >ings% On the contrary( the following generation of American artists shows a strong pro incial regression in relation to the /talian models% The difference in mentality and social climate was so !ig( that the wor# of these first painters resem!les that of the 6iddle Ages%Z /n the a!sence of the /talian masters( few painters continued to wor# in the 7ounter-6aniera style in the central Andes% Stastny ga e two e-amples of the interruption of this style% A first e-ample is the wor# of Friar 3edro 2ed@n )HMMEHECH*( who may ha e learned his craft in $ima under the influence of 2ernardo 2itti )!etween HMJE-HMGE* and of 6ateo 34re5 de Alesio (around HMGG*%EDE 8espite his training( 2ed@n is seen as a painter who e-pressed himself( &'''en un lenguaPe $lano- anatmicamente inconsistente y 1ue $roduce $rimiti%as imNgenes de $iedad'),Q. 3''' in a flat and anatomically inconsistent language and "ho $roduces $rimiti%e images of $iety6' A second e-ample of the interruption of style is the wor# of <regorio <amarra )/mage CG on page CFE*( who wor#ed in 3otosi( $a 3a5 and 7usco( and was therefore e-posed to the wor# of 2itti% According to Stastny( <amarra followed only the most graphic and flat traits of 2itti&s style% 2eginning in the second +uarter of the se enteenth century( in the a!sence of the /talian masters( the influence of Flemish prints guided the production of painting in all the central Andean region% The style !ecame primiti e or archaic in its flat and anatomically inconsistent language( departing from contemporary European art%

EDEStastny( 034re5 de Alesio y la pintura del siglo TV/(1 LC f% EDJStastny( 4l manierismo en la $intura colonial latinoamericana ( KE%

CMJ

/n the conte-t of the theory of sociocultural e olution( one could as#: Why were artistic structures that had crystalli5ed in Europe during the pre ious centuries re?ected !y e olution in this region of western South America. /n the HFEDs and HFJDs Stastny had not yet seriously attempted to e-plain this phenomenon% Asing the same strategy as Felipe 7oss:o del 3omar and many others( he merely alluded to an un!ridgea!le &difference in mentality and in social and religious atmos$here-) which( as we ha e seen( would later !e e-plained !y reference to a <othic representation of the world%

!.! The form of evolution in colonial peripheries

/n more recent wor#( Stastny has proposed a solution to this pro!lem that can !e presented in relation to the theory of sociocultural e olution and to the theory of social differentiation% /&ll treat each aspect separately%

As we ha e seen( Stastny&s wor# since the HFEDs has reconstructed the history of painting in this region during the colonial epoch !ased on the distinction !etween artistic centers and their pro inces% When using this distinction( he has !een careful not to portray artists in the periphery as passi e adopters of imported artwor#: colonial artists adapted these sources according to their own needs and aesthetic preferences% Stastny&s early wor# didn&t analy5e this process thoroughly% Since the late HFFDs( the appropriation of a more comple- distinction allowed him

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to further ela!orate the notion of acti e peripheries( which is focused on the form of artistic change in this region and( conse+uently( on a theory of e olution%

/n HFJC( Erwin Walter 3alm had constructed a narration of the history of art and architecture in the colonial ,ispanic America !ased on the distinction !etween centers and two types of pro inces%EDG /n a similar manner( in HFGE( Pan 2ialostoc#i used the distinction !etween pro inces and peripheries to signal the latter&s potential for artistic originality%EDF A decade later( Stastny adapted this distinction in the conte-t of a fourfold typology that aimed at gi ing account of painting as it was produced in colonial 7entral Andes% EHD Stastny distinguishes !etween artistic centers( pro inces( peripheries and colonial peripheries as they presented themsel es in the se enteenth and eighteenth centuries% According to this typology( only in artistic centers the production and e aluation of art was primarily guided !y an o!ser ation of the difference that the o!?ect in +uestion made in relation to an artistic tradition% 9oles of e-pertise are highly rele ant in this situation( specially when pro iding a lin# !etween artists and clients% The institutions that administer e-pertise( li#e guilds and academies( en?oy therefore a prominent position in the artistic field% Artistic change in the near!y pro inces
EDG3alm( 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas%1 EDF2ialostoc#i( 0Some Values of Artistic 3eriphery%1 2ialostoc#i drew this distinction from the wor# of $?u!o >araman% For a !rief analysis of 2ialostoc#i&s inde!tedness to <eorge >u!ler( see: 8a7osta >aufmann( To"ard a geogra$hy of art ( CKK-M% EHDStastny adopted 2ialostoc#i&s distinction in a te-t from HFFF )0Temas clSsicos en el arte colonial hispanoamericano(1 in La Tradicin clNsica en el #er; %irreynal( ed% Teodoro ,ampe 6art:ne5 )$ima: Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( Fondo Editorial( HFFF*( CLK( http:\\sis!i!%unmsm%edu%pe\2i!Virtual\$i!ros\historia\Tradaclas\caratula%htm%*% Two years later( he introduced the category of 0colonial peripheries%1 )Stastny( 0Arte colonial(1 FL-E%* The following e-position is !ased on this latter pu!lication%

CMF

depended on stimuli recei ed from their center of reference and was limited to mere ariations of imported prototypes and to decorati e details% Artistic

peripheries( which are defined !y their location in the geographical limits of a cultural area( recei ed stimuli from se eral centers of artistic inno ation% /n this conte-t( local artists and audiences didn&t re?ect old accomplishments in fa or of newer ones( nor did they understand their wor# as esta!lishing a dialog with the first% On the contrary( stimuli from di erse centers could !e integrated with solutions that had !ecome o!solete according to metropolitan e-perts ' a situation that characteri5ed artistic production in the colonial central Andes% EHH Stastny has further argued that( in colonial peripheries )as distinguished from peripheries in general*( artistic inno ation could also !e triggered !y the cultural di ersity that results from the con+uest of non-western ci ili5ations or cultures% Such would ha e !een the situation in colonial central Andes( where( %%%se esta!leci@ con el tiempo un f4rtil diSlogo de oponentes +ue produ?o nota!les inno aciones iconogrSficas y aliosos e-perimentos formales( particularmente en las artes del 7usco y la sierra surNEHC X%%%with time( a fertile dialogue among antagonists was esta!lished( which produced significant iconographic inno ations and alua!le formal e-periments( particularly in the arts from 7usco and the southern sierra%Z Within colonial peripheries( centers and peripheries may again !e distinguished%

EHHStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FKFN Agarte El4spuru( 0/ntroducci@n a la 3intura Virreinal(1 CC f%N 7astedo( 0El arte colonial(1 CDJN 6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 CC-LN Samane5 Argumedo( 0$as portadas reta!lo en el !arroco cus+ue;o(1 HGC% EHCStastny( 0Arte colonial(1 FE%

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According to Francisco Stastny( $ima( 7usco and Are+uipa would ha e !ecome rele ant centers of artistic production in this colonial periphery% The two first are the most rele ant for a history of painting% Each of them occupied different positions in this geography of art: %%%la 7iudad de los 9eyes aport@ las no edades deri adas de Europa y de los artistas inmigradosN mientras +ue el 7usco reela!ora!a las propuestas y !usca!a su asimilaci@n a la realidad americana% 7ada uno( por otro lado( se comport@ como centro regional con sus tri!utarios y pro incias dependientes en lo art:stico: $ima( con proyecci@n hacia la costa norte;a y los Andes inmediatos( 7usco( 3erB*%EHK X%%%the 7ity of the >ings contri!uted the no elties were deri ed from Europe and from the immigrant artistsN while 7usco re-ela!orated these proposals and tried to assimilate them to the American reality% Each of them( on the other side( acted as a regional centre with its own tri!utaries and pro inces that depended from them for artistic matters: $ima had influence o er the northern coast and the near!y Andes( XwhileZ 7usco had influence o er the southern and south-central sierra and had reciprocal relations with localities from the Altiplano to the city of la 3a5 )7olla and Alto 3erB*Z Stastny&s typology( as applied to this region( resem!les an open-system model( with an input in $ima( where European no elties arri e( and an output in 7usco( where these no elties are !lended with past solutions and adapted to 0the American reality%1 Each of these centers irrigates its surrounding areas( where further inno ations might occur%
EHK/!id%( GM%

olcado a la sierra sur y centro-sur( y con relaciones

rec:procas con lugares en el Altiplano hasta la ciudad de la 3a5 )el 7olla y el Alto

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From the point of

iew of "i#las $uhmann&s sociological theory( Stastny&s

characteri5ation of the situation of artistic centers corresponds to a form of art that already aims towards autonomy% The differentiation of art-specific criteria of e aluation allow for the self-programming of indi idual artwor#s and for their positioning in a still loosely coupled networ# of interte-tual relations% EHL /n this conte-t( art has !egun to constitute itself as a !ranch of sociocultural e olution !y differentiating its own mechanisms of ariation( selection and sta!ili5ation% The o!ser ation of inno ations starts to !e focused on the le el of the artwor#s& selfprogramming: on their a!ility to construct a reality of their own% Solutions to this pro!lem that are considered successful can !e adopted in the conte-t of new artwor#s% /n retrospecti e( this process can !e signaled !y the historici5ed concept of style( which highlights the distinction !etween !oth le els: stylistic mar#s don&t ensure success% Stastny&s characteri5ation of artistic pro inces clearly presents a situation in which this condition of autonomous artistic operations is not met: stylistic mar#s are sufficient to ensure success when the pu!lic aims at merely adopting and imitating the life style of the metropolis% /nstead of e olution( one might rather spea# of fashion( for the mar#ing of no elty occurs on the le el of style rather than on that of the self-programming of indi idual pieces% 3eripheries( meanwhile( remain on the margins of this process% ,ere( the cumulati e and selfreferential character of differentiated artistic e olution is a!sent( together with the adoption of stylistic no elties% As Francisco Stastny so graphically descri!ed it(

EHL$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CCE-KMN $uhmann( 08as >unstwer# und die Sel!streprodu#tion der >unst%1

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%%%los artistas irreinales tienden con e-tra;a facilidad a ol er al preciosismo manierista de los inicios o( inclusi e( a soluciones +ue recuerdan lengua?es art:sticos de 4pocas de considera!le mayor antigRedad%%% +uien o!ser e el panorama desde el lado de Europa tendrS la impesi@n de estar mirando el arte occidental en un espe?o +ue lo distorciona%EHM X%%% iceregal artists tend with great facility to return to the mannerist preciosity of the !eginnings or e en to solutions that remind us of considera!ly older artistic languagesY those who o!ser e this landscape from the European side will get the impression of !eing loo#ing at western art through a distorting mirror%Z "i#las $uhmann distinguished three cumulati e le els of differentiation of social realms that are useful for understanding the situation of the institutions of art in these conte-ts%EHE /n a first moment( situations are differentiated which correspond to the utili5ation of specific media of communication% /n art( situations pro ide frames that signal the o!ser ers that it is e-pected from them that they let their e-periences !e guided !y the self-programming of artwor#s% Art-specific situations allow for the differentiation of the specific complementary role pro ided !y an artistic pu!lic that &''' could no longer +e integrated %ia a stratification of households'),7. As 9udolf Stichweh has pointed out( the differentiation of leading and complementary roles in art )artist\pu!lic* was accompanied !y the formation of secondary leading ones )amateur and connoisseur* that mediate !etween the other two% Finally( a system of art is constituted when( &'''fr s$ezifische Situationen eine Mehrheit unterschiedlicher Rollen fr kom$lementres Dusammen"irken
EHMStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FKF% EHE$uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte%1 EHJ$uhmann( Art as a Social System( CKF%

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ausdifferenziert sind und dadurch eine +esondere ?unktion erfllen''') ,7L This artistic function( which delimits the pro!lem-sol ing realm in reference to which all other systems are considered irrele ant( was defined !y $uhmann as: &'''demonstrating the com$elling forces of order in the realm of the $ossi+le'),7M

Stastny&s o!ser ations regarding the function of guilds and academies as administrators of artistic e-pertise in artistic centers would correspond to at least the second le el of differentiation in $uhmann&s scheme: that is( to a conte-t in which art-specific roles ha e !een differentiated% /n the operational le el( this implies that art has differentiated a !asal code that guides its operations with independence from other social realms( so that an artistic e-pertise is meaningful% An e-treme e-ample of guilds of painters assuming a role as mediators of artistic e-pertise is offered !y 6aarten 3ra#&s analysis of guilds in the 8utch golden age% 3ainters& guilds in the "etherlands not only specified conditions of mem!ership that implied such differentiated criteria of e aluation )e%g% three years of training in a local master&s wor#shop* !ut also assumed an acti e role in the formation of audiences through showrooms( lectures and pu!lications%ECD

We ha e o!ser ed that differentiated artistic criteria were implied in the e-aminations contemplated !y the ordinances of the painters& guild of $ima( as far as they were focused on the correct use of coloration( on the achie ement of
EHG$uhmann( 0E olution und <eschichte(1 HML% EHF$uhmann( Art as a Social System( HLG% ECD6aarten 3ra#( 0<uilds and the 8e elopment of the Art 6ar#et during the 8utch <olden Age(1 Simiolus !etherlands Xuarterly for the /istory of Art KD( no% K )CDDK*: CLJ ff%

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anatomical plausi!ility and on the construction of perspecti e% 2ased on 6esa and <is!ert&s thesis( one would hypothesi5e that these ordinances were effecti ely enforced in 7usco throughout the se enteenth century% According to the pre ious refle-ions( this hypothesis implies that the differentiation of art in this region would ha e reached at least the intermediate le el in $uhmann&s scheme( in which leading and complementary roles are to !e found% /n Stastny&s typology( 7usco would ha e constituted itself as a ma?or center of artistic production( as distinguished from artistic pro inces( peripheries and colonial peripheries% Furthermore( the /ndian painters& separation from the guild around HEGG ' an e ent that is commonly interpreted( as we ha e seen( as triggering the emergence of the mestizo school of painting ' would !e a cause of artistic dedifferentiation- for criteria of e aluation specific to art would ha e !ecome redundant% ,owe er( the pre ious analysis )section K%C%H* show that the role attri!uted to the racial conflict that too# place within the painters& guild of 7usco around HEGG !y !oth the wea# and the strong ersions of 6esa and <is!ert&s thesis isn&t supported !y historical documentation% With all pro!a!ility( the situation of artistic production in the colonial central Andes during this period corresponded more closely to Stastny&s characteri5ation of artistic peripheries% /n $uhmann&s framewor# one o!ser es that in such a conte-t painting had not differentiated complementary roles that operated with independence from the form of stratification of society at large in reference to a specific form of communicational e-pertise% /n conclusion( the /ndian painters& separation from the guild of 7usco around HEGG cannot !e interpreted as ha ing triggered the emergence of the local school of mesti5o

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painting !ecause the societal conditions that would ha e made such a conse+uence possi!le were a!sent%

/n the light of a luhmannian reading of Stastny&s theory we can see that the thesis of the conse+uences of the di ision of the guild of painters in 7usco ma#es the wrong assumptions% <uilds in colonial peripheries don&t ha e a role as administrators of artistic e-pertise( for such a mediating position is irrele ant in a conte-t were artistic e olution has not yet !egun to !e guided !y differentiated e olutionary mechanisms: as Stastny o!ser ed( in the colonial peripheries( change in art is not primarily directed !y a differentiated artistic memory% As this author o!ser ed( e en though guilds adapted the Se illian ordinances( they remained in close relation to their corresponding religious !rotherhoods Icofrad9asK',57 2ased on research done !y Iuiro5 on the guilds of $ima( we can also o!ser e that such !rotherhoods were soon replaced !y the figure of the Maestro Mayor- who responded directly to the iceroy and not to the assem!ly of the mem!ers% ECC The final picture is closer to the description done !y "i#las $uhmann of economic organi5ations in the conte-t of ad anced ci ili5ations% $i#e these( guilds are coupled to the more differentiated systems of religion and politics: &Sie sind religiJse 8ruderschaften +z"' :efensi%A und 4influ +ndnisse im Verhltnis zu anderen ?unktionssystemen und ge"innen nur daraus Iund nicht aus Jkonomischen 4rfolgenaK die ?higkeit- Conkurrenz und #roduktions"eisen- RekrutierungsA und

ECHStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FMD% ECCSee pages CDM ff%

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Aus+ildungsfragen im "irtsschaftlichen 8ereich zu regeln'),5F

A situation in which the selection and re-sta!ili5ation of ornamental ariation is done in relation to moral and religious definitions also determines the a!sence of other mediating roles in art% Stastny mentioned in this respect the case of 6anuel Saramiego( who wrote in Iuito in HJFM the only treaty on painting that was pu!lished in this region during the iceregal epoch% This te-t has the same spirit as the medie al treaties on painting( which pro ide pragmatic recipes !ut no theoretical reflections on the art of painting( as one would e-pect from its European contemporaries: %%%el autor XhaZ e-cluido todo tema +ue tenga +ue er con los fundamentos te@ricos de las artes y del m4rito de la pintura como profesi@n li!eral en una 4poca en +ue( incluso en Iuito( ha!:an llegado noticias de los esfuer5os oficiales por crear academias y re alori5ar la la!or art:sticaN ECL X%%%the author XhasZ e-cluded any theme related to the theoretical foundations of the arts and to the merit of painting as a li!eral profession in an epoch in which( e en in Iuito( notices had arri ed regarding the official efforts that were !eing done to found academies and to reesta!lish the alue of the artistic la!or%Z This #ind of treaty could !e e-pected from a conte-t in which the mechanisms of ariation and selection ha e not !een differentiated in art% As "i#las $uhmann o!ser ed( this occurs through the introduction of historical stylistic concepts% /n o!ser ing a style( one has to distinguish !etween the le el of the artwor#s& self-

ECK$uhmann( 0<eschichte als 3ro5eO und die Theorie so5io-#ultureller E olution(1 HML% ECLStastny( 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial(1 FMD%

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programming and their interrelations in 0imaginary museums%1 Treaties li#e the one pu!lished !y Samaniego( on the contrary( e-pose programs that are e-pected to assure the success of artistic communication gi%en that the e<ternally im$osed criteria are met'

Thus( when paintings !y Vicente 7arducho arri ed to the 7ity of the >ings in midse enteenth hundred( which denote an e-ploration of the language of painting( they did not lead to the formation of sta!le e-pectations or social structures% As o!ser ed !y Francisco Stastny( the ?inal Hudgement cycle painted !y 7arducho&s wor#shop for the 7athedral of $ima denote an e-ploration of the difference !etween /talian mannerist ideali5ation and Flemish mimesis as a means to represent the distinction !etween le els of reality: the immanent and the transcendental dimensions of the world%ECM As such( we can o!ser e that( !y ma#ing reference to the history of painting in this manner( they contain a theoretical reflection a!out the status of painting as a form of communication and an e-plicit preoccupation for the construction of meaning through formal interrelations%ECE This wor# was related to 7arducho&s :iNlogos de la #intura- from HEKK ' a copy of which was a aila!le in $ima in HEMF% ECJ 7arducho&s San :iego en _<tasis )/mage CF on page CFE*( at the refractory of the Third Franciscan Order of
ECMFrancisco Stastny( 0Vicente 7arducho y la escuela madrile;a en Am4rica(1 in So+re el #er; homenaPe a Hos= Agust9n de la #uente 0andamo )$ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( Facultad de letras y ciencias humanas( CDDC*( HCFE% ECEVictor /% Stoichita has pu!lished a thorough analysis of paintings from the Spanish <olden 7entury in relation to the tradition of self-conscious paintings( including a reference to Vicente 7arducho in: Stoichita( 4l oPo m9stico' #intura y %isin religiosa en el Siglo de Oro es$a2ol ( FD-FK% ECJStastny( 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo(1 LC% According to Teresa <is!ert( a copy of this te-t was found in the li!rary of Santiago 9osales in $ima in HJMF% <is!ert( 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB(1 HHD%

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$ima( also offered local artists an e-ample of technical solutions !y using a uni+ue anishing point !ehind and a!o e the le itating saint ECG% A few imitations of these wor#s were done !y local painters who found in them an opportunity to demonstrate their irtuosity% 2ut( as Stastny o!ser ed( E-perimentos irtuosos de este tipo no se;alaron el camino por el cual

prosigui@ la pintura lime;a posterior( pero no de?aron de ser una e-periencia +ue ayud@ a definir( precisamente por e-clusi@n( la ruta del futuro% ECF XVirtuoso e-periments li#e these did not signal the road that painting in $ima would follow% They did( howe er( help define( !y e-clusion( the route of the future%Z As it has !een o!ser ed( imported images constitute accidents in a new conte-t in which they ha e to pro e themsel es once again against the mechanisms of sociocultural e olution% /n e ery instance( the artistic e-ploration of the media made a aila!le !y the decoration of sym!ols is forgotten% What remains is mere decoration in support of a sym!ol%

#.#.1

The ornamentation of symbols in the colonial periphery

2efore o!ser ing Francisco Stastny&s grounding of the process of medie ali5ation in the dual structure of colonial peripheral society( / want to ma#e some final

ECGThese paintings may ha e !een sent to $ima in accordance to Vicente 7arducho&s testament( in order to !e sold: Puan Pos4 6art:n <on5Sle5 o!ser es that: &Vicente 0arducho dePa dis$uesto en su testamento de 7,FQ 1ue se en%9en a su cu2ado Gas$ar Astete >unas $inturas a la ciudad de Lima $ara 1ue me las feriase') 6art:n <on5Sle5( 4l Artista en la Sociedad 4s$a2ola del siglo UVBB( HJF% ECFStastny( 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo(1 GLD%

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remar#s on the relation !etween ornamental art and sym!oli5ation in this colonial periphery% We can adopt here 8a id Freed!ergs& definition of sym!olic images as cases in which( &'''the image- $ro$erly $re$ared- set u$- adorned- and decorated+ecomes the locus of the s$irit' Bt +ecomes "hat it is taken to re$resent'),FQ

$i#e 9am@n 6u?ica has o!ser ed( many colonial images would operate as sym!ols in this sense( ?ust li#e 2y5antine icons and European arte sacra' Once again( this #ind of image is distinguished from the pictorial tradition that emerged in the European 9enaissance: A+u: reside la diferencia entre la est4tica renacentista europea y la teolog:a !arroca del icono hispanoamericano% $a primera( o!sesionada con la perspecti a o la 0e-tensi@n infinita1 dentro del 0espacio figurado1 del cuadro( !usca +ue el o!ser ador ingrese a la pintura% En la segunda( como en los antiguos iconos !i5antinos o en el arte sacro europeo( las figuras irradian la lu5 celeste de un mundo transfigurado( literalmente se 0salen1 del cuadro - o co!ran ida so!renatural - irrumpiendo en el espacio emp:rico de lo humanoN EKH X,ere lies the difference !etween the European esthetic of the 9ennaissance and the 2aro+ue theology of the ,ispanic-American icon% The first( o!sessed with perspecti e or the 0infinite e-tension1 within the 0figurati e space1 of the can as( wants the o!ser er to enter the painting% /n the second one( li#e in the ancient 2y5antine icons or in the European sacred art( the figures irradiate the celestial light of a transfigured world( they literally 0come out1 of the painting ' or ac+uire supernatural life ' !urst in the empirical space of humanity%Z

EKD8a id Freed!erg( The #o"er of Bmages' Studies in the /istory and Theory of Res$onse )7hicago and $ondon: The Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( HFFH*( KH% EKH6u?ica 3inilla( 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica(1 HLJ%

CJD

/n his analysis of sym!olic art in this region( 6u?ica put emphasis on the Spanish and 7reole audiences of sym!olic images% 2ased on an analysis of ,ansen&s !iography of Saint 9osa de $ima(EKC this author reconstructed an 0iconic theology(1 which can !e resumed in three steps% EKK First( the sym!ol parta#es of the di ine nature of the prototype( ma#ing it present in the immanent world% Second( images were not intended to trigger piety or mere sentimental de otion( !ut to allow cognition of a transcendental dimension% The image was a theological discourseN one ' and this is the third point ' that was more perfect than "ritten theological discourses( for the immediate contemplation that the image offers is free from the errors and limitations of language%

7onse+uently( unli#e European arte sacra- +uestions of artistic style were almost entirely disregarded !y !oth rural and ur!an artists% This sets the conte-t for what we ha e o!ser ed in se eral instances as accidents that don&t yield structure formation in the colonial periphery% /n this sense( for 6u?ica( colonial artwor#s were not pro incial !ut peripheral ' an o!ser ation that coincides with Stastny&s concept of medie ali5ation: /ntegrada al sistema monSr+uico hispSnico( la sociedad irreinal no ten:a una mentalidad pro inciana sino perif4rica% Esto significa!a +ue pese a tener acceso a las inno aciones art:sticas europeas +ue llega!an al "ue o 6undo por :a del comercio de cientos de estampas y gra!ados +ue difund:an las ideas art:sticas y los preceptos est4ticos y formales de las composiciones flamencas( alemanas(
EKC,ansen( Vida Admira+le de Santa Rosa de Lima #atrona del !ue%o Mundo I7,,GK% EKK6u?ica 3inilla( 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica(1 HLM-J%

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italianas o espa;olas( los artistas rurales y ur!anos del 3erB prefirieron interpretarlas sin reglas( normas o estilos art:sticos fi?os% EKL X/ntegrated in the Spanish monarchic system( the iceregal society didn&t ha e a pro incial mentality( !ut a peripheral one% This meant that( despite ha ing access to the European artistic inno ations that arri ed to the "ew World through the commerce of hundreds of estam$es and engra ings that disseminated the artistic ideas and the esthetic and formal precepts of Flemish( <erman( /talian( or Spanish compositions( rural and ur!an artists of 3eru prefered to interpret them without rules( norms or fi-ed artistic styles%Z As 6u?ica o!ser es( the centrality of sym!olic art corresponded to a sacramental representation of the natural world% /n HFGE( /sa!el 7ru5 had already pointed out that the cultural conte-t of the se enteenth century was one in which the entire world too# the form of an allegoric representation where each o!?ect or e ent ac+uired meaning when related to a transcendental order% EKM That is( a world in which the system of religion represents the whole of society% /n conne-ion with 7ru5( 9am@n 6u?ica argued that the 0sym!olic cosmology1 that he reconstructed( which was a#in to Franciscan thought( was reinforced !oth in Spain and in 3eru through the e-ercises written !y Friar $uis de <ranada( MDD copies of which were printed in $ima in HEDJ%EKE The similarities !etween !iographies of St% Francis and those of St% 9osa de $ima would support this claim: ?ust li#e crossed roads reminded St% Francis of the 7rucifi-ion( EKJ St% 9osa de $ima uncrossed the crossed stic#s or straws that she found on the ground( for she feared that other people
EKL6u?ica 3inilla( 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano(1 G% EKM7ru5 de AmenS!ar( Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q% EKE6u?ica 3inilla( 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica(1 JH% EKJ/!id%( EJ%

CJC

might accidentally step on such a powerful sym!ol%EKG

9am@n 6u?ica further o!ser ed that( within this shared iconic theology( there were important differences depending on the intended audiences and conte-ts of appreciation% /n cities with a greater presence of illiterate /ndian and 6esti5o populations( such as 7usco and 3uno( images were included in the strategies of christiani5ation underta#en !y the 7atholic church% These paintings put emphasis on the representation of religious dogma and of episodes from the li es of saints% EKF According to 6u?ica( a different situation would ha e ta#en place in the pri ate chapels of the Spanish aristocracy( were a more intimate relationship with images was fa ored%ELD

We can see that the latter would ha e corresponded to the immediate social conte-t of St% 9osa the $ima( as narrated !y Friar $eonardo ,ansen: ELH images of St% 6ary and her 7hild triggered isions in which the prototypes communicated with the saint% Some images would e en undergo physical transformations ' such as weeping( sweating or !leeding ' that e-pressed this presence% ELC ,ansen narrates

EKG,ansen( Vida Admira+le de Santa Rosa de Lima #atrona del !ue%o Mundo I7,,GK% EKF6u?ica 3inilla( 0El arte y los sermones(1 CLJ% ELD/!id% ELH,ansen( Vida Admira+le de Santa Rosa de Lima #atrona del !ue%o Mundo I7,,GK( HFM-CHE% ,ansen seems to ha e !ased his account on the declarations made !y <on5alo de la 6a5a( owner of the miraculous images( in the process of !eatification of St% 9osa% These ha e !een pu!lished in: $uis 6illones( 08eclaraci@n de don <on5alo de la 6a5a )o de la 6asa* a;o HEHJ(1 in Rna $artecita del cielo' La %ida de Santa Rosa narrada $or :on Gonzalo de la Maza- a 1uien ella llama+a $adre )$ima: Editorial ,ori5onte( HFFK*( HLM-CDF% ELCThese are signs( in William 7hristian&s sense: &'''$henomena that can +e inde$endently %erified +y the senses' They can +e seen +y anyone "ho looks- felt +y anyone "ho touches') William 7hristian( A$$aritions in Late Medie%al and Renaissance S$ain )"ew Persey: 3rinceton Ani ersity 3ress( HFGH*( G%

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how( on April HMth of HEHJ( at the pri ate oratory of <on5alo de la 6a5a( an image of the face of Pesus( painted !y Angelino 6edoro( !egun to transpire in response to St% 9osa&s prayers% /t is highly interesting that 6edoro&s role in this narration is merely that of an e-pert in the causal chains of the immanent world who could erify in a first instance the supernatural character of what was happening%

The miracle certainly set this image apart from others in <on5alo de la 6a5a&s collection( to the point that it was decided that it should !e placed in a pu!lic !uilding% ,owe er( paintings could !e e-pected to 0!eha e1 in this manner% According to ,ansen&s narration( St% 9osa assured de la 6a5a that many other paintings in his chapel were miraculous in a similar manner% As an e-ample( ,ansen mentions two images of 6ary with her 7hild ' one of which many authors !elie e is 34re5 de Alesio&s Virgen de la Leche,GF )/mage CM on page CFM*' Therefore( this was not a rare e ent( !ut one that corresponded to how images could !e dealt with%

!." Artistic and social archaism in a world society

2ased on the wor# of 3a!lo 6acera on the hacienda )colonial estate*(ELL Francisco Stastny has de eloped a theory of the relation !etween the form of artistic communication and the form of societal differentiation% 6acera&s thesis was that(
ELKSee specially: Stastny( 034re5 de Alesio y la pintura del siglo TV/(1 JD% ELL6acera( 0Feudalismo 7olonial Americano: El 7aso de las ,aciendas 3eruanas%1

CJL

&'''"hereas the internal economy of the hacienda "as nonAmonetary- e<ternally it "as a $art of the money economy of its time') ,G* Feudal forms of social relation sur i ed within the hacienda( where yanaconas and arrendatarios wor#ed the land of the hacendado !asically in e-change for the right to li e in it%ELE Specially rele ant for Stastny&s analysis of the history of art was 6acera&s o!ser ation that the political and ecclesiastical authorities of the iceroyalty ga e the hacendado high le els of autonomy in the administration of his domains% Thus( internally( the hacienda allowed for the reproduction of 0archaic1 forms of economic production and political control%ELJ On their e-ternal front( howe er( haciendas participated in the money economy as their production aimed at supplying regional mar#ets% Those who administered the haciendas and sold their product in these mar#ets occupied thus a #ey position in the coordination of !oth #inds of economic !eha ior and( correspondingly( in the integration of mesti5o and /ndian populations in the glo!al society%ELG /n this manner( 0archaic1 forms of social relation coe-isted with
ELM6agnus 6orner( 0The Spanish American ,acienda: A Sur ey of 9ecent 9esearch and 8e!ate(1 The /is$anic American /istorical Re%ie" MK( no% C )6ay HFJK*: CHH% ELEWhereas yanaconas and their descendants were permanent mem!ers of the states( arrendatarios wor#ed for the estate under a ariety of arrangements% They were commonly offered land and the payment of their tri!ute in e-change for their la!or% 7olonial estates could also recei e grants of mitayos or contract wage la!orers( although these cases were less common% A schematic presentation of these types( !ased on 6acera&s wor#( was pu!lished !y >aren Spalding in 0,acienda-Village 9elations in Andean Society to HGKD(1 Latin American #ers$ecti%es C( no% H )Spring HFJM*: HHL-M% ELJ &'''el hacendado colonial no $udo- llegado el caso- mo%ilizar a1uellos recursos humanos y todo el $otencial econmico de su dominio $ara o+tener $oder $ol9tico como s9 lo hu+iera hecho un se2or feudal XYZ :esde este $unto de %ista la hacienda no lleg a ser un feudo a $lenitud al menos en lo 1ue toca a sus relaciones con el 4stado y la sociedad glo+al' #ero $or eso mismo el feudalismo de la hacienda fue toda%9a mNs acentuado en lo 1ue llamar9amos su frente interno- $ues la autoridad central- satisfecha con la o+ediencia- neutralidad o indiferencia $ol9ticas del $ro$ietario rural- no se sinti necesitada de inter%enir dentro de las haciendas $ara eliminar un enemigo de su $oder a+soluto y eminente') 6acera( 0Feudalismo 7olonial Americano: El 7aso de las ,aciendas 3eruanas(1 HLH% ELG2uilding upon 3a!lo 6acera&s analysis( 3edro 6orand4 )6orand4( 0Etapas del sociologismo latinoamericano(1 HGC%* and 7arlos 7ousi;o IRazn y Ofrenda' 4nsayo en torno a los l9mites y $ers$ecti%as de la sociolog9a en Am=rica Latina- HMD-H* ha e argued that the hacienda was

CJM

0modern1 ones and were in fact a result of the process of moderni5ation led !y European societies%

3a!lo 6acera&s thesis was adapted !y Francisco Stastny to further ela!orate his own analysis of the history of painting in colonial 7entral Andes% Stastny argued that whereas the internal organi5ation of the ,ispanic American colonies( including not only the economic structure !ut also &'''the "orld of learning and thought 3and6 the technologies at their dis$osal'''-) ,GM was semi-medie al( their e-ternal relations with Spain( &'''"ere centred around a semiAca$italist mining economy of e<$loitation- +ased on an ideology along the lines laid do"n +y the trium$hant $ostATridentine 0hurch- and su$$orted +y forms of artistic e<$ression "hich reinforced ecclesiastical $olicy'),*Q /mported paintings and prints responded to this e-ternal en ironment: a social situation completely different from the one e-perienced !y the general population of the colonies( specially in peripheral areas where haciendas en?oyed high le els of autonomy from the State and the 7hurch% For Stastny( a fundamental contradiction too# place !etween such images and this archaic social en ironment( that triggered the production of local adaptations: The inherent language of a wor# of art re+uires it to reflect the ideological and social en ironment within which it has e ol ed% American artists were( therefore( presented with a parado-ical situation when( !ecause of their colonial relationship with Spain( they were confronted with post-Tridentine
rele ant not only for the social integration of nati e populations( !ut also for the emergence of a ,ispanic American culture% ELFStastny( 0The Ani ersity as 7loister( <arden and Tree of >nowledge% An /conographic /n ention in the Ani ersity of 7u5co(1 FM% EMD/!id%

CJE

religious imagery in the form of prints which arri ed from Europe( and which they had to use as a starting-point to create an artistic language suited to their own semi-feudal society% This contradiction !etween modern prototypes and an archaic social en ironment( percepti!le in most $atin-American pictures( e-plains the frustrated nature of many of these wor#s%EMH The most isi!le result of this situation was the creation of an artistic language in 7usco and in the rural hinterland( where the #nowledge that was re+uired to reconstruct the original meaning of imported prints and paintings ' to trace the distinction !etween content and su!?ect( according to Freed!erg&s analyses ' wasn&t made a aila!le to most of the local population%EMC

When analy5ing such a dual structure from the point of iew of a theory of culture( 3edro 6orand4 o!ser ed that a point of communication !etween !oth sides was made possi!le on the le el of religious ritual( of the religious legitimation of la!or and of the festi e dilapidation of economic resources% EMK 2ased on the pre ious discussions we ha e arri ed to a similar o!ser ation in the domain of painting: e en though a dual structure can !e recogni5ed( there is a common denominator for what is possi!le to e-pect from painting in !oth sides( which is made a aila!le !y the medium of the decoration of sym!ols% This medium can !e used for the tight-coupling of forms that show di erging le els of autonomy or ornamental selfprogramming: from 0mere decoration1 to pieces that esta!lish different le els of communication: one that corresponds to the sym!ol in its gi en form and the
EMH/!id% EMCStastny( S9ntomas Medie%ales en el S8arroco AmericanoS( CK% EMK6orand4( 0Etapas del sociologismo latinoamericano(1 HJK%

CJJ

other where the e-ploration of a differentiated medium for art can !e underta#en ' e-posing the whole piece to re?ection if the artificiality of art attracts too much attention%EML These forms of communication that single ornamented o!?ects actuali5e include different types of audiences% Following P% S% Freed!erg we could call these the unsophisticated and the sophisticated o!ser ers% As we ha e seen( it is not li#ely that paintings( imported or not( would ha e !een approached from a point of iew that distinguished !etween 0content1 and 0su!?ect1 in the manner of the sophisticated o!ser er% 2ut paintings that ta#e this le el of structure formation into consideration were imported and e en produced locally% For sociocultural e olution( these were not altogether failed ariations% The critical point is that a shift in the system of reference of sociocultural e olution has to !e e-pected when comparing the colonial periphery with the European metropolis% /n the central Andes( such 0modern1 images would ha e posed interesting inno ations for a program of mere decoration of sym!ols in a region of society in which religion assumed the representation of the whole%

EML Victor /% Stoichita has analy5ed the pro!lems posed !y 9u!ens& piece in this respect in: Stoichita( La in%encin del cuadro' Arte- art9fices y artificios en los or9genes de la $intura euro$ea ( JE ff%

CJG

Images

0#age 1$ Ioll2 Fa#il2 with the Fa#il2 of the Virgin and St& -osa& /uthor unknown& 1=th centur2& <il on canvas4 1&6) 8 1&=* #& .anco de !rKdito del ,erM& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 ,intura en el Virreinato del ,erM4 )**)$ 6+;&&&&&)=* 0#age )$ !oronation of the Virgin& .2 .ernardo .itti& c&1;%;-1;=6& !hurch of San ,edro4 Li#a& ,hoto$ htt'$NNu'load&wiki#edia&orgNwiki'ediaNco##onsN1N1(N.O.itti&L'g&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=* 0#age 6$ 0nterior del taller de -afael de la !ancha& ,hoto$ 5arco24 ViaLe a travKs de /#Krica del Sur&&&4 3*6&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=1 0#age 3$ 7he 0nha(itant of the !ordillera of ,eru& .2 Francisco Laso& 1=;;& <il on canvas& 16; 8 =: c#& ,inacoteca 5erino of the 5unici'alit2 of Li#a&&&&&&&&)=) 0#age ;$ Facade of the church of the !o#'an2 of Gesus in /reEui'a& 1:+=& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano )$ 1%)&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=6 0#age :$ Facade of the church of San Lorenzo in ,otosB& c&1%)=& ,hoto$ Eduardo !hacCn4 at$ htt'$NNstatic&'anora#io&co#N'hotosNoriginalN6);&L'g&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=3 0#age %$ !art of the 'arish of San Se(astiFn& !or'us !hristi Series4 !usco& /uthor unknown& 5useo de /rte -eligioso4 !usco& ,hoto$ ,ESS!/4 at$ htt'$NNcolonialart&orgNi#agesNSSe(astian&L'g&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=; 0#age =$ Franciscan 5art2rs in Ga'an& .2 LFzaro ,ardo Lagos& <il on canvas& 1:6*& !onvento franciscano de La -ecoleta4 !usco& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$ 16&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=; 0#age +$ /ries - Dece#(er& Saint Gose'h and the Virgin looking for shelter4 Luke )& .2 Diego Puis'e 7ito& c&1:=1& <il on canvas4 1&3* 8 1&=3 #& !athedral of !usco& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 ,intura en el Virreinato del ,erM$ 1=1&& &)=: 0#age 1*$ Gose'h and 5ar2 /rrive at the 0nn !a'ricorn"& .2 /driaen !ollaert& 1;=;& ,hoto$ ,ESS!/4 at$ htt'$NNcolonialart&orgNcorres'ondencesN6: &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=: 0#age 11$ -eturn fro# Eg2't& .2 Diego Puis'e 7ito& 1:=*& <il on canvas& =:81*) c#& 5useo 9acional de /rEueologBa4 /ntro'ologBa e Iistoria del ,erM4 Li#a& ,hoto$ htt'$NN#useonacional&'erucultural&org&'eNgalhist+&ht#&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=% 0#age 1)$ -eturn fro# Eg2't& .2 Lucas Vorster#an& 1:)*& Engraving& 3)861 c#& ,hiladel'hia 5useu# of /rt& ,hoto$ htt'$NNwww&osLose'h&orgN&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=% 0#age 16$ Deca'itation of St& Laureano detail"& .2 .asilio de Santa !ruz ,u#acallao& 1:))& <il on canvas& !hurch of <ur Lad2 of 5erc24 !usco& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$ 11%&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)== 0#age 13$ 0##aculate over the #2stic garden or 7he fountain of Jrace& .2 Guan Es'inoza de los 5onteros& <il on canvas& ca&1:;;& !onvento de San Francisco4 !usco& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$ 1*3-;&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=+ 0#age 1;$ /rcFngel arca(ucero& /uthor unknown& 1=th centur2& <il on canvas& *&+* 8

CJF

*&=* #& 5useo de /rEueologBa4 /ntro'ologBa e Iistoria del ,erM&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=+ 0#age 1:$ Virgin of 5arc2 with St& ,edro de 9olasco4 St& Guan de Dios and St& Francisco de ,aula& .2 5auricio JarcBa& 1%;)& <il on canvas& 5useo de la 5oneda4 ,otosB& .olivia& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$ 1)+&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)=+ 0#age 1%$ 5iracle of St& 5arcus of ,adua 2& 1)61"& >hile 'reaching4 he e8'els a de#on disguised as #essenger4 who was te#'ting a wo#an& !ircle of 5arcos Qa'ata& 1=th centur2& !onvento de San Francisco4 !usco& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$ )1=&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+* 0#age 1=$ Virgin of the !andlestick of !o'aca(ana& .2 Francisco 7ito Ru'anEui& c&1;=3& Santuario de !o'aca(ana& .olivia& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano )$ 16:&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+1 0#age 1+$ Virgin of the !andlestick of !o'aca(ana& .2 Francisco 7ito Ru'anEui& c&1;=3& ,hoto$ htt'$NNar&geocities&co#Ngvol#os)**3Ntradiciones&ht#&&&&&&&&&&)+1 0#age )*$ 7he Virgin of the Iill& /uthor unknown& 1%):& <il on canvas&& 133 8 111 c#& !asa de 5oneda de ,otosB& ,hoto$ .usta#ante Delgado4 7esoros del /rte Virreinal$ !asa de 5oneda de ,otosB$ 1)3&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+) 0#age )1$ Virgin of the -osar2& /uthor unknown& !uzco School of ,ainting& 1=th centur2& <il on canvas& ,rivate collection& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 El .arroco ,eruano 1$)1&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+6 0#age ))$ 7he Virgin of the Iill& /uthor unknown& 1%)*& <il on canvas& *&%) 8 *&+) #& 5useo 9acional de /rte4 La ,az4 .olivia& ,hoto$ htt'$NNwww&#na&org&(oNr(6)&ht#l&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+6 0#age )6$ 7he Virgin of Sa(a2a& .2 Luis 9iHo& 1=th centur2& <il on canvas& )*3 8 16; c#& !asa de 5oneda de ,otosB& ,hoto$ .usta#ante Delgado4 7esoros del /rte Virreinal$ !asa de 5oneda de ,otosB$ ;%&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+3 0#age )3$ Virgin and !hild& .2 .ernardo .itti& c&1:**& <il on canvas& 3% 8 3* c#& 5useo 9acional de /rte4 .olivia& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+; 0#age );$ Virgin of the 5ilk& /ttri(uted to 5ateo ,Krez de /lesio& !ollection IernFn Velarde4 Li#a& ,hoto$ .anco de !rKdito del ,erM4 ,intura en el Virreinato del ,erM$ 163& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+; 0#age ):$ ,ietS& .2 /gnolo .ronzini& 1;36-;& .esanTon4 5useu#&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+: 0#age )%$ Saint Gero#e& .2 Jirola#o 5uziano& /'ro8& 1;=;& <il on wood 'anel transferred to canvas& 13% 8 += c#& ,icture Jaller2& 7he Vatican& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+: 0#age )=$ !hild Gesus with S2#(ols of the ,assion& .2 Jregorio Ja#arra& c& 1:)*& <il on canvas& 1)3 8 += c#& 5useo 9acional de /rte4 .olivia& ,hoto$ 5useo 9acional de /rte4 .olivia&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+: 0#age )+$ 7he ectasis of St& Diego& .2 Vicente !arducho& 7ercera <rden Franciscana4 Li#a& ,hoto$ Stastn2 )**)$ Fig& =&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&)+:

CGD

Bmage 7 /olly ?amily "ith the ?amily of the Virgin and St' Rosa' Author unkno"n' 7L th century' Oil on can%as- 7'F5 < 7'LQ m' 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- #intura en el Virreinato del #er;- 5QQ5 FM*'

Bmage 5 0oronation of the Virgin' 8y 8ernardo 8itti' c'7*.*A7*LF' 0hurch of San #edroLima' #hoto htt$ WWu$load'"ikimedia'orgW"iki$ediaWcommonsW7W7+W8g8itti'P$g

CGH

Bmage F Bnterior del taller de Rafael de la 0ancha' #hoto Marcoy- ViaPe a tra%=s de Am=rica del Sur'''- GQF

CGC

Bmage G The Bnha+itant of the 0ordillera of #eru' 8y ?rancisco Laso' 7L**' Oil on can%as' 7F* < L, cm' #inacoteca Merino of the Munici$ality of Lima'

CGK

Bmage * ?acade of the church of the 0om$any of Hesus in Are1ui$a' 7,ML' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 5 7.5

CGL

Bmage , ?acade of the church of San Lorenzo in #otos9' c'7.5L' #hoto 4duardo 0hacn- at htt$ WWstatic'$anoramio'comW$hotosWoriginalWF5*'P$g

CGM

Bmage . 0art of the $arish of San Se+astiNn' 0or$us 0hristi Series0usco' Author unkno"n' Museo de Arte Religioso- 0usco' #hoto #4SS0A- at htt$ WWcolonialart'orgWimagesWSSe+astian'P$g

Bmage L ?ranciscan Martyrs in Ha$an' 8y LNzaro #ardo Lagos' Oil on can%as' 7,FQ' 0on%ento franciscano de La Recoleta0usco' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 7F'

CGE

Bmage M Aries A :ecem+er' Saint Hose$h and the Virgin looking for shelter- Luke 5' 8y :iego Xuis$e Tito' c'7,L7' Oil on can%as- 7'GQ < 7'LG m' 0athedral of 0usco' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- #intura en el Virreinato del #er; 7L7'

Bmage 7Q Hose$h and Mary Arri%e at the Bnn I0a$ricornK' 8y Adriaen 0ollaert' 7*L*' #hoto #4SS0A- at htt$ WWcolonialart'orgWcorres$ondencesWF,

CGJ

Bmage 77 Return from 4gy$t' 8y :iego Xuis$e Tito' 7,LQ' Oil on can%as' L,<7Q5 cm' Museo !acional de Ar1ueolog9a- Antro$olog9a e /istoria del #er;- Lima' #hoto htt$ WWmuseonacional'$erucultural'org'$eWgalhistM'htm

Bmage 75 Return from 4gy$t' 8y Lucas Vorsterman' 7,5Q' 4ngra%ing' G5<F7 cm' #hiladel$hia Museum of Art' #hoto htt$ WW"""'osPose$h'orgW

CGG

Bmage 7F :eca$itation of St' Laureano IdetailK' 8y 8asilio de Santa 0ruz #umacallao' 7,55' Oil on can%as' 0hurch of Our Lady of Mercy- 0usco' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 77.'

CGF

Bmage 7G Bmmaculate o%er the mystic garden or The fountain of Grace' 8y Huan 4s$inoza de los Monteros' Oil on can%as' ca'7,**' 0on%ento de San ?rancisco- 0usco' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 7QGA*'

Bmage 7* ArcNngel arca+ucero' Author unkno"n' 7Lth century' Oil on can%as' Q'MQ < Q'LQ m' Museo de Ar1ueolog9a- Antro$olog9a e /istoria del #er;'

Bmage 7, Virgin of Marcy "ith St' #edro de !olasco- St' Huan de :ios and St' ?rancisco de #aula' 8y Mauricio Garc9a' 7.*5' Oil on can%as' Museo de la Moneda- #otos9' 8oli%ia' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 75M

CFD

Bmage 7. Miracle of St' Marcus of #adua Iy' 75F7K' @hile $reaching- he e<$els a demon disguised as messenger"ho "as tem$ting a "oman' 0ircle of Marcos Da$ata' 7L th century' 0on%ento de San ?rancisco- 0usco' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 57L'

CFH

Bmage 7M Virgin of the 0andlestick of 0o$aca+ana' 8y ?rancisco Tito \u$an1ui' c'7*LG' #hoto htt$ WWar'geocities'comWg%olmos5QQGWtradiciones'htm

Bmage 7L Virgin of the 0andlestick of 0o$aca+ana' 8y ?rancisco Tito \u$an1ui' c'7*LG' Santuario de 0o$aca+ana' 8oli%ia' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 5 7F,'

CFC

Bmage 5Q The Virgin of the /ill' Author unkno"n' 7.5,' Oil on can%as'' 7GG < 777 cm' 0asa de Moneda de #otos9' #hoto 8ustamante :elgado- Tesoros del Arte Virreinal 0asa de Moneda de #otos9 75G'

CFK

Bmage 57 Virgin of the Rosary' Author unkno"n' 0uzco School of #ainting' 7Lth century' Oil on can%as' #ri%ate collection' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- 4l 8arroco #eruano 7 57'

Bmage 55 The Virgin of the /ill' Author unkno"n' 7.5Q' Oil on can%as' Q'.5 < Q'M5 m' Museo !acional de Arte- La #az8oli%ia' #hoto htt$ WW"""'mna'org'+oWr+AF5'html

CFL

Bmage 5F The Virgin of Sa+aya' 8y Luis !i2o' 7Lth century' Oil on can%as' 5QG < 7F* cm' 0asa de Moneda de #otos9' #hoto 8ustamante :elgado- Tesoros del Arte Virreinal 0asa de Moneda de #otos9 *.'

CFM

Bmage 5G Virgin and 0hild' 8y 8ernardo 8itti' c'7,QQ' Oil on can%as' G. < GQ cm' Museo !acional de Arte- 8oli%ia'

Bmage 5* Virgin of the Milk' Attri+uted to Mateo #=rez de Alesio' 0ollection /ernNn Velarde- Lima' #hoto 8anco de 0r=dito del #er;- #intura en el Virreinato del #er; 7FG'

CFE

Bmage 5, #ietf' 8y Agnolo 8ronzini' 7*GFA*' 8esan^onMuseum'

Bmage 5. Saint Herome' 8y Girolamo Muziano' A$ro<' 7*L*' Oil on "ood $anel transferred to can%as' 7G. < ML cm' #icture Gallery' The Vatican'

Bmage 5L 0hild Hesus "ith Sym+ols of the #assion' 8y Gregorio Gamarra' c' 7,5Q' Oil on can%as' 75G < ML cm' Museo !acional de Arte- Bmage 5M The ectasis of St' :iego' 8y Vicente 0arducho' Tercera Orden ?ranciscana- Lima' #hoto Stastny 5QQ5 8oli%ia' #hoto Museo !acional de Arte- 8oli%ia' ?ig' L'

CFJ

:ibliography

Al are5 Ar+uieta( $uis% La $intura en 0hile durante el $er9odo colonial% Santiago de 7hile: 8irecci@n <eneral de 3risiones( HFKK% Angulo( 8iego% /istoria del arte his$anoamericano% Vol% H% 2arcelona( HFLM% Argan( <iulio 7arlo% 0/l alore critico della stampa di tradu5ione%1 /n Studi e note dal 8ramante al 0ano%a( HMJ-HEM% 2i!lioteca di storia dell&arte H% 9oma: 2ul5oni( HFJD% Arriaga( 3a!lo Poseph de% 0El 3% 3a!lo Poseph de Arriaga XE- 7ommiss%Z $ima CF de A!ril HMFF%1 /n Monumenta #eruana( L:EED-JKK% 6onumenta missionum J% 9omae: apud f6onumenta ,istorica Soc% /esuf( HMFF% Ar5ans y Vela( 2artolom4% /istoria de la Villa Bm$erial de #otos9% Vol% K% 3ro idence( HFEM% 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( ed% 4l 8arroco #eruano% Vol% H% C ols% $ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC% 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( ed% 4l 8arroco #eruano% Vol% C% C ols% $ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDK% 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( $uis( ed% #intura en el Virreinato del #er;' 4l Li+ro de Arte del 0entenario% Cnd ed% $ima( 3erB: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC% 2argellini( 7lara% 03ainting in 7olonial $atin America%1 /n The Arts in Latin America7GM5A7L5Q( edited !y Poseph P% 9ishel and Su5anne $% Stratton( KCC-KKL% Qale Ani ersity 3ress( CDDE% 2a-andall( 6ichael% #ainting and 4<$erience in ?ifteenthA0entury Btaly% Cnd ed% O-ford: O-ford Ani ersity 3ress( HFGG% 2ay@n( 8amiSn( and 6urillo 6ar-% /istoria del arte colonial sudamericano Sudam=rica his$ana y el 8rasil% 2arcelona: Ediciones 3oligraf:a( HFGF% 2eardsley( 6onroe 7% 0On the 7reation of Art%1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism CK( no% K )Spring HFEM*: CFH-KDL% 2ec#er( ,oward% Art @orlds% 2er#eley: Ani ersity of 7alifornia 3ress( HFGC% 2elting( ,ans% 8ild und Cult eine Geschichte des 8ildes %or dem Deitalter der Cunst % 6Rnchen: 7% ,% 2ec#( HFFD% ppp% 08as Wer# im >onte-t%1 /n Cunstgeshichte 4ine 4infhrung( edited !y ,ans 2elting( ,einrich 8illy( Wolfgang >emp( Sauerlgnder Willi!ald( and 6artin Warn#er( CCF-CLE% Jth ed% 2erlin: 8ietrich 9eimer Verlag( CDDG% 2ena ides( Alfredo% 0An aspecto t4cnico del !arroco en general y en especial del hispano-a!origen%1 Re%ista de Arte //( no% F )HFKE*: C-J%

CFG

2en?amin( Walter% The Origin of German Tragic :rama% Translated !y Pohn Os!orne% $ondon( HFJJ% 2ernales 2allesteros( Porge% /istoria del Arte /is$anoamericano% Vol% C% K ols% Hst ed% 6adrid: Editorial Alham!ra( HFGJ% ppp% 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( KH-HDJ% Hst ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( HFGF% ppp% 0$a 3intura en $ima durante el Virreinato%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( KH-HDJ% Cnd ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% 2ialostoc#i( Pan% 0Some Values of Artistic 3eriphery%1 /n @orld Art' Themes of Rnity and :i%ersity( edited !y /r ing $a in( H:LF-ML% 3ennsyl ania( HFGF% 2ohn( 7ornelia% 0Sprache - Schrift - 2ild%1 /n Bnklusion- 4<klusion und die #erson( HJM-CDM% >onstan5: AV>( CDDE% 2ois( Q e-Alain( and >atharine Streip% 0>ahnweiler&s $esson%1 Re$resentations( no% HG )Spring HFGJ*: KK-EG% 2onet 7orrea( Antonio% 0/ntegraci@n de la cultura ind:gena en el arte hispanoamericano%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: F-HJ% 2ottineau( Q es% 0A atares 7r:ticos de Francisco de Zur!arSn: 9efle-iones e /nterrogaciones%1 /n Dur+arNn( KM-LJ% 6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG% 2rown( Ponathan% 06ecena5go y 3iedad: El Arte 9eligioso de Zur!arSn%1 /n Dur+arNn( HK-KK% 6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG% 2ur#e( 6arcus% 0The 3arallel 7ourse of $atin American and European Art in the Viceregal Era%1 /n The Arts in Latin America- 7GM5A7L5Q( edited !y Poseph P% 9ishel and Su5anne $% Stratton( JH-GE( CDDE% 2uschia55o( 6ario P% 0El pro!lema del arte mesti5o%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas V/( no% CC )HFEF*: GL-HDC% ppp% 0El 3ro!lema del Arte 6esti5o: 7ontri!uci@n a su Esclarecimiento%1 /n Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVB A 7M,G ( K:CCF-CLL% Espa;a( HFEL% 2us#otte( Fran#% Resonanzen fr Geschichte !iklas Luhmanns Systemtheorie aus geschichts"issenschaftlicher #ers$ekti%e% 2erlin: $it( CDDE% 2ustamante 8elgado( Edgar( ed% Tesoros del arte %irreinal 0asa de Moneda de #otos9% 2arcelona: 2ustamante Editores( HFFE% 7alancha( Antonio de la% 0ornica Moralizada del Orden de San Agust9n en el #er; con Sucesos 4Pem$lares en esta Monar1u9a% Vol% C% Archi o y 2i!lioteca "acionales de 2oli ia( CDDF% CDD%GJ%HJ%CKM\! ic\7aptura\upload\7ronicC%pdf% 7arrera Stampa( 6anuel% Los Gremios Me<icanos' La organizacin gremial en !ue%a 4s$a2a 7*57A7L,7% Edici@n y 8istri!uci@n /!ero Americana de 3u!licaciones% 7olecci@n de Estudios ,ist@rico-Econ@micos 6e-icanos de la 7Smara "acional de la /ndustria de Transformaci@n% 64-ico( HFML% 7arroll( "oUl% 0Art and <lo!ali5ation: Then and "ow%1 Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism EM( no% H )CDDJ*: HKH-HLK% 7astedo( $eopoldo% 0El arte colonial%1 /n /istoria del Arte B+eroamericano( H:HGFLLL% 6adrid: Alian5a Editorial( HFGG%

CFF

7astro( /gnacio de% Relacin de la fundacin de la Real Audiencia del 0uzco 7.LL y de las fiestas 1ue esta grande y fidel9sima ciudad cele+r este a2o A 4scr9+ela el :r' :on Bgnacio de 0astro Rector del 0olegio Real de San 8ernardo''' 6adrid: Se!astiSn de la 3ali5a( cura propio de 7opora+ue( HJFM% 7eSn 2ermBde5( Puan Agust:n% :iccionario histrico de los mNs ilustres $rofesores de las 8ellas Artes en 4s$a2a% Vol% L% E ols% 6adrid: 9eal Academia de San Fernando( HGDD% 7haumeil( P%-3% 0An ia?ero sin prisa a mediados del siglo T/T% $aurent Saint-7ric+ )3aul 6arcoy*%1 /n ViaPe a tra%=s de Am=rica del Sur :el oc=ano #ac9fico al oc=ano AtlNntico( translated !y Edgardo 9i era 6art:ne5( H:HM-LE% $ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( 2anco 7entral de 9eser a del 3erB( 7entro Ama5@nico de Antropolog:a Aplicada( CDDH% 7hristian( William% A$$aritions in Late Medie%al and Renaissance S$ain% "ew Persey: 3rinceton Ani ersity 3ress( HFGH% 7oello de la 9osa( Ale-andre% 4s$acios de e<clusin- es$acios de $oder el cercado de Lima colonial I7*L,A7,Q,K% Fondo Editorial 3A73( CDDE% 7orne?o 2ouroncle( Porge% 0Arte 7u5+ue;o%1 Re%ista del Archi%o /istrico del 0uzco C )HFMH*: CJD-CFJ% 7oss:o del 3omar( Felipe% Arte del #er; 0olonial% 64-ico - 2uenos Aires: Fondo de 7ultura Econ@mica( HFMG% ppp% 0,istoria 7r:tica de la 3intura en el 7u5co%1 Tesis para optar el grado de doctor en filosof:a( historia y letras( Ani ersidad del 7u5co( HFCC% ppp% La Re+elin de los #intores 4nsayo $ara una Sociolog9a del Arte % 64-ico: Editorial $eyenda( HFLM% ppp% #intura colonial escuela cuz1ue2a% 7u5co: 9o5as( HFCG% 7owan( 2ainard% 0Walter 2en?amin&s Theory of Allegory%1 !e" German 0riti1ue( no% CC )Winter HFGH*: HDF-HCC% 7rawford Vol#( 6ary% 0Addenda: The 6adrid Academy%1 The Art 8ulletin EH( no% L )8ecem!er HFJF*: ECJ% ppp% 0On VelS5+ue5 and the $i!eral Arts%1 The Art 8ulletin ED( no% H )6arch HFJG*: EF-GE% 7ru5 de AmenS!ar( /sa!el% Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q% Santiago de 7hile: Ediciones Ani ersidad 7at@lica de 7hile( HFGE% ppp% 0/mSgenes y 8e oci@n en el Virreinato 3eruano%1 /n Arte y Sociedad en 0hile 7**QA7,*Q( HF-HHE% Santiago: Ediciones Ani ersidad 7at@lica de 7hile( HFGE% 8a7osta >aufmann( Thomas% 06aktrise ou m4tissage . Vers une interpr4tation de la fajade de San $oren5o de 3otosi%1 Re%ue de l>Art HCH( no% H )HFFG*: HH-HG% ppp% 0The Fajade of San $oren5o( 3otos:: /ssues of /nterpretation and /dentification%1 /n To"ards a Geogra$hy of Art( CJE-FG% Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( CDDL% ppp% To"ard a geogra$hy of art% Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( CDDL% 8amian( 7arol% 0Artist and 3atron in 7olonial 7u5co: Wor#shops( 7ontracts( and a 3etition for /ndependence%1 0olonial Latin American /istorical Re%ie" L( no%

KDD

H )Winter HFFM*: CK-MK% ppp% 0The Virgin and 3achamama - /mages of Adaptation and 9esistance%1 Secolas Annals A Hournal of the Southeastern 0ouncil of Latin American Studies TT/// )6arch HFFC*: HCM-HKJ% ppp% The %irgin of the Andes art and ritual in colonial 0uzco% 6iami 2each( Fla%: <rassfield 3r%( HFFM% 8anto( Arthur% 0The Artworld%1 The Hournal of #hiloso$hy EH( no% HF )Octo!er HM( HFEL*: MJH-MGL% 8anto( Arthur 7oleman% 0Outsider Art%1 /n The Madonna of the ?uture( CLC-CLF% Ani ersity of 7alifornia 3ress( CDDH% 8e Acosta( Poseph% Vida religiosa y ci%il de los indios I/istoria natural y moral de las BndiasK% Cnd ed% 2i!lioteca del estudiante uni ersitario GK% 6e-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFFM% 8ean( 7arolyn% 07opied 7arts: Spanish 3rints and 7olonial 3eru ian 3aintings%1 The Art 8ulletin JG( no% H )6arch HFFE*: FG-HHD% ppp% Bnka 8odies and the 8ody of 0hrist 0or$us 0hristi in 0olonial 0uzco- #eru % 8urham( "%7%: 8u#e Ani ersity 3ress( HFFF% 8ecoster( Pean-Pac+ues% 0$a sangre +ue mancha: la /glesia colonial temprana frente a indios( mesti5os e ileg:timos%1 /n Bncas e indios cristianos elites ind9genas e identidades cristianas en los Andes coloniales( CMH-CFL% 7u5co: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( CDDC% 8ic#ie( <eorge% Art and the Aesthetic an Bnstitutional Analysis % /thaca: 7ornell Ani ersity 3ress( HFJL% ppp% 0What /s Anti-Art.%1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism KK( no% L )Summer HFJM*: LHF-LCH% 8ictionary of Art ,istorians% 0Soria( 6artin S%1 /n :ictionary of Art /istorians( n%d% http:\\www%dictionaryofarthistorians%org\% 8ittmann( $oren5% StilASym+olAStruktur' Studien zu Categorien der Cunstgeschichte % 6Rnchen: Wilhelm Fin# Verlag( HFEJ% :octrina christiana y catecismo $ara la instruccin de los indios''' 7iudad de los 9eyes: Antonio 9icardo( primero impresor en estos 9eynos del 3erB( HMGL% 8onahue-Wallace( >elly% Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America- 7*57A 7L57% A"6 3ress( CDDG% 8orta( Enri+ue 6arco% 0Andean 2aro+ue 8ecoration%1 Hournal of the Society of Architectural /istorians M )HFLM*: KK-KL% ppp% 0$a pintura en 7olom!ia( Ecuador( 3eru y 2oli ia%1 /n /istoria del Arte /is$anoamericano( C:LLK-LFL% 2arcelona( 6adrid( 2uenos Aires( 9io de Paneiro: Sal at Editores( HFMD% 8u iols( 3ierre% 0ultura Andina y Re$resin' #rocesos y %isitas de idolatr9as y hechicer9as 0aPatam+o- siglo UVBB% Archi os de ,istoria Andina M% 7usco: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( HFGE% ppp% La destruccin de las religiones andinas I0on1uista y 0oloniaK % Translated !y Al!or 6aruenda% 64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFJJ% ppp% La Lutte 0ontre Les Religions Autochtones :ans Le #=rou 0olonial

KDH

SL>e<tir$ation :e L>idoletrieS 4ntre 7*F5 4t 7,,Q% $ima: /nstitut Franjais d&4tudes Andines( HFJC% ppp% 06esti5a?e cultural en dos cronistas del incipiente !arroco peruano: Santa 7ru5 3achacuti y <uaman 3oma de Ayala%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:MF-FJ% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC% ppp% #rocesos y %isitas de idolatr9as 0aPatam+o- siglo UVBB( con documentos ane<os% $ima: /FEA /nst% Franc4s de Estudios AndinosN Fondo Ed% de la 3ontificia Ani % 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDK% Ega;a( Antonius de% Monumenta #eruana% Vol% L% G ols% 6onumenta missionum J% 9omae: apud f6onumenta ,istorica Soc% /esuf( HMGE% Espino5a Soriano( Waldemar% 0El esplendor art:stico de 7usco en la segunda mitad del siglo TV//%1 /n 4nsayos Sociedad- Religiosidad y Arte en el #er;( KF-GH% $ima: <rupo ,istoriem( CDDH% Esta!ridis 7Srdenas( 9icardo% 0/nfluencia /taliana en la 3intura Virreinal%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( HDF-HEL% Cnd ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% ppp% 0$a Virgen entrega el rosario a Santo 8omingo de <u5mSn%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( KJL-KJM% Cnd ed% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( CDDC% Freed!erg( 8a id% The #o"er of Bmages' Studies in the /istory and Theory of Res$onse% 7hicago and $ondon: The Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( HFFH% Freed!erg( Sydney Poseph% #ainting in Btaly- 7*QQA7,QQ% Krd ed% 3elican ,istory of Art% "ew ,a en and $ondon: Qale Ani ersity 3ress( HFFK% <Sllego( PuliSn% 4l $intor de artesano a artista% Espa;a: Ani ersidad de <ranada( HFJE% <arc:a SSi5( 6ar:a 7oncepci@n% 0Apro-imaciones conceptuales so!re la pintura colonial hispanoamericana%1 /n #intura- escultura y artes ;tiles en B+eroam=rica- 7*QQA7L5*( edited !y 9am@n <uti4rre5( GK-HDD% 6anuales Arte 7Stedra% 6adrid: Ediciones 7Stedra( HFFM% ppp% 03intura y Escultura 7olonial en /!eroam4rica%1 /n /istoria del Arte B+eroamericano( edited !y 9am@n <uti4rre5 and 9odrigo <uti4rre5 Vi;uales( EK-HHJ% 2arcelona: $unwerg Editores( CDDD% ppp% 0Ana contri!uci@n andina al !arroco americano%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:CDH-CHJ% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% <arc:a( Ariel% 4l !ue%o Bndio' 4nsayos indianistas so+re la sierra sur$eruana % 7u5co( HFKD% ppp% 0$a ar+uitectura colonial del 7u5co%1 Re%ista de Arte //( no% F )HFKE*: G-HK% <asparini( <ra5iano% 0AnSlisis cr:tico de las definiciones fAr+uitectura popularf y fAr+uitectura mesti5af%1 /n Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVB A 7M,G( K:CCH-CCJ% Espa;a( HFEL% ppp% 02arroco( Arte /nstrumentali5ado%1 Re%ista !acional de 0ultura I0aracasK( no% CDD )HFJH*: KM-MH% ppp% 0Encuesta so!re la significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca hispanoamericana%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% H )HFEL*: F-LC%

KDC

ppp% 0$a ar+uitectura colonial como producto de la interacci@n de grupos%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: HG-KH% ppp% 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas( no% HL )HFJC*: F-CL% ppp% 0Significaci@n de la ar+uitectura !arroca en hispanoam4rica%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% K )HFEM*: LM-MD% <esualdo( Vicente% 4nciclo$edia del arte en Am=rica% C ols% Argentina: O6E2A( HFEF% <ielen( 3ascal% 0Art and Social Value 9egimes%1 0urrent Sociology MK( no% M )Septem!er CDDM*: JGF-GDE% <is!ert( Teresa% 0Andean 3ainting%1 /n Gloria in e<celsis the %irgin and angels in %iceregal $ainting of #eru and 8oli%ia ( 0enter for BnterAAmerican Relations!e" \ork- !o%' 75- 7ML*A?e+' 7Q- 7ML,( Archer M' /untington Art GalleryRni%' of Te<as at Austin- March 5FAMay G- 7ML, ( 0enter for the ?ine ArtsMiami- May 7MAHuly 5Q- 7ML,( CC-KH% "ew Qor#: 7enter for /nter-American 9elations( HFGE% ppp% 4l $ara9so de los $NParos $arlantes la imagen del otro en la cultura andina % $a 3a5: 3lural Ed%( HFFF% ppp% Bconograf9a y Mitos Bnd9genas en el Arte% $a 3a5( HFGD% ppp% 0$a identidad 4tnica de los artistas del Virreinato del 3erB%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:FF-HLK% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% ppp% 0$a pintura en 3otos: y la Audiencia de 7harcas )hoy 2oli ia*%1 0uadernos de arte colonial /( no% K )HFGJ*: M-KG% ppp% La tradicin +9+lica en el arte %irreinal% $a 3a5: $os Amigos del $i!ro( HFGJ% ppp% 03intores ,ispanos y 3intores /nd:genas en la 7iudad del 7u5co%1 4l Mercurio( "o em!er CF( HFGH( sec% Artes y $etras% <oldschmidt( Adolf% 08ie 2edeutung der Formenspaltung in der >unstentwic#lung%1 /n Bnde$endence- 0on%ergence- and 8orro"ing in Bnstitutions- Thought and Art( HEJ-HJJ% ,ar ard Tercentenary 3u!lications% 7am!ridge( 6ass%: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFKJ% <oldwater( 9o!ert P% #rimiti%ism in Modern #ainting% "ew Qor# and $ondon: ,arper V 2rothers 3u!lishers( HFKG% <om!rich( Ernst ,% Ornament und Cunst Schmucktrie+ und Ordnungssinn in der #sychologie des dekorati%en Schaffens% Translated !y Al!recht Poseph% Stuttgart: >lett-7otta( HFGC% <on5Sle5 6art:ne5( Pos4 $uis% La religin $o$ular en el #er; informe y diagnstico% 3erB: /nstituto de 3astoral Andina( HFGJ% <ranados( Per@nimo Pos4% 8ild und Cunst im #rozeY der 0hristianisierung Lateinamerikas% 6Rnster N ,am!urg N $ondon: $/T Verlag( CDDK% <uadalupe Victoria( Pos4% #intura y Sociedad en !ue%a 4s$a2a Siglo UVB% Estudios y Fuentes del Arte de 64-ico $V/% 64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFGE% <ui!o ich 34re5( 3edro( and $uis Eduardo Wuffarden% Sociedad y go+ierno e$isco$al las %isitas del o+is$o Manuel de Mollinedo y Angulo I0uzco- 7,.GA

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7,MGK% $ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( /nstituto 9i a-AgRero( CDDG% <uido( ]ngel% 0El estilo meti5o o criollo en el arte de la 7olonia%1 /n Actas del BB 0ongreso Bnternacional de /istoria de Am=rica( ///:MGH-MFH% 2uenos Aires( HFKG% ppp% 4stimati%a moderna de la $intura colonial% 9osario: Academia "acional de la ,istoria( HFLC% ppp% 0Estimati a moderna de la pintura colonial%1 /n Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte( CJK-KDC% Krd ed% 2uenos Aires: El Ateneo( HFLL% ppp% 4urindia en la Ar1uitectura Americana% Santa F4: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFKD% ppp% ?usin his$anoAind9gena en la ar1uitectura colonial W #refacio de Martin S' !oel% 9osario: $a casa del li!ro( HFCM% ppp% Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte% Hst ed% Serie 7onferencias y Te-tos HE% Santa F4: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFLD% ppp% Redescu+rimiento de Am=rica en el Arte% Cnd ed% 9osario: Ani ersidad "acional del $itoral( HFLH% <uti4rre5( 9am@n% 0"otas so!re organi5aci@n artesanal en el 7usco durante la colonia%1 /istrica ///( no% H )HFJF*: H-HM% ,ansen( 3% Fray $eonardo% Vida Admira+le de Santa Rosa de Lima #atrona del !ue%o Mundo I7,,GK% Translated !y 3% Fray Pacinto 3arra% $ima: 7entro 7at@lico( HFGM% ,arris( Ponathan% The !e" Art /istory A critical introduction% $ondon and "ew Qor#: 9outledge( CDDH% ,arth-Terre( Emilio( and Al!erto 6Sr+ue5 A!anto% 03inturas y pintores en $ima irreinal%1 Re%ista del Archi%o !acional del #er; CJ( no% H )HFEK*% ,auser( Arnold% Soziologie der Cunst % Krd ed% 6Rnchen: 7% ,% 2ec#( HFGG% ,echt( 7hristian% Catholische 8ildertheologie im zeitalter %on Gegenreformation und 8arock' Studien zu Traktaten %on Hohannes Molanus- Ga+riele #aleotti und anderen Autoren% 2erlin: <e!r% 6ann Verlag( HFFJ% ,u!er( ,ans 8ieter% Cunst als soziale Construktion% 6Rnchen: Wilhelm Fin# Verlag( CDDJ% >elemen( 3Sl% 0El !arroco americano y la semSntica de importaci@n%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% HF )HFEE*: KF-LL% ppp% 0The 7olonial Scene: A World Transplanted%1 /n Art of the Americas Ancient and /is$anic' @ith a com$arati%e cha$ter on the #hili$$ines( HEJ-KCG% "ew Qor#: Thomas Q% 7rowell 7ompany( HFEF% >in#ead( 8uncan% 0Puan de $u5@n and Se illian 3ainting Trade with the "ew World in the Second ,alf of the Se enteenth 7entury%1 Art 8ulletin EE( no% C )Pune HFGL*: KDK-KHD% ppp% 0The $ast Se illian 3eriod of Francisco de Zur!arSn%1 Art 8ulletin EM( no% C )Pune HFGK*: KDM-KHH% ppp% 0Vida de San /gnacio de $oyola por Vald4s $eal%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( CGK-KDH% Cnd ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% >irsch( Stuart% 0$ost Tri!es: /ndigenous 3eople and the Social /maginary%1

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Anthro$ological Xuarterly JD( no% C )April HFFJ*: MG-EJ% >riste a( Pulia% Le te<te du roman' A$$roche s=miologi1ue d>une structure discursi%e transformationnelle% The ,ague( 3aris( "ew Qor#: 6outon 3u!lishers( HFJF% >u!ler( <eorge% 07iudades y cultura en el per:odo colonial de Am4rica $atina%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% H )HFEL*: GHFD% ppp% 0/ndigenismo( indianismo y mesti5a?e en las artes isuales como tradici@n americana clSsica y medie al%1 Re%ista /istrica TTV/// )HFEM*: KE-LL% ppp% 0On the colonial e-tinction of the motifs of pre-7olum!ian art%1 /n 4ssays in $reA0olum+ian art and archaeology( edited !y Samuel >ir#land $othrop( HLKL% 7am!ridge: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFEH% ppp% The Sha$e of Time' Remarks on the /istory of Things % "ew ,a en and $ondon: Qale Ani ersity 3ress( HFEC% >u!ler( <eorge( and 6artin S% Soria% Art and Architecture of S$ain and #ortugal and their American :ominions% 2altimore( HFMF% 0$a Virgen del 7erro%1 Museo !acional de Arte( n%d% http:\\www%mna%org%!o\r!KC%html% $ara( Paime% 07risto-,elios americano: $a inculturaci@n del culto al sol en el arte y ar+uitectura de los irreinatos de la "ue a Espa;a y del 3erB%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% JL )HFFF*: CF-LF% $audun( EugWne% 4<$osition uni%erselle des +eau<Aarts Le Salon de 7L**% 3aris( HGMM% $aurie( Victoria% 08ialogue with the Outside World%1 The Australian( Fe!ruary C( CDDF( sec% The Arts% http:\\www%theaustralian%news%com%au\story\D(CMHFJ(CLFFCGFDHEFLJ(DD%html% $a andais( E% S% 0Voyage dans les r4pu!li+ues de l&Am4ri+ue du sud%1 Re%ue des :eu< Mondes( HGMH% http:\\fr%wi#isource%org\wi#i\Voyageadansalesar b7KbAFpu!li+uesadealbECbGDbFFAmb7KbAFri+ueaduasud% $a in( 6arilyn Aron!erg% The $lace of narrati%e% Ani ersity of 7hicago 3ress( HFFM% $eighten( 3atricia% 0The White 3eril and $&Art nWgre: 3icasso( 3rimiti ism( and Anticolonialism%1 The Art 8ulletin JC( no% L )8ecem!er HFFD*: EDF-EKD% $e@n 3inelo( Antonio de% 4l #ara9so en el !ue%o Mundo% Torres Aguirre( HFLK% $epo it5( ,elena Waddy% 0Art%1 /n 4ncyclo$edia of Social /istory( edited !y 3eter "% Stearns( ML-M% <arland 9eference $i!rary of Social Science JGD% "ew Qor# and $ondon: <arland 3u!lishing( HFFL% $e inson( Perrold% 0E-tending Art ,istorically%1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism MH( no% K )Summer HFFK*: LHH-LCK% $oren5( 7hris% Construktion der Vergangenheit 4ine 4infhrung in die Geschichtstheorie% 2eitrgge 5ur <eschichts#ultur HK% >=ln Weimar Wien: 2=hlau Verlag( HFFJ% $uhmann( "i#las% Art as a Social System% Translated !y E a 6% >nodt% 7rossing Aesthetics% Stanford: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( CDDD% ppp% 0Ausdifferen5ierung der 9eligion%1 /n Gesellschaftstruktur und Semantik' Studien zur @issenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft ( K:CMF-KMJ%

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Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGF% ppp% 08as >unstwer# und die Sel!streprodu#tion der >unst%1 /n Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( edited !y "iels Wer!er( HKF-HGG% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG% ppp% 08as 3ro!lem der Epochen!ildung und die E olutionstheorie%1 /n 4$ochensch"ellen und 4$ochenstrukturen im :iskurs der LBteraturA und S$rachhistorie( edited !y ,ans-Alrich <um!recht and Arsula $in#-,eer( HHCF% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGM% ppp% 08ie E olution des >unstsystems%1 /n Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( edited !y "iels Wer!er( CMG-CJM% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG% ppp% :ie Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft% C ols% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( HFFJ% ppp% :ie Cunst der Gesellschaft% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( HFFM% ppp% :ie Religion der Gesellschaft% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp( CDDD% ppp% 08ie Weltgesellschaft%1 /n Soziologische Aufklrung( C:MH-JH% Cnd ed% Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGC% ppp% 0E olution und <eschichte%1 /n Soziologische Aufklrung( C:HMD-HEF% Cnd ed% Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGC% ppp% 0<eschichte als 3ro5eO und die Theorie so5io-#ultureller E olution%1 /n Soziologische Aufklrung( K:HJG-FJ% Hst ed% Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFGH% ppp% 0<lo!ali5ation or World Society: ,ow to 7oncei e of 6odern Society.%1 Bnternational Re%ie" of Sociology A Re%ue Bnternationale de Sociologie J( no% H )HFFJ*: EJ-JF% ppp% 0>ultur als historischer 2egriff%1 /n Gesellschaftstruktur und Semantik' Studien zur @issenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft ( L:KH-ML% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFFM% ppp% Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur% Edited !y "iels Wer!er% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG% ppp% 0Sign as Form%1 /n #ro+lems of ?orm( edited !y 8ir# 2aec#er( translated !y 6ichael /rmscher and $eah Edwards( LE-EK% 7alifornia: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( HFFF% ppp% Social Systems% Translated !y Pohn 2ednar5 and 8ir# 2aec#er% Stanford )7alif%*: Stanford Ani ersity 3ress( HFFM% ppp% 0Welt#unst%1 /n !iklas Luhmann' Schriften zu Cunst und Literatur( edited !y "iels Wer!er( HGF-CLM% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDG% ppp% 0Wie lassen sich latente Stru#turen !eo!achten.%1 /n :as Auge des 8etrachters A 8eitrge zum Construkti%ismus ?estschrift /einz %on ?oerster( edited !y 3aul Wat5lawic# and 3eter >rieg( EH-JL% 6Rnchen: 3iper-Verl%( HFFH% 6acera( 3a!lo% 0Feudalismo 7olonial Americano: El 7aso de las ,aciendas 3eruanas%1 /n Tra+aPos de /istoria( ///:HKF-CCJ% $ima: /nstituto "acional de 7ultura( HFJJ% 6a?luf( "atalia% 0f7e n&est pas le 3erou(f or( the Failure of Authenticity: 6arginal

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7osmopolitans at the 3aris Ani ersal E-hi!ition of HGMM%1 0ritical Bn1uiry CK( no% L )Summer HFFJ*: GEG-GFK% 6arcoy( 3aul% ViaPe a tra%=s de Am=rica del Sur del Oc=ano #ac9fico al Oc=ano AtlNntico% Translated !y Edgardo 9i era 6art:ne5% Vol% H% $ima: /nstituto Franc4s de Estudios Andinos( 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( 2anco 7entral de 9eser a del 3erB( 7entro Ama5@nico de Antropolog:a Aplicada( CDDH% 6ariStegui Oli a( 9icardo% #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB en 0hile los %aliosos lienzos del 0or$us cuz1ue2o de $ro$iedad de 0arlos #e2a Otaegui en Santiago% $ima: Alma 6ater( HFML% ppp% #intura cuz1ue2a del siglo UVBB los mara%illosos lienzos del 0or$us e<istentes en la Bglesia de Santa Ana del 0uzco% $ima: Alma 6ater( HFMH% 6arilu5 Ar+ui?o( Pos4 6% 0$as Escuelas de 8i!u?o y 3intura de 6o?os y 7hi+uitos%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas F )HFME*: KJ-MH% 6ariscotti de <=rlit5( Ana 6ar:a% 0<=tter- und ,eiligen#ult in den Zentral-Anden%1 /n Cosmos der Anden @elt+ild und Sym+olik indianischer Tradition in Sdamerika( edited !y 6a- 3eter 2aumann( LC-JG% 6Rnchen: Eugen 8iederichs Verlag( HFFL% 6art:n <on5Sle5( Puan Pos4% 4l Artista en la Sociedad 4s$a2ola del siglo UVBB% 6adrid( HFGL% 6aruyama( 6agoroh% 0The Second 7y!ernetics: 8e iation-Amplifying 6utual 7ausal 3rocesses%1 American Scientist MH )HFEK*: HEL-HJF( CMD-CME% 6auss( 6arcel% 4ssai sur le don ?orme et raison de l>=change dans les soci=t=s archaZ1ues% 3aris: 3resses uni ersitaires de France( CDDJ% 6endi!uru( 6anuel de% :iccionario histricoA+iogrNfico del #er;% Vol% F% HH ols% Cnd ed% $ima: /mprenta fEnri+ue 3alaciosf( HFKH% 6erlino( 9odolfo P%( and 6ario A% 9a!ey% 09esistencia y hegemon:a: 7ultos locales y religi@n centrali5ada en $os Andes del Sur%1 Sociedad y Religin HD\HH )HFFK*: HLE-HEE% 6esa( Pos4 de% 0$a pintura cu5+ue;a )HMLD-HGCH*%1 0uadernos de arte colonial /( no% L )HFGG*: M-LC% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert% 0XAntitled re iew of Arte del 3erB colonial( !y Felipe 7ossio del 3omarZ%1 The /is$anic American /istorical Re%ie" KF( no% L )"o em!er HFMF*: ELF-EMD% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% 8ernardo 8itti% Arte y artistas C% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEH% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert% 08eterminantes del llamado estilo mesti5o y sus alcances en Am4ricaN !re e consideraci@n del t4rmino%1 /n Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVBB A 7M,,( K:CHF-CKC% 9epB!lica Argentina: $i!rart( HFEG% ppp% 0El Arte del Siglo TV/ en 3erB y 2oli ia%1 /n Arte i+eroamericano desde la colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( H:KHK-LKH% Cnd ed% Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte% 6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM% ppp% 0El Arte del Siglo TV// en 3erB y 2oli ia%1 /n Arte i+eroamericano desde la

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colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( C:CK-HCG% Cnd ed% Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte T/T% 6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM% ppp% 0El 2aroco Tard:o del Siglo TV/// en 3erB y 2oli ia%1 /n Arte i+eroamericano desde la colonizacin a la Bnde$endencia( C:LMJ-MJD% Cnd ed% Summa Artis% ,istoria <eneral del Arte T/T% 6adrid: Espasa-7alpe( HFGM% ppp% 0El pintor Paramillo y el Bltimo manierismo de la escuela lime;a%1 0ultura #eruana )August HFEC*: HEJ-HJD% ppp% 4l $intor Mateo #=rez de Alesio% $a 3a5: Ani ersidad 6ayor de San Andr4s( HFJC% ppp% 4scultura %irreinal en 8oli%ia% $a 3a5: Academia "acional de 7iencias de 2oli ia( HFJC% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% Gas$ar 8err9o% Artes y artistas% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEC% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% Gas$ar de la 0ue%a% Escultores% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEK% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% Gregorio Gamarra% Arte y artistas% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEC% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert% /istoria de la $intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 76% Hst ed% 2ueno Aires: /nstituto de Arte Americano e /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFEC% ppp% /istoria de la #intura 0uz1ue2a 34d' 56% C ols% Cnd ed% $ima: Fundaci@n Augusto "% Wiese( 2anco Wiese( HFGC% ppp% /olgu9n y la $intura alto$eruana del Virreinato% 2i!lioteca pace;a : Serie Artes y artistas% $a 3a5: Alcald:n 6unicipal( HFME% ppp% /olgu9n y la $intura %irreinal en 8oli%ia% $a 3a5: $i!r% Ed% Pu entud( HFJJ% ppp% 0Poa+u:n 7ara!al( un nue o disc:pulo de ,olgu:n%1 0ordillera C( no% J )HFMJ*: MC-ML% ppp% 0$a pintura altoperuana del siglo TV///%1 Chana' Re%ista Munici$al de Arte y Letras C( no% HJ )HFME*: CDD-CCC% ppp% 0$a pintura !oli iana del siglo TV//%1 4studios Americanos' Re%ista de S9ntesis e Bnter$retacin HH( no% MC )HFME*: HM-LC% ppp% 0$a pintura cu5+ue;a%1 Armitano Arte HD )HFGE*: GH-FL% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% Leonardo ?lores% 3intores% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEK% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert% 0$o ind:gena en el arte hispanoamericano%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: KC-KG% ppp% Los Angeles de 0alamarca% $a 3a5: 7ompa;:a 2oli iana de Seguros( HFGK% ppp% 06anuel de O+uendo y la pintura en 6o?os%1 Signo M )HFMG*: EG-JK% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert( eds% Melchor #=rez /olgu9n% Hst ed% 2i!lioteca de arte y cultura !oli iana : Serie Arte y artistas H% $a 3a5: 8ir% "acional de /nformaciones de la 3residencia de la 9epB!lica( HFEH% 6esa( Pos4 de( and Teresa <is!ert% 0"ue as O!ras y "ue os 6aestros en la pintura del AltoperB%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HD )HFMG*% ppp% 03intura irreinal en 2oli ia%1 Mundo his$Nnico CJ( no% KHG )HFJL*: LD-LM% ppp% 09enacimiento y manierismo en la ar+uitectura fmesti5af%1 8olet9n de

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0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas /( no% K )HFEM*: F-LL% ppp% 0Seis cuadros in4ditos de Vald4s $eal en $ima%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas( no% HJ )HFEM*: JL-JG% ppp% 0The 3ainter( 6ateo 6e-:a( and ,is Wor# in the 7on ent of San Francisco de Iuito%1 The Americas HE( no% L )April HFED*: KGM-KFE% ppp% Rn $intor orure2o en el 0uzco ?ray ?rancisco de Salamanca% Oruro: Ani ersidad T4cnica de Oruro( HFEH% 6eyer( Pames( Francesco 2onami( 6artha 9osler( O#wui Enwe5or( Qin#a Shoni!are( and 7atherine 8a id% 0<lo!al Tendencies: <lo!alism and the $arge-Scale E-hi!ition%1 Art ?orum Bnternational )CDDK*: HMC-HEK% 6illones( $uis% 08eclaraci@n de don <on5alo de la 6a5a )o de la 6asa* a;o HEHJ%1 /n Rna $artecita del cielo' La %ida de Santa Rosa narrada $or :on Gonzalo de la Maza- a 1uien ella llama+a $adre( HLM-CDF% $ima: Editorial ,ori5onte( HFFK% 6orand4( 3edro% 0ultura y Modernizacin en Am=rica Latina' 4nsayo sociolgico acerca de la crisis del desarrollismo y de su su$eracin% 6adrid: Ediciones Encuentro( HFGJ% ppp% 0Etapas del sociologismo latinoamericano%1 /n 0ultura y Modernizacin en Am=rica Latina' 4nsayo sociolgico acerca de la crisis del desarrollismo y de su su$eracin( MK-EE% 6adrid: Ediciones Encuentro( HFGJ% 6orner( 6agnus% 0The Spanish American ,acienda: A Sur ey of 9ecent 9esearch and 8e!ate%1 The /is$anic American /istorical Re%ie" MK( no% C )6ay HFJK*: HGK-CHE% 6os+uera( <erardo% 0<ood-!ye identidad( welcome diferencia: del arte $atinoamericano al arte desde Am4rica $atina%1 /n Arte en Am=rica Latina y 0ultura Glo+al( HCK-HKJ% Santiago de 7hile: Facultad de Artes Ani ersidad de 7hile( $O6 Ediciones( CDDC% 6u?ica 3inilla( 9am@n% ]ngeles a$crifos de la Am=rica %irreinal% Cnd ed% $ima: Fondo de 7ultura Econ@mica( HFFE% ppp% 0Arte e identidad: las ra:ces culturales del !arroco peruano%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:H-MJ% 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% ppp% 0El ancla de Santa 9osa de $ima: m:stica y pol:tica en torno a la 3atrona de Am4rica%1 /n Santa Rosa de Lima y su Tiem$o( MK-CHH% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( HFFF% ppp% 0El arte y los sermones%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:CHF-KHK% 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% ppp% 0/dentidades aleg@ricas: lecturas iconogrSficas del !arroco al neoclSsico%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( C:CMG-KCF% 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK% 6unro( Thomas% 08o the Arts E ol e. Some 9ecent 7onflicting Answers%1 The Hournal of Aesthetics and Art 0riticism HF( no% L )Summer HFEH*: LDJ-LHJ% "eumeyer( Alfred% 0The /ndian 7ontri!ution to Architectural 8ecoration in Spanish 7olonial America%1 The Art 8ulletin KD( no% C )Pune HFLG*: HDL-HCH% Ode!erg( ,ugo( ed% F 4noch or The /e+re" 8ook of 4noch% 7am!ridge Ani ersity 3ress( HFCG%

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O&3helan <odoy( Scarlett% 0El estido como identidad 4tnica e indicador social de una cultura material%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( C:FF-HKK% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK% 3acheco V4le5( 74sar% 0Zur!arSn en $ima%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( CEMCGH% Cnd ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% 3alm( Erwin Walter% 0El Arte del "ue o 6undo despu4s de la con+uista espa;ola%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas //( no% L )HFEE*% ppp% 0Elementos Salom@nicos en la Ar+uitectura del 2arroco%1 /n Actas y Memorias del 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas UUUVBB A 7M,, ( K:CKKCLD% 9epB!lica Argentina: $i!rart( HFEG% ppp% 0$a ciudad colonial como centro de irradiaci@n de las escuelas ar+uitect@nicas y pict@ricas%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas( no% HL )HFJC*: CM-KD% 3an American Anion% The 0uzco school of $ainting a selection' Hune 7. to Huly 7*7M*L% Washington( 8%7%: 3an American Anion( HFMG% 3anofs#y( Erwin% 0/#onographie und /#onologie%1 /n Bkonogra$hie V Bkonologie 8ildinter$retation nach dem :reistufenmodell( translated !y Wilhelm ,=c#( KK-MF% >=ln: 8u6ont( CDDE% 3eirce( 7harles S% #hiloso$hical @ritings of #eirce% Edited !y P% 2uchler% "ew Qor#: 8o er 3u!lications( HFMM% 3e;a 3rado( Puan% 0Ensayos de arte irreinal%1 /n Lima $recolom+ina y %irreinal( JF-HJH% $ima: Artes <rSfica - Tipograf:a 3eruana S% A%( HFKG% 3ic@n Salas( 6ariano% 0El medie alismo en la pintura colonial%1 Sur( /n ierno HFKH% 3lumpe( <erhard% 0Systemtheorie und $iteraturgeschichte% 6it Anmer#ungen 5um deutschen 9ealismus im HF% Pahrhundert%1 /n 4$ochensch"ellen und 4$ochenstrukturen im :iskurs der LiteraturA und S$rachhistorie( CMH-CEL% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( HFGM% 3ortBs( Pa ier% 0$a /magen 2arroca%1 /n 8arroco( edited !y 3edro Aull@n de ,aro and Pa ier 34re5 2a5o( CFF-KLG% Ver!um Editorial( CDDL% 3ra#( 6aarten% 0<uilds and the 8e elopment of the Art 6ar#et during the 8utch <olden Age%1 Simiolus !etherlands Xuarterly for the /istory of Art KD( no% K )CDDK*: CKE-CMH% 3ries( $udger% :ie Transnationalisierung der sozialen @elt % Suhr#amp( CDDG% 03A73 m 3remio Southern 3eru m Sem!lan5a del Ar+% Pos4 de 6esa Figueroa(1 n%d% http:\\www%pucp%edu%pe\premio\southern\mesa%htm% de la 3uente( Pos4% 0"otas so!re la Audiencia de $ima y la fprotecci@n de los naturalesf )siglo TV//*%1 /n #asseurs- mediadores culturales y agentes de la $rimera glo+alizacin en el Mundo B+=rico- siglos UVB A UBU( edited !y Scarlett O&3helan <odoy and 7armen Sala5ar-Soler( CKC-CLG% $ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDM% Iuere?a5u( 3edro% 06aterials and Techni+utes of Andean 3ainting%1 /n Gloria in e<celsis the %irgin and angels in %iceregal $ainting of #eru and 8oli%ia ( 0enter for BnterAAmerican Relations- !e" \ork- !o%' 75- 7ML*A?e+' 7Q- 7ML,( Archer M' /untington Art Gallery- Rni%' of Te<as at Austin- March 5FAMay G7ML, ( 0enter for the ?ine Arts- Miami- May 7MAHuly 5Q- 7ML, ( JG-GC% "ew

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Qor#: 7enter for /nter-American 9elations( HFGE% Iuiro5( Francisco% Gremios- razas y li+ertad de industria Lima colonial% $ima: Facultad de 7iencias Sociales( Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( HFFM% 9amos <a ilSn( Alonso% /istoria del Santuario de !uestra Se2ora de 0o$aca+ana % $ima: /gnacio 3rado( editor( HFGG% 9asmussen( Pens% 0FO9A6: Te-tual interpretation and comple-ity% 9adical hermeneutics%1 !ordisk #edagogik K )CDDL*: HJJ-HFK% 9odr:gue5 6oya( /nmaculada% 09ostros mesti5os en el retrato i!eroamericano%1 /n B+eroam=rica mestiza' 4ncuentro de $ue+los y culturas( HLF-HEM% SEA7ET( CDDK% http:\\www%seace-%es\catalogo%cfm.idE-posicionlHHF% 9othstein( ,annah 9% 0File drawer pro!lem%1 /n The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( edited !y 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao( KGG% SA<E( CDDL% 9u5o( /sa!el Z% de% 0El o!ispo 8on 6anuel 6ollinedo y Angulo 6ecenas 7us+ue;o%1 Re%ista del Bnstituto Americano de Arte F )HFMF*: GH% Salgado( 74sar Augusto% 0,y!ridity in "ew World 2aro+ue Theory%1 The Hournal of American ?olklore HHC( no% LLM )Summer HFFF*: KHE-KKH% Salles-9eese( Ver@nica% ?rom Viracocha to the Virgin of 0o$aca+ana Re$resentations of the Sacred at Lake Titicaca% Austin: Ani ersity of Te-as 3ress( HFFJ% Sallnow( 6% P% 0A Trinity of 7hrists: 7ultic 3rocesses in Andean 7atholicism%1 American 4thnologist F( no% L )"o em!er HFGC*: JKD-JLF% Samane5 Argumedo( 9o!erto% 0$as portadas reta!lo en el !arroco cus+ue;o%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( H:HLM-HFF% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% Sandelows#i( 6argarete% 0Iualitati e meta-analysis%1 /n The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( edited !y 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao( K:GFC% Thousand Oa#s: Sage( CDDL% Sandelows#i( 6argarete( and Pulie 2arroso% /and+ook for Synthesizing Xualitati%e Research% "ew Qor#: Springer 3u!lishing 7ompany( CDDE% Sarmiento( Ernesto% 4l Arte Virreinal en Lima% $ima: Editorial Arica( HFJH% Saussure( Ferdinand de% 0ourse in General Linguistics% Translated !y 9oy ,arris% $ondon: 8uc#worth( HFGK% Schenone( ,4ctor% 0Escuelas 3ict@ricas Andinas%1 /n Arte %irreinal leos y tallas del Virreinato del #er; ( colecciones de Lima y 8uenos Aires ( CD% 2uenos Aires: /nstituto Torcuato di Tella( HFEE% Schneider( "or!ert% 0>unst und <esellschaft: 8er so5ialgeschichtliche Ansat5%1 /n Cunstgeshichte 4ine 4infhrung( edited !y ,ans 2elting( ,einrich 8illy( Wolfgang >emp( Sauerlgnder Willi!ald( and 6artin Warn#er( CEJ-CFE% Jth ed% 2erlin: 8ietrich 9eimer Verlag( CDDG% Sch=nwglder( Tat?ana( >atrin Wille( and Thomas ,=lscher% George S$encer 8ro"n 4ine 4infhrung in die SLa"s of ?ormS% Wies!aden: VS Verlag fRr So5ialwissenschaften( CDDL% Seldes( Alicia 6% 0A "ote on the 3igments and 6edia in Some Spanish 7olonial

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3aintings from Argentina%1 Studies in 0onser%ation KF( no% L )"o em!er HFFL*: CJC-CJE% Seldes( Alicia 6%( Pos4 Emilio 2urucBa( 6arta S% 6aier( <on5alo A!ad( Andrea PBaregui( and <a!riela Siracusano% 02lue 3igments in South American 3ainting )HEHD-HJGD*%1 Hournal of the American Bnstitute for 0onser%ationKG( no% C )Summer HFFF*: HDD-HCK% Seldes( Alicia 6%( Pos4 Emilio 2urucBa( <a!riela Siracusano( 6arta S% 6aier( and <on5alo A!ad% 0<reen( Qellow( and 9ed 3igments in South American 3ainting( HEHD-HJGD%1 Hournal of the American Bnstitute for 0onser%ation- LH( no% K )Autumn - Winter CDDC*: CCM-CLC% Serrera( Puan 6iguel% 0Zur!arSn y Am4rica%1 /n Dur+arNn( EK-GL% 6adrid: 6useo del 3rado( HFGG% Se gnen( Er##i% 0Art as an Autopoietic Su!-System of 6odern Society% A 7ritical Analysis of the 7oncepts of Art and Autopoietic Systems in $uhmann&s $ate 3roduction%1 Theory- 0ulture V Society HG( no% H )CDDH*: JM-HDK% Smith( 9o!ert 7% 07omments on the paper presented !y <ra5iano <asparini%1 8olet9n de 0entro de Bn%estigaciones /istricas y 4st=ticas HC )HFJH*: KF-LL% SolS( 6iguel% /istoria del Arte his$anoAamericano Ar1uitectura- 4scultura- #intura y Artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB % Hst ed% 2arcelona( 6adrid( 2uenos Aires( 9io de Paneiro: Editorial $a!or( HFKM% ppp% /istoria del arte his$anoAamericano ar1uitectura- escultura- $intura y artes menores en la Am=rica es$a2ola durante los siglos UVB- UVBB y UVBBB% Editorial $a!or( HFMG% Soria( 6artin S% La $intura del siglo UVB en Sudam=rica% 2uenos Aires: /nstituto de Arte Americano e /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFME% ppp% 0$a pintura en el 7u5co y el Alto 3erB HMMD-HJDD%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HC )HFMF*: CL-KL% ppp% 03ainting and sculpture in $atin America from the si-teenth to the eighteenth century%1 \ear 8ook of the American #hiloso$hical Society )HFMC*: CJG-CGH% Sotos Serrano( 7armen% 0Pos4 del 3o5o%1 /n Los $intores de la e<$edicin de AlePandro Malas$ina( EG-JM( HFGC% Spalding( >aren% 0,acienda-Village 9elations in Andean Society to HGKD%1 Latin American #ers$ecti%es C( no% H )Spring HFJM*: HDJ-HCH% ppp% 0$a otra cara de la reciprocidad%1 /n Bncas e indios cristianos elites ind9genas e identidades cristianas en los Andes coloniales( edited !y PeanPac+ues 8ecoster( EH-JG% 7u5co: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( CDDC% Stastny( Francisco% 0hAn arte mesti5o.%1 /n Am=rica Latina en sus artes( edited !y 8amiSn 2ay@n% 64-ico 7ity: Siglo eintiuno( HFJL% ppp% 0A "ote on Two Frescoes in the Sistine 7hapel%1 The 8urlington Magazine HCH( no% FCH )8ecem!er HFJF*: JJE-JGK% ppp% 0Arte colonial%1 /n 4l arte en el #er; o+ras en la coleccin del Museo de Arte de Lima( GK-HCE% $ima: 6useo de Arte de $ima( CDDH% ppp% 8re%e /istoria del arte en el #er; la $intura $recolom+ina- colonial y

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re$u+licana% $ima: Editorial Ani erso( HFEJ% ppp% 0El arte de la no!le5a inca y la identidad andina%1 /n Mito y Sim+olismo en los Andes' La ?igura y la #ala+ra( edited !y ,enri+ue Ar!ano% 7usco: 7entro de Estudios 9egionales Andinos 2artolom4 de las 7asas( HFFK% ppp% 0El <ra!ado 7omo Fuente del Arte 7olonial: Estado de la 7uesti@n%1 #roPect on the 4ngra%ed Sources of S$anish Art ( CDDF% http:\\colonialart%org\essays\el-gra!ado-como-fuente-del-arte-colonialestado-de-la-cuestion% ppp% 0El manierismo en la pintura colonial $atinoamericana%1 Letras( no% GE )HFJJ*: HJ-LE% ppp% 4l manierismo en la $intura colonial latinoamericana% $ima: Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( HFGH% ppp% 4stilo y moti%os en el estudio iconogrNfico ensayo en la metodolog9a de la historia del arte% $etras JC-JK( HFEM% ppp% 0Pardin Ani ersitario y Stella 6aris% /n enciones iconogrSficas en el 7u5co%1 /istoria y 0ultura HM )HFGC*% http:\\museonacional%perucultural%org%pe\fpHM%shtml% ppp% 0$a 3intura 7olonial y su Significaci@n Art:stica%1 ?anal( HFEE% ppp% 0$a pintura en sud am4rica de HFHD a HFLM%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Arte Americano e Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas HF )HFEE*: F-CE% ppp% 0$a presencia de 9u!ens en la pintura colonial%1 Re%ista #eruana de 0ultura( no% L )HFEM*: M-KM% ppp% 06aniera o contra-maniera en la pintura latinoamericana%1 /nstituto de /n estigaciones Est4ticas de la Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( HFJE% ppp% 06odernidad( ruptura y arca:smo en el arte colonial%1 /n La $resencia de la modernidad art9stica euro$ea en Am=rica( edited !y <usta o 7uriel 64nde5( 9enato <on5Sle5 6ello( and Puana <uti4rre5 ,aces( K:FKF-FML% 64-ico: Ani ersidad "acional Aut@noma de 64-ico( /nstituto de /n estigaciones Est4ticas( HFFL% ppp% 034re5 de Alesio y la pintura del siglo TV/%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas V/( no% CC )HFEF*: F-LK% ppp% S9ntomas Medie%ales en el S8arroco AmericanoS% 8ocumentos de tra!a?o EK% $ima: /nstituto de Estudios 3eruanos( HFFL% http:\\www%iep%org%pe\te-tos\88T\ddtEK%pdf% ppp% 0Temas clSsicos en el arte colonial hispanoamericano%1 /n La Tradicin clNsica en el #er; %irreynal( edited !y Teodoro ,ampe 6art:ne5( CCK-CLJ% $ima: Ani ersidad "acional 6ayor de San 6arcos( Fondo Editorial( HFFF% http:\\sis!i!%unmsm%edu%pe\2i!Virtual\$i!ros\historia\Tradaclas\caratul a%htm% ppp% 0The Ani ersity as 7loister( <arden and Tree of >nowledge% An /conographic /n ention in the Ani ersity of 7u5co%1 Hournal of the @ar+urg and 0ourtauld Bnstitutes LE )HFGK*: FL-HKC% ppp% 0Alises y los mercaderes% Transmisi@n y comercio art:stico en el "ue o 6undo%1 /n #asseurs- mediadores culturales y agentes de la $rimera

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glo+alizacin en el Mundo B+=rico- siglos UVB A UBU( edited !y Scarlett O&3helan <odoy and 7armen Sala5ar-Soler( GHJ-GMH% $ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( CDDM% ppp% 0An art m4tis.%1 /n L>Am=ri1ue latine dans son art( HDM-HHL% $&Am4ri+ue latine dans sa culture% 3aris: A"ES7O( HFGD% ppp% 0Vicente 7arducho y la escuela madrile;a en Am4rica%1 /n So+re el #er; homenaPe a Hos= Agust9n de la #uente 0andamo( HCFM-HKHH% $ima: 3ontificia Ani ersidad 7at@lica del 3erB( Facultad de letras y ciencias humanas( CDDC% Stichweh( 9udolph% 08ie ielfgltigen 3u!li#a der Wissenschaft : /n#lusion und 3opularisierung%1 /n Bnklusion und 4<klusion Studien zur Gesellschaftstheorie( FM-HHH% 2ielefeld: Transcript Verlag( CDDM% ppp% :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD% ppp% 0<lo!alisierung der Wissenschaft und die 9egion Europa%1 /n :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen( HDK-HCF% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD% ppp% 0/n#lusion in Fun#tionssysteme der modernen <esellschaft%1 /n Bnklusion und 4<klusion Studien zur Gesellschaftstheorie( HK-LL% 2ielefeld: Transcript Verlag( CDDM% ppp% 0On the <enesis of World Society: /nno ations and 6echanisms(1 CDDL% http:\\www%unilu%ch\files\CEstwworldsoc%pdf% ppp% 0Systemtheorie und <eschichte%1 /n Soziologische Theorie und Geschichte( edited !y Fran# Wel5 and Awe Weisen!acher( EG-JF% OpladenN Wies!aden: Westdeutscher Verlag( HFFG% ppp% 0Zur <enese der Weltgesellschaft% /nno ationen und 6echanismen%1 /n :ie @eltgesellschaft' Soziologische Analysen( CLM-CEJ% Fran#furt am 6ain: Suhr#amp Verlag( CDDD% Stoichita( Victor /% 02ild und Vision in der spanischen 6alerei des Siglo de Oro und die lateinameri#anische Vol#sfr=mmig#eit%1 /n Theatrum mundi' ?iguren der 8arocksthetik in S$anien und /is$anoAAmerika' LiteraturACunstA 8ildmedien( edited !y 6oni#a 2osse and Andr4 Stoll( KH-LC% 2ielefelder Schriften 5u $inguisti# und $iteraturwissenschaft% 2ielefeld: AisthesisVerlag( HFFJ% ppp% 4l oPo m9stico' #intura y %isin religiosa en el Siglo de Oro es$a2ol % Translated !y Anna 6aria 7oderch% 6adrid: Alian5a Editorial( HFFE% ppp% La in%encin del cuadro' Arte- art9fices y artificios en los or9genes de la $intura euro$ea% Translated !y Anna 6aria 7oderch% 7ultura Art:stica% 2arcelona: Ediciones del Ser!al( CDDD% Tomas( Vincent% 07reati ity in Art%1 The #hiloso$hical Re%ie" EJ( no% H )Panuary HFMG*: H-HM% Tord( $uis Enri+ue% Are1ui$a art9stica y monumental% $ima( HFGJ% ppp% 0El 2arroco en Are+uipa y el Valle del 7olca%1 /n 4l 8arroco #eruano( C:HJKCHM% 7olecci@n Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDK% Trilling( Pames% Ornament a modern $ers$ecti%e% Ani ersity of Washington 3ress( CDDK%

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Tuchman( <aye% 0,istorical 6ethods%1 /n The SAG4 4ncyclo$edia of Social Science Methods( edited !y 6ichael S% $ewis-2ec#( Alan 2ryman( and Tim Futing $iao( H:LEC-LEL% Thousand Oa#s: Sage( CDDL% Agarte El4spuru( Puan 6anuel% 0/ntroducci@n a la 3intura Virreinal%1 /n #intura Virreinal( HH-LD% Arte y Tesoros del 3erB% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito del 3erB( HFJK% ppp% 0$os 9u!ens de la Orden Terciaria Franciscana de $ima%1 /n #inacoteca de la Venera+le Orden Tercera de San ?rancisco de Lima( HH-LE% $ima: 7asa de Osam!ela( HFGE% ppp% 09u!ens en la 3inacoteca Franciscana%1 /n #intura en el Virreinato del #er;( CKF-CEK% Cnd ed% $ima: 2anco de 7r4dito( CDDC% Ani@n $atina% 4l retorno de los Nngeles +arroco de las cum+res en 8oli%ia % 3aris: Anion $atine( HFFE% Valen5uela( Fernando A% 0Arte y Entretenimiento en la "ue a "arrati a ,ispanoamericana% Sociolog:a del 2oom%1 /n O+ser%ando sistemas nue%as a$ro$iaciones y usos de la teor9a de !iklas Luhmann( edited !y /gnacio Far:as and Pos4 Ossand@n( HDH-HHG% Santiago( 7hile: 9il( CDDE% Vargas $ugo( Elisa% 0$a e-presi@n pict@rica religiosa y la sociedad colonial%1 Anales del Bnstituto de Bn%estigaciones 4st=ticas T///( no% MD )HFGC*: EH-JE% Vargas Agarte( 9u!4n% 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices coloniales de la Am=rica Meridional% $ima( HFLJ% ppp% 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices coloniales' A$=ndice % $ima( HFMM% ppp% 4nsayo de un diccionario de art9fices de la Am=rica meridional % Cnd ed% 2urgos: /mpr% de Aldecoa( HFEG% Vignon( 7laude% 4<$osition Rni%erselle de 7L**' 8eau<AArts% 3aris: $i!rairie d&Auguste Fontaine( HGMM% Villanue a Arteaga( ,oracio% A$untes $ara un estudio de la %ida y o+ra de :on Manuel de Mollinedo- o+is$o Mecenas del 0uzco% 7u5co: Editorial <arcilaso( HFMM% ppp% 0"acimiento de la escuela cu5+ue;a de pintura%1 8olet9n del Archi%o :e$artamental del 0uzco H )HFGM*: HH-HK% Villegas de Anei a( Teresa% 0Asiel Timor 8ei )arcSngel arca!ucero*%1 4l retorno de los Nngeles +arroco de las cum+res en 8oli%ia( CDDF% http:\\dcc%unilat%org\Virtuale6useum\8atas\oeu re%asp. llEsVelangesVolCDD% Wethey( ,arold E% 0olonial Architecture and Scul$ture in #eru% 7am!ridge: ,ar ard Ani ersity 3ress( HFLF% Wilder( Eli5a!eth% 07all for 3ioneers%1 0ollege Art Hournal H( no% H )"o em!er HFLH*: E-F% W=lfflin( ,einrich% Cunstgeschichtliche Grund+egriffe das #ro+lem der Stilent"icklung in der neueren Cunst % Lth ed% 6Rnchen: 2ruc#mann( HFCD% Wood( 7hristopher S% 0Art ,istory&s "ormati e 9enaissance%1 /n The Btalian Renaissance in the T"entieth 0entury( EM-FC% Florence( Villa / Tatti: Olsch#i( CDDC% Wuffarden( $uis Eduardo% 0$as Escuelas 3ict@ricas Virreinales%1 /n #er; ind9gena y

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%irreinal( GD-GJ% SEA7ET( CDDM% UUUVB 0ongreso Bnternacional de Americanistas actas y memorias( 4s$a2a 38arcelona- Madrid- Se%illa- F7 de agosto a M de se$tiem+re6- 7M,G % Vol% K% Se illa( HFEE%