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KC TUITION: 012 3877 265

Chapter Five: Water & Solution 1. Properties of acid & alkali: Acid Sour pH less than 7 Corrosive Blue Red (litmus) Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen Alkali Bitter pH more than 7 Corrosive Red Blue (litmus) Alkali + Ammonium salt Salt + Water + Ammonia

Hydrochloric acid + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium chloride + Water Sulphuric acid + Potassium hydroxide Potassium sulphate + Water Hydrochloric acid + Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride + Carbon dioxide + Water 7. Indicators: Indicator Universal Bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) Litmus Phenolphthalein Methyl orange 8. Titration: Method solution Colour Neutral Green Red Purple Colour less Orange

Acid + Carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide Only show properties in the presence of water 2. Reaction between acid & metal: Dilute sulphuric acid + Aluminium Aluminium sulphate (salt) + Hydrogen Dilute hydrochloric acid + Magnesium Magnesium chloride (salt) + Hydrogen Reaction between acid & carbonates: Dilute sulphuric acid + Sodium carbonate Sodium Sulphate + Carbon dioxide Dilute hydrochloric acid + Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride + Carbon dioxide Reaction between alkali & ammonium salt: Potassium hydroxide + Ammonium sulphate Potassium sulphate (salt) + Water + Ammonia Sodium hydroxide + Ammonium chloride Sodium chloride (salt) + Water + Ammonia Types of acids: Concentration of hydrogen ions Low High Content of water High Low Cor rosi ve No Yes

Acid Yellow Yellow Red Colour less Red

Alkali Purple Purple Blue Pink Yellow








Usages of acids & alkalis: Uses Added to food / drink to give sour taste, polishing agent Produce fruit salt / health salt, food / drink flavouring Preservative in sauces Contain in vitamin C Coagulate latex Vinegar, preservative, paints, plastic Car battery, fertiliser, fire extinguisher Cleansing agent Fertiliser, dyes, explosives


Acid Citric acid Tartaric acid Benzoic acid Ascorbic acid Formic acid Acetic acid Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid

Acid Dilute Concentrated 6.

Neutralization: The right amount of acid & alkali are mixed to produce neutral solution (taste salty) of salt & water Neutral = pH 7 Acid + Alkali Salt + Water Example:

Prepared By: K.C. Ngu

Form 2: Chapter 5 Week 18

KC TUITION: 012 3877 265

Alkali Sodium hydroxide Ammonia Magnesium hydroxide Caustic soda

Soaps, detergents, plastic Prevent latex coagulation, cleansing agent Produce medicine (antacids), magnesia milk, Epsom salt Cleansing agent

Lets Test Yourself 5.5 1. What is the difference between concentrated solution and dilute solution? 2. List the factors that affect the rate of dissolving. Why is water called a universal solvent?


Prepared By: K.C. Ngu

Form 2: Chapter 5 Week 18