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MMV025/211, March 8, 2006 P1. A tanker is to be lled with fuel oil with = 920 kg/m3 and = 0.

0.035 Pa s from an underground reservoir using a 20 m-long, 50 mm-diameter plastic (hydraulic smooth) hose with a slightly rounded entrance (r/d = 0.050) and two 90 smooth bends (R/d 10). The elevation dierence between the oil level in the reservoir and the top of the tanker where the hose is discharged ( = 1.1) is 6.5 m.

The capacity of the tanker is 20 m3 , and the lling time is 30 minutes. For an overall pump eciency of 82 percent, determine the required power input to the pump. (10p) Assume stationary, fully developed ow. The oil surfaces are in contact with surrounding air. = kinetic energy correction factor. Given: = 920 kg/m3 , = 0.035 Pa s; slightly rounded entrance, r/d = 0.050; two 90 smooth bends, R/d 10; capacity 20 m3 , to be lled in 30 minutes Q = 40 m3 /h; hose diameter, d = 50 mm; hydraulically smooth let = 0; hose length, = 20 m; = 1.1; height dierence, H = 6.5 m; pump eciency, P = 0.82. P Sought: required power input to the pump, W P = W in /P , where W in = mw W in is the power transferred to the oil; mass ow rate, m = Q = 10.22 kg/s. Extended Bernoulli equation: p+ V 2 + gz 2 = p+
1

V 2 + gz 2

+ pf win

Let section 1 (inlet section) be at the reservoir surface; section 2 at the hose outlet. Both oil surfaces are in contact with surrounding air, which means that p1 = p2 = pa (ambient pressure); z2 z1 = H . Since elevation H is a constant it can be assumed that the reservoir is large, V1 V2 = V ; 2 = 1.1. Friction factor, f = (Re, /d), Re = V d/; V = Q/A, A = d2 /4 V = 5.66 m/s, Re = 7.44 103 . Eq. (6.39): f = 0.316Re1/4 = 0.0340, f /d = 13.61. Fig. 6.20, R/d = 10: K = 0.33; Fig. 6.21, r/d = 0.05: K = 0.23 K = 0.89. 2 + f /d + K = 15.60; g = 9.81 m/s2 win = 313.6 J/kg. in = 3205 W W P = 3909 W. W Pressure loss, pf = (f /d + K )V 2 /2 win = (2 + f /d + K )V 2 /2 + gH .

Answer: 3.9 kW

MMV025/211, March 8, 2006 P2. Helium gas (k = 1.66, R = 2077 J kg1 K1 ), at V = 2010 m/s, p = 40 kPa and T = 20 C, undergoes a Prandtl-Meyer expansion until the temperature is 50 C. Determine the turn angle as well as the velocity and static pressure after the expansion turn. (10p) Given: Helium gas; V1 = 2010 m/s; p1 = 40 kPa; p1 = 40 kPa; T1 = 20 C; T2 = 50 C. Sought: expansion (turn) angle, ; V2 ; p2 Prandtl-Meyer theory: = (Ma2 ) (Ma1 ). Ma1 = V1 /a1 = V1 / kRT1 ; T1 = 293.15 K Ma1 = 1.9993. Eq. (9.99): =K
1/2

Ma2 1 arctan K

1/2

arctan Ma2 1

1/2

, K=

k+1 k1

k = 1.66 K = 4.0303, 1 = (Ma1 ) = 21.866; Ma2 =?

The expansion turn can be treated as isentropic (adiabatic and with no frictional losses), i.e., T02 = T01 (adiabatic), p02 = p01 (isentropic). T01 = T1 1 + k1 2 Ma1 = 679.84 K 2

T02 /T2 = 679.84/223.15 = 3.047 Ma2 = 2.4903, 2 = (Ma2 ) = 31.333 , i.e., = 9.466 . V2 = Ma2 kRT2 = 2184 m/s.
k k 1

p01 k1 2 = 1+ Ma1 p1 2

p01 = 331.8 kPa

p02 = 331.8 kPa, Ma2 = 2.4903 p2 = 20.14 kPa. Answer: = 9.5 , V2 = 2.2 km/s, p2 = 20 kPa.

MMV025/211, March 8, 2006 P3. The sluice gate below has a rectangular cross section with a width of 6.0 m. A free outow (free discharge) occurs when the gate opening is H = 0.25 m. The upstream water level then is y1 = 2.0 m. Downstream of the gate there is a hydraulic jump. The water temperature is 10 C.

Determine (a) the volume ow rate, (b) the water depth y2 upstream of the jump, (c) the water depth after the jump, and (d) the power dissipated through the jump, in kW (kilowatts) Wall friction can be neglected. (10p) Given: rectangular cross section, width, b = 6.0 m; H = 0.25 m; y1 = 2.0 m; water, 10 C; free outow. Sought: (a) Q, (b) y2 , (c) y3 , (d) Pf = mgh f = Qghf (a) Eq. (10.41): Q = cd HB 2gy1 ; cd = 0.61/ 1 + 0.61 H/y1 (discharge coecient) (b) Horizontal ow without losses, i.e., E2 = E1 , where E = y + q 2/(2gy 2) is the specic energy, q = Q/b = 0.921 m2 /s. E1 = 2.0108 m, a = q 2 /(2g ) = 0.0432 m3 ; iteration formula:
3 y 2 = (y 2 + a)/E1 1/2

H/y1 = 0.125 cd = 0.588; g = 9.81 m/s2 Q = 5.525 m3 /s.

y2 = H = 0.25 m 0.171 m 0.155 m 0.1528 m 0.1525 m 0.1525 m.

1/2 (c) Theory for horizontal jump gives 2y3 /y2 = 1 + (1 + 8Fr2 . 2) Froude number, Fr2 = V2 / gy2, V2 = q/y2 = 6.04 m/s Fr2 = 4.94, y3 = 0.992 m.

(d) hf = E1 E3 = (y3 y2 )3 /(4y2 y3 ) = 0.976 m; = 1000 kg/m3 (Table A.1) gives Pf = 52.9 kW. Answer: (a) Q = 5.5 m3 /s, (b) y2 = 0.15 m, (c) y3 = 0.99 m, (d) Pf = 53 kW.

C. Norberg