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Introduction Teaching and learning in primary school is pre-dominantly concerned with developing basic skills and confidence in using

English. Raising childrens language awareness and explicitly focusing their attention on aspects of the language system in appropriate age-related ways can help to complement and enhance this process. It can also lay solid foundations for the years of study still to come. s with other areas! it is also important to encourage children to develop independent learning strategies to support their learning of grammar and vocabulary. "ocabulary and grammar are closely interrelated in children#s early language learning! both in first language and in a second or foreign language. $oung children initially learn chunks of language! which combine vocabulary and grammatical patterns! in a holistic! unanaly%ed way. s they grow older! they develop the ability to relate vocabulary to networks of meanings and to notice and analy%e language forms and functions more explicitly. &hether they are learning holistically when younger! or developing more conscious language awareness and powers of analysis as they grow older! it is vital to give children plenty of opportunities to memori%e! practice! recycle and extend their vocabulary and grammar in meaningful contexts throughout the primary years '(). *ames offer young learners a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. fter learning and practicing new grammar and vocabulary! young learners have the opportunity to use language in a non-stressful way. &hile playing games! the learners attention is on the message! not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic forms! most participants will do all they can win. This eases the fear of negative evaluation! the concern of being negatively +udged in public! and which is one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language in front of other people. In a game-oriented context! anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated ',). -or these reasons we are interested in analy%ing the use of games in teaching grammar and vocabulary to children. The relevance of current research: The holistic learning of language plays an important role in fostering childrens enthusiasm for learning English grammar and vocabulary. It is obviously proved that vocabulary and grammar ensure a successful start for personal knowledge. Hypothesis: Every child is different and it makes primary language teaching a uni.ue and dynamic ongoing learning experience! though the usage of games can greatly contribute to the effective! colorful and productive teaching grammar and vocabulary to children.
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The object is the process of English language teaching and learning. The subject is the methodological usage of games in teaching grammar and vocabulary to children. The aim of the research/ to consider the usage of games and to find out the appropriate principles and methods for teaching grammar and vocabulary. Objectives: to illustrate the theoretical support of the importance of teaching grammar and vocabulary0 to find out the appropriate principles and methods for teaching grammar and vocabulary. to use techni.ues of teaching grammar and vocabulary on the lessons 0 to enlarge own knowledge of teaching. Research methods/ observation of the process of teaching and learning foreign languages at primary school! generali%ation! method of comparison! studying and analy%ing scientific literature! method of processing and interpretation data! descriptive method.

1. Using games in teaching grammar and vocabulary The fact that games are the most suitable instructional activities for young learners is obvious because they are a natural part of their existence. 1edomov2 argues that 3young learners are not able to pay their attention for more than (4-,4 minutes and after that they start to be bored and tired.5 Especially when grammar teaching is too dependent on rules and memori%ation! they start to lose their interest and motivation. Teachers know that young learners like being physically active as they learn by doing. 6oreover! they are imaginative and creative and they learn without being aware of it. 7esides! young learners use their previous experience! knowledge! several skills! and abilities which help the teacher present the new information by enabling children to practice the new knowledge on top of their previous knowledge. Therefore! the best way to direct this capacity in grammar teaching is using games. 7ekiri states that when a lesson includes a game! the game gives a chance to the teacher to help learners ac.uire new forms and lexis in an effective way. It should not be a complicated game! but a simple one because it is usually more effective as young learners find it difficult to understand a long list of rules. 8imilarly! games should also include praise and encouragement because young learners always love to be the center of attention. In addition to all these! it should be born in mind that games should be as short as possible because as mentioned before! young learners are able to pay their attention to the games +ust for a limited time. 9ong gives some suggestions to teachers about using games for teaching young learners by claiming that/ &hen giving instructions to beginners! a few words in the mother tongue would be the .uickest way to make everything clear. 6ore English exposure is needed at a later stage. *ames are best set up by demonstration rather than by lengthy explanation. It is very important not to play a game for too long. 8tudents will begin to lose interest. It is best to stop a game at its peak ':). 1.1 The principles and methods of teaching grammar In order to lay the foundation for understanding and learning aspects of grammar! it is above all important to give children exposure to language in meaningful contexts which engage them in practicing and using English for purposes which they can relate to and en+oy. Teaching English grammar can be hard going - for the teacher and the students. It doesn#t have to be difficult or painful! however. $ou can teach English grammar using fun learning games and before you know it your students will be more than willing. 9ow it works! you ask. &ell! there has been a movement away from the traditional methods of teaching English grammar through writing! rewriting and worksheets to using a more active approach through games. Researchers have also begun to look at how and why these new methods work. -our sound reasons to teach grammar with games ';0<)
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(. rif 8aricoban and Esen 6etin! authors of =8ongs! "erse and *ames for Teaching *rammar= explain how and why games work for teaching grammar in an E8> classroom. They say! =*ames and problem-solving activities! which are taskbased and have a purpose beyond the production of correct speech! are the examples of the most preferable communicative activities.= They go on to explain that grammar games help children not only gain knowledge but be able to apply and use that learning. ,. dditionally! games have the advantage of allowing the students to =practice and internali%e vocabulary! grammar and structures extensively.= They can do this because students are often more motivated to play games than they are to do desk work. ?lus! during the game! the students are focused on the activity and end up absorbing the language subconsciously. @ne can also add that fun learning games usually contain repetition! which allows the language to stick. :. &hile games are motivating for the students! probably the best reason! according to 8aricoban and 6etin! to use games is that =the use of such activities both increases the cooperation and competition in the classroom.= @ne can use games to add excitement through competition or games which create bonding among students and teacher. ;. ydan Erso%! author of =8ix *ames for the E8>AE-> Blassroom= also explains more reasons why games do work for teaching grammar. >earning a language re.uires constant effort and that can be tiring. Erso% says games can counter this as because/ *ames that are amusing and challenging are highly motivating. *ames allow meaningful use of the language in context. Bhildren are more motivated to learn grammar with games. The theory of intrinsic motivation also gives some insight as to why teaching grammar through games actually works. Intrinsic motivation refers to the internal factors that encourage us to do something. 6ost young learners will not internally decide that they want to learn grammar. They dont yet understand the concepts of why it#s important to know proper grammar! so these external factors won#t affect them much either. Instead! intrinsic motivation can lead encourage them to play games. If these games are good then they will be learning while they are playing. Csing some movement is crucial because movement helps activate the students# mental capacities and stimulate neural networks! thus promoting learning and retention. If you have a large class with no space you still have options. Bhildren can stand up! sit down! move various body parts and pass things around to each other. 6ovement does not only mean children tearing around the playground. Teaching grammar should be based upon the following principles/ (. Bonscious approach to the teaching of grammar. This means teaching points are determined so that pupils can concentrate their attention on some elements to be able to use them while speaking or writing. The teaching point may be presented in the form of the rule! a very short one. -or example/ Cse the auxiliary verb with not in negative sentences Ddoes not! did notE. The rule helps the learner to understand ant to assimilate the structural meanings of the elements. It ensures a conscious approach of learning. 9owever it doesnt mean that the teacher should ask pupils to say this or
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that rule. Rules do not ensure the mastery of the language. They only help the attain the practical goal. ,. Bonscious learning is ensured when a grammar is contrasted then a native grammar item. -or example/ I like soup Dmore than any other foodE I like the soup Dyou have cookedE The %ero article is contrasted with the definite article. 9ere I follow the rule/ think of the shortest and simplest way for presentation of the new grammar item. The more of explain the less the less time is left for practice Dand the less pupils understand what Im trying to explainE. :. ?ractical approach to assimilation of grammar. It means that pupils learn those grammar items which they need for immediate use. -or example! pupils need 8e.uence of Tenses mainly for reading to be able understand such sentences as 39e said he had written the letter5. ?upils master grammar through performing various exercises is using this grammar item. 9ere I follow the rule/ teach pupils correct grammar usage and not grammar knowledge. ;. 8tructural approaches to the teaching of grammar! i. e. grammar items are introduce and drilled in structures or sentence patterns. ?upils are taught to understand E. when spoken to and to speak it from the very beginning. F. 8ituational approach to the teaching of grammar. ?upils learn a grammar item used in situations. -or example! Bomplex @b+ect 3I want somebody to do something5 may be presented in classroom situations/ ?ete! I want you to give me your book. >ena! I want you to translate this text. The situation should be selected for particular grammar item. G. Hifferent approach to the teaching grammar of active grammar for conversation and passive grammar for reading there! grammar items pupils need for conversation are taught by oral and written approach/ ?upils and them! write perform oral exercises! see them written and finally write sentence 'F0I) 1. The principles and methods of teaching vocabulary Bhildren often measure their own language learning progress in terms of #how many words they know#. >earning vocabulary can be one of the most significant and satisfying outcomes in the first years of English lessons. It boosts children#s confidence and self-esteem. It also lays the foundations for leading children into using grammatical structures! which initially present a greater learning challenge! in more extended and creative ways. The first principle in teaching vocabulary is the availability of comprehension and production. =In child language! most observational and research evidence points to the general superiority of comprehension over production/ children seem to understand =more= than they actually produce. -or instance! a child may understand a sentence with an embedded relative in it De.g.! =The ball that#s in the
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sandbox is red=E but not be able to produce one. &.R. 6iller gave us a good example of this phenomenon in phonological development/ =Recently a three-year-old child told me her name was >itha. I answered >ithaJ# K1o! >itha.# #@h! >isa.# #$es! >itha.#= The child clearly perceived the contrast between English s and th! even though she could not produce the contrast herself The second principle for teaching vocabulary according to 9. Houglas 7rown is systematic and variability. @ne of the assumptions of a good deal of current research on child language is the systematic of the process of ac.uisition. -rom pivot grammar to three- and four-word utterances! and to full sentences of almost indeterminate length! children exhibit a remarkable ability to infer the phonological! structural! lexical! and semantic system of language. The teacher reali%ing this phenomenon of children#s ac.uisition should introduce new vocabulary systematically. 7ut in the midst of all this systematic! there is an e.ually remarkable amount of variability in the process of learning. Lust as native speakers of a language vacillate between expressions like =It has to be you= and =It must be you!= learners also exhibit variation! sometimes within the parameters of acceptable norms! sometimes not. 8ome variability in learner language can be explained by what *atbonton D(M<:E described as the =gradual diffusion= of incorrect forms of language in emergent and systematic stages of development. -irst! incorrect forms coexist with correct0 then! the incorrect are expunged. Bontext has also been identified as a source of variation. The third principle is the creating of motivation. 6otivation is probably the most fre.uently used catch-all term for explaining the success or failure of virtually any complex task. It is easy to assume that success in any task is due simply to the fact that someone is =motivated.= It is easy in second language learning to claim that a learner will be successful with the proper motivation. 8uch claims are of course not erroneous! for countless studies and experiments in human learning have shown that motivation is a key to learning and learning vocabulary as well. The fourth principle is error treatment. @ne of the ma+or issues involved in teaching vocabulary is the manner in which teachers deal with student errors. The most useful implication of "igil and @iler#s model for a theory of error treatment is that cognitive feedback must be optimal in order to be effective. Too much negative cognitive feedbackNa barrage of interruptions! corrections! and overt attention to malformationsNoften leads learners to shut off their attempts at communication. They perceive that so much is wrong with their production that there is little hope to get anything right. @n the other hand! too much positive cognitive feedback willingness of the teacher-hearer to let errors go uncorrected! to indicate understanding when understanding may not have occurred serves to reinforce the errors of the speaker-learner. The result is the persistence! and perhaps the eventual
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fossili%ation! of such errors. The task of the teacher is to discern the optimal tension between positive and negative cognitive feedback/ providing enough green lights to encourage continued communication! but not so many that crucial errors go unnoticed! and providing enough red lights to call attention to those crucial errors! but not so many that the learner is discouraged from attempting to speak at all. The fifth principle involves taking into account personal factors of learners which the teacher usually deals with. ?ersonal factors include/ the affective domain - emotional side of human behavior0 self-esteem0 inhibition - attempts to protect the ego0 risk-taking0 anxiety empathy extraversion - the extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to receive ego enhancement! self-esteem! and a sense of wholeness from other people as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneself0 introversion is the extent to which a person derives a sense of wholeness and fulfillment apart from a reflection of this self from other people. ' G) These five principles refer to developing the ac.uisition and may be expanded. Havid 1unan offers another description of teaching principles concerning vocabulary. 9e proposes them to avoid the difficulties in planning the vocabulary component of a course. These guiding principles can be applied in a variety of teaching and learning situations. The variety of methods Dof teaching vocabularyE leads to increased vocabulary learning. Hifferent methods for teaching vocabulary/ Explicit instruction Ddefinitions instruction including pre-teaching and analysis of root wordsE Implicit instruction Dexposure to words during readingE 6ultimedia methods Dpictures! hypertextE ?rogram methods based on investigating of different scientists DHirect! udiolingual! *rammar-translation! 8uggestopedia! etc.E Hirect method. The direct method of teaching foreign languages! sometimes called the natural method! refrains from using the learners# native language and uses only the target language. It was established in *ermany and -rance around (M44. 8cheme (. The approaches you choose mostly depend on who are the beginners and what teaching aims you set
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The approaches Cse of Realia ?ictures Bontext 6ime and ?antomime ?laying It may be done by bringing real ob+ects to classroom such as postcard with book! pen! schoolbag! vegetables and everything that is worth to be brought to the classroom. This is incredibly efficient for the reason that it facilitates the process of learning for children. $ou can teach them animals merely throughout showing them pictures of animals. Though challenging sometimes is in reality a good techni.ue particularly when it comes to abstract words such as happiness or lucky or to go on a trip. Cse the words in a real environment or context. Ho not forget to help them find helpful strategies to memori%e the words. *ive them some appropriate exercises according to their capability of consolidating what they learn. t the same time! try to motivate them and stimulate their interest. It may be done with the help of gestures and facial expressions and also through actions. If your beginners are kindergarten children! try to teach them throughout playing. Cse numerous educational games popular today with children. Try to make your lesson lively and interesting with the help of showing the children some pictures! telling them easy and interesting stories! and so on 'I).

. !ractical implementation of games at the lessons


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Teaching young learners is a very demanding issue that needs consideration so teachers should be careful about choosing games if they want to make them advantageous. -irst of all! the teacher should decide on the purpose of a game. game may seem appropriate and useful. 9owever! when its value is considered from the view point of foreign language teaching! it may have little or no purpose. 1edomov2 underlines the fact that we 3should consider whether the game-like activity is for children only to make the lesson more attractive and protect them from being bored or whether we tend to revise and practice some particular part of grammar! vocabulary! etc. Bonsidering the level of the game is e.ually important while choosing games. Teachers must decide whether the level of the game fits students language level because a game may become difficult when it is beyond the learners level or it may become boring when learners find it too easy to carry on. &hen a games value in grammar teaching is considered! teachers tend to use them for practice or to reinforce a specific grammatical aspect of language only if a game is suitable for learners level so that the grammatical knowledge can be used easily as they are playing the game. The fact that games enable social interaction and participation is also important. >earners! especially the young ones! learn better when they interact with their peers. 8ome games may include both cooperation and competition together. &hile students cooperate within a team! they! at the same time! compete against another team. 9ence! what teachers should consider while choosing a game is the fact that children learn best with games which re.uire physical action! interaction! competition and participation. &hen you are looking for games to use in your classroom! dont +ust pick something to be 3time filler= which does not have a definite linguistic outcome. These games may entertain the children! but when you don#t have much time with them each day as it is! you want your game to do double duty to get the most out of the time you spend playing games. 9ave a clear linguistic outcome for each game. The game can be a listening game to allow the students to repeatedly hear a new grammatical structure in use! or it can be a speaking game to allow practice of the grammar once it has been absorbed through listening beforehand. There are degrees of difficulty with speaking games from basic repetition in a fun context to more creative sentence creation for revision or more advanced practice once the basics have been mastered. The teacher should lead the children through this progression so that the game at hand is always well within the grasp of the students. This makes games fun rather than laborious. It is a mistake to play a speaking game immediately after the new grammar has been presented. Ideally reading! spelling and writing games come after the new grammar has been absorbed and the students can use it orally. nother thing to watch out for with grammar games is that a maximum of
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children are involved simultaneously. If you have thirty children you want to avoid a game where only one child is speaking at a time. &hat are the other twenty-nine children supposed to do in the meantime other than get boredJ @n the other end of the scale however are games that cause chaos in class and make teachers unpopular with colleagues because of high noise levels. variety of suitable games are available for you to try free in the resource box below the article. 1ow you can stop the eye-rolling and complaining from your students when you even think about teaching them grammar lesson! and have some productive fun '<). &ith young children! initial learning of grammatical patterns is implicit! based on formulaic se.uences and unanaly%ed chunks of language met in the context of! e.g. lesson routines! songs! rhymes! stories and games. s a result of ac.uiring chunks of language! children develop a sense of achievement and become increasingly willing to participate in classroom activities in English. s they grow in confidence! they also begin to transfer chunks to new contexts and to use them creatively. The holistic learning of language chunks plays an important role in fostering children#s enthusiasm for learning English. It also provides them with a potentially rich! internal language resource as they grow older and are encouraged! or expected! to pay attention to grammatical features and apply more explicit analytical skills to the way they learn. .1 Types and procedures in using games. @ne way to explicitly develop children#s language awareness is by encouraging them to notice particular language patterns or features of grammatical forms and! if appropriate! to compare and contrast these with other patterns and forms and with their own language. Through stimulating children to show interest and ask .uestions about how English works as a system! and encouraging them to observe and pay attention to this! children are helped to develop metacognitive awareness. This means becoming more self-knowledgeable and aware of the processes involved in their own learning. The provision of opportunities to notice features and regularities in grammatical patterns can also be particularly helpful for children who have a more logical-deductive kind of intelligence and who may feel more engaged when treating language as a kind of logical #pu%%le# and also more secure knowing that there are #rules# that they can apply. wareness-raising or noticing activities with children need to provide concrete means of drawing their attention to abstract concepts in ways which involve active participation and cognitive engagement. These can take a variety of forms and include! for example/
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using analogy or metaphor: to notice how word order changes in affirmative sentences, negative sentences and questions. ?rocedure ( &rite a relevant sentence from language children have been practicing on the board! or use word cards! for example! Sally is riding a bicycle. Cnderline #is# or stick the picture card of the horse above this word. , Explain that the horse is the auxiliary verb #is#. sk the children where the horse needs to go to make a .uestion. Elicit or explain that in order to make a .uestion! you need to ride the horse to the start of the sentence Dand add a .uestion markE. 8how this by moving the word and picture cards or rubbing out and rewriting the words/ Is Sally riding a bicycle? : Elicit or explain that to answer affirmatively! you ride the horse back/ Yes, she is (riding a bicycle). To answer negatively! or make a negative statement! you need to ride the horse back and collect the cart D#not#E/ No, Sally is not riding a bicycle! Sally is not riding a bicycle. $ou can then show how the horse and cart are linked by making the contracted form/ Sally isn't riding a bicycle. ; If appropriate! repeat with other sentences! for example! David has got a sister.A Mary can sing and ask individual children to move the horse and cart on the board to make .uestions and negative statements in the same way. O relating parts of speech to colors: to associate parts of speech with colours and to notice and generate language patterns, to ask for personal information. ?rocedure (. 8tick the color-coded grammar cards in +umbled order on the board. ,. sk a pair of children to come and choose any cards they like and arrange them to make a .uestion! for example! When do yo have brea!"ast? # Where do yo go to school? :. Repeat the procedure with several different pairs. sk the children what they notice about the order of colors in the .uestions! that it is always red! orange! yellow! green at the start! and then sometimes blue and purple as well. If appropriate! introduce or use metalanguage when talking about the colors and parts of speech. ;. sk the children to help you make four .uestions using all the cards on the board. 8tick the words in columns according to the colors as you do this. ?oint out that the colors in the .uestions follow the order of colors in a rainbow. Cse this to help the children remember the order! for example orange always comes before green in a rainbow. F. Either elicit other .uestions that children can make following the same pattern or divide the class into pairs and set a time limit! for example five minutes! for them to do this.
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G. t the end! ask children to report back. Examples of .uestions following a similar pattern are/ Where do yo have l nch? When does she have gy$? What do they do a"ter school? manipulating word cards: to order words to make sentences by manipulating word cards and to develop awareness of word order in sentences. ?rocedure (. Recycle the language structure which is the focus of the activity by asking! for example What %ill ha&&en i" it rains at brea! ti$e? # What %ill yo do i" yo do not have ho$e%or!? and elicit .ualifying statements from the children using i"! for example I" it rains at brea! ti$e, %e %ill &lay on the co$& ters. ,. sk children to write a list of numbers! for example (-< Ddepending on how many sets of word cards you have preparedE in their notebooks. :. Hivide the class into pairs. ;. *ive each pairs a numbered envelope containing word cards. Bhildren work with their partner and arrange the cards from the envelope on their desk to make a sentence. They write the sentences next to the corresponding number in their notebooks. F. They then exchange envelopes with another pair! and so on! until they have completed sentences next to each number in their notebooks. G. t the end! check the answers and draw the childrens attention to the forms of the verbs and the position of the comma in each sentence. using mime, movement and gesture: to stand in a line to show word order in sentences and to develop awareness of word order and contracted forms and to collaborate in groups. (. Hivide the class into groups of four. *ive a set of word cards to each group. ,. sk the children to take one card each and stand in a line to make a sentence. :. Explain and demonstrate that if they have any words in their sentences that we usually contract when we speak! then the children with these cards should link arms. ;. @nce they are ready ask each group to hold up their word cards and show their sentence to the rest of the class. F. The rest of the class checks if children are linking arms correctly and everyone say the sentence together! first in the full form and then using the contracted form. G. $ou may also like to write the contracted forms on the board to ensure children are aware how these are written. using logical deduction: to logically deduce a language rule from given input or date and to develop an interest in and awareness of language patterns and rules. ?rocedure (. Explain to the children that they are going to be 3grammar detectives5 and discover a rule in English.
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,. Either give out the photocopies or write on the board in +umbled order a range of familiar vocabulary including a or an! for example a banana! an orange! an elephant! a lion! an apple! a coat. :. Hivide the class into pairs. ;. sk the children to work with their partner and see if they can discover the rule about when we use a before words and when we use an. F. t the end! ask the children to report back and! if appropriate! introduce or use the words 3vowel5 and 3consonant5! for example &e use 'a( before words that begin with a consonant and 'an( before words that begin with a vowelA G. Explain and demonstrate that we do this because it is easier to say. If you like! ask the children to identify the five English vowels Da! e! i! o! uE from the words on the sheet or the board. classifying skills: to classify regular plural nouns according to the spelling and to be aware of differences in the pronunciation of plural nouns and to become aware that irregular plural nouns are exceptions that need to be learnt. ?rocedure (. Explain and demonstrate the following rules on the board! eliciting as much as you can from the children/ To make a regular word plural you add )s! for example boys, girls If a word ends in )ch, *o, *s, *sh, *+! for example lunch! potato! class or box! toy add P es If a word ends in Py after a consonant! for example baby! you delete the )y and add P ies 8ome words are irregular and you need to learn the plural! for example children. ,. Hraw the table below on the board and ask the children to copy it. :. Hivide the class into pairs. ;. 8ay and write singular words the children know on the board. F. sk the children to work with their partner! decide the plural form or the word you say and write it in the correct column in the table. G. Bheck the answers and ask the children to think of three more words to go in each column. 8ome examples of words you can use are/ b s, "riend, car, banana, &otato, dog, cat, and beach. I. Hraw the childrens attention to the differences in pronunciation of regular plural nouns, #s# after #&#, #t#, #!#, #"#, for example shirts, bi!es. &ith younger children! it is most appropriate to teach concrete vocabulary items which relate to the 3here and now5 of their immediate environment and personal experience. s children grow older! they gradually become able to deal with more abstract concepts and vocabulary removed from their immediate surroundings. &hen practicing vocabulary! it is important to provide opportunities to help children/
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Associate words and meanings and develop their recall of vocabulary ( earn with a puppet! >earn with a puppet ims/ To recogni%e! practice and memori%e vocabulary and short chunks of language by responding to a puppet0 to create an affective atmosphere which encourages active participation. ?rocedure/ Cse any one or a combination of the following procedures. :.(a -ollow the puppets instructions (. >ay out the flashcards or ob+ects on the floor or stick them on the board. ,. Cse the puppet to say. :. Bhildren listen and do what the puppet says. :.(b Repeat what the puppet says (. Cse the puppet to say vocabulary or short sentences which the children are familiar with! varying the pitch! volume and pace! e.g. the giraffe is tall. A The lion is fierce. ,. Bhildren listen and repeat what the puppet says in the same way. :.(c Borrect the puppet (. sk .uestions and get the puppet to give the wrong answers or to say sentences with the wrong information! e.g. The ball is blue. ,. Bhildren listen and correct the puppet in chorus! e.g. 1o!QR Dnaming the puppetE *reenR :.(d *uess what the puppets thinking about (. ?ut :-G flashcards on the floor or board. Cse mime to convey that the puppet is thinking about one of them. Encourage children to guess which one. ,. 6ake the puppet shake its head and say 1o and then nod and say! e.g. $es! brilliantR &hen a child guesses correctly. Think about the properties and meanings of words Improve their recognition and spelling of vocabulary Reinforce connections between words ?ersonali%e vocabulary learning Hevelop strategies for inferring meaning Hevelop strategies for conveying the meaning of unfamiliar words Bollaborate and interact with others It is important to stress! however! that noticing activities by themselves do not by any means ensure that children can automatically apply whatever they notice to their own language performance. -or this reason! therefore! noticing activities need to be accompanied by lots of practice over time. The kinds of practice activities that children most benefit from include both controlled opportunities to manipulate grammatical forms in order to express specific
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meanings within supported frameworks! and more open-ended opportunities to experiment! negotiate meaning and express and communicate what they want to say. s with learning vocabulary! regular recycling of grammatical patterns and forms is also essential 'M). ." The selection of games. The role of games in teaching and learning grammar and vocabulary cannot be denied. 9owever in order to achieve the most from the games! it is important that suitable games are chosen. &henever a game is to be conducted! the number of students! proficiency level! cultural context! timing! learning topic! and classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account/ aE To begin with! when learners are not familiar with the new approach! games could be used to supplement the main course. >ater as teachers and learners ac.uire greater familiarity! they may be used as substitute for parts of the course. bE &e must remember to choose a game appropriate to the level of the learners. The instructions should be clear. &e may also use the mother tongue to explain the rules of the game! if necessary. If the learners are unclear about what they have to do! chaos and a feeling of disillusionment may result. cE t the beginning! all learners may not participate enthusiastically. 8ome may feel shy and inhibited. Ho not compel them to participate. time will come when they would be willing to participate. dE The teacher should be alert and note when learners begin to get tired of a game. t this stage! she should stop and change over to another activity. @therwise there is the danger that learners may develop grammar game fatigue. eE In the course of playing the game! learners are sure to make mistakes. 9owever! the teacher should not stop the game in order to correct the mistakes. 8he should .uietly note down the mistakes without interrupting the game! and take them up for discussion later. '(40(M)

". #pprobation of the research material In pedagogical practices! foreign language learners have to work in creative and modern ways to cross disciplinary boundaries! incorporate the study of all kinds of material in addition to the strictly literary! and promote wide cultural
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understanding through research and teaching. It is time for all language programs in all institutions to reflect this transformation. The aim of our approbation is to know on practice the re.uirements to the teaching foreign language grammar and vocabulary to children! the basic principles of teaching grammar and vocabulary in ->T>! looking for interesting and effective ways of teaching and learning foreign language grammar and vocabulary in accordance to time in order to make lessons effective! productive! valuable! interesting on each stage of the teaching process '((). Everything depends upon the abilities of learners. They prefer to work in different ways! especially when the teachers perfectly use the principles and various methods. &hen the way of introducing and making lesson is interesting and colorful! all the materials always memori%ed. -rom our point of view the suggested principles and methods of teaching grammar and vocabulary includes all for improving language skills/ Reading! &riting! 8peaking! and >istening. It means while we use principles and methods of teaching grammar and vocabulary we can improve one or several of these skills in group work. ".1. The procedure of approbation 8ystematic instruction refers to a carefully planned se.uence for instruction! similar to a builders blueprint for a house. blueprint is carefully thought out and designed before building materials are gathered and construction begins. The plan for systematic instruction is carefully thought out! strategic and designed before activities and lessons are developed. 8ystematic instruction is clearly linked within! as well as across the five ma+or areas of reading instruction Dphonemic awareness! phonics! fluency! vocabulary! and comprehensionE. -or systematic instruction! lessons build on previously taught information! from simple to complex! with clear! concise student ob+ectives that are driven by ongoing assessment. 8tudents are provided appropriate practice opportunities which directly reflect instruction. Csing of some techni.ues systematically helped students to work out the habit for different activities. In this way we tried to follow the structure of the lesson which we had built from the beginning of the practice. -irst of all each lesson we started with warming-up activity! that usually was done to remind the useful vocabulary which they have already studied. Each work was planned and we had to plan our lessons in order to make them meaningful. ?lanning the lesson play the greatest role in teaching and studying English. It is an integral part of the whole teaching process. In that school we were practicing in Mth form. The class is deepened studying English language. There were M pupils in our group. They showed their skills! their knowledge. -or them lessons were interesting! they were eager to have the lessons of English.

18

$esson plan %1 &rade: F class Theme: verb to have got #ims: to teach children how to use the verb Dto have gotE and make sentences using this verb.

19

Objectives: 9aving this material! pupils will be able to use the verb in their own sentences. They will be able to understand the sentence with the verb in its two forms/ have got! has got and negative forms havent got and hasnt got. 'aterials: a blue ball for teacher! two pictures on the plastic folio Da girl with a doll! a boy with a carE! one picture for each child with known vocabulary! a piece of paper for each pupil! stick gum. S ?hase Instruction Time I min Interaction 1ote

(. @rgani%ation *ood morning! pupilsR Take your moments places pleaseR &ell! lets start our lesson. I show you a ball and I say/ 3 I have got a blue ball.5 Then point to the first picture and say/ 38he has got a small doll.5 Then points to the second picture and say/ 5 9e has got a red car.5 Then I write these three sentences under the pictures. ,. Engage 8tudy I ask you to repeat the sentencesQ..

Bl

:min T Bl

:.

ctivate

Each of you gets a picture and makes a sentenceQQ. I have got an orange.

(4 min

pictures Bl Bl

;.

ctivate

&ell doneRRR 1ow we are going to I min play the game 3memory chain(! I start the game 3I have got a blue ball5 and point to Tom! he says 3$ou have got a blue ball and I have got an orange5 Then the third person says 38he has got a QQ.he has got an QQ.and I have got a QQQQ The sentences should not be very

Bl

20

long. 8everal children will be asked to repeat all sentences. F Engage "ery nice childrenR nd now 3 ?iccasso dictation5! I dictate the short text with the verb to have got about the monster and you are asked to draw it. (4 min T Bl Bopy

8tudy

-eedback! children put their paintings on the board and they check their work together! they repeat the short text about the monster. RightR $our homework will be write (4 sentences according the lesson.

G min Cl Cl

,min

The lesson is overR *ood-byeR

$esson plan % &rade: , class Theme: Tuestion in present simple #ims: to teach children ho% to $a!e - estions in &resent si$&le, to develo& & &ils. attention, $e$ory and listening s!ills Objectives: / &ils %ill be able to $a!e - estion in &resent si$&le, to se the verb do "or s&eci"ic &ersonal &rono ns, to "ollo% the "or$ o" the - estion in &resent si$&le
21

'aterials: colo red card %ith an a +iliary verb D0 (green), &ersonal &rono ns I, yo , %e, they (yello%), " ll verbs (&in!), collections o" %ords "or $a!ing the - estions, te+tboo! ) /ro1ect I, school e+ercise boo!s, %or!sheets "or & &ils.

?hase

Instruction

Time I min

Interaction

1ote

(. @rgani%ation *ood morning! pupilsR Take your moments places pleaseR &ell! lets start our lesson. &e have brainstorming/ revision from the last lesson! I put pink cards with verbs on the board and you should read them! then you should make the statement about yourself in present simple with these verbs. ?upil says the sentence! puts the card on the board and writes the rest of a sentence. ,. Engage &ell-doneR ?resenting a new grammatical item I explain the form of the .uestion in present simple with using coloured cards. 8everal examples are put on the board. 1ow you should make .uestions and write them on the board! you can use all verbs from the lead activity &ell doneRRR 1ow work with your partner. Each pair of pupils gets a collection of the words in the same colours as were used for presenting! they are asked for making the .uestions in present simple. 8everal children will be asked to

Bards T Bl

F min T Bl

coloured cards

:.

ctivate

F min Bl Bl

;.

ctivate

: min T Bl

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repeat all sentences.

Engage ctivate

"ery nice childrenR nd now we check the task! each pair reads its .uestion aloud! the rest of a class correct! and all .uestions are put on one desk for checking together. >ets start.

G min

BI

Bl

8tudy

Individual practice/ you should G min write an exercise from your Cl textbooks to your exercise books. Cl The task/ complete the .uestion according to a picture. $ou can use coloured pencils. fter writing the exercise you give me to check. RightR feedback/ $ou get I min Cl worksheets with two exercises and Cl try to do it yourself.

ctivate

8tudy

nd now you change your worksheets and check them together! they correct the mistakes and count the points! then put mark to a friend.

; min

23

Engage

*reat +obRRR $ou homework will be to write (4 .uestions. Thank you for the lesson. 9ave a nice timeR *ood-byeR

, min

$esson plan %" &rade: G class Theme: nimals #ims: - to get to know the basic animals in English - to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know - after the lesson the learners will know at least F new words Objectives: 9aving new words! pupils will be able to memori%e new words clearly and write about favorite animals.
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'aterials: pictures! an animal poster! colour pencils! handouts! a tape recorder S ?hase Instruction Time < min Interaction 1ote

(. @rgani%ation *ood morning! pupilsR Take your moments places pleaseR &ell! lets start our lesson. I will start up the lesson in a little bit different way than usually. I will write something on the blackboard and you have to find out a hidden word in it. $ou cannot talk! the winner gets a priceR If you think you know! +ust put your hand above your head. In these words you can find ( word! the topic of todays lesson... ,. Engage 8tudy &ell doneR The word is 1I6 >8R nd the winner is QQ.J *ood +obR &ell-doneR 8o as you can see! we are going to talk about animals today. What ani$als do yo !no%? What is yo r "avo rite ani$al? 2ave yo ever been to the 3oo? Do yo li!e big ani$als? 4re yo scared o" any? Do yo !no% any e+otic ani$als? Do yo have an ani$al at ho$e? :. ctivate 1ow! we will listen to a tape recorder. $ou are going to hear several sounds of animals and I want you to write their names on a piece of paper. $ou will hear F sounds and I think you will know all of them. To make it easier I distributed a set of pictures among you and you will hear all these

Bl

I min T Bl

< min Bl Bl

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animals. 8o! you can +ust write down number to each picture. Ho you understandJ ;. ctivate &ell done! you are very goodR 1ow we will listen again but this time you do not have the pictures. $ou must guess which animals you hear. "ery nice childrenR ctivate 1ow! imagine you are going to take a friend of yours to the %oo soon and you want to give himAher a tour. 8o you need to know some animals and also something about them. 8o now! make groups of ; and each group has to prepare a poster. $ou can either draw or glue animals! you can write about them P what they eat! where they live! anything you like. If you need help! you can either ask me or! because you can work with dictionaries! you can use them. I will give you (4 minute! then we check together. G Engage *reat +obRRR $ou homework will be to write about your favourite animals. Thank you for the lesson. 9ave a nice timeR *ood-byeR , min T Cl I min T Bl

(: min BI Bl

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$esson plan %( &rade: F class Theme: The &eather #ims: - to understand the text about weather - to find out the odd words - to revise some basic terminology - after the lesson the learners will know (4 new words Objectives: 9aving this theme! pupils will be able to find out the odd words. 'aterials: reading texts! flashcards! a poem S ?hase Instruction Time Interaction 1ote

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(.

@rgani%ation moments

*ood morning! pupilsR Take F min your places Talking about weather/ *ood morning! childrenR DI look very tired and I am not happy. I assume the children will ask me what is wrong with me. If not! I have to say it myself.E I am not happy today! I am tired and I would like to be at home in my bed with a hot cup of tea and my favourite book. This is all because of the weather. Do yo li!e this !ind o" %eather? What do yo li!e to do in this !ind o" %eather? What is yo r "avo rite season? Why? Do yo &re"er hot %eather to cold %eather? &ell doneR 1ow! we will read a short text about the weather and then we will talk about it. G min

Bl

,.

Engage 8tudy

Bl

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8tudy

1ow you will have to answer F min some .uestions too. I will write Bl the .uestions on the blackboard. &ell done! I distribute the texts and I read first. The children +ust listen. fter that! each child reads a line. &e talk about the text and after that they answer the .uestions all by themselves. "ery nice childrenR &ell! because you have been working hard! now it is time to (4 min

Bl

;.

ctivate

Bl

8tudy

(I min
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learn a short poem. I will write it on the blackboard. &hen this is done! we start learning the poem. The learners can see the whole poem on the blackboard! I read it out loud and then we read it together. Every time we read it! I erase ( word! so that the children would have to memori%e it. G Engage

BI

Bl

*reat +obRRR D ppendix "E , min Thank you very much for your T work today and so that you can practise these new words at home! I have to give you homework. $ou all know this type of exercise! so all you have to do is to find the odd word out. This wonUt take you long. 8o! en+oy it and see you next lesson. *ood-byeR

Cl

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$esson plan %) &rade: F class Theme: 6y family #ims/ - the learners get to know my family - to revise some basic terminology and find out what the learners know - after the lesson the learners will know at least F new words Objectives: pupils will be able to get to know about the family in general and they will be very active. 'aterials: pictures and photos! a family poster! pieces of paper! a story book! colour pencils! handouts S ?hase Instruction Time I min Interaction 1ote

(. @rgani%ation *ood morning! pupilsR Take your moments places pleaseR &ell! lets start our lesson. Today we are going to talk about families. Do yo live in a "a$ily? Who belongs to yo r "a$ily? Do yo have any brothers or sisters? What is yo r brother5s # sister5s na$e? 2o% o"ten do yo see yo r grand$other and grand"ather? @k! now I will talk about my family. D@n the black board there

Bl

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,.

Engage 8tudy

is a family poster all the time! so that I can point to it anytime. &hile talking! I use pictures of my family and point to the right person and repeat who heAshe is. -or example! 3this is my daughter !!!!!!!5. I repeat the word 3daughter5. nd so on.E DThe learners were supposed to G min bring to the class pictures of their family members. I have to count on the fact! they forgot! so I distribute either my pictures or pictures from maga%ines.E 1ow! it is your time to show me who is who. Is this yo r $other? Is this yo r sister? Is this yo r grand"ather? 1ow! we are going to play a game and the winner gets a rewardR I will say a sentence! for example/5 8how me your motherR5 nd you have to show me your motherUs picture. fter each sentence I make the learners say whose picture they are showing me. 8o I ask. &ho is thisJ $our... mother! father! sister etc. (, min

BI

Bl

:.

ctivate

pictures Bl Bl

;.

8tudy

&ell doneRRR I distribute the handouts that I have prepared for them and the colour pencils and the learners will colour the people. &hile doing this I read a story about a family from a book.

I min T Bl

Engage

"ery nice childrenR

(,
31

8tudy

t the end we sum up the lesson and I tell them that next lesson we will play a family 3pexeso5. 7efore they leave the classroom! they all have to tell me a 3password5 to leave. I stand behind the door and as they leave I ask them for example for the word 3maminka5. They have to say 3mother5 and can leave. RightR $our homework will be to write (4 sentences according the lesson.

min T Bl

Engage

, min T Cl

The lesson is overR *ood-byeR

". The results of approbation In our assignment we tried to show how teacher could help children to develop their knowledge of grammar and vocabulary through the experiencing some principles for teaching grammar and vocabulary. &e believe that the most effective way for learning and studying foreign language is systematical practice of using grammar and vocabulary in speech. The motivation of students also plays the key role in process of learning and using of different unusual ways of teaching helps to increase the motivation for children. -rom the observation we noticed that encouraging the young learners and the correct treatment of errors help children to participate actively and break barriers in speaking. 9owever! the lack of time makes it difficult to put into practice all these principles toward the all learners.

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*onclusion -rom the result of the analysis of the research! it is proven that use of games in teaching grammar and vocabulary is .uite effective. *ames encourage! entertain! teach! and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons! they should be used +ust because they help children see beauty in a foreign language and not +ust problems. 8tudents are willing to play without nay forces from the teacher. The use of games makes the students more motivated in learning and easier to grasp the lesson. The benefits of using games in language-learning can be summed up in the following points. are learner centered. promote communicative competence. create a meaningful context for language use. increase learning motivation. reduce learning anxiety. integrate various linguistic skills. encourage creative and spontaneous use of language. The success in teaching does not depend on the lesson program only! but more important is how the teacher presents the lesson and uses various techni.ues to manage the class more lively and en+oyable. Regarding to the teaching speaking by using games we would like to suggest some tips for playing games/
33

*o for simplicityR Its often the simplest games that work the best. 6ake sure that all the children are involved all the time. 6ake sure you know how the game works yourself before getting the children to play. *ive clear stages instructions and demonstrate the game. ?lay with the whole class first. 7e fair and firm about enforcing rules. If children are playing independently! circulate and monitor. 8top the game while the children are still 3on task5 and before they begin to lose interest. This research leads me to think that in the future I should plan carefully because what we do in the classroom affects how students learn. nother thing I will try to do is to provide teachers with some professional development sessions about games that work with young learners! and try to convince them that games are not a waste of time! because young language learners in schools are going to benefit a lot from them.

References (. VWXYZ[\ ]^_` S, P ,44G! ]abcdZedf[Wgd h.i.! jabkdWgd l. ,. Hiane >arsen--reeman 3Techni.ues and ?rinciples in language teaching5 D@xford university ?ress! (M<GE. :. =8ongs! "erse and *ames for Teaching *rammar= by rif 8aricoban and Esen 6etin ;. Honna Inness! Lames mealey 3*rammar- -ocused Interactive ctivities and games D@xford Cniversity ?ress! ,44,E. F. 6ario Rinvolucry! ?aul Havis 36ore grammar games5 DBambridge Cniversity ?ress! (MMFE G. 6ario Rinvolucry 3*rammar *ames5 D1ew $ork! ,44:E I. http/AAwww,.vobs.atAludescherA*rammarAteachingngrammarninnsituationalnco ntexts.html <. oTeaching *rammar at The 7asic 8chools according to the -ramework Educational ?rogramme 7achelor Thesis 9. http/AAwww.teachingenglishgames.com 10. http/AAwww.learnenglish.deATeachersAteachgrammar.html 11. http/AAwww.egyankosh.ac.inAbitstreamA(,:;FGI<MA,G;GMA(ACnit-(G.pdf 12. http/AAis.muni.c%AthA;;F:IApedfnbAbachelornthesis.pdf 13. http/AAwww.udel.eduAeliA,44G?;>Aghada.pdf
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14. http/AAmarifa.hct.ac.aeAfilesA,4((A4IAThe-Cse-of-6emory-and-*uessing-

*ames-in-Teaching-"ocabulary.pdf (F. ntonaros! 8. p Bouri! >. D,44:E. Teaching $oung >earners/ ction 8ongs! Bhants p *ames. >ondon / Express ?ublishing (G.*ames for language learning. ndrew &right! Havid 7etteridge and 6ichael 7uckby. (I.>earning vocabulary through games. 1guyen Thi Thanh and mhuat Thi Thu 1ga 18. =8ongs! "erse and *ames for Teaching *rammar= by rif 8aricoban and Esen 6etin (M.DTarone p ?arrish (M<<E. ,4.www.aber.ac.uk Dfrom (( pril ,44GE ,(.9ill! L. D(MMME oBollocational competence English Teaching ?rofessional! ((! pp. :-G. ,,.=?rinciples of language learning and teaching= by 9.Houglas 7roun ,:.*ames for language learning. ndrew &right! Havid 7etteridge and 6ichael 7uckby.

#!!+,-I. I This is a nice monster. It has got a big head and a big body. It has got four long arms but it hasnt got any legs. It has got lovely green eyes! long nose and a big mouth. It has got long pink hair. Its body is green too. Each arm has got five fingers. It is our friend. Its name is -anny.
Table n. (Dverb have gotE
+/ercise n: 0uccess 123 1. 7)2 -in the sentence before the last one! using the long form of the verb have got instead of short form . 9:2 ". 8 using the correct sub+ect in two last sentences 8 finding the correct form of the verb have - missing knowledge of the right - more practice of this -two sentences use ,nd p.sing. - mixed up the sub+ects in the sentences - it is the only one sentence where should be used a long form 8 practice more the short forms 'ore fre4uent errors !robable reasons ,otes for ne/t 5or6

35

")2

got - using a short and a long forms of the verb

formsDsub+ect verb concordE

type of conversation

(. ()2

- putting the indefinite articles to the right position in the sentence

- paying attention to a verb have got

- revise indefinite articles! their using and position

). 9)2

- using the articles in a translation from English - translation the sub+ects D pronounsE to B%ech

- less practice in the lessons - missing knowledge of personal pronouns

- practice the translation more often - revise personal pronouns

9. 7)2

- using the short forms of negative without got

8 less practice during the lessons! little space for childrens writing

8 practice the negative forms once more

Table n.,
+/ercise n: 0uccess 123 1. 9)2 'ore fre4uent mista6es - adding Ps in :rd p. sing. - without coloures - difficult to recogni%e the sub+ectD Lanet and LasonE . ;)2 ". and (. 9:2 - sometimes with using correct auxiliary verb 8 no visual support! the sentences start with interrogative pronouns - are connected! if the child made mistake in :! it had to be made in ; - missing any sentence element in the sentence! incorrect auxiliary verb. - often in the fourth exercise children found - missing knowledge of using auxiliary verb - visual support in ; helps them 8 use the coloures in : too !robable reason ,otes for the ne/t 5or6 8 practice with names and different sub+ect! not only with personal pronouns - practice with interrogative pronouns

36

out the mistake and correct it in ex.n.: ). ;)2 - only in sentence with your father and children as sub+ects - your is similar to you! the word children make problems with recogni%ing the singular or plural 9. 7)2 - only a few mistakes in : and ; sentencesD : p. sing.E
rd th rd

- revise before the test singular and plural forms of the nouns

- many sentences have been done during the lessons! children are used of them

8 still pay more attention to :rd p. sing.

;. <)2 7. (:2

8 without grammatical mistakes! only in spelling QgreatR

- visual support! children are used of it! it helps a lot - no visual support! too long for children! .uite difficult

- continue with this method

- not recogni%ing the mistakes in sub+ect verb concord

- use the coloures in this exercise!try it again! choose shorter text

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