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OBJECTIVE EXPLAIN THE SHEAR IN STRAIGHT MEMBERS EXPLAIN THE SHEAR FORMULA SOLVE THE PROBLEMS
OBJECTIVE EXPLAIN THE SHEAR IN STRAIGHT MEMBERS EXPLAIN THE SHEAR FORMULA SOLVE THE PROBLEMS
OBJECTIVE
EXPLAIN THE SHEAR IN
STRAIGHT MEMBERS
EXPLAIN THE SHEAR FORMULA
SOLVE THE PROBLEMS

INTRODUCTION

• The shear V is result of transverse shear stress distribution that acts over the
The shear V is result of
transverse shear stress
distribution that acts
over the beam’s cross
section (shown in fig.1)
Due to the
complementary property
of shear stress, the shear
stress developed in a
beam acts on both the
cross section and on
Fig. 1
longitudinal planes

LONGITUDINAL SHEAR STRESS

When the load is applied, the boards

slide relative to one

another

is applied, the boards slide relative to one another Fig. 3 Fig. 2 But when they

Fig. 3

applied, the boards slide relative to one another Fig. 3 Fig. 2 But when they are

Fig. 2

But when they are bonded, sliding is prevented Longitudinal shear

stress develops

SHEAR IN STRAIGHT MEMBERS

When a shear V is applied, non-uniform shear-strain distribution over the cross section will cause the cross section to warp.

The relationship between moment and

shear

V  dM dx

V dM dx

is

will cause the cross section to warp . • The relationship between moment and shear V
will cause the cross section to warp . • The relationship between moment and shear V

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

For rectangular cross section, shear stress varies parabolically with depth and maximum shear stress is along the neutral axis.

cross section, shear stress varies parabolically with depth and maximum shear stress is along the neutral

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Rectangular x-section

Consider beam to have rectangular x-section of width b and height h as shown.

Distribution of shear stress throughout x-section can be determined by computing shear

stress at arbitrary height y from

neutral axis, and plotting the

function. Hence,

Q =

1

2

h

4

2

(

y

2 )b

arbitrary height y from neutral axis, and plotting the function. Hence, Q = 1 2 h
arbitrary height y from neutral axis, and plotting the function. Hence, Q = 1 2 h

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Rectangular x-section

After deriving Q and applying

the shear formula, we have

6V

bh 3

h

4

2

=

(

y

2 )

Equation 7-4

3 h 4 2  = (  y 2 ) Equation 7-4 • Eqn 7-4

Eqn 7-4 indicates that

shear-stress distribution

over x-section is parabolic.

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Rectangular x-section At y = 0, we have

max = 1.5

V

A

Equation 7-5

By comparison, max is 50% greater than the average

shear stress determined from avg = V/A.

By comparison,  m a x is 50% greater than the average shear stress determined from

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Wide-flange beam

A wide-flange beam

consists of two (wide)

“flanges” and a “web”.

Using analysis similar

to a rectangular x- section, the shear

stress distribution

acting over x-section

is shown

• Using analysis similar to a rectangular x- section, the shear stress distribution acting over x-section
• Using analysis similar to a rectangular x- section, the shear stress distribution acting over x-section
• Using analysis similar to a rectangular x- section, the shear stress distribution acting over x-section

SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Wide-flange beam

The shear-stress distribution also varies parabolically over

beam’s depth

Note there is a jump in shear stress at the flange-web junction

since x-sectional thickness

changes at this pt

The web carries significantly

more shear force than the

flanges

x-sectional thickness changes at this pt • The web carries significantly more shear force than the

LIMITATIONS ON USE OF SHEAR FORMULA

One major

assumption in the

development of the

shear formula is that shear stress is uniformly distributed

over width t at

section where shear stress is to be determined

By comparison with

exact mathematical analysis based on theory of elasticity, the magnitude

difference can reach

40%

This is especially so for the flange of a

wide-flange beam

The shear formula will

also give inaccurate

results for the shear stress at the flange- web junction of a wide-

flange beam, since this

is a pt of sudden x- sectional change (stress concentration

occurs here)

Furthermore, inner regions of flanges are free boundaries, thus

shear stress at these

boundaries should be zero

However, shear

formula calculated at

these pts will not be zero

Fortunately, engineers are often interested in the average maximum shear stress, which occurs at the neutral axis, where b/h ratio is

very small

Also, shear formula does not give accurate results when applied to members

having x-sections that are short or flat, or at pts where the x- section suddenly

changes

It should also not be applied across a section that intersects

the boundary of a member at an angle other than 90 o

DERIVATION OF THE SHEAR FORMULA

Recall that the flexure formula assumes that x- sections must remain plane and perpendicular to longitudinal axis of beam after deformation

This is violated when beam is subjected to both

bending and shear, we assume that the warping is so

small it can be neglected. This is true for a slender beam (small depth compared with its length)

For transverse shear, shear-strain distribution

throughout the depth of a beam cannot be easily

expressed mathematically

THE SHEAR FORMULA

The shear formula was derived by considering horizontal force equilibrium of the longitudinal shear stress and

bending stress distribution acting on a portion of a

differential segment of the beam

The shear formula is to be used on straight prismatic

members made of homogeneous material that has linear

elastic behavior.

Also the internal resultant shear force must be directed

along an axis of symmetry for the cross sectional area

The Shear Formula

The shear formula is used to

find the transverse shear

stress on the beam’s cross- sectional area.

By first principles, flexure

formula and V = dM/dx, we obtain

VQ

It

where

Q

A '

ydA

'

y A

'

= shear stress in member at the pt located a distance y’ from the neutral axis. Assumed to be constant and therefore averaged across the width t of member

V = internal resultant shear force, determined from method of sections and equations of equilibrium

from method of sections and equations of equilibrium I = moment of inertia of entire x-sectional

I = moment of inertia of entire x-sectional area computed about the neutral axis

t = width of the member’s x-sectional area, measured at the pt where is to be determined

Q = A y dA= y’A’, where A’ is the top (or bottom) portion of member’s x-sectional area, defined from section where t is measured, and y’ is distance of centroid of A’, measured from neutral axis

The Shear formula should not be used to determine the shear stress on cross sections

that are short or flat, or at points of sudden

cross-sectional changes, or at a point on an inclined boundary

that are short or flat , or at points of sudden cross-sectional changes , or at
that are short or flat , or at points of sudden cross-sectional changes , or at

THE STEPS

3 steps to apply the

2.

 

shearing stress

1.

Cut the member

perpendicular to

its axis at the point where the shear stress to be determined (obtain the internal shear

3.

V).

The neutral axis for the cross

section must be

known.

Determined the

moment of inertia (I) of the

cross sectional area about the neutral axis.

Specify the width t, pass an imaginary horizontal

section through

the point where

the shear

stress is to be

determined

4. Determine Q

either by integration

Q =

ydAor by

using Q = ӯ’A’ (where A’ is the top or bottom portion of the

member’scross-

sectional area.

ӯ’ is the distance

to the centroid of A’ measured

from the neutral

axis)

PROBLEM NO.1(1/5)

Beam shown is made from two boards. Determine the maximum

shear stress in the glue necessary to hold the boards together along the seams where they are joined. Supports at B and C

exert only vertical reactions on the beam.

boards together along the seams where they are joined. Supports at B and C exert only

SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(2/5)

Internal shear

Support reactions and shear diagram for beam

are shown below. Maximum shear in the beam

is 19.5 kN.

Internal shear Support reactions and shear diagram for beam are shown below. Maximum shear in the

SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(3/5)

Section properties

The centroid and therefore the neutral axis will be determined from the reference axis placed at bottom

of the x-sectional area. Working in units of meters,

we have

yA

A

y =

= 0.120 m

=

Thus, the moment of inertia, computed about the

neutral axis is,

I =

= 27.0(10 -6 ) m 4

SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(4/5)

Section properties

The top board (flange) is being held onto the bottom

board (web) by the glue, which is applied over the

thickness t = 0.03m. Consequently A’ is defined as the area of the top board, we have

Q = y’A’ = [(0.180 m 0.015 m 0.120 m] (0.03 m)(0.150 m) Q = 0.2025(10 -3 ) m 3

SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.1(5/5)

Shear stress

Using above data, and applying shear

formula yields

max =

VQ

It

=

= 4.88 MPa

Shear stress acting at top of

bottom board is shown here.

It is the glue’s resistance to this lateral or horizontal shear stress

that is necessary to hold the

boards from slipping at support C.

to this lateral or horizontal shear stress that is necessary to hold the boards from slipping

PROBLEM NO.2(1/2)

The beam is made of wood and is subjected to a resultant internal vertical shear force of V = 3 kN. (a) Determine the shear stress in the beam at point P, and (b) compute the maximum shear stress in the beam.

(a) The moment of inertia of the cross sectional area computed about the neutral axis is

the cross sectional area computed about the neutral axis is 1 1 bh 3  

1

1

bh

3



100 125

3

I

16.28

6

10 mm

4

12 12

'

Q yA

125

1

2

50

 

50 100

4

18.75 10 mm

3

Applying the shear formula, we have

p

VQ

It



3 18.75

16.28 10

4

10

6

100

0.346 MPa (Ans)

we have  p VQ  It    3 18.75   16.28 10

SOLUTION PROBLEM NO.2(2/2)

(b) Maximum shear stress occurs at the neutral axis, since t is constant throughout the cross section,

65.2   100 62.5

Q y A  

'

'



2

4

19.53 10 mm

3

Applying the shear formula yields

max

VQ

It



3 19.53

16.28 10

4

10

6

100

0.360MPa

(Ans)

yields  max VQ  It    3 19.53   16.28 10 

SOLVING PROBLEMS

7.72

7.75

7.80

PROBLEM 7.72

PROBLEM 7.72

PROBLEM 7.75

PROBLEM 7.75

PROBLEM 7.80

PROBLEM 7.80

PROBLEM 7.80

PROBLEM 7.80

CO2 Analyze the determinate beams to obtain SFD & BMD and determine the

bending and shearing stresses