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INTERNSHIP REPORT

PTCL COMPLEX ISLAMABAD ZTE OMC DIGITAL EXCHANGE RWP

Submitted To: Manager Tech. PTCL Complex Islamabad SE ZTE OMC City Exchange Rawalpindi HR PTCL Headquarters, G8-4 Islamabad Chairman, Telecommunication Engg. Department, UET Taxila

Submitted By:

Noman iltaf

Six weeks Internship : (from 1st August ,2012 to 10th September, 2012)

Dated: 1st October, 2012

University of Engineering & Technology Lahore Faculty of Computer Engineering

Acknowledgements & Endorsement


By the blessings of Allah who is Gracious and most merciful, I have completed my studentship at PTCL successfully. Indeed that was an excellent experience which not only increased my knowledge but also gives me chance to work in professional life. I am immensely pleased to place on record my profound gratitude and heartfelt thanks to my supervisor, Engr. Khalid Sarwar who encouraged and motivated me in the entire period. He gives us interactive lecture sessions full of discussions and also assigned practical work to learn practical things as well. His selfless efforts for internees are really appreciating. It is all due to his affection and teachings that I have been able to complete my internship report. Besides this, I cannot forget to mention other great names from PTCL without their help and cooperation I would not have accomplish my internship. SE ZTE OMC City Exchange, Sir Tanvir Haider & Sir Javed Iqbal were very nice and they guided me in a very kind way. Sir Danish of NMS DXX also added some practical things to my experience. When talking of WLL, there was very humble personality of assistant manager, Sir Umair Mufti who provided me the opportunity and making the department facilities available.

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This all my effort is dedicated to all martyrs of independence of Pakistan and all brave soldiers who shed their blood for our bright future and safety of our dear motherland.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY LIMITED

HISTORY OF EVOLUTION (1947- TODAY) ..................................................................................................................... 1 CORPORATE VISION AND MISSION.............................................................................................................................. 1 PTCL ACHIEVEMENTS DURING 2011-2012 ................................................................................................................. 1 BUSINESS & CORPORATE USERS:................................................................................................................................ 2 NATIONWIDE INFRASTRUCTURE ................................................................................................................................. 2 NATIONAL LONG-HAUL CORE NETWORK ...................................................................................................................... 2 CARRIERS SERVICES.................................................................................................................................................. 2 EVO WIRELESS BROADBAND..................................................................................................................................... 3 EVO 3G NITRO ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 3G EVO TAB ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 BROADBAND PAKISTAN ............................................................................................................................................ 3 IPTV SERVICE (SMART TV): ...................................................................................................................................... 3 PTCL SMART LINE SERVICES...................................................................................................................................... 3 PTCL VIDEOCON..................................................................................................................................................... 4 V-FONE ................................................................................................................................................................. 4 PAK INTERNET EXCHANGE ......................................................................................................................................... 4 INTERNATIONAL NETWORK ....................................................................................................................................... 4 SEAMEWE-3 Submarine Cable System 4 SMW-4 Submarine Cable System 4 I ME WE cable 4 Satellite Communication 5 ASSOCIATED COMPANIES .......................................................................................................................................... 5 SUBSIDIARY ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 Ufone 5 Key Accomplishments 5 Performance 5 Brand 6 International Coverage 6 Network Coverage 6 PTCL PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................ 6 1. Training Incentive offered to VSS Optees 6 2. Revamping Project of PTCL Training & Development by Etisalat Academy 6 PTCL ACADEMY ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 Quality Awareness Program 7 One Year Paid Internship Program 2012 7 Senior Management Development Program 7 Nominations for Open House Training Program 7 PTCL FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE ................................................................................................................................ 7 Profitability 7 FIRST THINGS FIRST... .............................................................................................................................................. 8 SIGNALING ............................................................................................................................................................. 8 Types of Signaling: 8 Subscriber line signaling 8 Inter-office signaling 8

Loop Start Signaling 8 Ground Start Signaling 8 Supervisory Signaling 9 Informational Signaling 9 Address Signaling 9 CAS (channel associated signaling) 10 CCS (common channel signaling) 10 Comparison of CAS & CCS 10 SS7 (SIGNALING SYSTEM 7) NETWORK ..................................................................................................................... 11 Working 11 Layered Model of SS7 12 MTP Layers 12 INSIDE CENTRAL OFFICE 14

MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME ................................................................................................................................... 14 Features 14 Traditional solution of ADSL broadband distribution 15 DIGITAL DISTRIBUTION FRAME (DDF) ....................................................................................................................... 16 DSL .................................................................................................................................................................... 16 NETWORK DESIGN OF VOICE ................................................................................................................................... 17 MAJOR DEVICES USED FOR DSL ............................................................................................................................... 17 1. DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer) 17 2. BRAS (Broadband Remote Access Server) 17 3. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) 17 Network Design of DSL 17 Power Supply: 18 What is E1 line? 18 WHAT IS VOIP? How does VoIP work? Encoding, Transmission & Playback Signaling Protocols in VoIP SIP Protocol in VoIP SIP Requests SIP Request Response: Other Protocols used by SIP ZTE EXCHANGE 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 23

CLASS 5 SOFT SWITCHES AT ZTE OMC CITY EXCHANGE .............................................................................................. 23 SOME IMPORTANT COMMANDS FOR MSAG HUWEI ................................................................................................... 23 Add Voice Subscriber (ADD VSBR) 23 Modify Voice Subscriber (MOD VSBR) 24 Register Supplementary Service (REG SS) 24 Park Owing Subscriber (PRK OWSBR) 24 NGN DEPARTMENT SATELLITE TOWN RAWALPINDI ..................................................................................................... 26 NEW GENERATION NETWORKS ........................................................................................................................ 27 NGN Architecture: 28 Protocols Of NGN: 29 NGN Enabled Switch Application 29 Network Components 29

NTC NGN IP Core Network Architecture SOFTSWITCH SOFTX3000 HUAWEI AT NGN ISLAMABAD

32 33

LOCATION OF USYS-SOFTSWITCH 3000 SYSTEM: ............................................................................................. 33 FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS:.................................................................................................................................. 33 PHYSICAL INTERFACES ...................................................................................................................................... 34 SIGNALING & PROTOCOLS ................................................................................................................................ 34 CONFIGURATIONS OF SOFTX3000 36 System Capacity 38 Bill Processing Capability 38 PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF SOFTX3000 ...................................................................................................................... 39 HOST 39 Background 39 Logical Structure of SoftX3000: 40 Overall Structure of OSTA Frame 40 SoftX3000 Boards and their Functions 41 HCTE C&C08 44

PROFILE OF C&C08............................................................................................................................................... 44 OVERALL STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................................. 44 Modular & Hierarchical 45 MODULES ............................................................................................................................................................ 45 FAM 45 CM 45 BAM 46 SPM 46 LIM (Line Interface Module) 46 SRM 46 Interconnection: AM SM 46 Terminal System of C&C08 Switch 47 Main Control Rack 47 IMANAGER N2000 UMS....................................................................................................................................... 48 System Architecture 48 LICENSE OF PRACTICE ............................................................................................................................................. 49 Types of Licenses: 49 MANGEMENT CAPACITY OF IMANAGER N2000 .......................................................................................................... 49 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................................... 49 NMS DXX 50

DXX (DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT) SYSTEM .................................................................................................................. 50 NMS DXX........................................................................................................................................................... 50 KEY FEATURES OF DXX........................................................................................................................................... 51 APPLICATIONS OF DXX ........................................................................................................................................... 51 DATA APPLICATIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 51 VOICE APPLICATIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 52 ADVANTAGES ....................................................................................................................................................... 52 EXISTING DXX NETWORK ....................................................................................................................................... 52 PLANNED EXPANSION IN DXX NETWORK ................................................................................................................... 52 DXX SYSTEMS IN PAKISTAN..................................................................................................................................... 53 CARDS USED IN DXX SYSTEM .................................................................................................................................. 53

Table of Figures

FIGURE 1: PTCL REVENUES AND TRADE DEBTS ................................................................................................................. 7 FIGURE 2: SUBSCRIBER LINE & INTEROFFICE SIGNALING....................................................................................................... 8 FIGURE 3: LOOP START SIGNALING................................................................................................................................. 8 FIGURE 4: CAS ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 FIGURE 5: CCS ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 FIGURE 6: SS7 NETWORK ........................................................................................................................................... 11 FIGURE 7: LAYERED MODEL OF SS7 .............................................................................................................................. 12 FIGURE 8: MDF ........................................................................................................................................................ 14 FIGURE 9: PROTECTIVE BLOCK, TEST BLOCK & PROTECTOR ............................................................................................... 15 FIGURE 10: ADSL BROADBAND SOLUTION ..................................................................................................................... 15 FIGURE 11: DDF ....................................................................................................................................................... 16 FIGURE 13: NETWORK DESIGN OF DSL.......................................................................................................................... 17 FIGURE 12: NETWORK DESIGN OF VOICE ....................................................................................................................... 17 FIGURE 14: POWER SUPPLY......................................................................................................................................... 18 FIGURE 15: VOIP ...................................................................................................................................................... 19 FIGURE 16: H.323 LAYERS ......................................................................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 17: NGN CONCEPT ........................................................................................................................................ 27 FIGURE 19: ACCESS LAYER PARTS ................................................................................................................................. 28 FIGURE 18: NGN ARCHITECTURE ................................................................................................................................. 28 FIGURE 20: PROTOCOL INTERCONNECTION IN NGN DEVICES ............................................................................................. 29 FIGURE 21: NEXT GENERATION VOIP NETWORK ............................................................................................................. 31 FIGURE 22: NTC NGN IP CORE NETWORK .................................................................................................................... 32 FIGURE 23 ............................................................................................................................................................... 36 FIGURE 24 ............................................................................................................................................................... 37 FIGURE 25:PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF SOFTX3000 ........................................................................................................... 39 FIGURE 26: LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SOFTX3000 ............................................................................................................ 40 FIGURE 27: OSTA FRAME STRUCTURE .......................................................................................................................... 40 FIGURE 28: C&C08................................................................................................................................................... 44 FIGURE 29 ............................................................................................................................................................... 44 FIGURE 30: MODULAR STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................... 45 FIGURE 31: BAM ...................................................................................................................................................... 46 FIGURE 32 ............................................................................................................................................................... 46 FIGURE 33: TERMINAL SYSTEM OF C&C08 .................................................................................................................... 47 FIGURE 34: MAIN CONTROL RACK ................................................................................................................................ 47 FIGURE 35: IMANAGER ARCHITECTURE ......................................................................................................................... 48 FIGURE 36:E1 CROSS CONNECTION .............................................................................................................................. 50 FIGURE 37: POINT-POINT ........................................................................................................................................... 51 FIGURE 38: PAGING SYSTEMS ...................................................................................................................................... 52

Executive Summary
PTCL is the Pakistans largest telecommunication company renowned for providing backbone services to cellular companies and Broadband and telephone services to subscribers all over the country. Today PTCL has also introduced 3G Broadband networks as well and it is going best business in market. On my six week internship experience at PTCL, I visited various departments including Power Section, NGN (New Generation Networks), WLL (Wireless local loop), Transmission, NMS (Network Management System), IGE (International Gateway Exchange) and ZTE OMC City Exchange as well. I was given brief introduction and working expertise of each department. I learned also theoretical concepts related to Power, Switching, NGN, VoIP, GSM architecture, wireless technologies (CDMA1X2000) and NMS. I was also given chance to understand the operation of equipment installed there. In NGN, NMS and City Exchange I also performed professional duties as internee engineer as well. Working in PTCL was a wonderful experience because of decent working environment and good attitude of the whole staff. This experience has broadened my learning and Practical skills and I will ever be thankful to PTCL.

Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited

History of Evolution (1947- Today)


On 14th of August, 1947 PPT (Pakistan Post & Telegraph) department was established. It started service with 12346 telephone lines and seven telegraph offices. In 1962 PPT was split into PP (Pakistan Post) and PT&T (Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph) departments. On 5th December, 1990 PT&T was converted into PTC (Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation). After five years about 5% of PTC assets were transferred to PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority), FAB (Frequency allocation board) and NTC (National Telecommunication Corporation).On 1st January, 1996 under Pakistan recognition act 1996 PTCL (Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited) was formed. It took over all properties asset rights and obligations of PTC. At that time range of its services included basic telephone, telegraph, fax, telex, email, digital cross connect, public data network, internet, ISDN and other digital facilities. In 1998 PTCL established mobile and internet subsidiaries. After that Telecom Policy was finalized in 2000.In 2005 PTCL was reformed by privatization when its 26% shares were given to Etisalat UAE through open bidding. Since then, PTCL has been providing the best standard of telecommunication services.

Corporate Vision and Mission


Being the leading Information and Communication Technology Service Provider to achieve customer satisfaction and maximizing shareholders' value' by having: An organizational environment that fosters professionalism, motivation and quality An environment that is cost effective and quality conscious Services that are based on the most optimum technology "Quality" and "Time" conscious customer service Sustained growth in earnings and profitability

PTCL Achievements during 2011-2012


30th May, 2012: PTCL wins prestigious ESRI special Achievement in GIS Award 2012. 7th March, 2012: Etisalat wins three prestigious awards at Mobile World Congress 2012. 29th October, 2011: PTCL wins prestigious Global HR Excellence Award 2011. 3rd November, 2011: PTCL wins SAMENA Award 2011 as Best Telecom Operator in South Asia. 1

23rd July, 2011: PTCL CEO Mr. Walid Irshaid wins Tele Times International Leadership Award for best broadband services. 12th July, 2011: PTCL was awarded 8th Annual Environment Excellence Award.

Business & Corporate Users:


For clear communication the first choice of business circles is PTCL telephone for local, nationwide and international calling. Today businesses can have 10-100 lines with modern day services to meet their needs. Now customer gets options like Caller-ID, call-forwarding, call-waiting, Call Barring etc. Other business specific services include: 0800-Toll free number 0900-Preminum rate services VPN-Virtual Private Network Audio Conference Service Digital Cross Connect (DXX) ISDN (Policy) Teleplus (ISDN/BRI) Digital Phone Facilities/ Modification Charges UAN & UIN.

Nationwide Infrastructure:
PTCL have the largest Copper infrastructure spread over every city, town and village of Pakistan with over million installed lines. The network has over 6 million PSTN lines installed across Pakistan with more than 3 million working. Furthermore installed capacity of broadband is more than 0.6 million ports spread across 605 cities and town of the country.

National Long-haul Core Network:


Over 10,400 km fully redundant, fiber optics DWDM backbone network is installed. It connects over 840 cities and towns with 270G bandwidth.

Carriers Services
Core infrastructure services to the cellular, LDIs, Local Loop operators, ISPs, Call Centers and payphone operators. Inter-connects and telehousing to DPLC and IPLC connectivity. Interconnect services are provided from 3200 exchange locations that connect our carriers networks domestically. In addition to providing IPLC bandwidths to connect us internationally through PTCL four international gateways and SEA-ME-WE3 and SEA-ME-WE4 international submarine, also IMWE submarine cable has been added recently.

To provide connectivity to operators in the extreme remote areas of the country, PTCL has launched its state of the art satellite service Skylink. Skylink is provided using the Intelsat Satellite System, an undisputed leader in satellite communications.

EVO Wireless Broadband


PTCL EVO 3G Wireless Broadband, Pakistans fastest wireless internet which offers its customers superior 3G internet experience. The coverage of EVO is over 100 cities as EVO customers can enjoy CDMA-1X data rates of up to 153.6 Kbps at more than 1000 destinations across Pakistan.

EVO 3G Nitro
PTCL introduced EVO 3G Nitro The Worlds first & most cutting edge EV-DO Rev. B commercial network. PTCL is the first operator in the world to commercially launch EV-DO Rev. B products which offer blazing fast speeds of up to 9.3 MBPS.

3G EVO Tab
Pakistans First 3G Enabled Smartphone Android Tablet 3G EVO Tab Powered by Google Android Froyo2.2 OS, EVO Tab is a 7 capacitive multi gestures touch screen tablet packed with features of both a tablet and a GSM phone.

Broadband Pakistan
PTCL Broadband, the largest and the fastest growing Broadband service in Pakistan. In less than three years of it launch, PTCL has acquired approximately 730,000 Broadband customers in over 1000 cities and towns across Pakistan.

IPTV Service (Smart TV):


PTCL Smart TV Using its state of the art Broadband network, PTCL entered the media sector on 14th August 2008, by launching a digital interactive television service for the first time in Pakistan. Employing the IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) technology, PTCL brought Pakistan in the list of a few countries across the globe that offers this state of the art interactive TV service to its subscribers.

PTCL Smart Line Services


Interactive Television Broadband and voice telephony all at the same time on PTCLs telephone line. Most revolutionary section of this offering is the ability to rewind and pause live TV channels through TSTV (Time Shift Television) feature, the ability to block / unblock any TV channel for parental lock. Ability to search through video on demand content. 3

Currently PTCL Smart line/ TV offers its viewers 125 live channels and over 500 Movie titles through its Video on Demand service. The service is available in 16 cities of Pakistan.

PTCL Videocon
It is new launched videophone of PTCL capable of video-calling facilities to customers.

V-fone
PTCL also continues to be the largest CDMA operator in the country with approximately 1.25 million V-fone customers. It offers fixed wireless telephone for your homes & business. With CDMA2000 1X technology, it is the largest WLL network with a capacity of 2.6MB, covering over 10,000 urban & rural areas. The network is already enabled for Voice, Dialup-Internet access (153.6kbps) and EVDO Broadband.

Pak Internet Exchange


It is the only IP enabled network with 40 (number increase) point-of-presences (POP) in 26 cities. The existing 16G active bandwidth is used for internet, data, video and video-conferencing services and for voice of LDI. All PTCL Broadband users, narrow band users, corporates, mobile operators and ISP are connected to this network.

International Network SEAMEWE-3 Submarine Cable System


PTCL is a member of SEAMEWE 3 Cable Consortium with its Cable Landing Station at Karachi. SMW-3 cable connects 39 cable landing stations in 33 countries and four continents. SMW-3 is the longest system of the world with a total length of 39,000 Km.

SMW-4 Submarine Cable System


SMW-4 is a relatively new submarine cable system (inaugurated in December 2005) and links 14 countries with 16 landing stations across Europe, Middle East and Asia. The system is using Terabit DWDM technology to achieve. The link between any two destinations is STM-1. SMW-4 is designed for relatively higher traffic volumes.

I ME WE cable
IMEWE Submarine Cable is a Tera bit capacity submarine cable system connecting India to Western Europe through Middle East. The Cable system is 13,000 km long with 10 landing points in 8 countries.

Satellite Communication
PTCL has Intelsat Standard Earth Stations near Karachi and Islamabad. These installations provide the diversity for International voice connectivity and also work as Hub for domestic satellite users. There are four Intelsat Standard B Earth Stations at Islamabad, Gilgit, Skardu and Gwadar.

Associated Companies
TF Pipes Limited Emirates Telecommunication Corporation Etisalat International Pakistan Etisalat Afghanistan

Subsidiary Ufone
Ufone (Pakistan Telecom Mobile Ltd) a wholly-owned subsidiary of PTCL commenced its operations on 29th January 2001 as a GSM 900 service provider. Since the outset, it has expanded its coverage and customer base at a rapid pace and established itself as one of the leading cellular service providers in Pakistan. Ufone is now considered to be one of the most active, aggressive and innovative players in the mobile sector of Pakistan. The growth of the cellular industry is a direct result of the successful implementation of the telecom deregulation and cellular mobile policy by the Ministry of IT and Telecommunications (MOIT&T) and the support, guidance and timely enforcement of regulatory process by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA).

Key Accomplishments
Ufone has always played a pivotal role in the development of the cellular market in Pakistan. For the most part, it has been a step ahead in introducing innovative products to the market. Ufone was a pioneer in launching the GPRS services and Multi-media Messaging Service (MMS) in Pakistan, and lead the way in introducing GPRS international roaming and prepaid international roaming for these services in the Pakistani market.

Performance
The customer focus and best offering has allowed Ufone to build a subscriber base of over 20 million in less than a decade. Ufone has network coverage in 10,000 locations and across all major highways of Pakistan. Ufone currently caters for International Roaming to more than 288 live operators in more than 160 countries. Ufone also offers Pakistans largest GPRS & BlackBerry Roaming coverage available with more than 200 Live Operators across 122 countries. More recently, Ufone has become a focused and intensive leader in VAS, constantly introducing innovative services, which have been the first of their kind in the Pakistani cellular industry.

Brand
Ufone changed the image of mobile phones from a luxury only affordable by the elite, to a necessity affordable by the common man. Since its inception, Ufone has positioned its brand for masses. In keeping with the upcoming competition and market dynamics, Ufone increased its focus on the youth segment (which comprises 50% of the population), with the Prepay brand. The new brand image gained huge popularity amongst the targeted market. A recent marketing survey conducted by a prominent marketing research company showed that Ufone has considerably increased its brand visibility and image. Ufones Prepay brand is now considered to be one of the most favored brands by the youth market and is followed by other mobile operators launching their respective brands for the youth market.

International Coverage
Ufone provides International Roaming facility with more than 150 international operators across 79 countries. Ufone has GPRS roaming agreements with several international operators and also provides prepaid roaming facility to selective destinations.

Network Coverage
With a total current investment of $400 Million, Ufone has network coverage in more than 260 cities and towns and across all major highways of the country.Under the new vision of Etisalat and with the support and collaboration of its employees and vendors, Ufone aspires to be the best in the market by offering customer focused products and a quality service and sales network.

PTCL Projects and Activities


1. Training Incentive offered to VSS Optees For the rehabilitation of VSS Optees, PTCL offered a package of post VSS training & development services, out of which the most beneficial and helpful service offers were Vocational and Technical trainings. 2. Revamping Project of PTCL Training & Development by Etisalat Academy PTCL has a huge training infrastructure throughout the country that is geographically wide spread. To revamp this wing of PTCL and transform it into a profit center, Etisalat Academy has been engaged for this project with the following main objectives: Evaluation of existing training infrastructure Identification of potential and non-potential training institutes Development plan for proposed training set-up Comprehensive workforce analysis of existing Human Resources in T&D department Proposals regarding computerized learning management system Preparation of Quality Assurance (QA) systems & procedures Determination of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).

PTCL Academy
PTCL Academy, a center of excellence in the provision of state-of-the-art training and consultancy services in telecommunications and related fields. Some of the programmes on its agenda are: Ph.D. Program MS program Post Graduate Diploma Cisco Regional Academy Program Oracle Academy Program Joint venture with CISCO and NUST Course development for new offerings (technical and management courses) Quality Awareness Program One Year Paid Internship Program 2012 Senior Management Development Program Nominations for Open House Training Program

PTCL Financial Performance


During financial year 2010-11, PTCL continued to grow in the emergent Broadband market both in wire line as well as wireless segments. With the 61% growth in the Broadband customers, respective revenues increased by 77%. For the PSTN customers, introduction of various new packages commensurate with the needs of different segments of society as well as rationalization of the tariff helped in increasing the land line usage thus arresting the revenue decline.

Profitability
For the year under review, PTCL groups profit after tax was Rs. 8.4 billion compared to Rs. 11.7 billion last year. PTCLs profit at Rs. 7.5 billion was 20% less than the previous years profit resulting in earnings per share (EPS) of Rs. 1.46. For the year 2010-11, PTCL declared a dividend of Rs. 1.75 per share.

Figure 1: PTCL Revenues and Trade Debts

First Things First... Signaling


Signaling is the process which involves all functions performed to establish and terminate a call. All control signals used within or between communication equipment, whose function are to setup communication.

Types of Signaling:
According to working of location:

Subscriber line signaling: between subscriber and exchange. Inter-office signaling: between exchanges.

Figure 2: Subscriber line & Interoffice signaling

Loop Start Signaling


Each analog circuit is composed of a pair of wires. One wire is the ground, or positive side of the connection (this is often called the tip). The other wire is the battery, or negative side of the connection (often called the ring). These two wires are what power the analog phone and allow it to function. The jagged line over the wires in the analog phone in figure represents a broken circuit. Anytime the phone is on-hook, the phone separates the two wires, preventing electric signal from flowing through the phone. When the phone is lifted off-hook, the phone connects the two wires, causing an electrical signal (48V DC voltage) to flow from the phone company central office (CO) into the phone. This is known as loop start signaling. An alternative method to loop start is ground start signaling.

Figure 3: Loop Start Signaling

Ground Start Signaling


Ground start or GST is a method of signaling from a terminal or subscriber local loop to a telephone exchange, in which method a cable pair is temporarily grounded to request dial tone. 8

Supervisory Signaling
In analog telephones, Supervisory signaling handles the following: On-hook signal: When the phone is on-hook, the connection between the tip and ring wires is broken and no electrical signal passes between them. Off-hook signal: When the phone is off-hook, the phone connects the tip and ring wires, completing the circuit and allowing electrical signal to pass. Ringing: To cause an analog phone to ring, the phone company sends an alternating current (AC) signal down one of the wires, which the phone detects and generates a ring signal.

Informational Signaling
Informational signaling uses specific electrical frequencies to send a plethora of information to the caller. The following events are results of informational signaling: Dial tone: Indicates the phone company is ready to receive digits. Busy: Indicates the remote phone is already in use. Ring back: Indicates the remote phone is currently ringing. Congestion: Indicates the long-distance telephone network is not able to complete the call. Reorder: Indicates the local telephone company is not able to complete the call. Receiver off-hook: Indicates the local receiver has been off-hook for an extended period of time. No such number: Indicates the dialed number is invalid. Confirmation: Indicates the telephone company is attempting to complete the call.

Address Signaling
Once the phone company has used informational signaling to generate a dial tone signal, the user can dial digits. There are two types of address signaling in use worldwide: Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF): The buttons on a telephone keypad use a pair of high and low electrical frequencies (thus dual-tone) to generate a signal each time a caller presses a digit. Pulse: The rotary-dial wheel of a phone connects and disconnects the local loop circuit as it rotates around to signal specific digits.

According to channels of signals:

CAS (channel associated signaling)


Used for in-band signaling. Signaling is done in the same frequency band as used by voice. Voice path is established when the call setup is complete, using the same path that the call setup signals use.

Figure 4: CAS

CCS (common channel signaling)


In CCS, signaling of a group of channels is transmitted on a common high speed data link in the form of time multiplexing.

Figure 5: CCS

Comparison of CAS & CCS


CAS
Information Volume Control Mechanism Signaling channel multi-frequency in-band signals, small information volume mutual control transmission and receiving, slow speed No signaling channel during conversations

CCS
packet-data signal, large information volume non-mutual control mechanism, fast speed Independent data link for signaling, signaling could be transmitted during conversation Wide application area, suitable for future deployment Require conduction check of voice channels

Application area Conduction Check

Limited application area Not required

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SS7 (Signaling System 7) Network


SS7 is set of telephone signaling protocols used to set up telephone calls on public switched telephone network.Other uses include number translation, prepaid billing mechanisms, short message service (SMS), and a variety of other mass market services. Signaling System 7 (SS7) is architecture for performing out-of-band signaling in support of the call-establishment, billing, routing and information-exchange functions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or public land mobile network (PLMN).

Figure 6: SS7 Network

SS7 consists of the following components: Packet Switches: STPs (signal transfer points) Intelligent Database Engines: SCPs (service control points) They are interconnected to each other and to actual telephone company switches known as SSPs (service switching points) via high speed digital links, typically operating at 56kbps-64kbps.

Working
When a call is placed to a distant switch, calling information is passed to SS7, which uses Callers number, Called number and SCP database information to choose a route for a call. It then determines whether any special call-handling requirements should be involved, such as CLASS services. It instructs various switches along the way to process the call as appropriate. These features comprise set of services known as AIN (advanced intelligent network). SSP switches are responsible for basic calling while SCPs manage enhanced services that ride atop the calls.

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Layered Model of SS7

Figure 7: Layered Model of SS7

MTP Layers
The Message Transfer Part (MTP) layer is divided into three levels:

MTP Level 1
It is equivalent to the OSI Physical Layer. MTP Level 1 defines the physical, electrical, and functional characteristics of the digital signaling link. Physical interfaces defined include E-1 (2048 kb/s; 32 64 kb/s channels), DS-1 (1544 kb/s; 24 64kb/s channels), V.35 (64 kb/s), DS-0 (64 kb/s), and DS-0A (56 kb/s).

MTP Level 2
Ensures accurate end-to-end transmission of a message across a signaling link. Level 2 implements flow control, message sequence validation, and error checking. When an error occurs on a signaling link, the message (or set of messages) is retransmitted. MTP Level 2 is equivalent to the OSI Data Link Layer.

MTP Level 3
It provides message routing between signaling points in the SS7 network. MTP Level 3 re-routes traffic away from failed links and signaling points and controls traffic when congestion occurs. MTP Level 3 is equivalent to the OSI Network Layer.

ISDN User Part (ISUP)


The ISDN User Part (ISUP) defines the protocol used to set-up, manage, and release trunk circuits that carry voice and data between terminating line exchanges (e.g., between a calling party and a called party). ISUP is used for both ISDN and non-ISDN calls. However, calls that originate and terminate at the same switch do not use ISUP signaling.

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Telephone User Part (TUP)


In some parts of the world (e.g., China, Brazil), the Telephone User Part (TUP) is used to support basic call setup and tear-down. TUP handles analog circuits only. In many countries, ISUP has replaced TUP for call management.

Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)


SCCP provides connectionless and connection-oriented network services and global title translation (GTT) capabilities above MTP Level 3. A global title is an address (e.g., a dialed 800 number, calling card number, or mobile subscriber identification number) which is translated by SCCP into a destination point code and subsystem number. A subsystem number uniquely identifies an application at the destination signaling point. SCCP is used as the transport layer for TCAP-based services.

Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)


TCAP supports the exchange of non-circuit related data between applications across the SS7 network using the SCCP connectionless service. Queries and responses sent between SSPs and SCPs are carried in TCAP messages. For example, an SSP sends a TCAP query to determine the routing number associated with a dialed 800/888 number and to check the personal identification number (PIN) of a calling card user. In mobile networks (IS-41 and GSM), TCAP carries Mobile Application Part (MAP) messages sent between mobile switches and databases to support user authentication, equipment identification, and roaming.

Operations, Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP) and ASE


OMAP and ASE are areas for future definition. Presently, OMAP services may be used to verify network routing databases and to diagnose link problems.

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Inside Central Office Main Distribution Frame


The MDF is a large iron jungle gym sort of frame that provides physical support for the thousands pairs of wire that interconnect customer telephones to the switch. The cables from the cable vault ascend and are hardwired to the vertical side of the MDF. The ends of the cables are called the cable heads. The vertical side of the MDF has additional overvoltage protection. The arrays of plug-ins are called carbons; they are simply carbon fuses that open in the event of an overvoltage situation and protect the equipment and people in the office. The vertical side of the MDF is manually wired to the horizontal side. The horizontal side is wired to the central office switch line units.

Figure 8: MDF

Features Protective Block


It is a 44 frame containing 16 slots where each slot has 2 pairs of copper wires. One pair is of transmission (Tx) and other one is used for Receiving (Rx). These are connected to exchanges switch for communication.

Test Block
It is an 816 frame containing 128 slots where each slot is used for each subscriber. Copper pairs from subscriber are patched on this test block located on the vertical side of MDF. One test block has range of 0-127 slots.

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Protector
Open-circuit protection. Perfect protection with rapid action. Under certain conditions, the Protector can rework by restoration switch after fail protection. Reliable protection against over-voltage & over-current.

Figure 9: Protective Block, Test Block & Protector

Fault Finding
MDF has a bulk of jumper wires and it is very complicated to find the faulty one. Therefore MDF supervisor has complete record of each copper pair on each frame and they use a numbering pattern to find the desired slot for a new connection or a faulty one. But in fact, its not an easy task. Only expert one can solve the problem.

Traditional solution of ADSL broadband distribution


Generally MDF gives telephony services to analog subscribers. But for broadband ADSL services, the subscriber line is patched on other MDF reserved for DSL services. So if analog user wants to get DSL connection, then its line is disconnected from the MDF serving only telephone services and additional subscriber line is added to MDF reserved for DSL services. In ZTE OMC City Exchange, there are three MDFs installed of different types i.e. NGN, ZTE and MSAG. One MDF is also installed for DSL services.

Figure 10: ADSL Broadband Solution

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Digital Distribution Frame (DDF)


Digital distribution products, meet the need of different capacity in the telecom network whose transmit rate between 2M-155Mbit/s, can be widespread used between digital multiplexing equipments or between digital multiplexing equipments and exchangers, providing function of distribution, transition and test.

Figure 11: DDF

There are two multiplexers (MUX) in the figure. 2Mbits/sec data comes from DDF and first MUX converts it into STM1 and second MUX converts it into STM4 which are frame standards of optical fiber communication.

DSL
DSL is a family of technologies that provide high speed data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. It uses high frequency, while regular telephone uses low frequency on the same telephone line. Traditional PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) consists 3 main parts: Local Exchange: Connect Users of Particular areas Transit Exchange: Connect Local Exchanges Gateway Exchange: Connect different countries to each other.

Originally these exchanges are established to fulfill the need of telephony network, but now days same local loop is used to provide DSL service. To separate Voice and Data use different frequency level. Data is carried over the high frequency band (25 kHz and above) whereas the voice is carried over the lower frequency band (4 kHz and below).

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Network Design of Voice

Figure 12: Network Design of Voice

Major Devices used for DSL


1. DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer) Multiplex multiple DSL connections into a high-speed Internet backbone line Directs the data signals towards the ISP network, and the phone signals towards the voice switch.

2. BRAS (Broadband Remote Access Server)


Termination for PPP sessions encapsulated either over Ethernet (PPPOE) or over ATM (PPPOA). Forwards the users authentication information to the RADIUS server for the AAA process.

3. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)


Establishes a virtual circuit between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins Fixed size cell of 53 bytes.

Network Design of DSL

Figure 13: Network Design of DSL

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Power Supply:
Central offices are powered by massive, wet-cell battery arrays .The batteries are quite large, about two feet tall, and are connected together by massive copper bus bars. Meanwhile, commercial power is fed to the building from several redundant sources on the power grid to avoid dependency on a single source of power. The AC power is fed into a rectifier bank that converts it to 48 volts DC; the power is then trickled to the batteries. The voltage maintains a constant charge on them. In the event that a failure of commercial power should occur, the buildings uninterruptible power supply (UPS) equipment kicks in and begins a complex series of events designed to protect service in the office. First, it recognizes that the building is now isolated and is on battery power exclusively. The batteries have enough current to power a typical CO for about 8 hours before things start to fail. Third, the UPS system initiates the automatic startup of the buildings turbine, a massive jet engine that can be spun up in about a half hour. The turbine is either in a sound proof room in the basement or in an enclosure on the roof of the building. Once the turbine has spun up to speed, the buildings power load can slowly be shed onto it. It will power the building until it runs out of kerosene, but most buildings have several days supply of fuel in the underground tanks.

Figure 14: Power Supply

What is E1 line?
In telecommunication there is E-carrier system which uses TDM multiplexing technique where a single physical wire is used to carry many simultaneous voice conversations or data as well. The data rate for E1 is 2.048 Mbits/sec (full-duplex) which is split into 32 channels or time slots. Slot is allocated 8bits in turn. It is ideal for voice traffic because voice is sampled at the same 8KHZ rate so E1 line can carry 32 simultaneous voice conversations. Out of 32 channels, only 30 channels are used for voice transmission, one channel is used for signaling and remaining one is used for synchronization.

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What is VoIP?

VoIP, also known as IP Telephony, is the real-time transmission of voice signals using the Internet Protocol (IP) over the public Internet or a private data network. In simpler terms, VoIP converts the voice signal from your telephone into a digital signal that travels over the Internet. For long distance calls, TDM based tandem switches were replaced by VoIP TDM-IP gateways. One of the most significant advantages of VoIP (over a traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN - also known as a legacy networks) is that one can make a long distance phone call and bypass the toll charge. This integrated voice/data solution allows large organizations (with the funding to make the transfer from a legacy network to a VoIP network) to carry voice applications over their existing data networks. Furthermore, when compared with circuit-switched services, IP networks can carry 5 to 10 times the number of voice calls over the same bandwidth.

Figure 15: VoIP

VoIP beginning.. VoIP started in February of 1995 by a small company in Israel called Vocaltec, Inc. Vocaltecs IP phone was marketed by 1998 for PC to phone and phone to phone VoIP solutions. The phone calls were marketed as Free nation-wide long distance calls. By 2000, VoIP calls accounted for 3% of total voice calls and by 2003 that number had jumped up to 25%.

How does VoIP work?


To transport voice over a data network, the human voice is packetized. This process contrasts significantly with the circuit-switching mechanism used in traditional networks. Voice packetization involves adding headers with routing information to the voice data. Multiple voice samples are combined into a packet and the voice packet is switched hop-by-hop through the network. To summarize, the voice signal is broken up into small pieces (packets) and sent though the network one-by-one. The process of packetization compresses the callers voice signal, transfers it over the IP network and it is then decompressed at the other end.

Encoding, Transmission & Playback


Audio is encoded using a well-known standard such as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). Audio is transferred using the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). 19

RTP message is encapsulated in a UDP datagram that is further encapsulated in an IP datagram for transmission.

Signaling Protocols in VoIP


SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), by IETF H.323, by ITU Megaco & MGCP, jointly by IETF and IUT.

VoIP protocols must be able to interact with SS7 in PSTN network and with other IP network. For this we need two things:

Media gateway: translates audio between IP network and PSTN. Signaling Gateway: translates signaling operations. H.323 Protocol in VoIP:
H.323, invented by ITU, defines four elements that comprising a signaling system:

Terminal: IP phone Gatekeeper: provides location and signaling functions; coordinates operation of Gateway. Gateway: is used to interconnect IP telephone system with PSTN, handling both signaling
and media translation.

Multipoint Control Unit: provides services such as multipoint conferencing.

H.323 Layering
H.323 uses both UDP and TCP over IP. Audio travels over UDP Data travels over TCP

Figure 16: H.323 Layers

SIP Protocol in VoIP


Invented by IETF, SIP defines three main elements that comprise a signaling system:

User Agent: User agents are both the computer that is being used to make a call and the target
computer that is being called. These make the two endpoints of the communication session. There 20

are two components to a user agent: a client and a server. When a user agent makes a request (such as initiating a session), it is the User Agent Client (UAC), and the user agent responding to the request is the User Agent Server (UAS).

SIP Server: SIP Server act as following: Registrar Server Proxy Server Redirect Server

Registrar Server
Registrar servers are used to register the location of a user agent who has logged onto the network. It obtains the IP address of the user and associates it with their username on the system. This creates a directory of all those who are currently logged onto the network, and where they are located. When someone wishes to establish a session with one of these users, the Registrar servers information is referred to, thereby identifying the IP addresses of those involved in the session.

Proxy Server
Proxy servers are computers that are used to forward requests on behalf of other computers. If a SIP server receives a request from a client, it can forward the request onto another SIP server on the network. While functioning as a proxy server, the SIP server can provide such functions as network access control, security, authentication, and authorization.

Redirect Server
The Redirect servers are used by SIP to redirect clients to the user agent they are attempting to contact. If a user agent makes a request, the Redirect server can respond with the IP address of the user agent being contacted. This is different from a Proxy server, which forwards the request on your behalf, as the Redirect server essentially tells you to contact them yourself. The Redirect server also has the ability to fork a call, by splitting the call to several locations. If a call was made to a particular user, it could be split to a number of different locations, so that it rang at all of them at the same time. The rst of these locations to answer the call would receive it, and the other locations would stop ringing.

SIP Requests
Because SIP is a text-based protocol like HTTP, it is used to send information between clients and servers, and User Agent clients and User Agent servers, as a series of requests and responses. When requests are made, there are a number of possible signaling commands that might be used:

REGISTER: Used when a user agent rst goes online and registers its SIP address and IP address with
a Registrar server.

INVITE: Used to invite another User agent to communicate, and then establish a SIP session
between them. 21

ACK: Used to accept a session and conrm reliable message exchanges. OPTIONS: Used to obtain information on the capabilities of another user agent, so that a session
can be established between them. When this information is provided a session isnt automatically created as a result.

SUBSCRIBE: Used to request updated presence information on another user agents status. This is
used to acquire updated information on whether a User agent is online, busy, offline, and so on.

NOTIFY: Used to send updated information on a User agents current status. This sends presence
information on whether a User agent is online, busy, offline, and so on.

CANCEL: Used to cancel a pending request without terminating the session. BYE: Used to terminate the session. Either the user agent who initiated the session or the one being
called can use the BYE command at any time to terminate the session.

SIP Request Response:


SIP request responses are grouped into six different categories, with a three-digit numerical response code that begins with a number relating to one of these categories. The various categories and their response code prexes are as follows:

Informational (1xx): The request has been received and is being processed. Success (2xx): The request was acknowledged and accepted. Redirection (3xx): The request cant be completed and additional steps are required (such as
redirecting the user agent to another IP address). Client error (4xx): The request contained errors, so the server cant process the request.

Server error (5xx): The request was received, but the server cant process it. Errors of this type
refer to the server itself, and dont indicate that another server wont be able to process the request.

Global failure (6xx): The request was received and the server is unable to process it. Errors of this
type refer to errors that would occur on any server, so the request wouldnt be forwarded to another server for processing.

Other Protocols used by SIP SDP (Session Description Protocol): which sends information to effectively transmit data. RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol): which is used to transport data. MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol): which is used to connect to the PSTN. RTSP (Real-time Streaming Protocol): which controls the delivery of streaming media.

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ZTE EXCHANGE

ZTE is a Chinese telecommunication company that was founded in 1985.Initially it had its network limited in different cities of China later on ZTE extended its network to different countries of Asia and Africa. At ZTE OMC City Exchange, ZTE exchange named ZXJ10 is installed. It has capability of supporting 10000 lines. The main advantage of having a ZTE exchange is its low cost. The ZTE exchange costs almost eight times less than that of Siemens, Ericsson or Alcatel. That is the reason why ZTE is becoming so popular in the developing and poor countries of Asia and Africa. The disadvantage of ZTE exchange is that it is not as reliable as EWSD, Ericsson, Alcatel or even Huawei. ZTE exchange suffers from more errors than other exchanges.

CLASS 5 Soft switches at ZTE OMC City Exchange


ZTE ZXA10 C5 MSAG HUWEI

These soft-switches are located at access layer of NGN (new generation networks).They deal in making new PTCL connection to subscribers, providing services as demanded by subscriber and handle any complaints and issues in communication. At my one week internship at this exchange, I was given chance to learn about C5 MSAG working. There is iManager N2000 Fixed Network integrated Management System through which all functions of softswitch are performed.

Some Important Commands For MSAG Huwei


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Create a new subscriber----ADD VSBR List the information of a subscriber----LST VSBR Modify the call authority or supplementary service Authority----MOD VSBR Permanently Close or Remove a Subscriber----RMV VSBR Register Supplementary Service----REG SS Cancel or Deactivate Supplementary Service----RPL SS Temporary Close Subscriber due to Non-payment----PRK OWSBR

Add Voice Subscriber (ADD VSBR)


It is a configuration command, and is used to add voice subscriber data in the configuration database. Before adding a voice subscriber, some related commands are used to get the following parameters defined by the system. Module number of FCCU: LST MDU Local DN set: LST LDNSET Call source: LST CALLSRC 23

Charging Source Code: LST CHGGRP, LST CHGIDX Called Charging Source Code: LST CHGCLD Equipment ID of the Media Gateway: LST MGW V5 Interface ID (For adding V5 Interface): LST V5I When the port type is Home WLL subscriber or Roam WLL subscriber, a value must be entered (ranging from 22-101) for FCCU module number.

Modify Voice Subscriber (MOD VSBR)


It is configuration command, and is used to modify voice subscriber data in the configuration database. This command supports the modification of attributes related to home WS and roam subscribers. The attributes of Voice Subscriber can be modified either by the user telephone number + local DN set or by the module number + equipment number. But the telephone number, module number and equipment number cannot be specified at the same time. All parameters must be valid. When the telephone set is set as Suspended, this user can neither make any call nor receive any incoming calls. You can modify EID, TID, or both of them by specifying Local DN set + Subscriber number or Equipment ID + Termination ID in this command. For home WS and roam WS subscribers, VS interface ID and L3 address are invalid; for roam WS subscribers, only Codec prefer, Charging source code and Call source code can be modified. Other modification methods are the same as the modification methods of ordinary V5 subscribers.

Register Supplementary Service (REG SS)


It specifies the wakeup mode when the supplementary service is set to wakeup. A subscriber with supplementary service authority can register or cancel a supplementary service by using the following two methods: The subscriber can register or cancel the supplementary service on a phone. You can register or cancel the supplementary service for the subscriber.

Park Owing Subscriber (PRK OWSBR)


It is a configuration command, and is used to park an owing subscriber in the configuration database. The command is valid for VSBR/MSBR subscribers. We can use RES OWSBR to restore the subscriber after using PRK OWSBR.

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This command will modify the user data information, so it is not useful for a PBX indicating number without an actual subscriber.

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NGN Department Satellite Town Rawalpindi


This department is famous for providing distributed services of NGN and HCTE (High capacity transit exchange). This department is composed of three sections: Control room Server room Switching and HCTE equipment room

About 5 workstations and PCs are in control room where all incoming and outgoing traffic of other HCTE exchanges and cellular companies (Mobilink, Telenor, Zong,Ufone,Warid etc.) is monitored and managed on daily basis. There are softwares to control and monitor that traffic. A network management system is also installed which control softswitches, NGN devices and other data communication devices. In Server room, there are big servers, LAN switches, Alarm Switches and AC Switches. Most important aspect of server room is alarm generation. When anything become out of service, alarms are raised immediately. Alarms have traffic signal like function. When commercial power supply cuts off, alarms are generated for AC supply with red light signal. Similar alarm method is applied for DC supply batteries, AC working, room temperature etc. There is a security check door for room where whole structure of exchange and switches is located. Only staff persons can enter there by inserting their ID cards through electronic system. I have visited all the equipment like C&C08 exchange, Digital Distribution Frame, Power distribution frame etc., in that room under supervision of Sir Khalid sarwar and other staff members. In NGN department, we worked in the form of groups with assigned tasks on daily basis. We made record of traffic on excel sheets and also worked on graphical user interface of HCTE. We identified the faulty circuits of HCTE and rectified them by hand and also by phone calls for remote exchanges. Apart from that we were given practical exposure to other communication devices and technologies as well. In short words, we worked there not as internees but as a staff members and that confidence was only due to personality of Sir Khalid Sarwar who can judge the right person for right job. We enjoyed their company in work and lecture sessions. They kept us motivated and we also gave our best to learn more practical things.

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NEW GENERATION NETWORKS What is NGN and why world is shifting networks to NGN?
IP based Converged Network providing broadband-services for Voice, Internet and Multimedia communication. Before that, we had separate networks for voice and data but today a single telephone connection can provide you broadband services for internet, telephone and videocommunication. Thats the great fact why world is shifting its networks to NGN.

Figure 17: NGN Concept

ITU-T defines NGN as following: "A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network able to provide services including Telecommunication Services and able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport technologies and in which service-related functions are independent from underlying transportrelated technologies. It offers unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to users." A NGN converges the Service Provider networks including the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), data network (the Internet), and wireless network. It offers a high quality end user experience. At core network, NGN consolidates several transport networks into one core transport network based on IP and Ethernet with migrations from PSTN to VoIP, legacy services of X.25 and Frame Relay to IP VPN. At wired access network, NGN is responsible for the migration from dual legacy voice next to xDSL setup to a converged setup. At cable access network, NGN convergence involves migrating from bit-rate voice to standards like VoIP and SIP.

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NGN Architecture:
At HCTE Rawalpindi, there is NGN C5 & C4 switches installed with HCTE C&C08 exchange.Functional architecture of NGN is given below. It shows four different layers.

iOSS

Policy Server

MRS

SCP

Service Management

Network Control

SoftSwitch

SoftSwitch

Core Switching

Packet Core Network

Edge Access

IAD AMG BroadBand Access

SG

TMG PSTN

UMG

UMG PLMN/3G

Figure 18: NGN Architecture

1. Access Layer Connects subscribers of PSTN, ISDN, PLMN etc and converts information
formats from circuit-to-packet and vice versa. This layer is divided into three parts:
Broad Band Devices IAD & AMG

PSTN Devices

SG, TMG &UMG

PLMN/3G Devices

UMG

Figure 19: Access Layer Parts

2. Core Switching Layer Core Switching Layer contains clouds of networks, giving
connectivity to between soft switch and components of edge access layer by using a set of appropriate protocol.

3. Network Control Layer Offers software switching to achieve real time call control, media
gateway access control, resource allocation, protocol processing, authentication. managing application, video, and media servers. routing, and

4. Service Layer Offers many value-added services such as supporting operating system,

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Protocols Of NGN:

Figure 20: Protocol Interconnection in NGN devices

NGN Enabled Switch Application


Current PSTN is narrow-band TDM circuit-switch network. In order to use both NGN and TDM based switching U-SYS solution (SoftX3000+UMG8900) implements the traditional switching functions based on NGN technology. SoftX3000 implements the soft switch function and UMG8900 implements the user access and switch function.

Network Components Call Agent/SIP Server/SIP Client


Located in the service providers network Call agent/SIP Server/SIP client provides call logic and call control functions like maintaining call state for every call in the network. Some Call agents have service logic for supplementary services, e.g. Caller ID, Call Waiting, and also have interaction with application servers to supply services that are not directly hosted on call agent. The Call Agent participates in signaling and device control flows originating, terminating or forwarding messages.

Service Broker
Located on the edge of the service providers network, it provides service distribution, coordination, and control between application servers, media servers, call agents, and services that may exist on alternate technologies (i.e. Parlay Gateways and SCP s). The service broker allows a consistent repeatable approach for controlling applications in conjunction with their service data and media resources to enable services to allow services to be reused with other services to create new value added services.

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Application Server
It provides the service logic and execution for multiple applications or services that are not directly hosted on the Call Agent. For example, it may provide voice mail or conference call facilities. Mostly the Call Agent will route calls to the appropriate application server when a service is invoked that the Call Agent cannot itself support.

Media Server
It is also referred to as an announcement server. For voice services, it uses a control protocol, such as H.248 (Megaco) or MGCP, under the control of the call agent or application server. Some of the functions the Media Server include:

Playing announcements Mixing : providing support for 3-way calling etc Codec Transcoding and voice activity detection Tone detection and generation Interactive voice response (IVR) processing Fax processing

Signaling Gateway
It acts as a gateway between the call agent signaling and the SS7-based PSTN. It can also be used as a signaling gateway between different packet-based carrier domains. It may provide signaling translation, for example between SIP and SS7 or simply signaling transport conversion e.g. SS7 over IP to SS7 over TDM.

Trunking Gateway
It as a gateway between the carrier IP network and the TDM (Time Division Multiplexing)based PSTN. It provides transcoding from the packet-based voice, VoIP onto a TDM network. Typically, it is under the control of the Call Agent / Media Gateway Controller through a device control protocol such as H.248 (Megaco) or MGCP.

Access Gateway
It provides support for POTS phones and it is also controlled by Media Gateway through MGCP.

Access Concentrator
It terminates the service provider end of the WAN links used over the last mile. For example, in a DSL network, this is a DSLAM; in a cable network, a CMTS. The Access Concentrator may also include the Access Gateway function, for example a next-generation DLC that combines DSLAM capability with direct POTS termination.

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Bandwidth Manager
It is responsible for providing the required QoS from the network, setting up and tearing down of bandwidth within the network and for controlling the access of individual calls to this bandwidth. It is responsible for installing the appropriate policy in edge routers to police the media flows on a per call basis.

Edge Router
It routes IP traffic onto the carrier backbone network. Typically the edge router will provide many other functions and can be combined with the Access Concentrator.

Subscriber Gateway
Located at the customer premises, it terminates WAN (Wide Area Network) link (DSL, T1, fixed wireless, cable etc) and provides both voice ports and data connectivity. Usually, it uses a device control protocol, such as H.248 (Megaco) or MGCP/NCS, under the control of the Call Agent. It provides similar function to the Access Gateway but typically supports many fewer voice ports. Subscriber Gateways are also known as IADs, Residential Gateways, or MTAs (in a cable network).

Bridge/Router
It also terminates the WAN (Wide Area Network) link (DSL, T1, fixed wireless, cable etc) at the customer premises but the difference between this and the Subscriber Gateway is that a bridge/router does not provide any native voice support, although voice services for example SIP phones, can be bridged/routed via this device.

IP Phone/PBX
It is also located at customer premises and provides voice services. It interacts with the Call Agent/SIP Server using a signaling protocol such as SIP, H.323 or a device control protocol such as H.248 (Megaco) or MGCP.

Figure 21: Next Generation VoIP Network

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Above figure shows an example VoIP Next Generation network with 3 service provider networks. a. Service Provider 1 is offering local access acting as a LEC. This Service Provider supports IP phones and IP PBX systems using SIP and POTS phones connect via either an Access Gateway (Next Gen DLC) or a Subscriber Gateway (using either H.248 or MGCP). b. Service Provider 2 is acting as an inter-exchange carrier (IXC) and supports SIP and SIP-T or BICC signaling through its network. c. Service Provider 3 is offering local access acting as a LEC, but only supports POTS phones using an Access Gateway. d. SIP signaling is supported but is terminated by the SIP Server rather than using a SIP Phone or other CPE device.

NTC NGN IP Core Network Architecture

Figure 22: NTC NGN IP Core Network

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SOFTSWITCH SOFTX3000 HUAWEI AT NGN ISLAMABAD LOCATION OF USYS-SOFTSWITCH 3000 SYSTEM:


SoftX3000 works on the network control layer of NGN and implements call control and connection management of voice, data and multimedia services based on the IP network.

Features & Specifications:


Rack specifications: 600*800*2200mm (W*D*H). Process capacity: 16Million BHCA, 2Million subscribers/360000 trunks. Carrier class reliability design: 1+1 redundancy for major components, online software patching, hot swappable and Availability: 99.99983%. Fully compatible with all service capabilities of PSTN exchanges and can be used as a multimedia end office. Supports the traditional PSTN signaling, such as SS7, R2, DSS1 and V5. SoftX3000 can function as a voice end office, tandem office or toll office. Supports black and white lists, call authentication, call interception, and so on. It can act as a gateway office. Supports MTP and M3UA, which enables SoftX3000 to serve as an integrated signaling gateway. Supports INAP and INAP+, so it can be used as an SSP or IPSSP in the IN system. Supports the H.323 protocol and can function as a gatekeeper (GK) in the traditional Voice over IP (VoIP) network. Built-in SG and MRS (Media resource server). Built-in SSP with CS2 capability. Class 4 application with gateway functions such as authentication, charging, black/white list and equal access. Class 5 applications with PSTN, IN and value-added services. IP Centrex and multi-media services. Multi-area code. 3rd party API support based on SIP and PARLAY. Dual homing. Carrier-class reliability design Supports abundant protocols for example H.248/MGCP, SIP/SIP-T, H.323, etc. Single platform with various applications: Class 4/Class 5/IP Centrex, etc. Multi-area code

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PHYSICAL INTERFACES
Interface Type Quantity (Maximum) Purpose Provides bearer channels for IP-based service signaling or protocols, such as SIP, SIP-T, H.323, M2UA, M3UA, V5.2, User Adaptation Layer (V5UA), ISDN Q.921, User Adaptation Layer (IUA), ENUM, TRIP, MIDCOM, STUN, RADIUS. Provides bearer channels for TCP/IP-based network management or file transfer protocols, such as SNMP, MML, FTP, FTAM.

Host: 4 FE electrical interface Background: 3

SIGNALING & PROTOCOLS


Protocol MGCP H.248 SIP SIP-T H.323 Purpose Media gateway control protocol, used for SoftX3000 to control the media gateways and also to access MGCP packet terminals. Media gateway control protocol, used for SoftX3000 to control the media gateways and also to access H.248 packet terminals. Session initiation protocol, used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and other SoftSwitches or SIP application servers and also to access SIP multimedia packet terminals. The extension protocol of SIP, used for the transparent transfer of ISUP signaling. IP call and multimedia communication protocol, used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and GKs, GWs, or MCUs in the traditional H.323 network and also to access H.323 multimedia packet terminals. SCTP, used to provide the reliable data packet transfer service for the adaptation protocols of IP-based Switched Circuit Network (SCN) signaling. M2UA: used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and TMGs or UMGs with built-in signaling gateway functions. M3UA: used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and SGs. V5UA: used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and UMGs with built-in V5 signaling gateway functions. IUA: used for the interconnection between SoftX3000 and UMGs with built-in DSS1 signaling gateway functions. MTP: used for the interworking between SoftX3000 and the SS7 signaling network so that SoftX3000 can be interconnected to SPs or STPs in the SS7 signaling network. ISUP: used for the interworking between SoftX3000 and the PSTN so that SoftX3000 can provide ISUP trunks through TMGs and achieve the interconnection with PSTN exchanges. SCCP: used to bear the INAP protocol so that SoftX3000 can be interconnected to SCPs in the IN through the SS7 signaling network. TCAP: used to provide the applications of SoftX3000 and SCPs with a number of functions and procedures which are not application specific, so that SoftX3000 can support the applications pertaining to IN services. INAP: used to define the information streams between the functionalities of the IN so that SoftX3000 can support the Service Switching Function (SSF), the Call Control Function (CCF), the Specialized Resource Function (SRF) and the Call Control Access 34

SIGTRAN

SS7

R2

DSS1

V5 ENUM TRIP MIDCOM STUN IPSec RADIUS

SNMP FTP FTAM

Function (CCAF) and act as the SSP over the standard IN architecture. INAP+: the extension protocol of INAP, used to support value added services on the IP network. A type of inter-office channel associated signaling, used for the interworking between SoftX3000 and exchanges of old mode so that SoftX3000 can provide R2 trunks through UMGs. ISDN subscriber network signaling, used for the interworking between SoftX3000 and NASs or PBXs so that SoftX3000 can provide Primary Rate Interfaces (PRIs) through UMGs. Subscriber network signaling, used for the interworking between SoftX3000 and the V5 access network or base station controllers so that SoftX3000 can provide V5.1/V5.2 interfaces through UMGs. Used to support the layered static routing functions of SoftX3000 to achieve the interconnection between SoftX3000 and ENUM Servers. Used to support the dynamic routing functions of SoftX3000 to achieve the interconnection between SoftX3000 and Location Servers. Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and NATs or firewall devices. Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and STUN Servers (built in the BSGI board of SoftX3000). Used to protect the security of communications between SoftX3000 and the gateways under its control, such as IADs, AMGs, TMGs and UMGs. Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and RADIUS Servers in order to provide authentication, authorization, accounting functions and provide the card number service. Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and NMS devices (iManager N2000) so that SoftX3000 can provide network management interfaces (SNMP interfaces). Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and billing centers so that SoftX3000 can provide FTP interfaces. Used to support the interconnection between SoftX3000 and billing centers so that SoftX3000 can provide FTAM interfaces.

35

CONFIGURATIONS OF SOFTX3000

Packet Multimedia End Office

Packet Tandem Office

Packet Gateway Office

Figure 23

C5 Office

36

Interworking with H.323 Network

Interworking with IN

Interworking with SIP Network


Figure 24

Interworking with Parlay Gateway

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System Capacity

Item Maximum number of supported TDM trunks Maximum number of supported gateways Maximum capacity of supported black and white lists Maximum capacity of supported external prepaid card numbers Maximum number of supported subscribers

Specifications 360,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 POTS subscribers: 2,000,000 V5 subscribers: 2,000,000 IPN subscribers: 200,000 IP consoles: 100,000 SIP terminals: 2,000,000 H.323 terminals: 1,000,000

Maximum number of supported multimedia terminals

Bill Processing Capability

Item Bill buffering capacity of the service processing module Bill transfer capability of the service processing module Bill storage capacity of the iGWB Bill transfer capability of the iGWB

Specifications 192 Mbytes 120 bills/second 73 Gbytes 4,000 bills/second

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Physical Structure of SoftX3000

Figure 25:Physical Structure of Softx3000

HOST
OSTA (Open Standards Telecom Architecture) frame: service processing and resource management The capacity of the system depends on the quantity of configured OSTA frames.

Background

BAM (Back Administration Module) Emergency Workstation iWS (Workstation): operation and maintenance iGWB bill management

Communication among the frames and BAM/iGWB is achieved through two LAN Switches.

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Logical Structure of SoftX3000:

Figure 26: Logical Structure of SoftX3000

Overall Structure of OSTA Frame


21 standard board slots. Front boards Service boards: FCCU/FCSU,BSGI,MSGI,IFMI System management boards: SMUI ( fixed slot) Alarm boards: ALMI Back boards are interface boards : BFII,SIUI,HSCI ( fixed slot) Power boards can be installed either at the front or at the back. A fan box is installed at the bottom of each service frame. Has temperature detection and fan speed adjustment functions.

Figure 27: OSTA Frame Structure

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SoftX3000 Boards and their Functions

Function The FCCU generates and stores bills in its bill pool. Each FCCU can store a maximum of 160,000 FCCU bills. The generated bills are transmitted to iGWB The Fixed Calling in real time. Control Unit The alarm information generated by the FCCU is reported to the SMUI through the shared resource bus. FCSU The FCSU generates and stores bills in its bill Fixed Calling Control pool. Each FCSU can store up to 160,000 bills. The and Signaling process detailed bills are transmitted to iGWB through Unit the shared resource bus for processing. Processing messages on MTP1 physical layer. Providing narrowband signaling physical interfaces for the FCSU. The EPII is configured in pair with FCSU. Implementing transfer of system clock and EPII enabling clock synchronization function in a E1 Pool Interface Unit frame. Working with the front board FCSU to perform switchover between active and standby boards through H.110 bus. It is used together with the back board PFII in pairs. The IFMI is used to receive and transmit IP packets, process Media Access Control (MAC) layer messages, distribute IP messages and provide IP interfaces together with the BFII. It is used to implement FE driver processing and enable the external physical interface of the IFMI. The BFII is configured in pair with IFMI. The BFIIs work in active/standby mode. Configuring shared resource buses and managing their status. Managing all boards in the frame, reporting their status to BAM and controlling the status of the indicators on the front panel of the ALUI through serial port bus and shared resource bus. Loading and managing system program and data. The SMUIs work in active/standby mode. Providing the SMUI with Ethernet interface. The SIUI is configured correspondingly to the SMUI one by one. Implementing level conversion for two asynchronous serial port signals from the 41

Board

Position

Front board

Front board

Back board

IFMI IP Forward Module

Front board

BFII Back insert FE Interface Unit

Back board

SMUI The System Management Unit

Front board

SIUI System Interface Unit

Back board

front board, and providing physical interfaces for three asynchronous serial ports. Identifying frame ID through setting the DIP switches.

MRCA Media Resource Control Unit

MRIA Media Resource Interface Unit

The SIUIs work in active/standby mode. Each MRCA can function as independent media resource server. The MRCA processes the audio signals in real time. It collects and generates DTMF signals, plays and records audio clips and provides multi-party conference function. The MRCAs work in load sharing mode It is the back board of the MRCA, providing 10/100-Mbps interface for the external media streams. The Broadband Signaling Gateway (BSGI) is used to process the IP packets after the IFMI level-1 dispatch. It implements the following protocols:

Front board

Back board

BSGI Broadband Signaling Gateway

UDP SCTP MTP layer-2 user adaptation (M2UA) M3UA V5UA IUA MGCP H.248

Front board

The BSGI then performs level-2 dispatch of such messages to the FCCU or FCSU for processing of transaction layer or service layer. The figure below shows the protocol stack of the BSGI. The alarm information generated by the BSGI is reported to the SMUI through the shared resource bus. The BSGIs work in load sharing mode. The Multimedia Signaling Gateway Unit (MSGI) processes the following protocols:

MSGI Multimedia Signaling Gateway Unit

UDP TCP H.323 (including H.323 RAS and H.323 Call Signaling) SIP The MSGIs work in active/standby mode. The alarm information generated by the MSGI is reported to the SMUI through the shared resource bus.

Front board

Note: When the BHCA of the system is less than 42

400,000 or the number of equivalent subscribers is less than 50,000, it is not necessary to configure the MSGI. The configured IFMIs can provide all features of the MSGI. As the database of the equipment, the CDBI stores all data of the following aspects:

CDBI Central Database Boards

Call location Gateway resources management Outgoing trunk circuit selection

Front board

UPWR Universal Power

HSCI Hot-Swap and Control Unit

The CDBIs work in active/standby mode. At maximum, two pairs of CDBIs can be configured. The alarm information generated by the CDBI is reported to the SMUI through the shared resource bus. It provides power supply for all the other boards in the frame. Each UPWR occupies two slots-in front slots 17 and 18 or back slots 19 and 20 of each frame. The ALUI collects the information of the UPWR through the serial cable embedded in the backplane, and drives the indicators on the ALUI to indicate the working status of the UPWR. Bridging between left and right shared resource buses, to ensure that the SMUIs in slots 6 and 8 can manage the front boards (except ALUI and UPWR) of the frame. Switching of Ethernet buses in the frame. Board hot swap control. Board power-on control. Providing two pairs of heartbeat detection interfaces for the SMUI and HSCI. Providing a 10/100 Mbit/s auto-sensing Ethernet connection between the active and the standby SMUI. Providing six external FE interfaces. The HSCIs work in active/standby mode. Providing the clock signals in conformity with the specifications of BELLCORE GR-1244CORE stratum-2 clock, and ITU-T G.812 Type II clock. Supporting Synchronization Status Message (SSM) function in conformity with the ITU-T G.781 recommendation. Its external synchronous clock interface complying with the requirements of the ITU-T G.703 and ITU-T G.704 templates.

Back board

CKII Clock Interface Unit

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HCTE C&C08

HCTE stands for High Capacity Transit Exchange. C&C08 is the China and Communication HCTE exchange manufactured by Huawei. The need of installing a separate exchange for ISPs was to reduce the traffic from EWSD & ZTE exchanges through which PSTN services are provided, because these exchanges become overloaded due to the increasing use of internet.

Profile of C&C08
Maximal Capacity: 800000 subscriber lines 180000 DT lines. Function as: Local, Tandem, Toll or International exchange.

Length: 2100mm Width: 800mm Depth: 550mm

Figure 28: C&C08

Overall Structure
C&C08 system is composed of a central module & multiple switching modules. The central module is composed of the administration module/communication module (AM/CM).

SM: Switching Module RSM: Remote Switching Module AM: Administration Module CM: Communication Module BAM: Back Administration Module OFL: Optical Fiber Interface Figure 29

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Modular & Hierarchical

Switch

Module

Module

Module

Frame

Frame

Board

Figure 30: Modular Structure

Modules
CM: Communication module AM: Administration module FAM: Front Administration Module BAM: Back Administration Module SPM: Service Processing Module SRM: Shared Resource Module SM: Switching Module

SM
Performs independent switching function and handles intra- module traffic. Provides various services interfaces. Performs a variety of functions including database management, call processing, maintenance and operation. Local SM: 40M optic interface RSM: Standard E1 interface or SDH (STM-1) optic interface.

FAM
Management of inter-SM call connection. Provides open management interface to terminal system. It performs routine management tasks like ticket recording and traffic statistics etc.

CM
Consists of central switching network and inter module communication interfaces Responsible for providing inter-SM speech channels and signaling links. 45

BAM
BAM belongs to open O&M terminal network which is based on TCP/IP protocol and client/server model. All databases and program required by system operation are stored on BAM.

SPM
Works with the interfaces of E1 or SDH STM-1, SPM is Figure 31: BAM able to provide a variety of service interfaces, including Inter-office trunk (SS7, R2, NO.5) V5 interface to AN PRA of ISDN SPM is connected with BAM directly by 10M/100M TCP/IP network interface.

LIM (Line Interface Module)


Mainly it is in the charge of Multiplexing & demultiplexing the services & signaling data. It is connected to SM through a 40.96 Mbps Interface. STM-1:Trunk Interface E-1:Trunk Interface

SRM
Provides resources required by SPM including: Signal tones DTMF device MFC device Conference telephone device CID display device All resources are shared by all SPM in the whole office.

Interconnection: AM SM

Figure 32

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Terminal System of C&C08 Switch

Figure 33: Terminal System of C&C08

Main Control Rack


Following modules are installed at main control rack: CNET (Central Switching Network) CKM (Clock Module) CPM (Central Processing Module) CCM (Communication Control Module)

Figure 34: Main Control Rack

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iManager N2000 UMS Introduction


iManager N2000 UMS (Unified Management System) is a type of network management system software which manages NGN and communication devices to perform NGN and other services.

System Architecture

Figure 35: iManager Architecture

Figure shows that iManager can control services of data communication devices, softswitch and exchanges at one time. Some of main functions of iManager NMS are given below: Topology Management Construct and manage topology structure of the network. Fault Management Monitor alarm information and operation information. Performance Management View real-time performance data of devices. Security & Log Management Set user authority and realize authority and domain management. Configuration Management Configure and maintain hardware and device parameters.

Service Management Distribute IADs and manage IAD services. Resource Management Manage all resources in the network. Database Backup Management

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License of Practice
Any organization or a company must have a licence of NMS to install desired software packages and earn by in-expensive investment.

Types of Licenses: 1. Device License 2. Client License 3. Software License 4. Utility Time License
Management capacity of the NMS can be increased by purchasing more Licenses.

Mangement Capacity of iManager N2000


N2000 can manage 6000 Equivalent Node at the maximum.(Equal to 600,000 AMG ports,300 thousand TMG DT or 6million SoftX3000 users).

Performance Specifications
Support a maximum of 6,000 equivalent nodes. Support 50 clients simultaneously. The current alarm table can store 100,000 alarm records at most. The delay between the time an alarm is received at the fault management subsystem and the time the alarm is displayed at the client does not exceed 8 seconds. The log database can save the log information generated during 3 months. In refreshing of the displayed log information, the latency time does not exceed 3 seconds. The NMS can support 255 users. The NMS can process a maximum of 100 alarm records per second. The alarm buffer is 100,000 alarm records.

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NMS DXX DXX (Digital Cross Connect) System


It is a circuit switch technology based upon TDM. Digital Cross connect can connect extremely high speed networks with lower speed networks to achieve a mutually synchronized speed for common data transformation in the network. It is Bandwidth Manager. DXX node is s digital MUX equipped with several Trunks and Access interfaces. The DXX can cross-connect any E1 line in the system with any other E1 line in the system Provides cross connections from time-slot level to bit level.

Figure 36:E1 Cross Connection

NMS DXX
The whole system has a centralized operation and management called Network Management System (NMS) which has unique features like remote software upgrading and fault diagnosis etc. During a major fault, traffic can be re-routed automatically, so that existing traffic is not affected and repair or replacement can be carried out. The operator can also assign various service categories to the customers so that the operator's most valuable business is always protected. Different kinds of network tasks like assigning capacity, provisioning new services, monitoring network performance, and identifying faults can all be remotely handled from a single point NMS. The NMS itself handles the fault, configuration, accounting, performance & security management function for every unit, node, modem and service in the network.

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Key Features of DXX


The DXX provides a complete networking solution to the network operators with the following benefits: Efficient utilization of existing transmission bandwidth. Powerful NMS to manage large networks. The best flexibility for networking. Manageability. Expandability. Higher service quality and hence higher customer satisfaction. Super rate Multiplexing of = > 64 K bits / sec. Sub-rate Multiplexing of < 64 K bits / sec.

Applications of DXX
Data applications Voice applications

Data Applications
Leased line data circuits. LAN LAN interconnection. Point to Point data. Point to multipoint data. Paging Systems.

1. Point to Network The customer owns or leases the Equipment and subscribes to various Services. 2. Point-Point Customer owns or leases the Equipment at all end points. Arranges for the WAN connections from a service provider.

Figure 37: Point-Point

3. Point-Multipoint/ Super Rate Multiplexing Multimedia i.e Video Conference or to Broad casting centre. Banking (ATM), Paging System etc. Common Interface speeds for compression 384 Kbps and 768 Kbps. 4. Paging Systems

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Figure 38: Paging Systems

Voice Applications
Telephone Line/Number Extension. Hot line. PBX extension. Voice compression. Between mobile switching centers. PSTN PSTN

Advantages
Efficient utilization of existing transmission bandwidth/infrastructure. Compatible with new emerging standards and future technologies. Video conferencing, integrated voice, data management, ISDN, ATM, Frame Relay and SDH back bone network on same platform. During a major fault, traffic can be re-routed automatically, so that existing traffic is unaffected. The operator can also assign various service categories to the customers so that the operator's most valuable business is always protected. Both of the systems Newbridge & Tellabs have compatibility for frame relay and ATM technology, which is expected to come to Pakistan in near future.

Existing DXX Network


In PTCL, presently three systems are being used for the provision of DXX facilities to the subscribers: MARTIS DXX (TELLABS). NEWBRIDGE (MAINSTREET). Loop Telecom.

Planned Expansion in DXX Network


Cities : 100-150+ Sites: 200-300+ Nodes : 205-450+ 52

DXX Systems in Pakistan


Vendor Tellabs/Martiss DXX Newbridge Loop Telecom Nodes 129 131 421 Operating System Windows NT Based Solaris OS Windows 2000 OS

Cards Used in DXX System


Media / Back Bone Cards. System, Control and Cross Connection cards. Line Driving / Access or Subscriber Cards

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