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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A DIGITAL RELAY FOR MULTICIRCIUT USE

BY
EKUNKE DENNIS E.
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/388
OGAR OLIVER ERUNKE
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/389
SAIDU SAMAILA
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/390
ABDULLAHI MUSA OTARU
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/391

SUBMITTED TO
ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT
FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NASARAWA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD
OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERING

CERTFICATION
I certify that this project has been read and found worthy of approval having met
the requirement of the department of Electrical/Electronic Engineering Federal
Polytechnic Nasarawa, for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in
Electrical/Electronic Engineering.

---------------------------------------

----------------------

Engr. U. U. Abdullahi

Date

Project Supervisor

----------------------------------------

-----------------------

Engr. B. A. Kwembe

Date

Head of Department

----------------------------------------

------------------------

External Supervisor

Date

ii

APPROVAL PAGE
This research work has been read and approved by the undersigned person on
behalf of the Electrical/ Electronic Engineering, School of Engineering technology
as having met the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in
Electrical and Electronics Technology of the Federal Polytechnic Nasarsawa.

--------------------------------------

-------------------------

Engr. U. U. Abdullahi

Date

Project supervisor

--------------------------------------

-------------------------

Engr. B.A. Kwembe

Date

Head of Department

--------------------------------------

-------------------------

External Supervisor

Date

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department,


School of Engineering Technology,
Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa,
P. M. B 01, Nasarawa.
The Head of Department,
Electrical/Electronic Engineering Department,
School of Engineering Technology,
Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.
Dear Sir,
SUBMISSION OF PROJECT WORK
In compliance with the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) laid
down rules that students should undertake a project at the completion of their
course of study and make a detail report on it. We hereby submit the project work
Design and Construction of Digital Relay for multi-circuit use for your approval.

Yours faithfully,
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/388
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/389
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/380
FPN/2010/2011/HEET/391

iv

CIRCULATION OF INFORMATION
In compliance with the institutions regulations regarding the circulation of
information on this project, it is therefore documented to the following:

i.

The Project Supervisor


Department of Electrical/Electronic,
Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa.

ii.

The Head of Department,


Department of Electrical/Electronic,
Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa.

iii.

The Polytechnic Library,


Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa.

DEDICATION
This project work is dedicated to the almighty God for his unreserved love,
his grace, his protection and guidance upon us throughout our Higher
National Diploma Programmed. It is more so dedicated to our beloved
Parents and other members of our families, and to all who know the
importance of child education.

vi

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ACKNOLEDGEMENT
We wish to register our unreserved and profound gratitude to the Almighty God for
his love, favour, grace, protection and provision bestowed on us throughout our
study period in the polytechnic.
We express our sincere gratitude to our beloved parents for their immense love,
moral and financial support accorded us all through the period of our studies and
the period of this project.
Our special appreciation goes also to our project supervisor Engr. U.U.Abdullahi
whose corrections, suggestions and immeasurable effort in going through the
manuscript has resulted in the final product of this project work.
We would also like to thank the HOD Engr. B. A Kwembe and the project
coordinator Mall. Kolawale R. Shoremekun, Mall. Umar Usman and the entire
staff of the department of Electrical/ Electronic Technology for their support,
encouragement and guidance.
We thank also our brothers and sisters, Uncles and Aunt s, and all our loved ones,
may God almighty bless you all.
Finally, our gratitude goes to all our course mates, our lodge mates and friends for
their support, cooperation and understanding throughout our stay in the
Polytechnic, may God bless you all.

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ABSTRACT
Advancement in technology using microprocessor has led to many improvement in
generating systems as well as distribution systems in electric power stations. This
facilitates lower installation and maintenance costs, better reliability of the
system, improved protection and control, and quick restoration of power outage.
Microprocessor-based relay control provides technical improvement and cost
saving in several ways, one of which is the use of microprocessor programmable
logic to reduce and simplify wiring in the power station. The relay also provides
protection of bus Faults, circuit breaker failure and high-side transformer blown
fuse detection at no or minimal additional cost. The relays also have metering
functions. The digital relaying system presented in this study utilizes 8051
microcontroller (processor) to provide digital relaying in a pre-determined power
station. The 8051 microprocessor is interfaced with relay drivers consisting of
transistor of transistors that amplifies the current to drive the relays. The relays
are used directly to perform control functions. The micro-controller is also
interfaced with ADC0804 analog to digital converter that converts the analog
inputs (voltage/current) in to digital output. The 8051 is then interfaced finally
with an LCD that serve to display the output information on the screen. It is
expected. that at the end of the study, the system developed would effectively
control power station with four generators, provide protection from faults, and
give the operational condition of power station on an LCD screen.

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Table of content
Title page
Certification
Approval page
Letter of transmittal
Circulation of information
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content
Chapter one
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Problem statement
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope of the study
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Digital distance relay algorithm
2.2 Review of microprocessor-based distribution relay application
2.3 Review of digital control technology, enhances power system reliability
and performance
2.4 Review of the digital relaying
2.5 Modification from other reviewed systems
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CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Acquisition of research materials
3.2 Project design
3.3 Design and method of implementation
3.3.1 The power supply unit
3.3.2 The micro-controller interface
3.3.3 The relaying unit
3.3.4 The output display unit
3.3.5 The ADC unit
3.4 The flowchart
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Construction, Test, Result and Discussion
4.1 Constructional diagram
4.2 Software program
4.3 Tests and results
4.4 Discussion of results
4.5 BEME and analysis
4.6 Summary
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
REFERENCES

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0

INTRODUCTION
The digital relay or numeric relay is basically a relaying system that utilize
microprocessor control to analyze power system voltage and current for the
purpose of detection of fault in an electric power system. Digital relaying
systems applies analog to digital (ADC) converter to process voltage and
current that enters the system and convert them into a digital form. The
relaying system analyzes the (ADC) converter output to exact, as a
minimum magnitude of the incoming quantity commonly using fourier
transform concepts (RMS and some form of averaging are used in basic
product).
Further, the fourier transform is commonly used to extract the signal phase
angle relative to some references except in the most basic applications. The
relay is capable of applying advance logic, It is capable of analyzing whether
the relay should trip or restrain from tripping based on current and/or voltage
magnitude (and angle in some applications), parameters set by the users,
relay contact inputs and in some applications the timing and order of event
sequence. The logic is user- configurable at a level well beyond simply
changing front panel switches or moving of jumpers on a circuit board. The
relay has some form of event recording. The event recording would include
some means for the user to see the timing of key logic decisions, relays I/O
(input/output) changes and see in an oscillographic fashion at least the
fundamental frequency component of the incoming AC wave form. The
relay has an extensive collection for setting beyond what can be entered via
front panel knobs and dials and these setting are transferred to the relay via
an interface with a PC (personal computer) and this same PC interface is
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used to collect event reports from the relay. More complex digital relay will
have metering and communication protocol port allowing the relay to
become an element in a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)
system. By contrast an electromechanical protective relay convert the
voltage and current to magnetic and electric force and torques that press
against spring tensions in the relay. The tension of the spring and taps on the
electromagnetic coils in the relay are the main processes by which a user set
such a relay. In a solid state relay, the incoming voltage and current
waveform are monitored by analog circuit not recorded or digitized. The
analog volume are compared to settings made by the use via potentiometer
in the relay and in some cases taps on transformers.
In some solid state relay a simple microprocessor does some of the relay
logic, but the logic is fixed and simple. For instance, in some time over
current solid state relay the incoming AC current is first converted into a
small AC value then the AC is fed into a rectifier and filter that convert the
AC to a DC value proportionate to the AC waveform. Am op-amp and
comparator is used to create a DC that rises when a trip point is reached then
a relatively simple microprocessor does a slow speed A/D conversion of the
DC signal, integrate the result to create the time over current response and
trips when the integration rises above a set point.
The digital relaying presented in this context utilizes the principle of
artificial intelligence (AI) using microprocessor logic control to harmonize
the operation of a power system consisting of four generators in a generating
system. The device monitors the voltages and currents across the lines of the
generating system, if any abnormal voltage/current variations on the power
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system distribution line occurs, the device isolates the supply to the system
(power). The system device also performs the function of switching two
generator to operate for a given programmed time interval and switches to
the other two generators that will operate for the same period before
switching back to the first two. The main principle of this is to establish
redundancy in the system (generating station).
Moreso this principles is utilized to ensure that the generators can undergo
maintenance during this resting period. The device also gives a visual
display of the condition of the power system including voltage, current,
operating condition as well as Faults. The system also achieve protection of
the power system busbars without the need to engage physical contact with
the system.
1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Manual engagement in power system has led to a couple of hazards that
include electrocution, burning of some parts of the body of the operating
personnel resulting to serious injuries and even leading to death. As such,
this calls for a quest to develop an automatic system utilizing the principle of
artificial intelligence that will automatically monitor and control the power
system thereby safeguarding the lives of the operating personnel and that of
the operating switchgears as well as the entire power system. The digital
relaying systems designed in this study utilize the principle of artificial
intelligence to monitor and initiate control of the distribution and generation
system of the power system. The system utilizes microprocessor program to
logically control the relaying action of the device.

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1.2

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The main objective of this study is to design and construct a digital relaying
system that can be used to perform control function of a pre-designed power
station. The study is also undertaken with the following objectives
1 To examine the problems associated with manually controlled power
stations especially at the grassroots distribution station and the way-out.
2 To examine the need to provide a time saving, more secured and more
efficient systems to be used for control of power stations and the wayout.
3 To examine the principles of application of digital relaying system and
their applications to practical engineering.
4 To provide a design of a digital control system that ensures lower
installation and maintenance cost, better reliability, improved protection
and control, and faster restoration of outages in power systems (stations).

1.3

PROBLEM STATEMENTS
Manual control and switching in power stations is associated with a couple
of problems that include danger to human lives, damage of switchgears due
to human errors, wear and tear of switchgears due to frequent use as well as
cost of operation, running and maintenance of the systems.
The microprocessors based digital relaying presented in this book provides
an advancement as well as improvement in power system (generation,
transmission and distribution). It enhances lower costs in installing and
maintenance, better reliability, improved protection and control and fast
restoration in case of system failure in the network. By the use of
programmable logic, it also leads to reduced and more signified installation
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and provides protection for bus faults, circuit breaker failure and high side
transformer blown fuse detection.
1.4

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


Power system control through digital relaying plays a very vital role in
virtually every power station found today. The power system control is
significant in many different ways which include reduction and
simplification of installation, provides protection for bus wiring, bus fault,
breaker failure and high side transformer blown fuse detection, metering
functions to reduce or eliminate the need for panel meters and transducers
and reduces maintenance cost by providing self-test function and high
reliability. The device also provides remote targets and fault location
information.

1.5

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The digital relays is basically a microprocessor based control system that
utilizes artificial intelligence principles to analyze power systems voltages
and currents for the purpose of detection of fault in an electric power station
as well as perform control functions and switching operation in the power
system. The system utilizes programs written in the micro processor to
perform the controlling functions using logic output in the power system.
The system design n is to control a power generating station that generates
power with four different generators, with two generators synchronized
together each forming two pairs of synchronized generators.

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CHAPTER TWO
2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW
The earliest relays to be used in transmission line protection were all
electromechanical. The very first relays were based on the over-current
principles which was introduce around 1902. the inverse-time current
relationship was suitable for time graded over current discrimination system.
These early devices not only had to detect fault conditions but also had to
generate sufficient torque to trip the circuit breaker on which the system was
fixed. The latter requirement placed very severe restrictions on the
sensitivity of these devices due to the inherent long operating times they
could not be used in network where fast fault clearance was needed. The
over current principles was followed by differential protection schemes after
1905. These systems compared the live current at opposite ends of the
transmission line and used a communication link to transmit required
information between the ends. The concept of directional discrimination of
fault was introduced around 1909. The pilot wires were used as a means of
conveying information from one end of a protected feeder to the other and a
system was proposed to use the pilot wire to convey an interlock signal from
end to end. The application of a restraining force proportional to the system
voltage to an over current induction disc type relay produced a time of
operation roughly proportional to the distance of fault from the relaying
point. The distance relay indicated a measure of the independence relays
started with this concept in 1923. All of the relays developed until 1940s
were electromechanical relays. These electromechanical distance relay later
achieved very high precision in the form of induction cup mho relays.
The mho relays gave a close characteristic of the fault impedance locus and
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therefore allowed discrimination against faults in other phases. Mho relay


were therefore mainly incorporated as starting unit in the majority of
distance relaying schemes. The mho characteristic is still widely applied in
distance relays.
The early 1940s showed the way into the development of relays using
electric devices. These relay are known as static relays. The first static relays
were designed using thermionic values. But all such relays had a
disadvantage with respect to the electromagnetic relay due to the relatively
short life of thermionic values. The advent of the transistor led the way to
the development of different distance protection scheme. Using transistor
circuits, several new protection concepts were developed during this period.
Phase comparator, block spike comparator and block average comparator to
name a few.
The concept of sampling and holding the voltage and current signals and the
development of digital computer led to the digital (numerical) protection
schemes, although there were a lot of resistance to the adoption of computers
for relaying functions by the relay engineers, the relay technology has gone
through rapid development since the digital computation was introduced in
late 1960s. Numerical impedance calculation methods allowed digital
technique to be used in transmission like protection. Microprocessor started
replacing the digital computer by early 1980s, but the concept of digital
computing has stayed the same. Today, extra high voltage transmission lines
are protected with very reliable, secure digital distance relays and they have
virtually replaced all previous electromechanical relays.

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2.1

Digital Distance Relay Algorithms


Using digital technologies in protective relays started in the late 60s with the
rapid development of digital computers. Digital techniques demonstrated
added flexibility in design as well as imp raced performance and reliability.
In digital distance protective relays, the apparent impedance at the relay
location is calculated from the sampled voltage and current signals. The
impedance seen by the relay is proportional to the distance between the fault
and the relaying point. The digital estimation is fairly accurate when both
voltage and current signal are pure 60Hz sinusoids. However, in the
presence of transient, the accuracy can be affected. To remove the effect of
transient the signal must be low pass filtered before sampling.

2.2

Review Of Microprocessor Based Distribution Relay Applications (Karl


Zimmerman)
Microprocessor based distribution relay contribute to improved reliability
and reduced cost on electric power system. Microprocessor based relay, also
called digital relays have a proven track record of reliability, with over
100,000 relay year of field experience. Microprocessor based relay provide
technical improvement and cost savings in several ways.
1 The relay use programmable logic to reduce and simplify wiring.
2 The relay provide protection for bus fault breaker failure and high side
transformer blown fuse detection at no or minimal additional cost.
3 The relay have metering function to reduce or eliminate the need for panel
meter and transducer.
4 The relay reduce maintenance cost by providing self test function and high
reliability.
5 The relay provide remote target and faults location information to assist
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operator in restoration of electrical service.


Using Microprocessor Based Relays Reduces And Simplifies Wiring
Many microprocessor based relays have features that when implemented
reduce and simplify the wiring and connection of an installation. We show
three examples of this:
1. How to use programmable logic to implement a fuse saving scheme on a
distribution feeder.
2. How to use programmable logic and control input to provide fast bus
protection to replace a current differential protection scheme.
3. How to simplify CT connection for transformer differential protection.
Using Programmable Logic To Implement A Fuse Saving Scheme
In a typical fuse-saving scheme time over-current and instantaneous over
current relay are used with automatic enclosing on a breaker to coordinate
with a downstream fuse. For a fault beyond the fuse, the intension is for the
instantaneous over-current relay to trip the breaker so the fault clear before
the fuse begins to melt. The figure below show a one line diagram and time
current coordination for a fuse saving scheme.

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Figure 2.1 One-Line of Distribution Feeder


Using Programmable Logic And Control Input To Reduce Fast Bus
Protection
Many utilities are applying microprocessor based over-current relays in
place of current differential relays to provide fast bus protection. In many
cases utilities do not apply bus differential protection because of the high
installation cost of the breaker CT and the profusion of CT wiring. The
figure below shows fast bus protection.

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B
Control

Fast
Bus
Scheme
Figure
2.2 Fast
BustTrip
Trip Scheme

Simplifying Transformer Differential Ct Connection


On power transformers greater than 10MVA, most utilities apply
transformer differential relays with conventional relays when any
transformer winding is connected delta you must connect the CT wye and
vice verse.
Microprocessor based transformer differential relay can make the delta
internally. Therefore you can connect the CT in wye on both sides of the
bank regardless of the transformer bank connection. Also microprocessor
based relay can provide easy current magnitude and angle checks to ensure
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proper connections. The figure below shows a typical connection.

Figure 2.3 Delta-Wye Transformer with Wye-delta connected CTS


Improved protection and control for common distribution problems
Back-up protection
One common concern when using microprocessor based relay is back up
protection. A back-up protection scheme is illustrated with the diagram
below. If a feeder relay fails its alarm contacts closes. We connect the alarm
contact in series with a trip output from a back-up relay which when asserted
produce a feeder breaker trip. If the utilities applies low-side transformer
over current relay there is no additional cost except for the control wiring of
the trip circuit.

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Figure 2.4 Improve Backup Relaying


Breaker Failure Protection
Many microprocessor-based distribution relay are equipped with internal
timer that along with a relay trip condition can be used to provide breaker
failure protection.

Figure 2.5 Break Failure Relaying


Change Protection Based On System Condition
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Protection requirement can change with system load and configuration.


Conventional protection scheme must accommodate the worst case
operating scenario compromising sensitivity and/or coordination under
normal condition. One improvement to distribution condition may be to
change distribution relay settings that tolerate on each digital feeder relay
when phase current demand or neural current demand exceed specified
levels. The original settings are highly sensitive. The new settings had less
sensitive phase and residual over current settings that tolerate higher loading
but have reduced, but adequate sensitivity. Relay setting on all circuit are
change to a third level when any one of the distribution relay trip the third
setting have a longer time delay to tolerate cold load inrush following an
outage on any of the distribution circuits. When all conditions return to
normal for a prescribed time, the digital relay change back to their original
settings.
Coordination With Other Devices
Microprocessor-based distribution relays can coordinate easily with other
over-current devices. Relay characteristic are usually defined by
mathematical equations. These equations model electrical and physical
characteristics. We can set most microprocessor-based relay to emulate
induction disk (time delayed) reset characteristics or solid state
instantaneous reset.
Since over- current element and reclosing function are usually included in
the same hardware package. We can also use these function for improved
coordination in addition to the fuse saving scheme described earlier, we can
also coordinate with downstream line reclosers.
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If the reset time delay of traditional reclosing relay is less than the trip
time an over current relay for a low current fault, the following can occur. A
low current fault occurs, causing an over current relay to trip the breaker,
then the reclosing relay closes the breaker.
Microprocessor Based Relay Reduce Maintenance
Microprocessor- based relay also called digital relays, typically consist of an
AC signal data acquisition system a microprocessor memory component
containing relay algorithm, contact input to control the relay and contact
output to control other equipments. The figure below shows a simple
hardware block diagram.

Figure 2.6 Simple functional block diagram of digital relay


Voltage and currents input are isolated, filtered and sampled. Then they are
scaled and converted to digital quantities for the microprocessor. The
microprocessor program filters the data, creates the relay characteristics and
controls the relay output.
Microprocessor-Based Relay Provide Data Throughout The Utility
Microprocessor-based

relay

provide

metering

data,

targets

status

information, and fault location in addition to protection functions. This data


is accessed through relay communication ports, local display, or other
human machine interface (HMC). Many individuals within a utility
xxvii

organization use the data. For example, operators may need to know target
and fault location for a particular electrical disturbance. Planning engineers
may wish to analyze load demand data collected from a feeder relay. Relay
engineers may need to analyze an event report to explain a fault on a line
that serves a critical customers load.
METERING AND SCADA/RTU INTERFACE
Real time digital relay data is of particular value for system operating
personnel. Real-time voltage, current, watt and VAR data are needed to
operate a system. Fault type and fault location unavailable unit the advent of
fault-locating digital relays are now required by most operating and dispatch
center to guide system restoration.
Conventional SCADA RTU accept only analog input (scada current or
voltage) and status input (dry or voltage wetted contacts). It is less costly to
use a digital to analog converter for operator to gain access to relay data
rather than install separate transducer and additional wiring. Many modern
RTU operate on digital principles that allow direct acquisition of digital data
permitting a direct interface between the RTU and digital relays.

xxviii

Figure 2.7 Interface between digital relay and analog RTU


Locating Faults
Although fault location on distribution feeders is accurate only with
limitations, the data is still useful for sectionalizing or even dispatching line
crews for repairs. Ideally, the line has the same conductor size throughout
the length of the line, is an overhead line, and has no infeed through
grounded transformer banks, capacitors, generators, or other sources.
2.3

Review Of Digital Control Technology (Jim Inversion, Senior


Application Engineers)
Traditionally, on-site power systems depended on analog control systems to
provide reliable service to a facility electrical loads. Today, reliable flexible
and user-friendly digital control technology is available for every on-site
power system. For traditional standby power systems that powers only
emergency lighting for a small building analog controls may still be
adequate.

However, with larger on-site and standby power systems, critical 24/7 power
needs, more complex power distribution systems, and a mix linear and non
linear loads digital controls provides greater performance capabilities.
Analog Verses Digital
Analog devices in power system control are discrete components (resistors,
switches, capacitors, coils and relays) that coordinate input and output
signals, and perform rudimental logic for specific control functions.
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Adjustments to the system usually involve a physical adjustment such as


increasing or decreasing modules. Analog control hardware communicates
system status and faults conditions with indicator lights, analog meters or
alarms.
A digital control system uses a microprocessor to control inputs, outputs and
logic functions. System status can be graphically displayed on a computer
and operational adjustments are made through inputs on a keyboard or torch
screen. Changes can be made on the computer screen attached to the power
systems master control, or even on a remote computer connected via a local
area network or the internet. Digital systems allow a high degree of control
function integration, so one digital control can do the job of several analog
controls.
Reliability
Many power system end-users have learned to depend on their analog
control systems, feeling that they understand exactly how they work to fix
them when they fail to work. If users dont have experiences with digital
generators sets, transfer switches, or paralleling controls they may be
reluctant to make the change from analog.
Digital generators controls are demonstrably more reliable. For example
digital control systems for generator sets from Cummins power generations,
have demonstrated a reliability of 300,000 + hours MTBF (Mean Time
Between Failures). Few discrete components in an analog control system
can approach that kind of reliability. Whats more, in an analog system
components need to function properly for the system to operate at all. In
contrast, digital systems have built-in redundancy that significantly
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improves reliability by allowing the system to function properly even with a


component failure in one portion of the control circuit. Reliability is also
enhanced because the physical electrical interconnections between logic
functions have been eliminated with solid-state digital component.
SYSTEM INTEGRATION
One of the primary advantages of digital control is their seamless integration
of the functional components of power systems. For example the status of all
components and values in a complex power system can be viewed and
controlled from a central or remote computer screen. In addition, electromechanical equipment (modern gas and diesel engines, alternators,
transformer switches) can be monitored and integrated into the control
strategy
This ability of digital systems to integrate diverse functions is especially
important in modern emissions controlled diesel engines. Integrating engine
control function (fuel rate and injection timing), with fluctuations in
generator load is critical for minimizing exhaust emission from diesel
engines.
The ability of a digital control system to perform logic functions is also
crucial in reducing exhaust emission while switching the generator set.
Reduced Space Requirements
The move to solid-sate electronics and digital technology is not only more
effective from a performance and reliability point of view. It is highly
beneficial from a space saving point of view. Depending on the application,
xxxi

digital power system controls can save from 25 percent to 4o percent a


valuable mechanical room floor space. Digital controls are also more
environmentally rugged than analog, allowing many control systems to be
located with the generator set rather than being isolated in a separate dustand vibration-free room. The result is that digital systems occupy less floor
space and requires less environmental protection. These factors also helps
simplify installation, commissioning, and reduce maintenance and repair.
Digital Systems Provide Superior Protection
Analog devices such as circuit breakers, provides protection for simple
power system by sensing over-loads and opening to protect wiring and, in
general, the generator set. However, analog, circuit breakers do not do a
good job of protecting the alternator as required by electrical codes.
Excessive current in the alternator (due to even brief overloads) create heat,
which shortens insulation life and can lead to alternator failure. Molded case
circuit breaker (MCCB) offer little protection against alternator overloads
and heat buildup.
In The Event Of A Power Failure
While todays power grid is actually more reliable than it has ever been, the
cost to end-users of a power failure has steadily increased, making any
power failure of any duration unacceptable. If the reliability of the standby
power system is compromised because of obsolete analog technology, then
the financial risk of power outages goes up. However, digitally controlled
power systems reduce an end-users financial risk by improving reliability.
Easy Access To Information
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Just as digital computers have exponentially increased our access to


information, digital control systems have increased our access to real-time
and historical power system operating information. Once information is
inserted into a microprocessor-based control system, there are numerous
options for making that information available in many parts of the facility or
even remotely. Building automation systems, communication systems
security and safety can all make use of the information from the power
systems digital control system. The availability of information makes it
easier to manage a facility efficiently and economically.
Unlike analog systems, digital control systems provide real time status of all
major components within the system.
2.4

Review Of The Digital Relaying


This digital relaying system designed in this context is a system designed to
automatically control the operations of the predetermined power station. The
digital relay system monitors the entire power station operation and utilizes
the principle of expert system in artificial intelligence to automatically
monitor the power station. The system has the following features.
1. Ability to control the operation of the four generators connected to the
system and synchronizes low operating generators for a visual display
for the status of the power stations, display of voltage output of the
system.
2. Provides protection for voltage surges across the power station.
3. Provides for efficient operation of the power station.
xxxiii

2.5 Modifications From Other Reviewed System


The digital relaying system designed in this study has the following
modifications over the systems.
a. It is implemented with easily programmable 8051 micro controller
server.
b. It provides visual display of the status of the power station on an LCD
screen.
c. It provides synchronization of two generators at a point in time from a
combination of four generators.

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0

METHODOLOGY
The methods used for the implementation of the aims and objectives of this
study are described as follows:

3.1

Acquisition Of Research Materials


The data for the research of this study were obtained both from primary and
secondary sources. Primary data were collected from various knowledge on
the practical application of electrical and electronics engineering, lectures
notes and by consulting more experience persons on the electrical discipline
and general knowledge on electricity. Secondary data on the other hand were
obtained by searching on the internet and text books.

3.2

Project Design
The materials for the design of the project were collected via the internet by
searching the related works on the study. The project design is achieved by
subdividing the entire system into sub units which include;
i.

The power supply unit

ii.

The microcontroller interface

iii.

The output display unit

iv.

The ADC (Analog to digital converter) unit

These sub units are designed separately and later incorporated to make up
the complete system.
3.3 Design And Method Of Implementation
The digital relaying system as proposed by this study is to be designed by
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sub-sectioning the system into functional unit that will make up the entire
design when put together. The proposed digital relaying system can be
illustrated by the following block diagram.

POWER
SUPPLY UNIT

INPUT
SOURCE
(Generator)

ADC
(Analog to
Digital
Converter)

MICROCONTROLLER
(8051)

LCD
DISPLAY

RELAYING
OUTPUT UNIT

CONSUMER
OUTPUT
Figure 2.8 The block Diagram can be explained as follows:
3.3.1 The Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit for the proposed project is designed to supply a 5V
dc output which will power up the microcontroller, the analog to digital
converter and the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). The circuit diagram for the
power supply unit can be illustrated as follows;

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Figure 2.9 Circuit Diagram for the Power Supply


This is a conventional type of power supply; the power is applied through
the step down transformer (230/12V/500mA). The DC proportional to the
changing input voltage is obtained from bridge rectifier. Two electrolytic are
there to bypass any spikes present and deliver a filtered output. Bridge is
capable of handling currents up to 1Amp.
Output is given by
V(out) = 1 2 V (secondary) (i)
V(out) = 71 x V (secondary) ... (ii)
= 0. 71 x 12
= 8.52V
(This equation is similar for the negative rail as well)
The capacitor value for the power supply is given by
C = Q/V (iii)
Where C = Capacitance
Q = Charge across the Circuit
V = Voltage across the Circuit
But Q = IT ..(iv)

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Where I = Current
T = Time. Also T = 1/f
Where f = frequency = 50Hz
T = 1/50 = 0.025Seconds.
Hence, Q = 0.02 x 500 x 10-3 (from transformer rating)
= 0.01C.
Therefore, C = 0.01/12 = 0.000833 Farads
But capacitors of this range is not obtainable thus we use 1000uF for the
design.
3.3.2 The Relaying Unit
This unit is design for the operation of the relays used in the design. The
relaying unit is designed with the aim to amplify the current input to the
relay. The circuit diagram for the relaying unit for each of the relays is as
shown below;

Figure 2.10 Relay circuit

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3.3.3 The Output Display Unit


The output display unit is designed to enable visual display of the status of
the power station and the voltage outputs of the power station. The display
unit for the proposed study is to be designed with a 2 x 16 LCD (Liquid
Crystal Display).
3.3.4 The ADC Unit
The function of the ADC is to convert analog signals that are involved in the
power station which are the voltages into an 8-bit digital signal that is input
to the 8051 microcontroller. It provides the microcontroller with the inputs
required to display the voltage on the LCD screen.
3.5

THE FLOWCHART

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0

Construction Tests Results and Discussion

4.1

Construction
The construction of this project was conducted in various phases of
which each and every place was made in accordance with the
design analysis outline. The construction layout was designed in
the following phases:
Layout design
Component assembly and placement
Soldering
Software design and algorithm.

4.1.1 Layout Design:


When making plans for layout design of this project, the first thing
we had in mind was to consider a possibly smallest size to ensure
that the project is as portable as possible. Before starting to design
the layout we needed all the required components at hand so that
assessment of space can be made. Other space considerations were
made which include from case to case of mounted components
over the Vero board or assess part of the present components.
Based on this, the entire components needed for the projects were

xl

assembled part by part before the design layout of the project was
made.
It was necessary that some of the components were turned around
to different angular positions so that the terminals are closer to the
connections of the components. The scale was checked by
positioning the components on the squared paper or a sample
board. All common earths and common live/positive terminals
where laid to a closely located position in order to enable easy
access to the board. This is very important especially when
conducting testing operations on the board. The layout design of
the project was based on arranging and organizing the board for
this project in order to ensure space management, proper and
regular component placement.
4.1.2 Component Assembly And Placement.
The component assembly and placement refers to the way in which
the various components are arranged on the board based on the
stipulated design layout. Having conducted the layout and
determine the way in which the various components are placed on
the board. Next is to carefully start placing the components on the
board in accordance with the designed. The components assembly
layout design and placement was achieved by gradual placement of
the component just as presented in the design. The component
placement can be illustrated by the design below.

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RELAY4

RELAY5

RELAY1

RELAY6

RELAY2

RELAY3

RELAY DRIVER TRANSISTOR


NETWORK
RELAY DRIVER
RESISTOR

PULL UP
RESISTOR
5V REGULATOR

8051

ADJUST
ABLE
RESIST
OR

MICROCONTROLLER

EXT
CLK

ADC 0804 UNIT

POWER
SUPPLY
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4.1.3 Soldering
The soldering has to do with mechanical clinging of the various
components onto the board. It refers to the method by which
various electrical components are being mechanically held together
on the board to form an electrical circuit. The soldering operation
is carried out using various soldering kits and the soldering
operation is conducted in a given order of observed precautionary
process .The soldering kits used for the construction of this project
include:
- Soldering Iron
- Soldering Lead
- Cleanser
- Lead Sucker
- File
- Cleaning brush
- Cleaning rag.
The precautions observed during the process of soldering include
- The Soldering iron was kept clean throughout the soldering
operation
- A wet rag was set aside for cleaning of excess lead on the
soldering iron.

xliii

- It was ensured that the soldering iron was left to assume optional
temperature before putting it into use.
- Shortest possible contact period was maintained on the component
of the soldering iron to avoid thermal damages of the associated
component.
- Too much lead was avoided on the board as this can lead to short
circuit of various points.
- Too small lead was avoided to avoid loose joint or dry joints.

4.1.4 Software Design and Algorithm


The software used for the design of this project was designed to
make an intelligent control of various relays that are
interconnected to the microcontroller to perform control operations
of a power station as described in the codes. The programming
language used for the programming of this project is based on
assembly language programming used to write commands that is
used to control the power station as required. The software
program for the project was written and compiled on Kiel U
VERSION software which allows compilation of 8051based codes.
The hex code generated for the program was then downloaded into
8051 chip
The algorithm for this project refers to the logical step by step
procedure for solving a particular problem (in this case control of a
power station using digital relaying) in a finite number of steps.
The algorithm for the design of this project can be illustrated as
shown below.

xliv

Start
Check generator status
Display generator status
Select two generators to run
Run system time
Check voltage/current status
Show results
Return to start

4.2 Testing
The testing of this project was conducted in various phase and this
sequential phase of testing was to ensure maximum functionality
of the constructed work of this context. The Testing conducted for
this project includes.
- Continuity test
- Power supply test.
- Microcontroller external oscillation test.
- Software simulation test
- Relaying operation test.
- Output display test.
- ADC conversion test.

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4.2.1 Continuity Test


The continuity test was conducted in order to ensure that there is a
total compliance of the constructed project with the stipulated
design. The continuity test is conducted by sampling the various
positions of the circuit diagram using the test leads of the
multimeter with the range meter of the multimeter placed in a
continuity test mode. The continuity test is also used to ensure that
there is no short circuit or any open circuit in the circuit. It ensures
that there is a total compliance with the circuit diagram and ensure
a continuous electrical conductivity throughout the circuit.

4.2.2: Power Supply Test


The power supply test was aimed at ensuring that there is
availability of the various voltages required at various point in the
circuit. The supply voltages required for the project include the 5V
which is supplied to the microcontroller and the ADC 0804
respectively. The other supply voltages include the 13.8v that
drives the relays and the 220vac voltage that drives the contactors.
The power supply test was conducted with the multimeter test
leads placed at various test point and the range switch positioned at
the voltmeter range. The power supply was also analysis with the
oscilloscope.

4.2.3 Microcontroller external oscillation test


The functionality of the microcontroller is totally dependent upon
the operation of the external oscillator and the test of the external
oscillation of the microcontroller gives an analysis of whether or
xlvi

not the microcontroller is functioning as required. The test is


conducted by placing the negative terminal of the test probe of the
multimeter and testing the two crystal oscillator pins to ensure that
it is oscillating when the multimeter is set to voltage measurement.
The oscillator unit is analysis using the oscilloscope.

4.2.4 Software Simulation Test


The software simulation test involves the design of the project on a
pc and conducting simulation of the designed circuit. The
simulation was conducted to give a clear picture of what the circuit
operation looks like in the actual sense, using a given software
program. The software used for the simulation test of the project is
the Proteus 7.4 which allows both the simulation of the software
code on the microcontroller chip.

4.2.5 Relaying Operation Test


The relaying operation test was conducted to ensure that the
microcontroller unit can efficiently drive the relays in the circuit.
The test is conducted by passing a low current onto the base of the
relay driver transistors to observe the action of the upon the
application of a low current from the microcontroller. The main
purpose of conducting this test is to ensure the functionality of the
relay.
4.2.6 The Output Display Test
Since the output display used or designed for the project is the
LCD, then its operation must be tested. The operation of the LCD
is conducted by using the oscilloscope to investigate the behaviors
xlvii

of the enable pin, the register select pin and the read write pin of
the LCD display. The behavior of the output of these pins from the
microcontroller tells the status of the LCD display.
4.2.7 The ADC Conversion Test
The ADC conversion test was conducted to ensure that the ADC
properly converts the analog signal into a digital signal required for
input into the microcontroller. The test is conducted by using the
multimeter set to voltmeter range to investigate VRct pin of the
ADC the INTR pin, the CLKK and the CLKIN of the ADC.
4.3

Test Result
Having concluded the test mentioned above, the results can
analyzed as follows;

4.3.1 Continuity Test


During the continuity test, many unexpected results where obtain
such as unwanted open circuits, and unwanted closed circuit but at
the end of adjustment made on the constructed work, the circuit
showed a complete compliance to the test. Points where short
circuit or continuity is required show positive result as well as
those requiring open circuit showed positive results on the meter.
4.3.2 Power Supply
The following results were obtained on the output of the power
supply
- Input power voltage = 228 Vac
- Transformer output voltage = 23.6 Vac
- Rectifier output Voltage = 22.86 Vdc
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- Adjustable regulator (LM 317) output = 12.26Vdc


- 5V regulator output = 5.08 Vdc
- Microcontroller supply Voltage = 5.08 Vdc
- Adc supply Voltage = 5.08dc
- Relay operation voltage = 12.62Vdc

The output wave form of the power supply can be illustrated as


show below.

Fig.4.1 Ac input /Transformer Output wave form

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Fig. 4.2 Rectifier output wave form

Fig.4.3 Filtered output

4.3.3 Microcontroller external oscillations test


The results obtained from the microcontroller external oscillations
test are as follows.
Voltage between ground and 1st oscillator pin (pin 19) = 2.63V
Voltage between ground the second oscillator pin(p1st ) = 2.62
The output waveform of the oscilloscope is illustrated below.\

li

Fig.4.4 Output display of the Microcontroller external oscillation


test

4.3.4. Software simulation test


Since the software simulation was conducted on a computer, the
test result were observed by examining the output from the
simulation on the computer system. The output illustrates the
behavior of the circuit upon the application of required input
Voltage.

4.3.5 Relaying operation test


At the end of this test, it was observed that, upon the application of
signals on the base of each of the relay driver Transistor, the relays
were respectively energized which conforms with the intended
design,

4.3.6 The output display test


The result from this test is the display of the output of the
generator station that is observed on the LCD display. The LCD
gives a visual display. It gives the valve of the Voltage, the power
station status, the state of operation and fault analysis of the power
station.

4.3.7 The ADC conversion test


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On the measurement of the output on the digital multimeter for the


ADC conversion test are as follows.
INTR = pulses of 5V on the pin
VREF = 3.65V
CLKR = 2.62V
CLK IN = 1.94V

4.4

Casing
The casing refers to the external housing of the project. The casing
used for this is a white plastic casing that is in the size 12x12
inches and a height of 3 inches the casing was able to
accommodate comfortable the entire project and in the Casing
,proper ventilation was provided.

4.5

Cost Analysis
The cost implication of the project can be summarized by the bill
of engineering measurement and Evaluation (BEME) shown in the
table below.

liii

S/NO
1
2
3
4
Capacit
ors
5
6
7
8
9
10

COMPONEN
TS/
ITEMS
10k
4.7k
1k
100

QUANTIT UNIT
Y
COST
2
10
10
10
2
10
2
10

TOTA
L
COST
20
100
20
20

10pR
470pR
0.1pR
30pf
Diodes
IN4007

2
2
4
4

30
80
30
30

60
160
120
120

10

10

100

Crystal
11 12MHz

250

500

100

200

250

500

400

3200

3000

24000

1200

1200

K
Sockets
20 pin
12 socket
40 pin Dip
13 socket
Relay
30A 12 Vde
14 coil
30A
15 contactors
Solderin
g
soldering
16 iron
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soldering
17 lea
18 file
19 sucket

lead

1
1
1

1000
300
350

1000
300
350

150
6000
380
1200

150
6000
380
1200

600
300
1000

600
300
1000
41,62
0

Vero
board
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

line board
(big)
casing
jumper
connector
connection
cables
switch
mercillinous
TOTAL

4.6

Discussions
In the course of this project designed and construction, many
challenges were faced, these challenges showed up in both the
design and construction phase of the project. The challenge faced
on the design was mainly on how to use the required number of
relays to be used to interface three phase generators. This problem
was later corrected by the use of contactors which can be directly
connected to the three phase generators directly. Another problem
encountered in the course of the design of this project was during
the software development. This problem was later tackled by
following the algorithm for the project to systematically solve the
problems encountered. Testing was also one of the major setbacks
in this project construction. This problem was tackled by taking
time to locate the possible sources of errors and solving these
problems step by step.
lv

5.0

CONLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1

CONCLUSION
The digital relay is basically a microprocessor based control system that
utilizes artificial intelligence principle to analyze power system voltage and
current for the purpose of detection of faults in an electric power system as
well as perform control functions and switching operations in the power
system.
Many utilities are now applying microprocessor based relays on distribution
circuit. The microcontroller based digital relay is a power system equipment
that uses the principles of artificial intelligence to perform control and
protection of electric power station.

lvi

Conclusively, having conducted an exclusive research on this study, we


therefore proclaim that this project as approved for construction has worked
as designed in the context.
5.3 Recommendation
Having successfully completed the construction of this project, we hereby draw
the following recommendations;
Since digital control of electrical power system is recently based on
digital systems, we hereby recommend that the study of digital control of
power should be encouraged in the department.
Based on our result, we hereby recommend the project for further
improvement which may include the number of systems controlled such
as transformers, generators, switch gears and other devices that is
controllable in a power station. And also include devices that can
provide protection from overvoltage, over currents and voltage surges.
We also recommend that the project and the materials associated with it
to be made available for any one that is undergoing this kind of research
work.

lvii

REFERENCES
310

IEEE Draft Standard, IEEE Standard Inverst. Time Characteristic

Equation
311

for Over-current Relays.

Jim I.: (2002). White Paper and Digital Control Technology; Cuming

Power Generation.
312

Karl Z. (2008). Microprocessor-based distribution relay application;

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc Bellevile. USA.


313

Mark L. 1998: Digital Low Impedance Busbar differential Protection.

Article On review of principles and approaches in digital relaying.


314

Www.wikipedia.com/digitalrelaying/applications.

lviii