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Some Useful Error Spoting Rules Part I


NOUN
Definition: The part of speech that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. 1. Some noun always take a singular verb i.g. Scenery, Advice, Information, Machinery, Stationary, Furniture, Abuse, Fuel, Rice, Gram, Issue, Bedding, Repair, news, Mischief, Poetry, Business, Economics, Physics, Mathematic, Classics, Ethics, Athletics, Innings, Gallows. Example- The scenery of Kashmir are enchanting.(error) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting.(no error) 2. Some nouns are singular in form but they are used as plural nouns and always take plural verb I.e. Cattle, Gentry, Vermin, Peasantry, Artillery, People, Clergy, Company, and Police. Example- The cattle is grazing in the ground.(error) The cattle are grazing in the ground.(no error) 3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb i.e. Trousers, Scissors, Spectacles, Stockings, Shorts, Measles, Goods, Alms, Premises, Thanks, Tidings, Annals, Chattels etc. Examples - Where is my trousers?(error) Where are my trousers?(no error) 4. There some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight, or number; when they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form (Foot, Meter, Pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million etc.) Example- It is a three years degree.(error) It is a three year degree.(no error) Use of Collective Noun
Crowd of people Bouquet of flowers Flock of sheep Pack of wolves Stock of grain Swarm of bees Pile of books Herd of cattle Shoal/school of fish Crew of sailors Pack of cards Class of pupils Garland of beards Hoarde of nomads Team of players Bundle of sticks Mob of angry people Loaf of bread Bunch of grapes Gang of thieves Block of flats Flight of birds Army of soldiers Fleet of ships/cruisers Heap of corn Herd of lions Library of books File of papers

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5. Collective nouns such as jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company etc. are used both as singular & plural depending on the meaning. When these words indicate a unit, the verb is singular otherwise the verb will be plural. Example: - The jury were decided in this case. (no error) The team has not come yet. (no error)
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Differences in the usage of these pairs of nouns--a) Habit: applies only to an individual. Custom: applies to a society or country. Example - Poor children often become a victim of a bad habits.(no error) Tribal of India have many interesting customs. (no error) b) Cause: produce result. Reason: explains or justifies a cause Example- Scientists try to find out the cause of e phenomenon. (no error) You have a reason to be pleased with your son. (no error) c) Man: used in ordinary sense. Gentleman: is a man of character Example- Man is mortal. (no error) He is a gentleman at large. (no error) d) Men: plural form of men People: used for persons Example- There are five men in the room. (no error) The people of West Bengal are simple (no error) e) Shade: a place sheltered from the sun Shadow: the shade of a distinct from a object Example - The villagers sat under the shade of trees.(no error) He even afraid of his own shadow.(no error) f) Cost- amount paid by the shopkeeper Price- amount paid by the customer Example- The cost of the production of automobile items has gone up. (no error) Sometimes the buyer have to pay higher price for necessary items.( no error) g) House- a building to live in Home- ones native place Example- I am going to Rajas house for todays launch. (no error) My hometown is Kolkata.( no error) h) Customer- a buyer of goods Client- one who avails oneself of a service Example- The shopkeeper welcomes customers with smiles. (no error) The lawyer discusses the cases of his client.(no error)

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PRONOUN
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Definition: A word (one of the traditional parts of speech that takes the place of a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause.

1.

When a pronoun is used as the complement of the verb to be, it should be in the nominative case. Example- If I were him, I would not do it. (error) If I were he, I would not do it. (no error)

2. When the pronoun is used as the object of a verb or of a preposition it should be in


the objective case Example- Let you and I do it. (error) Let you and me do it. (no error)

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3. Emphatic pronoun cannot stand alone as subject


Example- Himself did it. (error) He himself did it. (no error)

4. The indefinite pronoun one should be used throughout if used at all


Example- One must not boast of his own success. One must not boast of ones own success.

5. Each other is used in speaking of two persons or things; one another is used n
speaking of more than two. Example- The two brothers love one another. (error) The two brothers love each other. (no error)

6. Everyone and Everybody must be followed by his


Exa- Everyone should love his country

7. Each, every, anyone, anybody must be followed by singular pronoun of their pronoun.
Exa- anyone can do this if he tries.

8. A noun or pronoun governing a gerund should be put in the possessive case


Example- Please excuse me being late.(error) Please excuse my being late. (no error)

9. Let is followed by followed by pronoun in objective case


Ex- Let him write.

10. But and except are followed by pronoun in the objective case
Ex- Everyone attends the class except him.

11. Verbs like enjoy, avail, pride, resign, apply, acquit ,assert, absent are followed by
reflexive pronouns Ex We enjoyed ourselves at the party.

12. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender.
Example- Each of these boys has done their homework. (error) Each of these boys has done his homework.( no error)

13. When two or more singular nouns are joined by and the pronoun used for them must
be in plural Example- Both Raju and Ravi have done his homework. (error) Both Raju and Ravi have done their homework. (no error)

14. When two or more singular nouns joined by or, nor, eitheror, neither.nor the
pronoun used for them should be in the singular Example- Neither Ravi nor Raju has done their homework. (error) Neither Ravi nor Raju has done his homework (no error)

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15. The relative pronoun who is in subjective case, whereas whom is in objective case.
Therefore for who there must be a finite verb in the sentence. Or otherwise, when whom (object) is used in the sentence and there is more finite verbs than the number of subjects in the sentence, then whom should be changed into who(subject) Example- The doctor whom came here was Rams brother. (error) <|| ANNOUNCEMENT ||> brother. (no error) The doctor who is come here was Rams
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ADJECTIVE

Definition: The part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun. 1. Conversion of degrees of adjective Superlative Construction: S+ be verb+ the+ Sup adjective+ reference Example- Rabindranath Tagore is the greatest poet in India.(no error) Comparative Construction: S + be verb + comp adjective + any other/ all other + reference Example- Rabindranath Tagore is greater than any other poet in India. ( no error) Positive Construction: No other+ reference + be verb + as positive adj as + S Example- No other poet in India is as great as Rabindranath Tagore.

Superlative Construction: S+ be verb+ one of the+ Sup adjective+ reference Example- Rabindranath Tagore is one of the greatest poet in the world. (no error) Comparative Construction: S + be verb + comp adjective + than + most other +reference Example- Rabindranath Tagore is greater than most other poet in the world. no error) Positive Construction: Very few+ reference + be verb + as positive adj as +S Example- Very few poet in the world are as great as Rabindranath Tagore. 2. Conversion of degrees of adjective when the no of subject is two--Comparative Construction: Subject1 + be + comp adj + than +Subject2 Example- He is stronger than I am. (No error) Positive Construction: Subject2 + be verb + not + so positive adj as + subject1 Example- I am not so strong as he is. (no error) 3. As.as: comparison in positive way So.as: comparison in negative way Example- The actress was not as popular now, as she was five years ago. (error) The actress was not so popular now, as she was five years ago. (no error) 4. When two adjectives are compared, the general comparative form (-er/-r) of the
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adjective of the higher degree cannot be used, instead we should more + positive degree. Example- He is cleverer than honest.(error) He is more clever than honest. (no error) 5. The following comparative adjective ending ior do not take than after themselves instead they took to (Senior, junior, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, exterior, interior, prior, preferable). Example- He is junior to me in my office.(no error) 6. Double comparative should be avoided. Example- To an Indian, tea is most preferable to coffee. 7. The following adjectives are used in positive degree only. They have no comparative or superlative form available (perfect, impossible, extreme, ideal, unique, favorite, chief, entire, shapes like circular, rectangular, triangular, round etc. ) Example- The most unique feature in the construction of Taj Mahal is its structural symmetry. 8. When two comparative adjectives are placed in one sentence in such a way that one depends upon the other, definite article (the) should be placed before them. Example- The less it is, the better it is.(no error) 9. Expressions like of the two/between the two/of the twins are always followed by comparative adjective, preceded by definite article (the). Example- Of the two policies which you have mentioned, I think the first one is the better.(no error)

10. If two superlative adjectives are based in one sentence in such a way that both qualify one subject, definite article should not be used the second one. Example- She is the best and the most regular student in my class and so it is obvious that she will get a job very soon.

11. When there are two objects of comparison, then to avoid repetition of noun, that is used for singular noun and those for plural noun 12. Many: used for subject expressible in number Much: used for subject expressible in quantity Example- Many people died in the battle of Kalinga.(no error) There was much bloodshed in the battle of Kalinga.(no error) 13. Some: used in affirmative sentence Any: used in negative sentence Example- Do you have any point to add?(no error) Yes, I have some points to add.(no error) No, I do not have any point to add.(no error)

14. Few: used for subject expressible in number Little: used for subject expressible in quantity Example- Few people can attain the level of excellence, what Sachin has. (no error) Little I can do for you under this circumstance. (no error) 15. Little/few: negative in meaning(almost nil) A little/a few: positive in meaning (something at least)
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Example- Being good student, he generates little doubt about his bright future.(no error) There is a few money by which I can but it.(no error) The few friend he had, left him after he was caught red handed in a bribery case.(no error) 16. Farther: more distance Further: additional Example- He insisted on further improvement. 17. Each: used in speaking two and more than two Every: used in speaking only more than two Example- Each of the two boys will get a prize. 18. Beautiful: used for women Handsome: used for men Ex Rekha is a beautiful girl. 19. Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing meant. Adjectives of quantity (some, much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole) are used for uncountable noun. Example- I ate few rice.(error) I ate some rice.(no error

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
1. When two subjects are joined by as well as/along with/with/together with/in addition to/accompanied by the verb will agree the first subject only. Example- I as well as my friend are tired of this work.(error) I as well as my friend am tired of this work.(no error) Pandit Ravi Sankar on Setar accompanied Ustad Zakir Husen on Tabla was a delightful to watch and hear.(error)

2. When two subjects are joined by either.or/neither.nor the verb will agree with the second subject only. Example- Neither I nor my parents are satisfied with his gesture. [n.b.- in the above case singular subject comes first] 3. If two subject are joined by not only. But also the verb will agree with the second subject only. Example- Not only you but also I am interested in this type of professional course. (no error) 4. Not only and but also should be placed before the same parts of speech. Example- He not only gave me food but also shelter. (error) He gave me not only food but also shelter. (no error) 5. Many a has the meaning of many, but many a followed by singular noun and singular verb. Example- Many a days have passed after that day.(error) Many a day has passed after that day.(no error)

6. Either of, neither of, each of, one of, every of, none of are always followed by plural noun but singular. Example- Either of the two books are important. (error) Either of the two books is important. (no error) 7. When two subjects are joined by and the verb will be plural except the following
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cases: a) When two subjects related one purpose. Example- Bread and butter is my favorite dish for breakfast. b) When two qualities give single impact. Example- His power and influence has made him a person of importance. If two subjects are joined by and but either the both or the first one is preceded by each or every the verb will be a singular. c) Example- Each boy and girl was given an assignment to do in the summer vacation. d) When two subjects are joined by and but only the first subject is preceded by the then the verb will be singular. Example- The party chief and chairman of the committee was not satisfied with the outcome of the investigation.

8. Hundred, thousand, million, crore, billion, dozen, score(4 pcs) are singular in structure when these are preceded by any specific number but these are plural in structure when followed by preposition of. Example- Five million Rs were spent in the project. Millions of rs were spent in the project. 9. If the parameters mentioned in previous rule are preceded by expressions like much of/ less than/ a little of the verb will be singular. Example- Less than a million of rupees was spent in that project. 10. When the subject of the verb is relative pronoun, care should be taken to see that the Verb agrees in Number and Person with the Antecedent of the relative. Example- I, who is yur friend, will guard your interests. (error) I, who am your friend, will guard your interests. (no error)

ADVERB
Definition: The part of speech that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other

adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentence.
1. Position of adverb in a sentence: a) An adverb of manner is placed after the object or after the verb in absence of object. Example- He performed his duty sincerely. b) An adverb of frequency is to placed before the verb. Example- I frequently go there. c) In a sentence of passive voice all the adverbs are to be placed in between the verbs. Example- His activity was highly criticized by the board of members. d) The word enough can be used both as an adjective and as an adverb. When it is used as adjective it should be placed before the word it qualifies. But when it is used as an adverb it should be placed after the word it qualifies. Example- He is enough intelligent to understand what I mean.(no error)
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(adjective) (noun) He has enough intelligence to understand what I mean. (no error) (adj) (adverb) e) Until and unless are negative adverbs. So all negative expressions are to be avoided with these two. Example- Until he does not give his best, he will not get the desired result. f) Lest(it is a negative word) is always followed by should Example- Make haste, lest you will miss the train. (error) Make haste, lest you should miss the train. (no error) g) Tooto is a negative adverb, all negative expressions are to avoided with it. Example- He is too weak not to run. He is so weak that he cannot run.(no error) h) If a sentence begins with an adverb, the auxiliary verb should be placed before the subject. Example- Never before in my life , have I experienced such an event that I have today. i) Very Much It qualifies adjective in positive degree Ex- He is very slow. It qualifies present participle. Ex- The story is very interesting. It qualifies adjective in comparative degree. Ex- He is much slower than I can. It qualifies past participle. Ex- I am much interested about this story.

j) Specially: for a particular reason. Example- I have come here specially to help you. Especially: particularly Example- The woman, especially of hilly region are very industrious. k) At present: at the present time Example- Nothing more can be done at present. Presently: shortly Example- He will come back presently. l) Hard: diligently Example- He tried hard to win the race. Hardly: scarcely at all Example- She has eaten hardly anything today. m) Carefully is an adjective which cannot modify the adverb very, therefore carefully (adverb) must be use in place of careful. Example- She writes very careful. (error) She writes very carefully.(no error) n) Quite and all are not used together. Example- He is quite all right.(error) He is quite right.(no error) He is all right. (no error) o) A/An + fairly + adjective + noun or rather + a + adjective Example- A fairly good book. Rather a difficult problem. But we cannot use pleasant adjective with rather and unpleasant adjective with fairly. Example- It was a rather good book.(error) It was a fairly good book.(no error)
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CONJUNCTION
Definition: The part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

The common conjunctions--and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so--join the elements of a coordinate structure.
1. Types of Conjunction: a) Co-ordinate Conjunction: It joins two sentences of equal rank(and, or, but). b) Sub-ordinate Conjunction: It joins two sentences of different rank, one is principle and the other one is sub-ordinate(all -wh words, if because, for, as, unless). c) Compound Conjunction: These are structurally compound (as well as, no sooner, so long as, as soon as, as if, etc.). d) Co-ordinate Conjunction: These type of conjunction occurs in pair and co relation( either..or, neither..nor, whether..or ot, so..that, suchthat etc.). 2. Two conjunctions should not be used in the same sentence. Example- Although she was tired, but she still went on working. (error) Although she was tired, she still went on working. (no error) 3. No sooner has the meaning of as soon as But no sooner takes than as corelative. Example- As soon as the students saw the teacher coming they stopped charming. (no error) No sooner had the students seen the teacher coming, than they stopped charming. No sooner did the students see the teacher coming, than they stopped charming. 4. Hardly/scarcely has the meaning of no sooner/as soon as but hardly/scarcely takes when as correlative Example- Hardly had the students seen the teacher coming when they stopped charming. Hardly did the student see the teacher coming when stopped charming. 5. Though/ although never takes but as co-relative. If so but may be replaced by yet. Example- Though he is poor, but he is honest.(error) Though he is poor, yet he is honest.(no error) [n.b- though/although does not take may or might/can or could as auxiliary verbs]

Example- Although the student may come from different economic background yet they are equally treated by institution. (error)

Although the student come from different economic background yet they are equally treated by institution.(no error)

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6. Because and therefore cannot be used together in a sentence. If so, the one which is wrongly placed should be omitted. Example- Because he was injured, therefore he was ruled out of the team (error). He was injured, therefore he was ruled out of the team.(no error)

7. Both never occurs with as well as. If so it should be replaced by and. Example- Both Rajat as well as Shyamal have submitted their report.(error) Both Rajat as well as and Shyamal have submitted their report.(no error) 8. As and so never be used in a sentence. If so which is wrong place should be omitted. Example- As he was injured, so he was ruled out of the team. (error) As he was injured, he was ruled out of the team. (no error) 9. Supposing and if should not be used together in a sentence, if so one should be omitted. Example- Supposing if he fails to turn up in time, what will we do?(error) 10. As if expresses some abnormal behavioral patterns of the subject. In this case the be verb is always were. Example- The way he has reached to my comment shows as if he is mad.(error) The way he has reached to my comment shows as if he were mad.(no error) 11. That should not be used before a sentence in direct speech and before interrogative adverbs and pronouns in the indirect speech. Example- He said that, I shall go there. (error) He said, I shall go there. (no error)

PREPOSITION
Definition: A word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and

other words in a sentence.

1. Objective case (of noun or pronoun) is after preposition. Example- I do not depend on he. (error) I do not depend on him. (no error) 2. The prepositions used after two words must be made clear if these two words are connected by and or or. Example- She is conscious and engaged in her work. (error) She is conscious of and engaged in her work. (no error) 3. If a principal verb is used after about, after, at, before, for, from, in, on to, that verb must be in V + ing form. Example- You prevented me from do it. (error) You prevented me from doing it. (no error) 4. On, in, at, are not used before today, tomorrow, yesterday, the following day, the next day etc. Example- He will go there on tomorrow. (error)
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He will go there tomorrow. (no error) 5. No preposition is used before the home. At home is a phrase when bears a different meaning. Example- Bring a T.V. set at home. (error) Bring a T.V. set home. (no error)

6. After transitive verb like discuss, describe, reach, order, tell, demand, attack, resemble, ridicule, etc, we directly use the object and no preposition is used after the verb. Example- The poet describes about the beauty of nature in this poem. (error) The poet describes the beauty of nature in this poem.(no error) 7. Say, suggest, propose, speak, reply, explain, talk, listen, write, is followed by to preposition if there is a person in the form of object. Example- He did not reply me.(error) He did not reply to me. (no error)

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