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XXX Pvt Ltd , 2013 Lean Manufacturing Assessment

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT SHEETS There are 11 areas for the lean assessment, including culture & awareness, ro!lem solving, standardi"ed wor#, #ai"en, material handling $#an!an%, &uic# changeover, '(, visual management, total roductive maintenance, fle)i!le o erations and error* roofing+ Please develo a roadma for im rovement for each area that ,ou score less than -0. on+ /ach area has a two age assessment+ 0or e)am le, the first age of 1culture & awareness2 has a 1Measura!le2 section $with levels and circles to !e filled in%+ The second age of 1culture & awareness2 consists of &uestions and a chart+ The &uestions are designed to aid ,ou in identif,ing the correct level of the measura!le on the first age+ The chart $ena!lers, disa!lers, and evidence of !est ractices% is intended to allow ,ou to identif, evidence of factors that encourage lean thin#ing $ena!lers% or discourage it $disa!lers%+ The 1evidence of !est ractices2 !o) is where ,ou would record ractices or rocedures which should !e ado ted and s read throughout the com an,+ 3nce consensus is reached on the num!er of 1&uarters2 that should !e filled in for each element, this measura!le can !e converted to a ercentage+ 0or e)am le, ,ou and ,our team achieve consensus that shading in three 1&uarters2 of the level 3 measura!le in 1culture and awareness2 is accurate+ 0or the ur oses of this calculation, consider all the 1&uarters2 !elow level 3 as shaded in+ (o the calculation would !e 11 1&uarters2 $four for level 1, four for level 2, three for level 3% divided !, 20 total 1&uarters2 or 44.+ After the eleven individual areas are assessed, the summar, results are recorded on the radar chart and ,ou and ,ou team would then fill out the lean lanning and lean trac#ing forms included at the end of this document+

Sln o
1. . $. #. +. %. 2. *. 9. 10. 11.

Section
Culture &Awareness !isual Manage"ent %S Stan&ar&i'e& (or) Fle,i-le.Cellular O/erations 1ai'en Error Proo3 . Po)a45o)e 6uic) C7angeo8er TPM Material control 1an-an Pro-le" Sol8ing

Page no
# % * 10 1 1# 1% 1* 0

Morning Star Management Services

1. Culture an& Awareness :Custo"er Focuse& 4 E"/lo;ees Aware< =e3inition> 5ow management e) lains and acts u on its values+ 5ow ordinar, ro!lems are dealt with+ 5ow the lant erceives management attitudes and !ehaviors+ 5ow the customer $internal or e)ternal% is regarded+ 6ommunication within the lant+ Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on&s to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering Breen 100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero C Ee8el Measura-le E8i&ent 1 /m lo,ee awareness level of the lant vision, lant goals and customer 1 2 e) ectations is ver, limited 4 3 2 /m lo,ees understand who their internal $ne)t rocess% and e)ternal customers are and what the, e) ect * the, receive feed!ac# from later rocesses in the lant7 em lo,ees visit customer sites+ (ome em lo,ees are aware of the lant vision and goals+ All em lo,ees have access to #e, information, resources and su ort to meet and e)ceed customer e) ectations, including sales, &ualit, and deliver, issues+ Most em lo,ees are aware of the lant vision and goals+ The organi"ation fosters and measures em lo,ee satisfaction+ There is evidence of commitment to organi"ational goals7 leaders !uild and su ort o en 2*wa, communication, trust, teamwor# and continuous im rovement+ All em lo,ees are aware of the lant vision and goals+ Pro!lem solving teams are consistentl, assigned, trained, given authorit, and are wor#ing on all #e, to customer issues+ Teams are o!taining ermanent root cause solutions+ Most em lo,ees share and romote the lant vision and goals+ The 9customer first9 conce t has enetrated to ever, corner of the lant+ :henever a ro!lem or a!normalit, occurs, eo le get to wor# at once to ma#e a ermanent corrective im rovement+ /ver, em lo,ee shares and romotes the lant vision and goals+
; >>24>>> .

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6ultural Awareness Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>>'>=>28> 1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas #? $?

A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions

100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases

Morning Star Management Services

1+1 Culture an& Awareness E8i&ence Bat7ering :Custo"er Focuse& 4 E"/lo;ees Aware< Questions to ask to people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 5as a customer*first attitude enetrated through ever, area of the lantD 2+ Eo all em lo,ees full, understand who their customers are $ne)t rocess%, including end roducts at 3/M customersD 3+ Eo all em lo,ees full, understand the e) ectations of their customersD 8+ Are em lo,ees informed a!out customer satisfaction $their current erformance%D 4+ Eo all em lo,ees have access to relevant information in order to e)ceed customer e) ectations $feed!ac#, Measura!les, erformance results, etc+%D '+ Fs em lo,ee satisfaction of the utmost im ortanceD A+ Fs there o enness, trust and teamwor# throughout the lantD G+ :henever issues occur, are the, faced &uic#l, and o enl,D -+ Are teams used wherever ossi!le to solve ro!lemsD 10+ Are em lo,ees well trained in all #e, continuous im rovement toolsD 11+ Eoes management foster a commitment to goals !, !uilding su ort throughout the lantD 12+ Fs there an e)cellent communication rocess throughout the lantD 13+ Fs the communication within the lant !oth u ward and downwardD 18+ Eo the Management = em lo,ees #now who are the customerHs customer $end user% and their needsD 14+ :hether wor#men = em lo,ees concerned aware a!out customer com laints and corrective actionsD
Ena-lers =isa-lers 1. . $. #. +. %. 2. *. 9. 10. 11. 1 . 1$. Hig7 a-senteeis" /ercentage C7ange agents not i&enti3ie& Cross 3unctional tea"s not acti8e =ail; 10 "inute "eeting a"ong sta33 a-out /lanning is not 3ollowe& Per3or"ance is not re8iewe& an& acte& u/on in a sustaina-le "anner Tec7nical clari3ications 3ro" /ro&uction are not s;ste"aticall; &ocu"ente& =ail; /lanning is not 3ir" /lan 3or eac7 line an& no co"/arison -etween -ot7 Re8iew o3 /lan 8s ac7ie8e&G Hig7 le8els o3 (IP Material re@uire"ent 3orecast is not e33ecti8e 1PI is not set to re3lect custo"er re@uire"ent 3ul3ill"ent across all sections also not relate& to -est in class -enc7"ar)s &e"an& "anage"ent "eetings wit7 )e; custo"ers no Su//lier an& custo"er 8isits occur to "aintain a goo& un&erstan&ing o3 eac7 ot7erHs nee&s> @ualit;D @uantit; an& &eli8era-ilit; :Su//l; C7ain Man4 age"ent.< Slow res/onse 3ro" sales on &e3ects to 6C cause &ela;D congestion E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

1#.

. !isual Manage"ent
Morning Star Management Services 3

=e3inition> All rocess ste s are clearl, visi!le to all em lo,ees+ Process status is &uic#l, communicated !, information !oards, roduction e&ui ment, etc+ All the information needed to manage the !usiness is easil, availa!le in real time to all em lo,ees+ Management uses the visual s,stem to ma#e decisions+ A!normal roduction situations are eas, to detect+

Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on&s to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero C Ee8el Measura-le 1 Ie&uired information is osted in the lant+ Fnformation is usuall, u to date+ 2 (ome ostings of roduction status+ Most information is current and accurate+ (ome management attention to standardi"ation of visuals+ A!normal situations are identified visuall, $e+g+ andon !oard, go=no go lights%+ Production status, Co! training, safet,, #ai"en, meeting, #e, Measura!les, ro!lem solving !oards are visi!le, u to date and showing continuous im rovement+ A!normal situations are identified visuall, and management acts to correct them rom tl,+ (ome management decision*ma#ing is !ased u on visual status on the roduction floor+ Additional visual management information such as Product <ualit, $returns, scra , claims, (P6%, roductivit, !oards, reventive maintenance, etc+ are u dated immediatel, for each line or rocess7 o erators get immediate feed!ac# on their erformance+ Most managers ma#e decisions !ased u on visual status on the roduction floor+ All the information re&uired to run the lant is accurate, on the floor, and availa!le in real*time+ /ver,one can tell when things are normal or a!normal7 the, res ond at once to a!normalities+ Bisual management drives all o erational decision*ma#ing+ E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

Bisual Management Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>>'>=>20> 1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not #? $?

; >>>30>> .

A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions in the maCorit, of cases

100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

Morning Star Management Services

2+1 !isual

Manage"ent E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... Are #e, lant erformance measures convenientl, osted in the lantD 6an ever,one tell when things are normal or a!normal in their wor# areaD :hen a!normal conditions occur, are action lans im lemented immediatel,D Eoes the visual management rovide feed!ac# to team mem!ers a!out their erformance and motivate them to im roveD 4+ Are monitors used to communicate lant=com an, informationD '+ Are visuals sim le, eas, to read and understandD A+ Fs visual management a wa, of life in the lantD G+ Are all e&ui ments identifiedD All wal#* wa,s, wor# areas, fire esca e routs identifiedD -+ :hether the o erating directions mar#ed on machinesD 10+ Are the following elements managed visuall,? In8entor;G III Jo- trainingG III Sa3et;G III Atten&anceG IIII Returns :PPM<G III SPCG III Pro&ucti8it;G III E@ui/"ent Per3or"anceG IIII Engineering c7angesG III FinancialsG III E"/lo;ee In8ol8e"ent :EI< tea"sG III 1ai'en acti8itiesG III +SG III Cost Re&uctionsG III =e3ectsG III First Run Ca/a-ilit;G III Pre8enti8e MaintenanceG III Awar&sG III Continuous I"/ro8e"entG III 1+ 2+ 3+ 8+

Ena-lers Foar&s

=isa-lers 1. Congestion . Too "uc7 (IP $. !isual 3actor; not 3ollowe&

E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

$ . %S

Morning Star Management Services

=e3inition > 1% (e arate and scra 2% (traighten 3% (cru! 8% (tandardi"e 4% (,stemi"e+ (afet, is 'th ( '( is a measure of how all em lo,ees su ort the rocess+ 3rgani"ation of the wor# lace, arrangement of the tools, standardi"ation within the wor# lace, cleaning and the disci line to s,stemi"e+ :ith '(, unsta!le, wasteful situations !ecome visi!le earlier, allowing for &uic#er, more effective res onses and ro!lem solving to occur+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen 100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero

C Ee8el Measura-le 1 The facilit, is generall, clean+ There is some organi"ation of tools, fi)tures, arts, and information+ 2 There is a rocess to #ee the facilit, clean, and it is generall, followed+ All caution signs, e)its, fire e)tinguishers and emergenc, rocedures are clearl, visi!le where the, are needed+ Peo le usuall, #now where to find tools, fi)tures, arts, information, etc+ There is a rocess to #ee the facilit, clean, it is followed and audited occasionall,+ Lines distinguish wor# areas and aths7 tools, in* rocess inventor, and machines are ut in logical order+ There is evidence of attention to '( throughout the lant+ /m lo,ees s end little time searching for tools or information re&uired to erform their Co!s+ All em lo,ees are considerate of house#ee ing $including offices, storage areas%7 the lant is generall, clear of all unnecessar, waste and scra + Fn general, '( rocedures are standardi"ed throughout the lant and regularl, audited+ There is 1a lace for ever,thing and ever,thing in its lace27 ever, container, floor location, tool and art rac# is clearl, la!eled and easil, accessed !, the user+ All offices and storage areas are clean and neat+ Jnsta!le situations surface earl,, and rarel, escalate+ The lant has reached the fifth K(H* (,stemati"e+ A K'(H committee regularl, rates each area against !est '( ractices+ The em lo,ees drive the '( rocess and recognition is given+ Jnsta!le situations are immediatel, o!vious and acted u on+
'( Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>G>>=>28> 1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions ; >>>33>> .

E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

'

in the maCorit, of cases

Morning Star Management Services

3+1 %S E8i&ence Bat7ering Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 5ow do ,ou #now when there is a!normal situationD 2+ :here are the tools laced in the wor# areaD 3+ Are inventor, levels clearl, mar#edD 8+ Fs the wor# lace cleanD 4+ :ho is res onsi!le for #ee ing the wor# area cleanD '+ Fs scra , s ecial material, etc, clearl, mar#ed and segregatedD A+ 5ow do ,ou #now this is the right art for this assem!l, ste D G+ Fs there some t, e of house#ee ing award=recognitionD -+ Fs a '( audit s,stem in laceD 10+ :hat is the cleanliness of? arts, e&ui ment, Cigs, visual controls, scra =rewor#, floorD 11+ 5ow is the organi"ation of? storage la!els, shelves, &uantit, indicators, lines on the floorD 12+ :hat are the standards for? ventilation, lighting, clothing, and smo#ingD 13+ :hat is the adherence level to standards $disci line%D
Ena-lers +s starte& =isa-lers 1 E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices Floc)age o3 wor) 3low =ela; in Potting /rocessD as i&eal ti"e 3or stan&ar& wor) is not i&enti3ie&. Congeste& wor) area.

#. Stan&ar&i'e& (or)
Morning Star Management Services 7

=e3inition > :or# is standardi"ed if it is re eated in e)actl, the same manner from tas# to tas# and erson to erson+ :or# instructions $o erator descri tion sheets or 3E(%, the (tandard :or# 6hart, :or# 6om!ination 6harts and Production 6a acit, (heets define standardi"ed wor#+ The goal is to have standardi"ed wor# for ever, o eration meet or e)ceed customer ta#t $c,cle% time+ (tandardi"ed wor# is the !asis for all sustaina!le #ai"en events+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 :ritten o eration se&uences $3 eration Eescri tion (heet or 3E(% and rocedures e)ist for most line o erations and most o erators follow them+ 3E( are written !, staff+ 2 :ritten o eration se&uences $3E(% and rocedures e)ist for all line o erations+ Little variation from erson to erson and shift to shift+ (ome o erator in ut into standardi"ed wor#+ (ome management interest in standardi"ation+ (ome o erations meet customer ta#t time+ :ritten o eration se&uences $3E(% and rocedures e)ist for all line o erations+ <ualit, and safet, are sometimes defined in the 3E(+ Minimal variation from erson to erson and shift to shift+ 3 erators have in ut into standardi"ed wor# and im rovements+ Most o erations meet customer ta#t time+ :ritten o eration se&uences $3E(% address rocedures, safet, and &ualit,+ 3E( are regularl, followed, regularl, audited and constantl, im roved u on+ 3 erators are activel, involved in develo ing standardi"ed wor# and im rovements+ Fm rovements are immediatel, made to o erations that do not meet customer ta#t time+ All elements of standardi"ed wor# are followed $3E(, standard wor# chart, wor# com!ination charts, and roduction ca acit, charts%+ Eisci line is e)cellent+ All em lo,ees concentrate on the goal of im roving each rocess and resetting standards+ (ignificant im rovements result+ All o erations meet customer ta#t time+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

(tandardi"ed :or# Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>>>G=>20>

; >>80>>> .

1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

in the maCorit, of cases

Morning Star Management Services

8+1 Stan&ar&i'e& (or) E8i&ence Bat7ering Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ Are standardi"ed wor# instructions clearl, visi!le at each wor# stationD 2+ Eo the wor# instructions use a com!ination of descri tions and ictures $that clearl, descri!e the wor# to !e erformed% that are clearl, understoodD 3+ Eo o erators do their Co! the same wa, each time according to standardi"ed instructionsD 8+ Eo o erators on different shifts do their Co! the same wa, each time according to standardi"ed instructionsD 4+ Are the wor# instructions constantl, im roved u on !, the teamD '+ Are o erators involved in setting the standardsD A+ Are standards adCusted to reduce :FP and full, utili"e the o eratorsD G+ Eo all o erators understand the im ortance of standardi"ed wor# to the lant and customersD -+ Eoes management understand the im ortance of standardi"ed wor# to the lant and customersD 10+ Fs there evidence of continuous im rovement as a result of the standardi"ed wor# instructionsD 11+ Are o erators trained to erform each o eration using the standardi"ed wor# instructionsD 12+ Are the standard wor# chart, wor# com!ination chart and roduction ca acit, chart in useD 13+ :hether the conce t of Kideal time for standard wor#H #nown to allD
Ena-lers T7ere are /rocesses w7ic7 can -e co"-ine& =isa-lers 1 Co"/arison o3 stan&ar& ti"e 8s actual Control /lans are not 3ull; trans/arent It is &i33icult to trans3er /ro&uct wise line s)ills to anot7er line Eearnings 3ro" 8arious ?/ro&uction runs ? are no s;ste"aticall; ca/ture& Potting.3inis7ing area congestion &ue to "aterial waiting 3or 3inal ins/ection Critical constraine& resources are not i&enti3ie& an& "anage& e33ecti8el;. :TOC< Pro&uct &esign criteria &o not "a,i"i'e ease o3 "anu3acturing. :6F=< E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

$ # + % 2

+. Fle,i-le O/erations
Morning Star Management Services 9

=e3inition > :or#ers can erform multi le tas#s within one rocess+ :or#ers can erform tas#s in more than one rocess+ Management monitors resources, ergonomics and Co! rotation+ <uic# res onse in de lo,ment of resources to changes in roduct mi) and customer demand+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 :or#ers are ade&uatel, trained to do the Co! the, are assigned to do+ Processes are aligned to facilitate material flow+ Minimal changes in demand can !e accommodated+ 2 :or#ers are roficient in their assigned Co! and ca a!le of erforming other similar tas#s in their area+ (ome cross*training and Co! rotation occurs+ (ome changes in demand can !eaccommodated+ :or#ers are roficient in a variet, of tas#s+ 6ross*training is lanned and Co! rotation is regularl, scheduled+ Most changes in demand can !e accommodated+ The lant has autonomous machines $self*ins ecting * shut down when an a!normalit, occurs, auto*loading and eCecting, do not need wor#er while c,cling%+ (ome rocesses are o timi"ed to facilitate material flow+ There is evidence of e)tensive cross*training & Co! rotation+ Almost all changes in demand can !e accommodated+ All rocesses are o timi"ed to facilitate material flows+ (tandardi"ed wor# sheets descri!e alternate staffing and Co! descri tions for fluctuations in demand+ :or#ers are highl, roficient at tas#s even when demand fluctuates+ Machine=man ratios for each tas# are o timi"ed+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

0le)i!le 3 erations Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>12>>=>20>

; >>>>'0> .

1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

Morning Star Management Services

10

+.1 Fle,i-le

O/erations E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 2+ 3+ 8+ 4+ '+ A+ Are wor#ers ade&uatel, $well% trained in their assigned Co!$s%D 5ave art travel distances !een minimi"edD Fs all e&ui ment arranged in a roduct vs+ rocess focusD Fs e&ui ment automated where a lica!leD Are rocesses aligned for e)cellent material flowD 6an lines easil, accommodate fluctuations in demandD Eo standardi"ed wor# sheets descri!e alternate staffing and Co! descri tions for each o erator when num!ers of o erators and res onsi!ilities changeD G+ 6an wor#ers easil, rotate to other Co!sD -+ Eo team mem!ers rotate Co!s on a regular !asisD 10+ Fs standardi"ed wor# defined for different roduction ratesD 11+ Fs there a well*defined lan to cross*train wor#ersD 12+ Are all wor#ers willing to !e multi s#illedD
Ena-lers 1. Cross 3unctional training . Multis)illing =isa-lers 1. Ea;out re@uires -ac)trac)ing le8el a-out +0C o3 "aterial "o8e"ent is s/ent -ac)trac)ing . &isru/ti8e c7anges in t7e /ro&uction sc7e&ule results is accu"ulation o3 (I/ an& 7in&ers 3ree 3low $. coating acti8it; ti"e is not /racticall; stan&ar&i'e& #. stan&ar& acti8it; ; ti"e an& actual acti8it; ti"e co"/arison is not e8i&ent +. Un wante& "o8e"ent in line /erson going to /otting roo" 3or o8alit; c7ec) E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

%. 1ai'en
Morning Star Management Services 11

=e3inition > Lai"en is continuous im rovement+ 6onstant, incremental, small scale rogress+ Lai"en is measured !, standardi"ed wor#+ Lai"en differs from 1#ai#a#u2 or large scale innovation which is to *down, fundamental change+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 Fm rovements have !een made mainl, through ca ital investments or new roducts+ There is a continuous im rovement lan+ Fm rovements are made, and sometimes sustaina!le+ 2 Fdeas for continuous im rovements are as#ed from em lo,ees and there is evidence that the, are im lemented+ The continuous im rovement lan is generall, followed+ (ome em lo,ee involvement+ Fm rovements are made, and generall, sustaina!le+ There is a well*defined strateg, for continuous im rovement with evidence of measura!le results in most areas+ Fm rovements are sustained and !uilt u on !, further #ai"ens+ Most em lo,ees have !een involved+ All em lo,ees have !een trained in the !asics of #ai"en and have !een affected !, a #ai"en roCect+ /m lo,ees #now the A wastes, identif, waste in their rocesses and wor# to reduce the waste+ 5igh management attention to develo ing a #ai"en culture+ There is a clearl, communicated strateg, for continuous im rovement with the necessar, resources and organi"ation lanned and im lemented+ ProCects are structured and continuous7 successes are recogni"ed and e) anded throughout the lant+ Ft is clearl, evident that Lai"en teams are a wa, of life+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

Lai"en Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>'>=>20>

; >>>>30> .

1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

Morning Star Management Services

12

%.1 1ai'en E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ Are em lo,ees involved in continuous im rovement throughout the lantD 2+ Fs there a clearl, communicated strateg, for continuous im rovementD 3+ Are resources availa!le to su ort the im rovement strateg,D 8+ Fs management su ort for continuous im rovement evidentD 4+ Are continuous im rovement results measured and communicatedD '+ Are all em lo,ees trained $or scheduled to !e trained% in the !asics of #ai"enD A+ Eo all em lo,ees #now the A Linds of :asteD G+ Are all em lo,ees encouraged to FE and eliminate waste in their areaD -+ Are successes recogni"ed throughout the lantD 10+ Fs a suggestion s,stem in lace to stimulate idea generationD 11+ Are there an, incentive rograms for continuous im rovementD 12+ An, visi!le effect of Kaizen im lementation

Ena-lers

=isa-lers 1. ProKects 3or i"/ro8e"ent are not clearl; lai& out . Root cause anal;sis is not /in/ointing t7e cause $. e"/lo;ee /artici/ation in /ro-le" sol8ing

E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

2. Error /roo3ing.Po)a 5o)e


Morning Star Management Services 13

=e3inition > Also #nown as mista#e roofing, o#a*,o#e or "ero*defects+ The s,stems that su ort the rocess are mista#e roofed to reduce=eliminate all ossi!ilit, of error in all rocess ste s+ 3 erators 1get it right the first time2 and management rovides the tools+ @o ins ection, no rewor#M A defect is defined as an, error in assem!l,, e&ui ment, visual a earance, etc+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 Fnitial efforts are in lace to evolve from ins ection and containment to revention+ The rocess is sometimes sto ed when defects are detected+ Management tolerance for rewor# is decreasing+ 2 Fn general, defects are detected at the ne)t downstream o eration+ There is evidence that rewor# and ins ection are decreasing+ /m lo,ees are em owered to sto the rocess when a defect occurs Fn general, defects are detected after the, occur, !ut !efore the, reach the ne)t downstream o eration+ /m lo,ees are encouraged to sto the rocess when a defect occurs+ (ome error roofing devices in evidence $e+g+ go=no go tor&ue measurements%+ Management attention is focused on defect revention+ Eefects are often revented within the station, where feasi!le, detected within the station if not feasi!le+ There is evidence that error roofing hiloso h, has !een a lied across the lant+ /rror roofing devices are common+ Most em lo,ees are trained in error roofing+ Management has low tolerance for rewor#+ :here automation e)ists, it is self*ins ecting and will shut down when defects are detected+ Fn manual o erations lant wide, error roofing devices have !een develo ed to !uild in &ualit, at each ste and to revent defects at their source to revent recurrence+ Line sto s result in ra id res onse to defects from management+ There is evidence that the design was error roofed rior to launch+ Iewor# is minimal+ 0irst run ca a!ilities are a roaching 0 PPM as a result of management attention to error roofing+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

/rror roofing Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >'>>>=>20> 1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not #? $?

; >>>30>> .

A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions in the maCorit, of cases

100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

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2.1 Error

/roo3ing E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 5ave em lo,ees !een trained in the rocess of error roofingD 2+ :herever defects occur, do ro!lem*solving teams identif, ermanent corrective actions that include error roofingD 3+ 5ave error* roofing devices !een develo ed and installed at each wor#stationD 8+ Fs there a s,stem in lace to verif, that error roofing is wor#ingD 4+ 6an all defects !e detected !efore !eing assed on to the ne)t rocessD '+ Are em lo,ees em owered to sto the rocess when a defect or a!normal condition occursD A+ Are errors detected !efore the arts are rocessed at the wor#stationD G+ 5as error roofing !een designed into the roduct wherever a ro riateD -+ 6an o erators !, ass error* roofing devicesD 10+ :hat is the trend in #e, indicators such as scra , rewor# and first run ca a!ilit,D 11+ :hether im lementation of Khuman error roofing s,stemH im roved their confidence levelD 12+ :hether accidents = defects reduced after im lementation of K Poka YokeD
Ena-lers =isa-lers 1. Error /roo3ing s;ste"s not s;ste"aticall; 3ollowe& . Pareto anal;sis not &one on &e3ect &ata E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices 1. =e3ect -oo)ing

*. 6uic) C7angeo8er
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=e3inition > <uic# changeover is a state and rocess of achieving e)tremel, fast setu times for e&ui ment and rocesses+ The goal is to change over arts within the customerHs c,cle $ta#t% time+ This ma, !e !ased u on (M/E $single minute e)change of dies% or similar hiloso h, e+g+ se arating e)ternal from internal wor# within a setu +
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 6hangeovers are scheduled and necessar, em lo,ees have the schedule+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

Management understands and acce ts &uic# set*u as an im ortant techni&ue in im lementing lean s,stems7 &uic# changeover teams have received formal &uic# set*u reduction training+ (et*u activities have !een videota ed to allow for detailed anal,sis+ Lai"ens have !een focused on reducing set*u time+ <uic# set*u time $internal and e)ternal% is trac#ed visi!l, in the area where the setu is done+ @ew set*u rocedures have !een standardi"ed, documented and osted7 all affected em lo,ees have !een re*trained7 roduction lanning uses the reduced changeover times in lanning+ @o changeover o eration ta#es more than three minutes and all are done within the c,cle time $ta#t time%+
<uic# 6hangeover Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>>'>=>28> ; >>24>>> .

'

1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

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*.1 6uic)

C7angeo8er E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 5ave em lo,ees !een trained in the rocess of &uic# changeoverD 2+ Eo em lo,ees understand (M/E $single minute e)change of dies% hiloso h,D 3+ 5ow often are changeovers erformedD :ee#l,D Eail,D 5ourl,D 8+ 5ave #ai"ens focused on decreasing changeover timeD 4+ Fs there a visual signal s,stem for changeoversD '+ 5ow are changeovers scheduledD A+ Fs there a team assigned to reducing set*u timesD G+ Eo em lo,ees understand the need for reduced set*u timesD -+ Fs there a s,stem in lace to trac# changeover timesD 10+ An, suggestions given !, wor#ers for im lementation of (M/E
Ena-lers =isa-lers Ti"e ta)en 3or "aga'ine c7ange E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

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9. Total Pro&ucti8e Maintenance =e3inition > TPM strives to !e !ased on high wor#er involvement and res onsive su ort functions+ TPM see#s to revent all failures and rocess o eration disru tion+ The goal of TPM is a sta!le roduction environment where machine failures do not affect roduction+ Planned versus un lanned downtime is a good wa, to measure the effectiveness of TPM+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 Machines are guarded for safet, and loc#ed out immediatel, when !ro#en+ Maintenance de artment is res onsi!le for all maintenance activities+ 2 Accurate and visi!le maintenance histories are #e t u to date and osted near all e&ui ment+ Preventive maintenance is racticed * #e, em lo,ees have !een trained in the !asics of TPM7 maCor and minor accidents rarel, occur+ 3 erators fill out maintenance chec# sheets+ Preventive maintenance res onsi!ilities are well defined+ 3 erators are doing dail, tas#s li#e chec#ing, oiling and cleaning machines+ Maintenance team is evolving from reventive to redictive a!ilities+ Plant*wide maintenance activities are consistentl, racticed * availa!le roductive time for all e&ui ment is trac#ed and increasing+ Machine !rea#downs or accidents rarel, occur+

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

TPM Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >'>>>=>20>

; >>>>30> .

1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

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-+1 Total

Pro&ucti8e Maintenance E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ Are accurate and visi!le maintenance histories visi!le on or near each iece of e&ui mentD 2+ Are machines guarded for safet, and loc#ed out immediatel, when not in use+ 3+ Fs maintenance reactive, reventive or redictiveD 8+ 5ave all #e, em lo,ees !een trained in TPMD 4+ Fs erformance trac#ed for each iece of e&ui mentD '+ 5ow common are e&ui ment !rea#downsD A+ Fs scheduled vs+ unscheduled machine downtime trac#edD G+ Fs there evidence of ermanent corrective actions when !rea#downs occurD -+ Fs there evidence that maintenance alwa,s occurs as scheduledD 10+ Are there dail, chec# sheets $lu!rication, ins ection, cali!ration, cleaning, etc% for o erators to sign off resent and u *to*date on each machineD 11+ Are standards set for each maintenance tas#D 12+ Eo audits occur to verif, the effectiveness of maintenance standardsD 13+ Fs e&ui ment ins ected rior to the start of each shiftD 18+ :here audits identif, discre ancies, are corrective actions s elled out and com letedD

Ena-lers

=isa-lers 1. =ownti"es not anal;se& 3or a8oi&ing recurrence . O/erator is not &oing PM $. O/erator owners7i/ o3 t7e "ac7ines is not /ractise& #. No "aintenance coor&ination "eetings .re8iews

E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices 1. Categorisation i3 &ownti"e

10. Material Control.1an-an

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=e3inition > Process ste s are controlled !, downstream customer ull+ Lan!an cards or signals or similar mechanisms are used to communicate rocess demand u stream+ Lan!an signals are located on the arts container and highl, visi!le to all em lo,ees+ Lan!an and lot si"e reduction su ort a N+F+T+ $Nust Fn Time% roduction environment+

Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to &eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation. Breen

100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 The target and actual hourl, out ut is dis la,ed for each manufacturing cell or line+ /fforts are underwa, to evolve from 1 ush2 $scheduled% to 1 ull2 $#an!an%+ Fnventor, accurac, issues are decreasing+ 2 There are ull s,stems in some arts of the lant+ Training in #an!an for #e, management, materials and su ervisors have !een held+ Fnventor, accurac, is rarel, an issue+ Material movement is !ased u on actual consum tion throughout the lant7 a 1 ull2 signal is generated and communicated !, the ne)t o eration+ Fnternal and su lier inventor, levels have !een lowered through the use of #an!an+ Eownstream rocesses are withdrawing #an!an from u stream rocesses+ Lan!an s,stem is understood and followed !, most em lo,ees+ Part shortages still occur+ Fnventor, levels have !een significantl, lowered+ Lan!an is full, understood and followed !, all em lo,ees+ There is evidence of im rovement efforts for o timi"ing !atch si"e and inventor,+ Part shortages are rare+ (ome su liers are on #an!an with the lant++ Fnventor, levels are o timi"ed+ Part outages have !een eliminated+ Most su liers are on #an!an with the lant+ 100. inventor, accurac,+ Ft doesnHt get an, !etter than this+
Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >'>>>=>28> 1e;? 0? 1? ? 0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas 40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases #? $? A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions 100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

'

Material 6ontrol ; >>>24>> .

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10+1 Material

Control.1an-an E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 5ow is roduction information communicated !etween o erationsD 2+ Are there mar#ed areas for inventor,D 3+ Are there limits for :FP $wor#*in* rocess%, raw materials and finished goodsD 8+ Are these limits o!served, in generalD 4+ Fs the art flow 0F03 $first*in, first out%D '+ Fs the roduction schedule visi!le to all em lo,eesD A+ :ho sets the dail, roduction scheduleD G+ :ho u dates the roduction scheduleD -+ 5ow is the u date communicatedD 10+ 5ow is material re lenished on the lineD 11+ :hat information do the #an!an cards $signals% containD

Ena-lers

=isa-lers 1. Fu&get 8s actual cost co"/arisonG . Forecast not relia-le $. =isru/ti8e c7anges 3ro" custo"er #. !ariet; re&uction not 3ollowe& :co//er steel< +. Running or&ers sto//e& an& 3res7 or&ers ta)en u/ %. Inwar& logistics -; t7ir& /art; no "easure"ent o3 nor"s an& e33ecti8eness 2. Or&er con3ir"ation ta)es 24* &a;s *. Eea& ti"e re c7ec) 3or /urc7ase& ite"s

E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices

Morning Star Management Services

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11+ Pro-le" Sol8ing =e3inition> An, deviation from e) ected erformance is a otential ro!lem+ Pro!lem solving is a techni&ue to identif, the root cause of an, deviationD Pro!lem solving utili"es facts $data%+ A variet, of methods can !e used $GE, 4 :h,s% em lo,ing tools $ areto, scatter lot, fish!one%+6ontainment shields downstream o erations from ro!lems, while countermeasures eliminate ro!lems+ 5ow management wor#s towards creating a ro!lem solving 1culture2+
Instructions> Fill in t7e nu"-er o3 ?@uartersA 3or eac7 circle t7at corres/on& to t7e le8el o-ser8e& in t7e /lant. Use t7e @uestions on t7e -ac) o3 t7is s7eet to ai& in e8i&ence gat7ering. =i8i&e t7e nu"-er o3 @uarters s7a&e& -; t7e total nu"-er o3 @uarters to

Breen 100CDorange 2+CD;ellow +0CDre& 'ero Ee8el Measura-le 1 (taff and a few floor em lo,ees are trained in ro!lem solving methods+ Pro!lems are noticed !, and re aired !, the o erator or direct su ervisor+ Pro!lem recurrence is decreasing+ (ome attention to finding root cause and trac#ing ro!lem*solving erformance+ 5eav, reliance on containment is decreasing+
&eter"ine /ercent i"/le"entation.

C E8i&ent 1 2 4 3

(taff and some floor em lo,ees are trained in ro!lem solving methods+ Limited use of ro!lem solving methods on s ecial occasions $&ualit,, engineering, management%+ Large, re etitive ro!lems are addressed+ (ome management attention to ro!lem solving activities+ Eata show that man, ro!lems continue to recur+ (ome evidence of countermeasures+ (taff and most floor em lo,ees are trained in ro!lem solving methods+ Pro!lem solving methods sometimes result in root cause !eing addressed for maCor rocess ro!lems+ (ome ro!lems recur+ Management trac#s erformance+ 6ontainment is still in evidence, !ut the trend towards true countermeasures is clear+ All em lo,ees are trained in ro!lem solving methods+ Most ro!lems, large or small, are addressed through ro!lem solving methods that usuall, identif, root cause+ Management trac#s erformance and sometimes verifies the effectiveness of containment and countermeasure activities+ 6ontainment still is used, !ut true countermeasures often eliminate the need for containment &uic#l,+ Pro!lem solving is an integral art of the culture+ Almost all ro!lems that re&uire ro!lem*solving methods have them a lied+ Ioot cause is consistentl, identified, with &uic#, effective containment and countermeasures im lemented as a routine activit,+ Management trac#s erformance and encourages a 1!ring me ,our ro!lems so we can solve them and im rove2 culture+
Assessment ; 0illed <uarters = Total <uarters >>>G>=>20> Pro!lem (olving ; >>>80>> .

1e;? 1? ?

0?

0. * @ot found an,where 24. * 3nl, seen in some areas #?

$?

A4. * Ber, t, ical, some e)ce tions

100. * /ver,where in lant, no e)ce tions

40. * 6ommonl, found !ut not in the maCorit, of cases

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11+1 Pro-le"

Sol8ing E8i&ence Bat7ering

Questions to ask people in the plant to aid in your assessment... 1+ 2+ 3+ 8+ 4+ '+ Are all em lo,ees trained in ro!lem solving methodsD Are Pareto charts regularl, used to rioriti"e and address ro!lemsD Are teams formed to address all rioriti"ed ro!lemsD Fs the status or all ro!lems monitored and communicatedD Are ermanent corrective actions im lemented rom tl,D :hether !rainstorming is used as a ro!lem solving toolD

Ena-lers

=isa-lers 1. E"/lo;ee training on lean an& /ro-le" sol8ingG

E8i&ence o3 Fest Practices 1. =ata collection a-out &e3ects an& co"/laints

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Plant Tea" Sel3 Assess"ent Consensus "ar)s


1. Culture an& Awareness> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + % Total Percentage > Assessors $ # Consensus

. !isual Manage"ent> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + % Total Percentage >

Assessors $

Consensus

$. T7e % SHs> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Total Percentage >

Assessors $ # Consensus

#. Stan&ar&i'e& (or)> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Total Percentage > +. Fle,i-le O/erations> Ee8el 1 1 Morning Star Management Services

Assessors $ # Consensus

Assessors $

Consensus 24

$ # + Total Percentage >

%. 1ai'en> Ee8el 1 $ # + Total Percentage >

Assessors $

Consensus

2. Error Proo3ing . Po)a45o)e> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Total Percentage >

Assessors $ # Consensus

*. 6uic) C7angeo8er> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + % Total Percentage >

Assessors $ # Consensus

9. Total Pro&ucti8e Maintenance> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Morning Star Management Services

Assessors $

Consensus

25

Total Percentage >

10. Material Control.1an-an> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Total Percentage > 11. Pro-le" Sol8ing> Ee8el 1 1 $ # + Total Percentage >

Assessors $ # Consensus

Assessors $ # Consensus

Total "ar)s :Eean In&e,<> IIIII

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Lean Systems Radar Chart

6ulture & Awareness Pro!lem (olving 4(

Material 6ontrol

Bisual Mgmt

TPM

(td+ :or#

<uic# 6hangeover /rror Proofing Lai"en

0le)+ 3 s+

Plant:

Date:

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EEAN PEANNINB FORM Plant> =ate> 1. Start =ates :Bet Rea&;< Intro&uce Assess"ent to Plant> Assess"ent Co"/lete&> Eean Manu3acturing O8er8iew Training :Sta33<> . Anal;'e Present Con&ition :Bet Set< I&enti3; To/ $ (ea)nesses in Ra&ar C7art Eean In&e, Assess"ent =ate>

$. !ision (7at will ;our /lant loo). o/erate li)e w7en it is ?(orl& ClassA in t7e area o3 Eean Manu3acturingG> IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII #. Results Planning :Bo L< Ste/."ilestone =ue &ates A. E,it Criteria :target Results<

F.

C.

+. I&enti3; Resources Trainer:s< 3or O8er8iewD EI.Pro-le" Sol8ingD an& 1ai'en> Coor&inator. Coac7 :E8ent /lanningD results trac)ing<> C7a"/ion :=ri8es 3or e"/lo;ee in8ol8e"ent & resultsD atten& /resentations<>

PEANT TEAM SEEF ASSESSMENT CONSENSUS EIST


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EEAN MANUFACTURINB TRAC1INB FORM


The following chart shows the summar, data from the Lean Manufacturing (elf Assessment+ Jse this to trac# efforts towards Lean Manufacturing (,stems over time+ Nu"-er o3 M6uartersH $r& 6tr #t7 1st 01$ 01$ 01#

Slno 1. . $. #. +. %. 2. *. 9. 10. 11.

Section Culture &Awareness !isual Manage"ent %S Stan&ar&i'e& (or) Fle,i-le.Cellula r O/erations 1ai'en Error Proo3 . Po)a45o)e 6uic) C7angeo8er TPM Material control 1an-an Pro-le" Sol8ing Total ?EeanA In&e,

n&

01#

$r& 01#

#t7 01#

+ $0 $$ #0 %0 $0 $0 + $0 + #0 $%*

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