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Riley Grider Ms. Sparrow History September 27, 2013 Bibliography


"American Indian Movement." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. The AMI was an organization that encouraged self determination in Native Americans. In

1972 they took over the headquarters of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C. They were protesting that the government had too much influence on tribal councils in 1934 to keep control over Native American growth and development. They wanted to take back the control. "American Indian Movement." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. 98-99. U.S. History In Context. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. In this Encyclopedia I learned that the U.S. Government made Indians attend boarding schools, relocated them away from family. This lead to an increase sense of community among different tribes and a common enemy being the U.S. Government. The AIM was formed in 1973 to fight for Indian rights. In 1973 the AIM organized caravans to travel the nation in different routes all meeting in Washington, D.C. It was called the Trail of Broken Treaties. When they all arrived on November 3, 1973, they had a list of Twenty Points to bring to the attention of the federal government.

Grider 2 Britannica. "American Indian Movement (American Civil Rights Organization)."Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013. Web. 06 Nov. 2013. This website will help me with background on the American Indian Movement and its purpose. The AIM was created to help Indians in urban ghettos who were displaced by government programs and forced off their reservations. Their goal is economic independence, revitalization of traditional culture, protection of legal rights, and, regain land illegally taken from the government.

Blackhawk, Ned. "Wounded Knee (1973)." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 8. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 560-561. U.S. History In Context. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. In 1973 the AIM were invited by members of the Lakota tribe to enter Wounded Knee and help establish an alternative political community within its Nation. The Lakota community was unhappy with the tribal Chairman, Richard Wilson, and his abuse of power that terrorized its community. A standoff occurred and Wilson called in the National Guard. It lasted seventy days with tens of thousands of rounds of ammunition fired. Two AIM members were killed, and one federal marshal injured. The AIM leaders surrendered on May 8, 1973, after facing daily terror and supplies diminishing. The AIM leaders, Banks and Means, were arrested and tried attracting national attention. They were later acquitted. David Wilma. Native Americans and supporters stage fish-in to protest denial of treaty rights on March 2, 1964. March 01, 2003 History Ink. Web. 9 October 2013. HistoryLink.org describes how Native Americans were denied treaty rights and how fish-ins were organized and supported by the National Inidian Youth Council. It is makes local

Grider 3 connections to the Puyallup and Nisqually tribe. It talks about how Native people went against state law and fished to to protest how treaty rights were not being met.
Detroit: Gale, 2010. 270-273. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 9 Oct. 2013. 9 October 2013. In spite of a clear objective that the AMI stated to help Native American

Indians, they lost popularity due to its radical actions. They broke laws, vandalized and were involved with violence that resulted in its members going to jail and the organization losing political power. They went about helping and protecting American Indians rights in a negative, violent manner and it resulted in the loss of popularity. Farlex. "American Indian Movement." The Free Dictionary. The Free Dictionary, 2013. Web. 7 Oct. 2013. From The Free Dictionary it states clearly of the AMIs objectives, Founded in 1968, the American Indian Movement (AIM) is an organization dedicated to the Native American civil rights movement. Its main objectives are the sovereignty of Native American lands and peoples; preservation of their culture and traditions; and enforcement of all treaties with the United States. It gives the history and major protest highlight from Alcatraz, Trail of Broken Treaties, Wounded Knee, and Pine Ridge. HighBeam Research, LLC. "American Indian Movement." Infoplease. Infoplease, 2012. Web. 09 Oct.2013. The AMI wanted to establish international recognition of their treaty rights. At Wounded Knee the AMI demanded more than 300 treaties that AIM alleged were broken between Native Americans and the federal government be reviewed. Leaders of the protest were taken to US court but charges were dismissed.

Grider 4 Johnson, Troy. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning. 2013. Web. September 26, 2013. This website shows different perspectives and events that occurred with the AIM at it beginning. The American Indian Movement started in1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, because of police brutality against urban Indians in the Twin Cities. It became a national organization during the 1970s. It purpose was to fight for Indian justice.

Laura Waterman Wittstock and Elaine J. Salinas. American Indian Movement. AIM. June 2007. Web. September 27, 2013. This article is the main website for the American Indian Movement. It shows how Indians are being mistreated like using them as mascots in high school and even as a professional football team. It is current with its information and is valuable because it gives the Native perspective on how they feel they are treated by the U.S. Government and citizens. According to the Brief History Indian people were never intended to survive the settlement of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere. Therefore the movement has transformed policy making into programs and organizations that have served Indian people in many communities. Mansur G. Abdullah. Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc. 2013. Web. September 26, 2013. This web site has very current articles about the American Indian Movement. Encyclopaedia Britannica is a credible source that has been around for decades with multiple authors. The site shows how the movement has progressed over the years. Reference Staff. "American Indian Movement (AIM)." American Indian Movement (AIM). Springshare, n.d. Web. 22

Grider 5 October. 2013. <http://libguides.mnhs.org/aim>. From this site I learned that at the beginning of the AIM, the FBI and CIA wanted to crush their movement. At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the AIM was protesting the corrupt government when the FBI came in and started arresting protesters. A standoff occurred for 71 days. Two people were killed, twelve wounded and twelve hundred arrested. The AIM leaders were later tried in Minnesota for eight months but were acquitted for wrongdoing. The Onaway Trust. "The Onaway Trust." Native American Rights Fund. The Onaway Trust, 2013. Web. 06 Nov. 2013. This website will help me with my research because it talks about Indian laws and rights. The Onaway is a legal organization that fights for the rights for Native people. They helped change the Indian laws and how they are perceived. "Native American welcomed attention, but on his terms." USA Today 18 Dec. 2012: 31. U.S. History In Context. Web. 25 October. 2013.From this site I learned that Russell Means has never been shunned with attention. Whether if it was leading Native Americans in railing against broken federal treaties, to advocating a sovereign Americans Indian nation within United states borders. In 1973 Russell Means gets his first spot of spotlight in the uprising of wounded knee. Nation, Sovereign Dine. "American Indian Movement Resolution | Cultural Survival."American Indian Movement Resolution | Cultural Survival. Cultural Survival, 11 May 1984. Web. 06 Nov. 2013. This website will help me with my research because it talks about how important Elders are in the Native community. The revitalization of the Native culture is a mail goal. This site talks about how Natives are taking back their culture and making sure it is passed onto the next generation so traditions are not lost.

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