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Design of Cheap Point-to-Point Wireless Link

1 R.R. Joyee, 2 Mustafa Hussain , 3 M.R. Amin Department of Computer Science & Engineering, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Department of Applied Physics & Communications Engineering, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. rifatreza@hotmail.com, mhussain@@ewubd.edu, ramin@ewubd.edu
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Abstract This paper focuses on the cheap Wireless LAN solution to connect remote villages in Bangladesh. We have proposed a cheap wireless point to point scheme using the unlicensed ISM band. We have simulated 802.11b PHY link using DBPSK modulation and barker code spreading. Performance of perfectly synchronized 802.11b link has been shown in terms of BER and EsNo. Keywords: IEEE 802.11b, Link Budget, Link Design, .Wireless LAN. I. INTRODUCTION There is no doubt that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) holds the promise of transforming the ways we live into new and more powerful ways. ICT has become a strategic resource, a commodity and foundation of every activity from technology, communication, health to entertainment. ICT now plays a major role in education, learning and research in general, agriculture, health, commerce and even in poverty alleviation by generating or creating new jobs and investment opportunities. Bangladesh as a country is besieged by poor infrastructural facilities especially in area of telecommunications. The impact of the information revolution is tremendous, the existing infrastructure, social-economic, cultural, and political situations pose major difficulties in introducing, implementing and diffusing the new technologies for internetworking. The technology and funds are not necessarily the major inhibiting factors, but the will and awareness until lately do not seem to be present in the country, although the poor telecommunication system has made the matter worse. The Bengali still find himself in a state of isolation and stagnation. With the new wave of awareness on the country, Bangladesh could seize the opportunities of the new information technology. This will amongst other advantages allow the region to fight disease, poverty and ignorance in all directions. Over the last couple of years, Wireless LAN has quickly grown to become the dominant wireless LAN standard. Because it operates in unlicensed frequency bands, anyone can set up a Wireless LAN network and cover an area of typically 100-500 feet with high speed wireless access to a LAN, and hence to the Internet. Unlike other wireless technologies like GSM or CDMA, Wireless LAN has also become a universal standard. As a result, Wireless LAN components are now on a rapid cost reduction curve as volumes increase. [1]

II. SYSTEM MODEL AND IMPLEMENTATION We are proposing a point-to-point wireless link. It is inexpensive (<200 $ per link). The distance between the transmitter and receiver is from 1 to 50 Km. We are using broadband TCP/IP (11 Mbps). The standard is IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN. It is very easy for installaion/relocation. [1] [2] [3] A. Some advantages USB wireless adapters are cheap License fees / permissions arent required (ISM band) Expensive and / or complex measurements arent needed Satellite TV dishes are cheap and easy to find everywhere

B. What is needed? USB wireless adapters: i.e. D-Link DWL-122 parabolic dishes (for Satellite TV) USB cables desktop / laptop computers Linux / Windows / Mac OSX 3

D-Link Air DWL-122, 2.4 GHz Wireless USB Adapter. D-Link DWL-122 (11Mbps) Other models/brands: 3Com makes a 802.11g wireless adapter (54 Mbps) C. RF characteristics Transmitter Output Power: Typical 16dBm, 40mW Receiver Sensitivity: Typical -81dBm for 11Mbps, 8% PER (Packet Error Rate) Typical -86dBm for 2Mbps, 8% PER (Packet Error Rate) [1] [5] [6] D. The parabolic dish characteristics Any Sat-TV parabolic dish (or even a parabolic grid) is suitable for our purposes. The gain is proportional to the size (diameter) of the dish position of the feeder:center feed, offset feed, Cassegrain feed. E. Gain and beamwidth of a parabolic dish Circular dish for Sat-TV diameter = 50 cm, n = 75% Gain = 118 = 20.7 dB Beamwidth = 17.5 deg

Large circular grid diameter = 1 m, n = 60% Gain = 380 = 25.8 dB Beamwidth = 8.7 deg Prx = 59,4dB Lfsp III. PLANNING THE WIRELESS LINK Easy link design Software is available (Radio Mobile is good and free) We may need a digital map of the area (free, from Internet) We may also do all the basic calculations by hand A network planning is also required, before the radio links planning (power/frequencies) it should be Prx > Srx to get the link 59,4dBm Lfsp > 81dBm to get 11 Mbps that means an Lfsp < 140,4dBm 59,4dBm Lfsp > 86dBm to get 2 Mbps that means an Lfsp < 145,4dBm The solution Lfsp= 32,4dB + 20Log(f) + 20Log(dkm) Lfsp= 32,4dB + 67,7dB + 20 Log(dkm) Log(dkm) = (Lfsp100,1dB )/20 To get 11 Mbps it should be: Log(dkm) < (140,4dB100,1dB )/20 Log(dkm) < 2,015 that means d < 103km Lfsp= 32,4dB + 20Log(f) + 20Log(dkm) Lfsp= 32,4dB + 67,7dB + 20 Log(dkm) Log(dkm) = (Lfsp100,1dB )/20 f = 2440MHz To get 2 Mbps it should be: Log(dkm) < (145,4dB100,1dB )/20 Log(dkm) < 2,265 that means d < 184km Fig 1- Line of sight link Budgeting the power for our proposed radiolink TX power = 16 dBm RX sensitivity = 81 dBm to get 11 Mbps RX sensitivity =86 dBm to get 2 Mbps Cable losses = 0 (zero) Antenna gain = 21.7 dBi Free space path loss formula is Lfsp = 32,4 + 20 Log (f) +20 Log (d) (1) IV. SIMULATION AND RESULT We have simulated 802.11b 1Mbps PHY link using DBPSK modulation and barker code spreading. For each BER loop, we specify the number of packets to transmit, the packet size and the range of channel EsNo where: loss Lfsp is expressed in dB, frequency f in MHz and distance d in km Prx = Ptx + Gtx Ltx + Grx Ltx Lfsp (2) To get 2 Mbps, the distance is: d < 45km (20) To get 11 Mbps, the distance is: d < 25km (19) Let assume a factor of 25% for: 1. lower feeder efficiency 2. feeder-dish mismatching 3. less-than-perfect alignment (17) (18) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (9) (10) (11) (5) (6) (7) (8) (4) Prx = 16dBm + 21,7dB + 21,7dB Lfsp (3)

Planning: line-of-sight For line-of-sight main aim is try to avoid any obstacle [1]

values are tested. We have transmitted two Packets and each Packet is 1024 bytes. First step we have generated Random bits then Convert to bipolar form and modulated to DBPSK symbol and Spread symbols with Barker code, up sampling by spreading rate. Then Transmit through AWGN channel. Finally we have Calculated and plotted the BER for each EsNo level. [1] [2] [3] [4] [7]
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technology has led to a dramatic price reduction of the radios, from $750 in 1992 to $30 in 2004, while transmission speed has increased up to 74 Mbps on the same 20 MHz channel. It is possible to build inexpensive long distance radio link with old PC, Wireless LAN devices and satellite antenna. Wireless LAN point to point network can provide connectivity to remote sites using ISM band. REFERENCES

802.11b 1Mbps DBPSK BER

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[1] S. Kapp, "802.11: leaving the wire behind," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 6, Jan. 2002, pp. 82 85. [2]U. Varshney, "The status and future of 802.11-based WLANs," IEEE Computer, vol. 36, June 2003, pp. 102105.

BER

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[3] X. Xiao, L. Ni, "Internet QoS: a big picture," IEEE Network, vol. 13, March 1999, pp. 8-18. [4] L. Peterson, B. Davie, Computer Networks: A Systems Approach, 3rd ed., Morgan Kaufmann,2003.

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[5] A. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 2003. [6] W. Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, 7th ed., Prentice Hall, 2003. [7] J. Kurose, K. Ross, Computer Networks: A TopDown Approach Featuring the Internet, Addison Wesley, 2001.

V. CONCLUSION Wireless networks where borne as LANs, but for developing countries applications they are more useful as MANs or even WANs The enormous success of this