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MATH 111A HOMEWORK 7 SOLUTIONS

13) Prove that the multiplicative group of positive rational numbers is generated by the set
1 A = { | p is a prime}. p
Solution.

It was proved in class that


1 1 1 A = {a 1 a2 am | ai A and m N} ().

We need to show that A = Q+ . The inclusion A Q+ is clear since A Q+ . For the inclusion Q+ A , let x be an arbitrary element in Q+ and write x = m , where m, n N. Now, we can write n
m = p1 p2 pr

and n = q1 q2 qs (r, s N),

where the pi 's and qj 's are primes Then


x= p1 p2 pr 1 1 1 1 1 1 m = ( )( ) ( )( )1 ( )1 ( )1 , = n q1 q 2 qs q1 q 2 q s p1 p2 ps

which lies in A by (). This proves that Q+ A and so indeed Q+ = A . 1) Let H and K be subgroups of a group G. Show that the following conditions are equivalent. (i) HK is a subgroup of G. (ii) HK = KH . Solution. First assume that HK is a subgroup of G. Since K HK , H HK , and HK is closed under multiplication, we have the inclusion KH HK . For the other inclusion, let hk HK with h H k and k K . Since HK is closed under inverses, we have (hk )1 HK and so we can write (hk )1 = h H and k K . It follows that for some h
k )1 = k 1 h 1 , hk = ((hk )1 )1 = (h

which lies in KH because K and H are closed under inverses. Thus, we have shown that HK KH . Therefore, indeed HK = KH , as desired. Next assume that HK = KH . Since 1 K and 1 H , we have 1 = 1 1 HK and so HK = . By the subgroup criterion, it remains to show that xy 1 HK for all x, y HK . Write
x = h1 k1

and y = h2 k2 for h1 , h2 H and k1 , k2 K.

1 1 1 K as K is a subgroup, we have Then xy 1 = (h1 k1 )(h2 k2 )1 = h1 k1 k2 h2 . Since k1 k2 1 1 (k1 k2 )h2 KH = HK 1 1 and so we can write k1 k2 h2 = h3 k3 for some h3 H and k3 K . Hence, 1 1 xy 1 = h1 (k2 k2 h2 ) = (h1 h3 )k3 HK,

where h1 h3 H since H is a subgroup. This proves that HK is a subgroup.


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MATH 111A HOMEWORK 7 SOLUTIONS

2) Let H and K be normal subgroups of a group G such that K H . Prove that H/K G/K . Solution. It is clear that H/K G/K since H G and that H/K = since H = . To show that it is a subgroup, let h1 K, h2 K H/K . Then
1 (h1 K )(h2 K )1 = h1 h 2 K H/K, 1 where h1 h 2 H since H is a subgroup. By the subgroup criterion this shows that H/K G/K . To show normality, by Theorem 6, it suces to show that

(gK )(H/K )(gK )1 H/K

for all gK G/K.

So let gK G/K and hK H/K . We need to show that (gK )(hK )(gK )1 H/K . But
(gK )(hK )(gK )1 = (ghg 1 )K,

and ghg 1 gHg 1 H since H is normal in G. So indeed (gK )(hK )(gK )1 H/K , as desired. 3) Let a, b be nonzero integers, d = gcd(a, b), and m = lcm(a, b). Show the following: (i) aZ + bZ = dZ
Solution.

- : We have aZ, bZ dZ since d divides a and b. Thus, aZ + bZ dZ as dZ is closed under addition. , b ) = 1 since d = gcd(a, b). By the hint, there exists x, y Z such that - : Notice that gcd( a d d
a b x + y = 1 = ax + by = d. d d This shows that d aZ + bZ and so dZ aZ + bZ. (ii) aZ bZ = mZ
Solution.

- : We have mZ aZ, bZ since a and b divide m. Thus, mZ aZ bZ. - : Let n aZ bZ and use the division algorithm to write
n = mq + r

for some q Z and r {0, 1, ..., m 1}.

We want to show that r = 0 so n mZ. Indeed, since n aZ bZ and m = lcm(a, b), we have
a, b divides both n and m = a, b divides n mq = r.

Since m is the smallest positive integer divisible by both a and b by deniton, we must have r = 0. (iii) dZ/bZ aZ/mZ Solution. Notice that all subgroups in sight are normal in Z since Z is abelian. Then, by the second isomorphism theorem, we know that
(aZ + bZ)/bZ aZ/(aZ bZ). aZ/mZ, as claimed.

By parts (i) and (ii), this can be rewritten as dZ/bZ