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fdgNetwork & Systems D. Roy Chaudhury Engineering Circuit Analysis William H.

Hayt Microdfgave Devices & Circuits Samuel L Liao Microwave Engineering Sanjeev Gupta Microwave Engineering David M. Pozar Microwave & Radar Engineering M. Kulkarni Microprocessor Architecture, Programming & Application ar Computer Organisation and Structure Stalling Microprocessor & Interfacings Douglas V. Hall Computer Architecture & Organisations Morris Mano Digital Design M. Morris Mano Digital Systems Tocci & Widmer Modern Digital Electronics R.P. Jain Elements of Electromagnetics Sadiku Engineering of Electromagnetics W.H. Hayt Antenna & Wave Propagation K.D. Prasad Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics N. N. Rao Control System Engineering I. J. Nagrath & M. Gopal 1 omega = linspace (-%pi ,%pi ,106) ; 2 H= syslin ( ' c ' ,(s/(s -0.8) )); 3 H_omega = squeeze ( calfrq (H ,0.01 ,10) ); 4 size ( H_omega ) 5 subplot (2 ,1 ,1); plot2d (omega , abs( H_omega )); 6 // x l a b e l ( ' n omega ' ) ; 7 // y l a b e l ( ' jH[ e ^f j nomega g ] j ' ) ; 8 subplot (2 ,1 ,2); plot2d expression for DE1,sub:

Ramesh S. Gaonk

D = - + + + + S g g g sub C V C V C e ne C e E ) 2 ( 2 1, 2 (2.28b) In a manner analogous to the single-elStochastic process, Markov process transit ion probability transition probability matrix, just and higher order Markov process, Markov chain. Queuing system, transient and steady state, traffic intensity, distribution queuing system, concepts of queuing models (M/M/1: Infin ity/ Infinity/ FC FS), (M/M/1: N/ Infinity/ FC FS), (M/M/S: Infinity/ Infinity/ FC FS) UNIT IV Operations of fuzzy sets, fuzzy arithmetic & relations, fuzzy relation equations , fuzzy logics. MATLAB introduction, programming in MATLAB sectron box, Equations of the island. If a voltage +V is applied, then a bias drops across

C1 and Cb, lowering the positions of En relative to the Fermi energy EFS in the source electrode (Fig. 2.6[b]). Here, voltages Vtj = CbV/CS and Vb = C1V/CS drop across the tunnel junction and the storage capacitor, respectively. Therefore, at a voltage Vtj = V1 = e/2CS, corresponding to V = e/2Cb, E1 is pulled level with EFS. An electron then tunnels onto the island from the source, charging the island by one further restriction on single -eletron charging effects is imposed bythe nature of the tunnel barriers that qu asi-isolate the island. If the tunnel barriersTo find the voltage gain, consider an unloaded CE amplifier. The ac equi valent circuit is shown in fig. 3. The transistor can be replaced by its collect or equivalent model i.e. a current source and emitter diode which offerslly, for single-electron charging to occur, the electron wavefunction must not extend stronglyacross the tunnel barrisnto the electrodes. Loalization of electrons on the island is possible if the tunnel barrier resince Rt is greater than the resistance quantum Rk = h/e2 28 kW, where h is Plank s constant, i.e. Rt >> Rk (Devoret and Grabert, 1992). In practice, this usually requires that Rt is at least ~10Rk. t is necessary fo the tunnel barrier height Et >> kBT, in order to preventermally activated current over the potential barrier. The relatively large value of Rt in single-electron devices implies that these are high resistance devices possibility that the sinusing Equations 2.19a and b. Equation 2.19a gives the en ergy needed for an electron to be added to the island across the tunnel junction, with the initial island state n. For V = 0 and n = 0, a total energy DEadd = e2/2CS must be provided for an electron to be added to the island. This gives the energy for the first electron to be added to the island, E1 = e2/2CS. Now, adding a second electron to the island is equivalent to adding an electron to the island in a state n = 1. For n = 1, Eq. 2.19a then gives E2 = 3e2/2CS. Similarly, n = 2, 3 give the energies E3, E4, etc. Equation 2.14b may be used to give the energies E-1, E-2, E-3, etc. This allows us to draw an energy diagramgle-electron charging energy of a nanoscale island influences subsequent tunnelling events to the island was identified as early as the 1950s. In 1951, C.J. Gorter proposed that the observed increase in resistance of thin, granular metal films at low electric field and temperature was associated with the need to overcome the energy required to transfer an electron from one grain to another (Gorter, 1951). Figure 1.3(a) shows a scanning electron micrograph of a thin metal film of Au, nominally ~5 nm thick, evaporated on GaAs. The film is strongly granular in nature, with a range of grain sizes. The The slop of the d.c load line is . When considering the ac equivalent circuit, the output impedance becomes RC || RL which is less than (RC +RE). In the absence of ac this load line passes through Q po int. Therefore ac load line is a line of slope (-1 / ( RC || RL) ) passing through Q point. Theref ore, the output voltage fluctuations will now be correspond ing to ac load line as shown in fig. 2. Under this condition, Q-po int is not in the middle of load line SETs is considered. Finally, the chapter discusses single-electron effects in silicon nanowires and nanochains, synthesized by material growth

processes rather than by lithographic techniques. Chapter 4, Single-Electron Memory , discusses single-electron, and few-electron memory cells and circuits. In these devices, the Coulomb blockade effect is used to store information bits consisting of single electrons or, at most, a few tens of electrons. The chapter begins with a brief historical introduction to charge storage in single-electron systems, and a discussion of the first single-electron memory design, the MTJ single-electron memory. Here, an MTJ is used to trap a small number of electrons on a memory node. The chapter discusses the concept of critical charge , and the hysteresis in the charge stored in the device. The chapter goes on to discuss MTJ memory designs in silicon, with various means to sense the stored charge, e.g. using SETs or using scaled MOSFETs. A scaled MTJ memory cell, where one electron can be stored and sensed, is also discussed. This is followed by a brief review of single-electron memories using nanostructured floating gates placed between insulating layers to store the charge. Here, the floating gate may be formed by a layer of silicon nanocrystals, or by a single, nanoscale floating gate. The silicon nanocrystals, or the scaled floating gate, may be small enough for roTo find the voltage gain, consider an unloaded CE amplifie r. The ac ivalent circuit is shown in fig. 3. The transistor can be replaced by its collec tor model i.e. a current source and emitter diode which of fersom temperature single-electron effects. The chapter then discusses more complex memory designs, e.g. background charge insensitive single-electron memory, and a 128 Mb LSI singleelectron memory in nanocrystalline silicon. Finally, the chapter discusses in detail the fabrication and characterization of an MTJ few-electron memory with MOSFET sensing, ~60 electrons per bit, and writing times ~10 ns. Chapter 5, Few-Electron Transfer Devices , discusses the design, fabrication and operation of single-electron circuits capable of controlling the transfer of charge D = (2.9) Here, the critical charge Qc (Geerligs et al., 1990; Grabert et al., 1991; Nakazato et al., 1994) is given by: ( ) 1 2 1 Cpackets consisting of single electrons, or only a few electrons, using r.f. signals. The chapter begins with an introduction to the first single-electron transfer devices demonstrated, the single-electron turnstile and the single-electron pump. While these devices were implemented initially in the Al/AlOx and the GaAs/AlGaAs 2-DEG system and not in silicon, the design of other