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IMPROVING STUDENTS WRITING SKILL IN DESCRIPTIVE TEXT THROUGH COMMUNICATION GAME AT THE EIGHT GRADE STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 1 BABADAN PONOROGO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2012/2013

THESIS

1 BABADAN PONOROGO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2012/2013 THESIS BY RINI KHOMARIAH NIM. O8331301 ENGLISH

BY RINI KHOMARIAH NIM. O8331301

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PONOROGO

2013

IMPROVING STUDENTS WRITING SKILL IN DESCRIPTIVE TEXT THROUGH COMMUNICATION GAME AT THE EIGHT GRADE STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 1 BABADAN PONOROGO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2012/2013

Presented to Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement For the Degree of Sarjana in English Language Education

BY RINI KHOMARIAH NIM. O8331301

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF PONOROGO

2013

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UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PONOROGO FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN (STATUS TERAKREDITASI) Alamat : Jl. Budi Utomo

UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PONOROGO

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

(STATUS TERAKREDITASI)

Alamat : Jl. Budi Utomo No. 10 Telp. (0352) 481124 Fax. (0352) 461796

PONOROGO 63471

Telp. (0352) 481124 Fax. (0352) 461796 PONOROGO – 63471 APPROVAL PAGE This is to certify that

APPROVAL PAGE

This is to certify that the Sarjana’s thesis of RINI KHOMARIAH has been approved by the Board of Examiners as the requirement for the degree of Sarjana in English Education.

Ponorogo, October 20 th , 2012

Thesis Examining Committee

Siti Asiyah, M.Pd …….…

……………

Chair

Diyah Atiek Mustikawati, M.H

…….…

Member

Niken Reti Indriastuti, SS

…………………

Member

Acknowledged by

Head, English Education Department

Niken Reti Indriastuti, S.S

NIS. 044 0171

Approved by

Dean, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education

Drs. Bambang Hermanto, M.Pd

NIP. 19710823 200501 1 001

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UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PONOROGO FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN (STATUS TERAKREDITAS I) Alamat : Jl. Budi

UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PONOROGO

FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN

(STATUS TERAKREDITASI)

Alamat : Jl. Budi Utomo No. 10 Telp. (0352) 481124 Fax. (0352) 461796

PONOROGO 63471

Telp. (0352) 481124 Fax. (0352) 461796 PONOROGO – 63471 AGREEMENT PAGE This is to certify that

AGREEMENT PAGE

This is to certify that the Sarjana’s thesis of RINI KHOMARIAH has been approved by thesis advisors for further approval by the Board of Examiners.

Ponorogo, October 20 th , 2012

Advisor I,

Siti Asiyah, M.Pd

NIS. 044 0377

Ponorogo, October 20 th , 2012

Advisor II

Diyah Atiek Mustikawati, M.Hum

NIS. 044 0504

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iv

v

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MOTTO

the future can be determined now, by learning, praying and discipline

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DEDICATION

From the deepest of my heart, I dedicate this thesis to:

My beloved parents who love me very much.From the deepest of my heart, I dedicate this thesis to: CHAN YUEN KWONG and SUMINI

CHAN YUEN KWONG and SUMINI

KATENO AND KATINEM

Who always encourage and motivate me to finish this thesis and

accompany me when I am cheerful and gloomy.

They always support me to reach my deep goal.

Father and mother, I believe my goal will be reached with you.

And all my family that always support me.

reached with you. And all my family that always support me. My sweet heart Rianto My

My sweet heart

Rianto

My family

my grandmother, my uncle, my nieces, and my young brother

Who accompany and give me motivation in every time, support mystruggle

and always give me smile and motivation to get success in my life.

All of my close friends and all of my friends.give me smile and motivation to get success in my life. Who always make bad condition

Who always make bad condition becomes fresh condition.

Who give motivation to face the future life.

May God bless you all…

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Thanks to Almighty God, Allah SWT, the most Merciful and the most

Gracious Who has given this mercy that the researcher could finish this thesis as a

final assignment in achieving the Sarjana degree of English Education Department

at Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo. Peace may be always upon the noble

prophet Muhammad SAW, his families and companions who guide the way of life

for us.

The writer realizes that this thesis would never been accomplished without

the guidance, motivation, and help kindness from many people. In this occasion,

she would like to give her special gratitude and thanks to:

1. Drs. Bambang Hermanto, M.Pd as the Dean of Teacher Training and

Education Faculty, Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo.

2. Niken Reti Indriastuti, S.S as a Chairman of English Education

Department.

3. Siti Asiyah M.Pd and Diyah Atiek Mustikawati, M.Hum as her

advisors who gave profound guidance and direction in completing her

study.

4. All English lecturers of Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo for

the knowledge and experiences shared.

5. Drs. Wahyu Hermadi, M.Pd as the Headmaster who gave permission

in conducting the research.

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6.

Drs. Ihwan, M.Pd as the Vice of Headmaster who gave permission in

conducting the research.

7. All of teachers and staffs in SMP Negeri 1 Babadan Ponorogo,

especially Wiwin Mantoningsih, S.Pd as the English Teacher and as a

collaborator who gave her supports, advices, and her spare time to

help her to finish this research.

8. Her beloved parents, grand mothers, sweet heart

and give her motivation.

who always help

9. All of her friends who have helped her with everything she needs

during collecting data and writing the thesis.

Finally, the writer hopes that the result of this research could give

advantages to the reader. The writer believes that this research is far from being

perfect. So the writer expects some suggestions and criticisms of this thesis for the

better result.

Ponorogo, October 2012

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Rini Khomariah

ABSTRACT

Khomariah, Rini.2012. Improving Students’ Writing Skill In Descriptive Text Through Communication Game At The Eight Grade Students Of SMPN 1 Babadan Ponorogo in the academic year of 2012/2013. Thesis. English Education Department. Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Muhammadiyah university of Ponorogo. Advisors: (1) Siti Asiyah, M.Pd. (2) Diyah Atiek Mustikawati, M.Hum.

Key Terms. Communication game, rank order strategy, and writing skill

Writing is the act or art of forming letters and characters on paper, wood, stone or the other materials for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and words express or of communicating them to others by visible signs. It means that writing as a means of communication is able to send the message to the readers without meeting with other people.

The research was done in SMPN 1 Babadan Ponorogo started on October 8 th until may 13 th ,2012. The subject of this research was the eight grade students of class VIII B that consisted of 33 students. The researcher used four research instruments, they are; test, questionnaire, observation check list, and field note.

By using action research design, the researcher applied the strategy for the students of class VIII B . The researcher was done in two cycles. The result of the first test in cycle 1 got average score 66. The score did not reach the average score yet. But after the researcher made improvements in cycle 2, the score was increased became 72.5. The result of observation sheet showed that students were being active in teaching and learning process. The data of questionnaire showed that the students interested in writing descriptive text using communication game through rank order strategy.

Finally, the researcher concludes that implementation of communication game through rank order strategy in descriptive text could improve the students writing skill at SMPN 1 Babadan Ponorogo. The researcher gives suggestion that English teacher could use rank order as alternative strategy in teaching writing. The next researcher could develop this strategy and make it better.

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THE TITLLE

APPROVAL PAGE

AGREEMENT PAGE

TABLE OF CONTENT

MOTTO …………………………………………………………………………

i

DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………

ii

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………….iv

TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………………………

vi

LIST OF APPENDIXES………………………………………………………….x

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of Study

1

1.2 Statement of Problem

6

1.3 Purpose of Study

7

1.4 Important of Study

7

1.5 Scope and

Limitation

7

1.6 Definition of Key Terms

8

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1

Writing

9

2.1.1 Definition of Writing

9

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2.1.2

Definition of Writing Skill

10

 

2.1.3 Process of Writing

10

2.1.4 Purpose Writing

13

2.1.5 Writing Assessment

14

2.2. Text

19

2.2.1 Definition of Text

20

2.2.2 Definition of Descriptive Text

20

2.3

Communication Game……………

21

2.3.1

Definition of Communication game

22

2.3.2

Definition of Rank Order

23

2.3.3

Procedure of Rank Order Activity ……………

23

2.3.4

Rank Order As Communicative Language Teaching Activity

24

2.3.5

The Advantages of Rank Order…………

25

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

26

3.2 The Subject and Setting

27

3.3 Research Procedure

27

3.3.1 Preliminary Study

27

3.3.2 Analysis and Identification

28

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3.3.3

Implementation of The Research

28

 

3.3.3.1 Planning………………………

28

3.3.3.2

Documentation…

29

3.3.3.3 Acting……………………

30

3.3.3.4

Observation

30

3.3.4 Reflection

31

3.3.5 Data Clasification

31

3.3.6 Data Presentation

31

3.3.7 Data Interpretation

31

CHAPTER IV

FINDING AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Finding

33

4.1.1 Cycle

1

33

4.1.2 Cycle

2

38

4.2

Discussion

43

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion

45

5.2 Suggestion

46

5.2.1 To English Teachers

46

5.2.2 To Students

46

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5.2.3

To School

46

5.2.4 To Next Researcher

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIXES

xiv

47

LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix 1

Questionnaire I, Questionnaire II

Appendix 2

Obsevation I , Observation II

Appendix 3

Field Note I, Field Note II

Appendix 4

Lesson Plane

Appendix 5

Students Worksheets I, Students Worksheets II

Appendix 6

Table of The Data of CAR

Appendix 7

Picture Media

Appendix 8

Photo of the Result of CAR (Class Action Research)

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Language is used to communicate in human life. By

Language is used to communicate in human life. By using language,

people can express their feeling, idea, and everything in their mind. Language is

also beautiful thing, because people can create a great poem, drama, and script to

be a good film. Furthermore, language also can be a tool for doing something.

Besides, language is also used in communication, it is divided into two group,

they are; receptive skill and productive skill. All of skills are related to each other

in language learning and they are learned in every degree.

Language is very important part in human life. We can not imagine if

there is not language as a communication’s tool. In this modern era, we are forced

to master more than one language. There are many educated people who master

two or more foreign languages fluency now. According to Chastain (1976: 3)

there are two benefits of teaching foreign language, that is internal and external

benefit. Internal benefit is a benefit that changes the personality of their own

during the process of foreign language take place. External benefit is a benefit that

is more practical because the individual’s ability relates to other more effectively

for various purposes.

In the environment, there are a lot of natural reinforcements that can

support English learning more successfully. Nevertheless, in English learning

situation there are still difficulties of independent word that students have

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limitation in memorizing some words. Therefore, the teacher may feel obliged to

teach and test the vocabulary. This is a way by which the language is forced into

the students, and they feel that learning English is difficult for them. Therefore,

teachers need to avoid a technique which forces the language into the students. All

things that are needed to be introduced should make students interested in learning

English and not afraid in learning it.

The importance position of foreign language in society causes why

teaching foreign language more important and have many efforts are being made

to find out how someone can master language. The knowledge is very important

to be known for the foreign language teaching process especially English

language.

The basic purpose of teaching language is the student will be able to

master all of language skills, they are; listening, speaking, reading, and writing

skill. Beside that, they should know about the teaching components in teaching

process, they are; teacher, student, teaching technique, and media. Between fourth

skills, the important one is writing. Because, much knowledge was not to be a

good thing for the majority of the working population. But, as societies grow

larger and more industrialized, the need for citizen to be able to write and read

become vital in order for bureaucratic organization to be successful (Harmer,

2007: 3).

Many elements that must exist in teaching writing to the students of

English as a foreign language are reinforcement, language development, learning

style and most importantly, writing as skill in its own right. Writing as a skill, the

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most important reason for teaching writing, of course that it is a basic of language

skill, as important as speaking, listening, and reading (Harmer, 2002: 79).

Writing is the act or art of forming letters and characters on paper,

wood, stone or the other materials for the purpose of recording the ideas which

characters and words express or of communicating them to others by visible signs.

Writing

is

an

essential

language

skill

that

used

for

indirect

communication. The main obstacle to improve writing skill is the translation from

source language (L1) to target language (L2). In the translation activity, many

students have many difficulties in the structure of the sentence itself. Because,

between source language (L1) and target language (L2) have difference structure.

So, most students use source language’s (L1) structure as substitute of target

language structure. Not only translation but also on the organization of ideas. In

writing skill, we should more pay attention in spelling, punctuation, and so on.

As one of the four language skills, writing has always occupied a place

in most English language course. One of the reasons is that more and more people

need to learn how to write in English for occupational or academic purpose.

In

other

hand,

more

advanced

classes

students

are

assigned

composition or other kind of text based on certain topics. The poor teacher only

takes the student’s homework to make score especially based on the grammatical

errors. They are finally returned to the student with some comments and

corrections.

Teaching writing does not mean simply having students do grammar

exercise in writing. It no longer means having students manipulate unfamiliar

not mean simply having students do grammar exercise in writing. It no longer means having students

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texts that have no special meaning for them. Instead, students are writing about

what they really want to communicate with someone else and what they really

want a reader to know.

The teachers want to give some demands to the students into writing as

quickly and immediately possible in some lesson. This kind of instant writing

helps to develop the students writing fluency, which is also part of writing

proficiency, but which is not the same as the drawn out processes we have been

describing.

Writing process is not an essay option for students or teacher. Writing

process need more time to learn, it takes up space and can be problematic for the

more disorganized students. Because the following example of writing text shows

clearly how different purpose provoke different kinds of writing.

Nowadays,

many

teachers

still

teach

writing

by

giving

a

text,

explaining form and rules, and asking students to write a same text. This result is

boring, because they only listen to the teacher’s explanation. Because of this

situation, the teachers have to find out the other ways to make the student’s

boredom disappear, to improve their learners’ writing quality and to make master

easier.

To reach the maximal result the teacher needs some creativity and

innovation. Teacher who always has a constant desire and improve also enhance

the quality of teaching and learning activities. Because it attempts to improve and

enhance the quality should always be done by looking for the solution of the

problem in teaching and learning process.

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Based on the statement above, the teacher should use an interesting

strategy to make the students enjoy and do not feel bored in learning writing. One

of the writing learning strategies is communication game through rank ordering as

a strategy to solve the students’ difficulties in writing description. According to

Klippel (1984: 58) rank order is the exercise that require students to put a certain

number of item from a given list into an order of importance or preference.

Learning strategy is step taken by students to enhance their own

learning. Strategy is especially important for language learning because they are

tools for active, self-directed involvement, which is essential for developing

communicative competence.

In English, there are many kinds of genre to make a write. They are;

narrative, descriptive, procedure, recount, anecdote, etc. The writer chooses

descriptive text in her research. Descriptive text is the text that describes the

particular person, place, or thing in detail. The researcher chooses descriptive text

in her research because the students feel difficult in descriptive text.

There

are

many

skills

in

teaching

English

language.

They

are;

speaking, reading, listening, and writing. Every skill has difficulties level. One of

them is writing skill, like in SMPN 1 Babadan. The students of SMPN 1 Babadan

have many difficulties in writing skill especially make a descriptive text. There

are many reasons must be solved by the researcher. The reason are; first, the

students of SMP N 1 Babadan have problem in writing description text. Second,

the students have less knowledge of vocabulary and grammar, so that it make

them difficult to make a text. The last, the students can not write a text well. So

and grammar, so that it make them difficult to make a text. The last, the students

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that, the researcher tries to apply communication game especially in rank order

activity to solve the problems.

Communication game especially in rank order strategy is chosen by

the researcher because she should be careful in correcting student’s error. Being

often

to

be

interrupted

and

corrected

make

the

students

hesitant

in

their

organization of ideas when they practices in make a text. It seems far better for the

researcher to use the activities for observation and only help the students when

they need. The students should be encouraged to overcome their difficulties by

finding alternative ways of expressing what they want to write. There are list of

words as ideas which may be needed for the activities to the students to compose a

text easily.

Based on the problems above, the researcher uses Classroom Action

Research (CAR) in her research to solve the problems and improve the quality of

teaching learning process. By giving attention to the fact, the researcher uses

communication games especially in rank order strategy to make the students can

overcome their problems and enjoy in learning process.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Based on the explanation in the background of study, the statement of

problem in this study is “How does the communication game improve students’

writing skill in descriptive text of the second year students of SMP N 1 Babadan

ponorogo in the academic year of 2012/2013?

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1.3 Purpose of Study

Based on to the statement of the problem, the researcher formulates

the purpose of this research is to know how the improvement of student’s writing

skill in description text by using communication games of the second year

students of SMP N1 Babadan Ponorogo in the academic year of 2012/2013.

1.4 Important of Study

in the academic year of 2012/2013. 1.4 Important of Study The writer hopes this research will

The writer hopes this research will give contributions to:

1. For the students, can arrange and make a descriptive text well based on the

generic structure.

2. For the English teachers, as a strategy in teaching learning process to write

descriptive text

3. For the school or institution, to increase student’s competence in writing skill

especially in descriptive text at SMP N 1 Babadan Ponorogo.

4. For the researcher, as the real action to apply her knowledge that she got from

Muhammadiyyah University of Ponorogo.

1.5 Scope and Limitation

This study is focused on the classroom action research of the teaching

writing in descriptive text using communication games strategy. The subject of

this study are the seventh grade students especially class VIII-B in SMPN 1

Babadan Ponorogo in the academic year of 2012/2013.

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1.6 Definition of Key Term

To avoid misunderstanding of the concept in this study, the researcher

gives some definitions as follows:

1. Writing skill

:

Writing skills are specific abilities which help

 

writers

put

their

thoughts

into

words

in

a

meaningful form and to mentally interact with

the message ( Lingulink, 1999).

 

2. Communication game

:

Are activities set up in the classroom to create

 

opportunities

and

purpose

for

verbal

communication practice (Herrell et al, 2002: 94)

3. Rank order strategy

:

The exercise require students to put a certain

 

number of items from a given list into an order

of importance or preference (Klippel, 1984: 58).

4. Description text

:

Is a text which says what a person or a things is

like (Nurmansyah, 2009).

1984: 58). 4. Description text : Is a text which says what a person or a

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