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The Rislatu'l-Ghufrn: By Ab'l-'Al al-Ma'arr Author(s): Reynold A.

Nicholson Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Oct., 1900), pp. 637-720 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/03/2012 13:56
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XXV.?The Ma'arrl. Reynold

Risdlatu'l-Ghnfrdn: by Abii'l-'Ala translated and Summarized partially A. Nicholson.

al by

In a recent number of the Journal (July, 1899, p. 671 seq.) of now in my possession, a manuscript, I briefly described to give some further and promised the Risdlatu'l-Ghnfrdn, is in question The work account of it at an early date. as I have shown,2 by mentioned by SafadI1 and probably, of list his Abu'l-'Ala's in Khalifa. Dhahabi, writings, Haji but the undor it tacitly includes dlvdnu'l-rasd'it, heading in the forefront it he makes ample amends by setting very which begins : of his article on Abu'l-'Ali!,3

<&JJjJ!j ij^A^Jl



>}i?*d\ j&\jj!l\ <JSj*1H <j^jl*!1

jj? ^jc\
The Risdla


will be looked for in vain in the catalogues of of it lie libraries,5 may though copies European perchance Hence the following buried, like so much else, in the East. a text. based This must is upon summary single necessarily
ed. Margoliouth, p. 146. of Ahu'l-lAl&, J.R.A.S., 1809, p. 671. 8 The Letters of JbiVI-1 Aid, p. in Rqq. 4 Should not we read is no mention of Mnzdak There and his <Lijjj? in the ltisdla. doctrines 5 would also Margoliouth (Introd., p. 38) says: "A work railed Forgiveness in character." and to bo remarkable This stat?ment appear to ho in existence, reason for making it. I do not know 1'rofosuor Margoliouth's is now verified. 2 1 The Letters

638 be of



a grave drawback, considered for, to quote the words an eminent who has the smallest scholar, "everyone are with Arabic MSS. knows how numerous acquaintance are even the better class of which the mistakes copyists 1 The to the be to commit." MS. prone appears present on the whole, It is written, hands. work of three different correctness and the last with tolerable distinctness, except one or reduced is continually seventy eighty pages, where I do not say that emendation. to moro or less conjectural not bo established a satisfactory text might by a liberal Those who have perused of time and trouble. expenditure edited Abii'l - 'Ala's correspondence, lately by Professor such a task the of will appreciate Margoliouth, difficulty at home in the bewildering even for one thoroughly desert author's Tho and of Arabic poetry, philology. antiquities, allusive is highly in the rhymed passages, style, especially and artificial, and I am not foolish enough to suppose that or is always due to an illegible ni)r failure to understand of of course, be the business text. It would, corrupt to investigate and clear a competent editor up these and not to shrink from any however obscurities, trifling, as my aim just now But involved. labour and research of the view of the contents to give a general is merely or to of little free evade felt have I Risdla, points myself no importance that did not yield to the first attack. a rough text and making the Arabic After transcribing two was into that Risdla divided the found I translation, and of philo literary parts, the former (pp. 4-123) mainly latter (pp. 124-219) the interest, along erabodj'ing, logical and discursive with much of the same kind, a somewhat false of various sketch anecdotal freethinkers, heretics, a race which has to divinity, and pretenders prophets, the titular boundaries always flourished exceedingl)r within iu himself was branded with heresy Abfi'l-'Ala of Islam. his lifetime, though the charge wras never pushed d oulrancc. there was than heretic; in fact, more He was, sceptic
1W. Wright, Opuscula Arabiea, p. vi.

THE MSALATU'L-OnUFlilN. nothing positive so as to make in his it


heresy, unless wo broaden the term of and upholders include vegetarians rule cremation. however, bjr the Mohammedan Judged, " total and honest doubt" of orthodoxy, which weighs unbelief in the same balance and finds them equally wanting, AbfiVAlil could not complain if his attitude towards accepted truth set up a minatory wagging he of pious beards. What men he therefore?or what like thinks, rather, says?about b. Burd, and b. Mansfir, Bashshilr Husain Ibnu'l-RawandJ, as it cannot be regarded others, while finally significant does at any rate afford the enter opinions, It of skating over thin ice. of a deft exhibition to observe in no sense is needless that the Risdla was a private and confidential document. Abfi'l-'Ala often elucidates words and phrases which his learned correspondent must have known as he knew his A B 0. The reason is of his real tainment says quite obvious, and in one place Abu'l-'Ala expressly (p. 124): "You are far from requiring such an explanation, but I fear that this letter may fall into the hands of a dull in his teens, and that the word, being strango to him, youth An may form a shackle and bring him to a dead stop." was not audience thus contemptuously anticipated likely to be favoured with
The citations of

verse are

numerous and not very accurate.




first part of the Risdla, as the nature of the subject lead us to expect, these aro derived almost entirely
the ancient poets. Generally a few verses only are

the narrative. cited, but occasional longer pieces chequer As regards the anonymous verses, I decided not to attempt " a systematic in much pursuit, which must have resulted cry and little wool," and though I havo chanced upon some in the dictionaries, in the Sahdh, tho number particularly of missing is still considerable. authors Where the poet's name was mentioned, I turned to accessible editions or to the great anthologies. It seemed best, in a paper of this of the verses cited, scope, to print only a small proportion a choice I have and in making preferred, on the principle omne ignotum pro either magnifico, anon}rmous verses or those
j.n.A.s. 1900. 43

640 which Thus I was

THE MSALATU'l-GHUFIIAN. unable to find

in the collections. ordinary verses all the of 'Adi b. Zaid, printed nearly A'shil Kais, and Ilumaid b. Thaur, that are cited in the Risdla. are in being elsewhere, these extracts Probably I have but the diviins of 'Adi and in al-A'shii's Escurial. I have never altered the cases manuscript reading (save in of mere carelessness) without Thero the alteration. noting arc several places iu which I suspect, and a few iu which I feel sure, that the text as it stands cannot be right, but I have usually left it untouched. in emendation Scientific any given Arabic poem must follow the comparative method so al illustrated in his Khalaf admirably by Ahlwardt on to Ahmar's that is must it bo Qasside, say, grounded a minute and exact of Arabic poetry. Possessing knowledge this knowledge, that the critic can emend with a certainty will hardly be attained in Latin or Greek, where he is not aided by the combination of precise detail and elaborate not the bards of tho desert; nionotonjr which distinguishes it, he will, if he is wise, respect the written wrord. possessing For the vowel marks I am responsible; they are almost absent from MS. this wholly The date of the Risdla is fixed at 424 a.h. by the following occurs a passage which in the possibility sentence, denying of prediction (p. 156):? is preserved Ilumaid a single are unknown, manuscript while in tho


\iS teJuej ^ili


dal* j^lli <U*<*1 H*j\j



^"^ ^


Uili voj^i* y*>

cwv*l-XJJ ^


is facts Other this date. Shiblu'l-Daula support E.g. was a that ho mentioned context in which (p. 02) implies governor of llalab at the time when the Risdla was written. in 420 and died in 429. Now Shiblu'l-Daula became governor to is addressed, the person whom the Risdla Concerning us full name is His Abu'l-'Ala little information. gives


risalatu'l-giiufran. (p. 62), travelled and his in 'Irak

641 kunya and

'All b. Mansfir b. Titlib al-ITalabi had He Abfi'l-IIasan (p. 123). wrote and when Abu'l-'Alii Egypt, Aleppo. that he calling beware

had recently arrived in his advanced age it was rumoured Notwithstanding re and Abfi'l-'Ala, while marriage,1 contemplated

that after sixty a man should Khalifa aphorism, on the prospect of maids,2 felicitates Aleppo of a scholar so renowned her resident among numbering the pilgrimage citizens. He had made five times, which was a Bohemian but for his well speaks piety,3 evidently warns at heart. that His friend him "it is time to repent," him to Abu 'Uthman al-Mazini, and compares who was " blamed for drinking I will it wine, and retorted, give of it the when On becomes sins." his my up greatest lavishes a wealth of flowery panegyric, learning Abifl-'Ala the following of which passage may serve as a specimen (p. 195):

1 It <loi!H first; venture not appear whether thi.4 was the Shaikh's or what Dr. Johnson nails "tho triumph oi" hope over experience." can bo drawn from the kunya, as it may lmvo boon a complimentary

in matrimony, No argument title.

lets fall a remark which however, Abu*l-'Alii, even if it is merely facetious (p. 201):

"<>). lot (p*bU ^3J>\ J>-Ji\ jS> (lAfiWW,

is not without significance

IL#j <l?JLI ufi


Jl J\ fr*))

\SpSs p JJbi tf/3? ^^

jw-llc ^A Lxi <u!x

\jCjXJ <tb-2>

L/"V nT* W



l-^J ^

L*J* I; l-^J


4 I.e. al-Mutanabbi (De Sacy, Dioterici's editiou, p. 175.






is in




<UjJL1\ Sta^UJb JjJ^ uilJ ^ c^dJlCJ& v^ <LJjJ\ f-j>-ljJI c-^t/j Vr^M fH^ uJo^li *&?) ^ jJI*ULH Ul^

U$l?i Jjj5?- c-j\yj :lij J^-ti b\S) JuLl J}jj*jA\jy* l[Ji^S\^ HjJbjTs>rijc bb??.\ j\ J^Jt Ouj i>-jjJ\ cJOJ^Aj^ Jj*^M
&*y>Cl*.Lii *tlyJ? JW" cr* ^-r^^ ^* ^ V^J <J/.**r^ ^^?

1 MS. after



who was

Ihn Ilazm's


in logic, and died

is mentioned 400 a.h., vol. ii, (Do Shine's translation, hy Ihn Khallikuu is no reason to suppose that he is the persou meant. Iu my p. 208). but there MS. Slmdharatu'i-Dhahab uuder the 1899, p. 911), (see J.R.A.S., year 331 a.h., I find:



kiU$\ u?JjA\ rf ?*~? ^




l|-i3 ^li^

jIjJL^ *CC*Jj c^*^'



tir*^J L)Uj

lc**^!^' jil?

' Slji

<U** ^^Uj^
The wa* phrases actually writings.

IsPU? u^a^

in the jRistlla, however, would scorn to imply that 'All h. Mansfir a pupil of the individual iu question, not luorely a student of his

1 MS.
3 MS.

ii .








(The figures

refer to the pages

of the MS.)

Introduction Description

(4-7). of 'All b. Mansiir's

digression suggested

abode in Paradise
by two versos

of Namir b. al

Taulab al-'Ukll (13-16). 'All b. Mannar (tho Shaikh's) Companions in Paradise. Versos (18-20). by A'shaKais The Shaikh's iuterview with A'sha Kais (21-23). "WithZuhair b. Abl Sulmii and 'Abid al-Abra? (24-25). "With 'Adi b. Zaid. Vorscs by 'Adi (26-29)." 'Adi unsworn the Shaikh in 'Ibadl With Abii Ohu'iiib (31-32). dialect (32). With Nabigha of the Banu Dhubyan and Nabigha of the Band Ja'da (33-37). Episode of tho geeso who became singing-girls (38-39). Verses by A'sha Kais (41-42, Interview with Labld (40-41). 46-47). Altercation between Nabigha al-Ja'dl and A'sha Kais (46-49). Tho Shaikh's interview with Hassan b. Thabit (50). Shamraakh (52). With the one-eyed men of Kais (51 sqq.). 'Amr b. Ah mar (53-56). Verses by 'Amr (54). Tamim b. Ubayy (56). Narrative by the Shaikh of his experiences in the Place of Judgment (57-65). Ilumaid b. Thaur. His interviow with HaTl-Ibil (66). With Verses by Ilumaid (66-67). The Shaikh holds a salon in Paradise (68-77). His conversation with two houris, and his visit to the Tree of tho Houris (77-78). He comes to tho Garden of 'Ifrlts (79). Verses His interviow with Abu Hadrash, tho JinnI (79-87). of the Jinn (82-87). He meets Hutai'a (88) and al-Khansa (89). He ascends to a spot overlooking Hell-fire and introduces himself to lblis (89). His interview with Bashshar b. Burd (90-91). With IniruVl-Kais (92-96).




'Antara (96-98). With 'Alkamab. 'Abada (98-100). With 'Ainrb. Kulthiim (100-101). With With Hiirith b. al-I[illiza (101-102). With Tarafa (102-103). AVithAus b. Hajar (103-105). With Abu Kablr of Hudhail (105-106). With Sakhru'l Ghayy (106). With al-Akhtal (106-108). AVithMuhalhil (109-110). With al-Murakkish al-Akbar (111) and al-Murakkish

al-Asghar (111-112).' With al-Shanfara (112) and Ta'abbata Sharran (112-113). The Shaikh sets off for Paradise (113). His conversation with Adam (113-115). The story of tho snako and tho two brothers (115-117). Literary discussion with another snako (117-118). The Shaikh's adventure with the houris (119-120). He comes to the Garden of the llajaz-uiakers (121). His inter view with Itu'ba (121-122). He is home triumphantly on a throne of gold to his pavilion iu Paradise (122-123). tho autograph Orientalist) of J. Shakespear (presum and the name of a former

On p. 1, besides ably the well-known

owner, L$!J^ (P) ijij^ ^.^\


on Moral that was read "Treatise Subjects "?a description a venture. P. 2 is blank. P. 3 gives probably drawn at in is written the following the title,1 under which enigma

{}**/& ^\

wc <?*~>tf,

1 See 1899, p. 671. 2 The J.R.A.S., der Arabischen metre is dil bait (Froytag, Barstellung Verskumt, I should not have ruba'i. one of the Persian of the common metres p. 441), of which would the solution, this to discover attempted puzzle, probably bailie but I have como upou a note of my grandfather any European ingenuity, 'ald'l author of tho Jasus the answer suggested by Ahmad Faris, recording Kawus, viz. that 'j+? is the word. the sum of Its letters there amount remains to * 116. Deduct tho Ktif,

last three, which make Mountain. the Wonderful

16, and

i.e. Mouut



The MS. begins (p. 4):




* <CjU l# i/LJt ^ * <CjU1

* J-j.3^ Ui^oc. ^Jt 1 Xi?j t^-jtf jl l|) JlibysA'l ^ <-J3j ^


tUU!\ ^^1 ^ * c_yi itUJ^ \?ya* 'ijA&\ eLijJ


i^JLJLc l$! t^iij


* A-LUsv.

jjm*J1 ^^

Su^cJ i.sjjL* ti ^Jl


* &jLi*Hj Jli c-Jjill ?jy?- <LkUs5lj dd*UJ

1 I.e. of


" to your own tribe." Begone iu Agh&ni, xix, 'Ukl, are mentioned

The Banu 158.


b. Al?Is,

a subdivision




in this strain Abii'l-'Alu Proceeding plays on the double core of a of of kind ^^s^., (a) meaning serpent, (b) the the metaphor, the heart; he says (p. 5) : then, varying


or Suwaid, several persons named Aswad mentioning b. and quoting verses by al-Yashkurl al-Hilliza),2 (Ilarith he continues: and Suwaid b. al-Sumai',4 IinruVl-Kais,8 is 'a swollen [P. 7] "I have received your letter, which on it a future read those who sea'5 of wisdom, and confers

to the law, and blames such reward, for it enjoins submission as sacrifice the root for the branch. in the o'er I plunged the setting its and admired billows of diction elegant flowing of its brilliant The it like of and avails intercedes gems. and brings near to God and exalts. I found that it was introduced (*y++ss?) that could not havo by a Magnificat .... for eloquence issued save from one distinguished
1Name of tho poet's mother, who was au Abyssinian Sulaka aud slave. of Sulaik and Khufaf. Ahlwardt iiber Nadba were the mothers (Bemerkungen dUi Archthcit der alien Arabischen Oedichtet p. 51 seq.) gives a list of thirtccu a MuUilhka, * Ahlwardt,

44. The Dirans, xiv, 3.

^ Or*"*-3 (^

U u^" L^


Iii, 6.

the And



if God please, on account of this laudation perchance, a grove, there has been planted for your honour in Paradise East the from tree whole world whereof every comprehends .... toWest shade in its far-spreading is described [P. 8] Iu the shadow of this prove, which as a gift of Allah to 'All b. Mansiir, reserved for him until and are boys of Paradise, the day of Judgment, sitting at water of life; there its foot flow rivers of the standing; are jugs of the wine celebrated by 'Alkama,1 'That heals tho aching brow, and in the brain " Creates no dizziness or feverish pain.' recalls of jugs The mention (J^jV) of verses in which this word occurs: aro AbiTl-Hindi,2 Abii Zubaid,3 Ibn al-Ukaishir of Speaking I saw a copyist which begins:6 al-Asadi,5 'Adi he (^Vjjll Iyus says: v**t) to the author a number

among the poets cited A lunar,4 'Adi b. Hair], b. al-Aratt, and al-'Ajjaj. " I was in Baghdad, When inquiring about his poem,

1 The Divans, xiii, 39. * Ahlwnrdt, 'Abdu't-Mu'min b. 'AbduU-Kuddus Both aro in Aghdni, xxi, 277. cpioted. 1. 13. 3 xi, 24 sqq. Ayjiani, 4 The verse quoted is:

b. Shabath b. Rib'I. Two distichs are The secoiid aloue is in Kdmil, p. 453,

8 Agh'inl, x, 84 sqq.

iU, li l:^Ja^iJ
Of him Abu'l-'Ala says :

Ul * AvXi-w? J^ *j&\>- fji \J\ L5*^ *^& <lLJ>

ic^ &\

verso is quoted in Ayh., 8 Cited in Raudatu'UAdab Kumait (Cairo, 1276 a.h.), to TubbaVl-Yamani. Rawiya Tho

x, 96, with

lor j ?Lj , )*Jil*J 220. to Halbaln'U p. 1858), According (Beyrout, al p. 49, the verses were ascribed by Hammad Tho MS. roads ^^3 jUJl an(1 IcJj.




JUit [P. 10]Jj^J tfJ WJJyb Jj ^J\ ^Ji J ^

He asserted that Ibn Hiijib al-Nu'miiu1 looked for this poem in 'Adi'a divan, and it was not there. Afterwards I heard a man of Astarabad read tho poem from the divan of tho in the Library2 'IbiTdite, but it was wanting copy." are 'not "There rivers of clarified honey, also [P. 12] mado by bees that haunt the flowers, nor hid in waxen cells/ ' but God Almighty and it was. I would said Be/ fain was permitted b. al-Taulab know whether Namir al-'Ukll to taste that, compared with world resembles colocynth. in and the food sho enjoyed ho mentioned &*\\ !Uji\ ^ security L**^ l*j)? an(* clarified with fresh butter (Ji***) sjj^-) on him now that he is dead, for have mercy a tradition,3 ho for which aud recited Islam (\jl* &***lS??tj Poor Namir cijm)> said: an(* ??& *8 realize

lie would this honey. it, the honey of the perishable he described Umm Hisn When comfort white and bread

God honey. he professed is the

sole authority

able to assuage

our wounds.

b-^ fi
{J-***!^J^} You with

lt^ H1

<"^*L2>1 Jl

aro familiar jfour glory perpetual!) (may God make and his friends al-Ahmar the story told of Khalaf ' these verses, to the effect that he said: Suppose concerning ft0^j>- jil had been substituted for ^^a^. 2\, how would the

1 This b. al-Nu'man, n mistake Abu'l-IIusniu for al-IIajib is possibly in DnmyattCl-Kasx a savant of *Ira^, mentioned (British Museum MS. Add. 9,994, f. 38*). 2 I.e. the to The Letters Introduction of Sabur. See Margoliouth's Academy p. 24 seq. of Abu'I-'Ala, 8 xix, 158. Aghani,




* As they made no answer, he said : poet have rhymed it ? 1 lams ^a^j being synonymous with fdludha/." ijjY^,' the story," Abii'l-'Ala [P. 13] By way of "completing the whole and about forty goes through alphabet gives cases an most in of the rhyme variants, adding explanation word. Some of these glosses aro here transcribed:

[p. 14]

ujy oijJlc^;i u Ul c-4

2wiij-J *J *jL>^-**? J-?j

?k ^5.^

^ Jyb ^ jU- ^ ?\

JUi ^1


i,*.j&.\ uu

? ^li JS ^
y=liJ! JU ^aM^

-., ^^, ^ ^\

J> ^ Jyb
{4)> ^^\


t^.?- ?cj 44JI

1 xf, 134 sqq. Aghani, 2 So the MS. Oue naturally ^ o....) but this is out




if J


(?<*#<*#? sub. feminine.

of the question in this metre

unless aud


can be made bo found

Two distich* by al-Aswad Arabic l'oet*t p. 470.

rhyme will

in Christian

c^wi^l. Agh.anl% xvii, 78 sqq. 8 This line is apparently imitated 'Adi b. Zaid (cited in Xaudalu'l-Adab, 6

'MS.^l^. *

from Sakhr p. 219):




1. 17).




Jli U?jU?l Ifiil i\jd\ **-*> ^\^$\

LyJb j*>t &\)&)

[p. is]

s^us>; ^jju

uli iiu^l L&\ Jx &\ jo^,Lit ,jf/5>.J,ib J jU LU p *U\&l bjgi. J, I4J&*M l^iJib"a^LS! ?U fc*. jy ^ JIS t_iOJ JOJj ^I &j ^tj*. JUbJ j^ \S*>^j ^iAll l?i&
JU?JI j-3, L5i** Jx Joj u-fl-st-^ c_ttX^J cf/j??- J^ ?La)H Ji.oJ ^1 ^ i~a-^ *1J3U J^ J*

l?ls- JjjjJl ^jj

1 Khufaf b. Nadba. The verso


is quoted by Lane (cd. Derenbourg),

under vol.


# Ho ascribes

2 Tho verse is cited by Sibawaihi " a man of 'Uman." it to

i, p. 70.



[P. 17] After this digression, which, he says, Jyi J jLji. the author returns to his eulogy *L*!1^i J?Jb JL^ fti,
of the celestial honey, quoting Iliirith b. Kalada:

in it are fish of haldwa that would have made Swimming Ahmad b. Husainl despise the gift referred to in his lines:

lJ?_?-? Iflil <i l-^ Jjii









perpetuate majesty of the lofty rank surrounded

of Paradise, and ])aus,2 such Yfinus

your life !) in possession by preserving that is due to veritable and repentance, chosen from among the scholars by companions
as the man of Thumala arid and Ibn the man of al b. Habib al-Dabbi3 Mas'ada

Mujashi'i,1 of whom
1 Perhaps

in peace and dwelling together amity like those ' : remove all malice from their will We it is said
the famous Badi'u'l-Zamfui Ali mad h. al-Httsain al-IIamadfinl.

2 U"9**


al-A'/di al-Farahid!

0ne of tn,S(J iHprobably the celebrated

al-Yuhmadi. He might be called cither

b. Ahmad


(Olill ^jA ijh}4

?? mentioned by Ibn Kutaiba) or ?JUj ^\

to tho Banu Nasr b. Azd aud were con belonged (the Banu Thumala closely the Banu Yahmad). nected with The other may be Ibn Duraid, whose is traced by Ibn Khallikan to Daus b. 'Aduan. genealogy 3 i, 99. Brockelmann, 4 Sa'Id b. as al-Akhfash better known al-Ausat Mas'ada, (Brockelmann, i, 105).

652 bosoms,



etc.'1 And here is Ahmad b. Yalrya,2 his hatred b. Yazld3 washed so clean away; [P. 19] of Muhammad sincere and perfect has their become that friendship they are like Malik and 'Akil, inseparable by day and by night, the companions of Jadhlma; and Abu Bishr 'Amr b. 'Uthman Sibawaihi no bears in a his heart longer grudge 'All b. Hamza al-Kisa'J aud his followers for their against treatment of him in the assembly of the and Barmakites;4 Abu 'Ubaida is on the best of terms with 'AbdiTl-Malik 5 can disturb their b. Kuraib: .... nothing intimacy at And entered to the every angels gate, company give and the situation of the Shaikh with his fellows greeting, (ma)r God strengthen learning by his long life !) was like that depicted by the Bakrite :6
1 Kor.. xv, 47-48. 2 Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad 8 The

b. Yahya Tha'lab i, 118). (lhockclmann, author of the Kamil. A personal animosity existed between him and as contemporary Tha'lab leaders of the two great rival schools. 4 Ihn Khallikfui tells the story in his article on Sibawaihi. Cf. Flugel, Die fjnwinnitist'htn Schnlai drr Arabtr, p. 44. 6 Al-Asma'i. A marginal note says :




S^Lx* ^.vi^SI

^^-J^ i*-Vrc 15^ \ji^. ilA*

<Uy JxJjL

U~J Jli JU*-*)II?)\ i'Ourx: ^-jl ^^ JJ cJUj j Li <tfl uJl* U <0Jlj<d)l aryl <u>j ^Ua^j i*Ju^cjj\ JUi ^i SJ

cCJfj^ JU^J
* A'sha Kais.


*Ju-* ^

Arabic Poets,

Jli JLSAJ* ^
p. 3G8. Variants :

lines are in Christian

(1) LiL&L?,

(4) <U^*J ^a^-U

of my MS.: ?


Tho following commentary is

ou the margin


^1 Wjl^? ^^J V^Jy cLvO-o JU *Ula)l i^io L-^AJJ* ^ y\i\ iJu-^^l Jl-3j ^jJl >-i^ll J^^^s'l J^l^llV~^
j^ *j\ JU ?xJl
<uU-Li il?rj


^^waJl c^4-a?





<o*^? i?j*

&>**!! v^-^^.sXma^JIj




llAJ^J*rJ\ e^iJ j^jli

<u^-.ibl j<?fcj l-^* ^<ui-^w*j 'i





ft J Uj



<U*juuJ -^wJl CJ^!



And Abu 'Ubaida

Ul I4UI <ui ?.,?p

recounted to them tho battles of tho and al-Asma'i recited souls were stirred to

Arabs and the combats of the cavaliers, excellent the most poetry, and their frolic, and they began to throw their of wine,

into the rivers flagons and these flagons, when clashed thoy against each that created melodies tho wako dead. Then other, might 'Alas for the fall of A'sha said the Shaikh: ! Mairaun a safe-stepping camel did he urge to speed ! How many had not prevented that the Kuraish him [P. 20] I wish Just now the clash of when he turned to the Prophet. these vessels in h: reminded me of his verses in the poem rhymed

1J1 ^piiJt

V^WM> Jj*Aj


e^>LJLl! )\ u^ol? <ui&i-^Vl u-^xll j^c <LJLl!j JUj l^lk+'j+b. Jojt JLUlcJLi iSjiXstr *UM ^J c_yJl ?***1l Jli CjljJ^l

ft u'S*
1 This instead of couplet Lj* j^>is cited , in Christian Arabic Poets, p.

ask uAs J*&^

394, with U5i?J[






J^* <&j


J^J J^JlJl^LJll^ ^Uj^Jl'jUj^ 3.

L+j^ au/ji JJl

4_*jl?* I^JT^JL* Ulj 6.








professed reciting
= ' make

1 I-*. 16

he might have been of our Islam, to us tho poems, in strange metres, which
haste !?

" MS.


4 "And (i.e. while seems But

J the wine-bowl filled drew

convoyed their cups

from hand from mixed

to hand by

long-used moans

cups of glass p j\)f This kl^T.

the drinkers those who to be

it iu turu, their

of the



(with water).** *UJb draw

the sense,

if the reading

is correct. that

y_ *\hs^ = those who

? ^_ o \-**

i.e. the wine

is so powerful did what under

(aud drink) For ^\ Jf

it are forced cf. nl-A'sha's

to swear

they never

they have .

just done.

verse cited by Lane


the he what



in the abode of sorrow, and informing us of composed befell him with Haudha b. 'AH and 'Amir b. al-Tufail b. Mushir Fa'isb/ (.$?/?) and and others 'Alkama whom b. he 'Ulatha eulogized and or

and Yazld Salama


b. Dhl

to the Shaikh to think of what in the is recreation called He mounted perishable (<Uj.Jl). a camel of turquoise and pearl, which resorabled a flash of light as it threaded the hillocks of ambergris, and he raised his voice and quoted the lines of the Jiakrito: Now it occurred world

[P. 21]


v-^iSH $** &UML,^x?


^J lSjmA

' a hat if asking, Do you know who made these ho replied, Abu verses?' 'Amr b. al-'Alil 'Yes/ citing as his authority, 'they are by Maim tin b. Kais b. Jandal, to Sa'sa'a the man of llubl'a (**?!j ^5=^')* who belonged b. Kais b. Tha'laba b. 'Ukaba b. Sal) b. 'All b. Bakr b. 4 'I am Wa'il/ he/ said the hat if, 'God has forgiven me/ tho manner him concerning of his The Shaikh questioned and al-A'sha related how he was escape from Hell-fire, He heard when away by the infernal police dragged (<UJbjJl), to them and 'All off, pulled approached saying [P. 22]' ' ' What is your passport P said he, him, Thereupon/ 11 repeated some verses of my poem in praise of Muhammad,5 being of which the last is:

In Ayhnnl,


85, he is called Salftma

libit Fa'ish.

2 <i J^f ^^j*^ 3 The author adds: JJL)|

4 This varies

MarTmdu'l-'WW). (Yflkrifc> $^ jl-Jlj ^^J .

genealogy hy De Sacy, Chrestomathy, slightly ii, 479 seq. 5 90. Nine distichs aro cited. Abu'l-'Ala viii, 85 ; Knmil, says : Ayhdm, sense is the sole authority for in the 'come "Al-Fnrra of to the low l?\ that given lauds,' hut if the verse is really by al-A'shii, J.R.A.8. 1900. 41 he can only have meant \ghdra a*





I spoke this/ 'And when continued al-A'sha, [P. 23] ' in God and the final reckoning 'All, I believed addressing and the resurrection; witness my versos:

J_iLli Jx ^JuLii U_i


ii?Uil? \6\

who interceded for me, and I was 'All told the Prophet, on that I should drink no to Paradise admitted condition wine therein, for it is the rule that he who docs not repent of wine-drinking in the world of illusion shall not drink it in the next/ over the fields of Then the Shaikh let his eye wander and he saw two lofty pavilions, and said to himself, Paradise, ' I will go aud ask to whom So he drew they belong.'
the opposite of injad. Al-Asma'i two readings: =. (1) Am?.\




1>P transposes and roads with zifwf, oLJI o \X\SJ* J (2)

Sa'id under b. Mas'adu ,*? couplet is cited by itself in Cheikho's Christian Arabic road .[? for \c.\ making tho verso makhrum."

?U \?jAJ&.
Cf. banu

1 This


p. 393,

with 5JJ31 for ^"Ji,

and the following note:

-li ijji
Two more

Je ^

ul Ulj ll^l ^.G ul Uli ^1,11

iu the same metre


^^U ^ ^ ur^ will be found and


J**. ^;U^
ibid., p. 381.




' of is tho pavilion This near, and on one was written, on the and Sulmii b. Abi Zuhair al-Muzanl,' other, and of 'Abid b. al-Abras 'This is the pavilion al-Asadl,' in the these died because he marvelled thereat, poets to had ask how them He resolved they gained Ignorance. And lo! ho was a youth and began with Zuhair. forgiveness, as if he had never worn the like Zuhra the Jinnlya, just or sighed of decrepitude, garment or in said his poem rhymed in m: weariness, [P. 24] (uiifa) from

' ' are not you the father Come, come/ cried the Shaikh, For you of Ka'b and BujairP How were you pardoned? lived in the Fatra, when men roamed without restraint and ' of mischief.' Zuhair answered : My all manner wrought and I found a merciful Lord. soul abhorred unrighteousness, in God Almighty, and I saw, as in a dream, a rope I believed lot down who " clung

from heaven, and to it were saved.

so I enjoined my

on oiirfh those of the dwellers Now I knew this for a divine

sons on my deathbed, saying :

If thero shall arise ono who culls you to serve God, him." I lived to Muhammad's Had time, I should been the first of believers, and I said in tho mimiya :2 "Seek not to hido from God your secret soul; whatsoe'er ye hide in vain, in a scroll, "Whether 'tis laid till Doomsday Stored up, or sudden vengeance promptly ta'en." Shaikh

obey have

God knoweth


if he was debarred asked Zuhair from the ' ' A'sha Kais. of like said it wine,3 No,' he, pleasures was and after of followers the my death, prohibited [P. 25] it with impunity.' drink So prophets might pre-Islamic The
1 The Divans, Ahhvardt, xvi, 47. Another is quoted. in Ahlwardt's Appendix) 2 The Divans, xvi, 2G, 27. 3 I, 31, 33 ibid, are cited in this connection. verse on the same topic (xxix, 2,

658 the Shaikh companion search of account

the invited .... 'Abid b.

risalatu'l-ghufran. hira to drink On al-Abras, :l leaving who and had found Zuhair been him he a witty went in on


of his verse

The and 'Abid inspired the Shaikh with good of Ho asked for tho of many other poets. salvation hope was that his 'Adi b. and learned Zaid, ?P. 26] dwelling close at hand. 'Adi said when had Abu '0 he, Sawiida/ ' satisfactorily explained his presence among the elect, won't you recite to me the poem rhymed in s,2 for it is one of the original pieces in Arabic poetry ?' So 'Adi began : tale of Zuhair


*JLi ?_^_& a^ ^-L*U

4 I_f_ijJ



,1 I*_1?11




.?i,ff ,fi,n




1 Ch riff tan Arabic it is said that according to Ilmu'l Poets, p. 607, where A'rabi the author of this verse is Yazid b. Dabba al-Thakafi. 2 are cited iu Christian Arabic Poets, p. 470, iu Eiirht distiehs of this poem the order: some 1, 2, 8, 4, 17, 5, 13, 11. important following They give variants, which I print below, usiug Ch. for brevity of reference 5 Ch. jjjfc j^jc.

4 MS.

j^-?jl ojV*'




* li/ wmy.

J^slbJL&l ^dJl^*i. i'w ?""'/7MS. ^jdl ^ ?U-Jj.

<J ^Jo U f\^ *j??*

Ch. ^^^Jill^iii. U Jjl ^Jb <VH/'\v Jj^sf4

.j?*> Xn3-^i5 <UfJ^lj ^--^liU^

7 J;/ w/fiy.


risalatu'l-ghufran. e^_i?1? l-w<J_? l-J 4.






J i-i-fi JT JLxL-i ^





t-JSjJS t-



8 In * In
6 MS.


iu the margin.







This beyt is supplied

marg. *jj jj^ ^


j? ^


See Kosegarfcon, of jj. j^>-

In marg. ?3

Carmina Hudsailitarum,

^ j&\ J,\J| ^ysAl^

p. 168,

L+a*J\ J3l\
last line,


for another

in this sense.

' Ch.


j^c cJLlls:*.




2 |->j
8 Jsj-L.^.

J uJjSu-* Jjl-5
^1 l5-aX; ^s^jji



5 J-J^jJ ^ ,Jj)-*?& IJUwjJ Lj







' Ch. has:





JJ ^\}.

>MS. ^jU ? Ch. (sic) ^y

. ^i J ^il^Sl. J? ?w>?y^lUi' *U*^ (Kor., xxiviii, 2) *1j3 <^?jJ^a? iJO)H) ,j\jJi ?-* ?cL'Jj

J_Jj^ ^l^J ^^jaeT ^^J

6 This Instead

verse is cited in the ?ahah of %%& .J a marginal





= j

U | J see below. t

not* iu tho ?ahah

gives A*o

= . Jaulmrl explains ?w?y. ul^ U Ji-J ^a^II {Ja1J\ ^y /tijj\ J-*t, am*wo read in thomargin that it \j\ <JU5 ^J?^J f-^fi io^

? Jm

7 For

the omission

of the So-called &'


see Wright's



ii, 217. Inmarg. >J^\ MS. dlk^oU.



*LjH ujk-

*>?tjM uJjLsilj.




4j,-AJL*Jt 4^-J'j


2 JT, i&jl-*)\

*Jb;l ^-^^


^.JLuJ J^^aJI uJy-AJkJ^

*L.*_j L^wiJa^ j^jm<A



JT ^^Jl*

jj ^-^ J4_i



J^-Ju Jy-*-*

ljJl-c j_J uJLSJ ^j

ljL;j.j;^ $_? j_;bl


marg. &\J\ &&JM aCh. o01d,L ? /n *w?>y. J^^uJl^ ? jw ?Mf^. <g^I

1 In



3Ch. j^ya l^j

jUJ^ &Jo^.
l# etfiA V^ *^l u-5^fi*-*J^ L5^' **^' liT*

I jt ? jJil! eUUl?



(jw^ma^II cj^Lil^

tatL* V-* L1~*w X-> L^j^ll Ap-j yJuJLJl5^*" l*V,?^*

6 Cf. 'Adi's verses in Christian Arabic Poets, p. 454 seq. :



J^-^i ls^ *Lr^l ?^\j 5;?*Lii L*-L;l ^-JiUj JLjJuS* JjJcwJ J\ ^i-i^i (^ILiJUl ^JM %^ Jl 5^!^ Jw,l




' the Shaikh, bravo ! Had you been not would stunk.1 A scholar of havo stagnant water, you as Bakr known b. Abfi Islam, Duraid,a has composed a poem : in this metre beginning !' exclaimed

' Bravo

but you, Abu Sawada, retain the merit however, commend your verse:

of priority.

I cannot,

Ji-^jJ ?lj ^jxA c^J b

Either the have wasted the hamzatu'l-kat' and aggravated " "8 or the have second alif, you lightened eliding it baina baina, and have then ventured making it into puro alif. This, indeed, is a lino pass to which you have brought the normal usago,4 though a similar instance occurs in tho lines: you offence by the hamza, to change

[P. 28]

* Jj?

?Jd) ^uJ V? uM JJ U1 l^i tlyj ub c:-^tM

If you had said

it would, in my opinion, have been better and more accordant that he only spoke as ho with 'Adi retorted analogy/

had continued * MS.

cl&o! Ul j^yi *U)1 ylA ) c^?.f

your recitation, j^j. at I read t,"^Q_ft^

lLSl?*.1, i.e.,? you

I should not havo boeu displeased.

* MS.

l^ ^p-c-i*- ,

(see Freytag



the heard Shaikh his

risalatu'l-ghufrSn. doing, of which but you Moslems we are ignorant/ '

663 have


The many things was sorry that 'Adi did not understand his objection. to ask you about your 'And now/ said he, 'I am anxious :l distich quoted by Slbawaihi invented

\*f*?JU. ?s\j& U L^-Ol

seems to rae far - fetched, and Sibawaihi's explanation I imagine that you did not construe the verso as he does/ ' ' 'Adi ; in the perishablo these trifles/ cried Spare me world I was a great hunter, and perhaps you have heard my verses:2 <L-jlj (?J^-Lu jJ^^xl JuJLJj
US s * '



:?,A? i$ Jjj*

^ j



cb,_AJ^ ^ix-A
J, jlJ c^JLJ



*!jjjurj-w-J c^U-Jl L*J


ji)*i*3SJ U JLJ ?JL** At .-4 ^ Jjiill^-^ Jlc; ^j

JL^upyb e-idl'upo/



1 Slbawnihi vol. i, p. 59. (cd. Dcrenhourg), 3 I havo not beon able to Hud either of tho following fourteen distichs iu tho metre aud rhyme of the second Arabic Poets, p. 454 seq.

poems elsowhero, but aro cited in Christian



^t m marg.







d U-^ JU1 $LiM j^U

^-^-i. &?x?i JUl?J j?L*i,



' iA-i- t^Ja ?,1*^1 Ji)


<clw4wcsr <LiLuu^j ^JuJLJ


1 See Ahlwardt,




p. 308.

3 This p. 256.

App. J^^j\a^
expression occurs

. j&j*,

attcuuatus (Freytag).
cited by Ahlwardt, ibid.,

iu a verse of Ibnu'l-Mu'tazz

?In marg. jSjs?\ JJ^U ^

the construction with accus. instead

^^ ^^ ^jJbA)
of with & cf. ^iXe*.

*Ax>l (Lane,


,w^ roc).

* /#i ?wiy.
6 " App.





LjC^jr C-jli L
Cf. Jauhari's

of ?*****


speed by ruuning."


8 In


In )nar9-


**o~\)\\jjL!>\ Jl)\ ^LjjJl.

it scorns to be = i? ;l.

?$u??H *\i\, ^j^, Rhalaf

but here

9 Im marg. wcfo 10 See Ahlwardt,



p. 210 seq.





cr^4 Ul,


^CjJb UfiJ JUI ^jcu

and my versos:

^ u,$irj-i,uj>?-T A-i ?la-c_i^ ^ jUjaiT' j# ^ Jssj pill ^ *>* 4 5)4* rj jDilll J j^l Jots?$ jju8 ^toto

1 jiLi^ j^i

i. 2. 3.

6 -r-^^ jj^' ^UV **-$ '

^ gU? '^UjJi
Then 'Adi invited the Shaikh answered if ho mouutcd pen;

5. ,t JJ^l j *^K ^lyj ^ ^l-A-J,T, ?**i j *aJLj JJ 6. ^LJl JJU Ji*!t^ '$*- ^

^ U^





tho Shaikh to engage in the chase, but that he was a man of peace and of tho ono of the celestial steeds, who would

?In marg.
2MS. ^ly,

j^J J^



6 MS. irregular misra*,

|a use of see Froytag,

, S*asl+

\%l *or

here must

bo synonymous






iu a foot other than the last of the second .J)Lcli der Arabischen p. 267. Verskunst,


is her mate,

^.y\. jj^l " tho


lowing wild-bull."

J^J\ l^i

and jj^l


'MS. (_,jjl. 8 Cf. Ahlwardt's

note on l.,r;.ll,


p. 217 seq.

MS. ?U^1.

666 secure [P. him

the against

risIlatu'l-giiufran. the fate when of Halam,1 he rode of the husband the black horso to the son of Zuhair,3 and when broke he his went

30] al-Mutajarrida,* or against what happened (*}*5?^), when he fell from the courser Dhii'1-Mair 'Alkama, neck, and to 'Adi's own son,

on horseback P4 be dashed 'I might upon a-hunting an arm or leg, and cut the emerald stones, and fracture a ludicrous figure before and 'Adi smiled, the people.' were such calamities assured the Shaikh that in Paradise So they set off, and the Shaikh aimed his spear a at wild bull, which, however, ho was induced to [P. 31] in the desert. spare because it once had saved some believers came a on man was in a golden who Preseutly they milking was Thus the He Abii Hudhalite. Dhu'aib, pail. quoted to them his lines : unknown.

[P. 32]

5 Jilk* J,? ^LJ] d jSdtf JJr

<U~*LjjJ ^-1?

&*->: &\,


the pail was full of milk, God formed a hive of the honey and which Abu Dhu'aib from extracted jewels, taste. 'Twas his visitors his and bade milking tempered a draught of all the Hell, that, distributed among people when them to Paradise while they sipped ! transported are two things the Shaikh said to 'Adi: 'There Then One is:6 in your poetry that I wish you had left unsaid. have


or Hind. is Titriously related as Mawiyn Qulaiu b. al-Mundhir. She afterwards married Nu'man husband. 8 11 is name was Salim. Tho story is told iu Aghani, ix, 157. 4 ii, 42. Agh'hri,

8 Her

1 MS. Uif. name









with ^po



*?*d **W^


<G'L> <U.5>-





IuLjlj; lS.u ?U ji 2iy

and the other: <LcL-> /j-^-c JL^-11 l^JLjJ l^Jj

'0 thou whose broken 'Adi replied in his 'Ibildl dialect:1 the blessing fortunes been bestowed have repaired, [P. 33] on thee should turn thy mind from poetry.' 'Nay,' said the least of he, 'I asked God not to deny me in Paradise my earthly pleasures, and He has granted my prayer,' to and fro 2 at tho gate Now he saw two youths walking of pearl, and he gave thorn greeting. of a pavilion They were the two Nabighas, of the Banu Dhubyan and Niibigha ' the Ja'da. of Banu said the You,' Shaikh, Niibigha 'are duly rewarded for having al-Ja'di, addressing Niibigha observed Uinaina, Dhubyiinl, the religion of Abraham, but your case, 0 Abii ' is beyond my comprehension.' said the Why,' ' I professed belief in God and made pilgrimages



L5^U^ vi3^^ ^^

vJU>oUJt <>o ^i *L>-j ^l




interchange p. 19.

of ^


cf. Dr.

lticu, of Ilarith is meant:


in Browne's


Catalogue, what battle in which 2 MS.

I cannot

at Sfibiit

(a village

find any mcution near Mada'in)

b. Hani', possibly

nor do I know the engagement iii, 356 sqq.). in view of the

the Khurijite ^b jls:U

leader Mustaurid L.>jlsC* i8 not

fell, 42 a.h.

(Ibuu'l-Athfr, and

in the dictionaries,

words immediatelyfollowing (J\ ^\j

would seem to be more natural.





668 to the Ka'ba

verses ??l

THE RISALATU>L-GHUFRAN. in the Ignorance. Have not you heard my

Nay, And

in whose House my feet have kept pilgrim's by Him troth, with sacred blood be my by tho stones bespattered oath!


I did not live to the Prophet's time, I cannot be accused and God pardons a great sin for a small of disobedience,


' ? and Abu cried the Shaikh, 0 Abii Sawilda,' [P. 34] us carouse What let and Abii Laila,2 Umama together. says our master, the 'Ibiidite P?

?32o jU

wUllll 1$


The words were that Abu Baslr3 were with us!' their party five. made had Baslr ere Abu scarcely uttered . and drunk their feasted . had . . Now when they '0 Abii to Uiniima, Niibigha Dhubyiinl: fill, the Shaikh said and wise, but you did a man of sound judgment are you b. to Nu'miin in saying, with reference not show wisdom al-Mundhir:4 " how sweet Prince averred?" How fresh "?the After one kiss, a second, then a third !
Oh, such a mouth?'t was never mine to sip?

her lip!

1 Th? Divans,

slake a raging
v, 37. AbiVl-'Alii

reads Ql-?^*


v? 38, and xvii,



21, 22, arc also quoted. 3 al-Ja'di. of Nabigha Kunya 8 of A'sha Kais. Kunya 4 The Divans, but Abii'l-'Ala vii, 22-24, j the first misra* of 23. He reads [A^


the second mitra* , l? J .

of 22 and

.j for {&



' Had my critics treated me fairly, they Niibigha rejoined: that I took the greatest would have recognized possible was infatuated with this woman, Al-Nu'tnan precautions. her in my poetry, and when he ordered me to celebrate her by name, "If I mention and said to myself: her in and if I only describe the king will be displeased, will be attached to somo other general terms, my description if I put it in the king's mouth, he will woman, whereas, that I have done so to prevent people from [P. 35] perceive saw what I describe." In tho that I thinking actually verses which follow those you havo quoted the king recounts tho lady's charms, and the verses beginningl I reflected

\ijLU ljUi e^-otj c>Jj

1 j'j

is the proper reading are also spoken by tho king. Henco as you tell me it is ordinarily but not c^jl, read, l^jL, for the former, if it hints at a scandal (h&& \\ h^J .!), ' !' exclaimed the Admirable in respect.' and wanting star scholars of Murra! the '0 the Banti Shaikh, Verily, the rdtois have defamed among you by a false reading. and and al-Mazini3 'Ulnars2 that the two Abii Would and the and Abu 'Ubaida and 'Abdu'l-Malik al-Shaibani ask them in your presence rest were here, that I might I wish you to know that I am not how they read it. im a forger or a liar.' Almost these words were before
is outrageous, and, if it refers to al-Nu'miin, is contemptuous

pressed on Nabiglia's ear (<uLl ^j\ ?$?*?

God Almighty
1 Ibid., vii, 30. a? /Vj;|

Jyilt Ua^aj h)

had brought



the above-mentioned

It is cited very iucorrectly. . It is obvious and to suppose that J has fallen out before is . *X? Cl$\)\ tho

2 MS. j



that the

true reading

v'z* ^?'1

is mentioned ami Abu 'Amr al-Khaihfuii. Hut as al-Sbaibanl 'Amr b. al-'Alii I retain the manuscript feeling sure of iu rending without just afterwards, correctness. 'Umar aWJarmi and Aim The two Abu 'Umars are perhaps Abu dtr Arabn; Schulen al-Mutarriz 'Ulnar Muh. Die grammatischen (Flugel, pp. 81 and 174). 3 Abu 'Uthman Hakr b. Muh. b. 'Uthmuu al-Maziui (Flugel, p. 83).

C70 raids, without [P. 36] and



thera any trouble or inconvenience, causing the Shaikh asked thera how they read the ' verse. but the poet has answered: With fatha, They Bilkls' absolute authority, like (Kor., xxvii, 33). to Nabigha '0 Abu Laila/ said the Shaikh, turning ' us recite to al-Ja'di, your poem rhymed in sh, in which you say:

said Nabigha, 'I never used s/i as a rhyme/ [P. 37] in this poem are words that I now hoar for the first such as 2\J^j and <U|^ and The

'and time,


Shaikh, however, ^JiL^.' devotion that Nttbigha's and suggested convinced, had driven all to the wine and luxurious meats of Paradise his learning out of his head. not in the garden, and [P. 38] Now a flock of geese alighted a as 'What command. rauged themselves, though awaiting is your business horeP' answered asked the Shaikh. They ' are endowed with speech): God (for the birds of Paradise we us to that this in settle inspired garden, might sing to and straightway therein'; in the flower of youth, swaying in their and in their hands were broideries, struments of music. The Shaikh was the revellers they became damsels gait, clad in celestial in lutes and other astonished, as he had ' reason to be, and said to one of them by way of trial: Play in the the words of Abu Umiiiua, who is sitting yonder, rhythm thaktlu'l-awwal:3
1 Eight more distichs are quoted. 5 Not in the dictionaries. According ' patches of herbage *: to Abu'l-'AhVs it menus


diU!! ^


CanHlenarum, lucid and

13\ 'Ifijj J>j\

i, 138. No He


J^ij Ulj
will find hi*


doubt musicians translates

\*A\ J.Ju (ibid., intelligible. perfectly " en t\ trois-huit in D moll" aud "mesure im Dreiachteltact Melodic i, 33) by Re miuenr." The passage which follows in the original text contains a number explanation

THE RISALATU'l-GHUFRAN. <A-'i*^ AX? Jl jl %^\j




manner she had done this in the most enchanting at she tho the Shaikh's varied request imaginable, rhythm and changed it again and again, so that all were filled with thus engaged, While wonder and delight. they were a youth He answered: passed by, and they asked his name. 'I am Labld b. Ja'far b. Kiliib.' b. Rabl'a b. Malik the Shaikh, 'had you said welcome!' cried 'Welcome, Then "Labld" and stopped, you would have been known.' to the Shaikh recite his but Labld him Mu'allaka, begged answered that he had left poetry behind him and would never return to it, better and holier having got something in exchange. this rebuff Shaikh quoted the Undeterred by




tj* *k'j\

\j&*>> b-j^j> y

and asked whether

said he, 'I meant

he used ^^
myself, just as

in the senso of Ji.

one says to a man,

' No,'

your money goes, somebody give you money," meaning one's self, though on the surface the words may apply to After further discussion the Shaikh quoted :3 any person.' [P. 41] hjj> c-^i^j l^\* fyr*)


' Which

of the two readings

did you


said he,



as seems to show of technical terms, and is written in such a strain of enthusiasm not only had a considerable that AbiVl-'Alu of music but was very knowledge to its influence. seek consolation for his Here he would naturally susceptible were and llndagl might be called, blindness: if examples Homer, Milton, needed, to prove that loss of sight is often accompanied by a keener aud more of the pleasures of sound. delicate appreciation 1 vii, 1. -Nabigha in The Divans, 2 50. Mulallaka, x 3 GO. See Lane under t Mu'allaka, ^*\ j.h.a.s. 1900. lo

672 from J1 Then


kisalatu'l-ghufran. ' 'Either is possible/said Labld.


j\j from ^jl\ ? a

the Shaikh


according listened Labid W-Uul. A'sha Kais exclaimed: who

upon J\j, began philological disquisition it arose from *j\y) in the same way as, arose from and Slbawaihi, to Khalll cL-i^Ljl that to with and turning impatience, ' Praise be to God, 0 Abu Baslr, in spite of your confessing that which the Shaikh to Labid,

has forgiven you *0 Abu 'Akil,' said you wot of!' 11 suppose you mean his verses :
LiiJ jc^-s*(J~->.,/-JU


^f ; jj L* jlj^JU JU* Si J
L-$_A-Jt_b ^ U%-iJ^ &?l-.k~),~*a

^3 <-r^^

t '


**' \ *~*


'? \



[P. 42]
and his verses




\?,f*rJ_kJ UU;t JJdJLj

LsJl&J?j 1+JJSi. JLs^ti

Now in character, which are ascribed to him. he is not guilty, and these passages are merely or he is guilty and God has poetical embellishment, ' pardoned him, for lie pardons every sin except iv, (Kor., idolatry and others, either similar

116). The Shaikh then quoted au erotic piece by Nfibighu

1MS. ?\\. -usive Arabic 2 The mihi If ^-\ ' dicebatur, ii, 43. 0 is correet, it immt stand For \^,\ f so that ^A Uj, ^j\ with the Jussive see Wright's for **\ = lj ;,



It seems unnecessary is cited in Katnil, 160.

to write

second couplet

the al-Ja'dl, on which



a long and extravagant he pronounced at Cairo ' the of the ended, song eulogy. singing-girls [P. 44] and Baghdad came into his mind, and he remembered how they used to trill the poem by Mukhabbal al-Sa'dl,2 which is rhymed in m : This

LrU* rlkJl ^L j&?}\

No sooner had he thought of this than the goose-maidens were chanting it, and so sweetly did they sing, that every all the joys of the world syllable produced a joy exceeding from the creation of Adam to the destruction of the last of After the Shaikh had recited some more of Mukhabbal's poetry and moralized thereon, Nitbi&ha al-Ja'di said to A'sliii Kais : * 0 Abu Baslr, is this liabiib mentioned by tho Su'dito she whose name occurs in your poem ?? his children.

[P. 40]


<J-& J^j-Jt ^AjJ

Vjf ^A>

J-^1 ^z-4 u





'You are old, Abii Lailil,' 'and it seems replied A'shii Kais, to me that you have lost your wits and are still looking for
1MS. mALlimJ which I cannot find as the namo of a place. I therefore

read tUajoJ, * 155 sqq. Aghrini* xii, 40 sqq. liartdnUCUAdab, 3 This distich is cited Lane under . by <Jl>^?




them. Don't you know that the women called Rabitb are is she of innumerable ? Do you fancy that this Rabab whom the poet speaks ?? cL>U . l_J> L-?<*)3 JU U




she whom


ImruVl-Kais nientious - llabiib in his is the Uminu'l

Perhaps . . verse2


her . .'

(how (0 outcast of the Banu Dubai'a,'3 exclaimed Nabigha, dare you address me in this fashion, you who died an infidel
and have confessed to shameful conduct, me who met tho


aud recited

to him my poem

in which

I say :



" 0 Whither, " To Paradise and he you reckoned proclaim are


by "God said,

Lailii means bless

" of

said he. thee, 0 (lJ'U



Apostle <d!l^aJib an

answered, of God," S). But

has ignoramus puffed up with pride because you the fourth among the poets.6 They lie who I am your superior in genius you the better man.

1 The Divans, lix, 3. 2 Ibid., xlviii, 5. 3 See He ii, 480. Sacv, Chrestomathy, * \IU, i, 139. 6 The reading in the lIkd is : fi

*UJl LSlj U*L*j IJCxs*

Possibly the reference is to Y funis b. llahib, who is related

to have

Kaid iu

answer to the question ^bjTjjL&l


: **~M





i^U Ul

Ul JUjLSI^ u^-cLi \j\ u?JiS\}s*\ Jjil jKl, w-^Jfc,

.^^j v-^i, (Jgh'm'uviii, 77).



of ray verses was in craftraanship,1 and the number none amused yourself of You my predecessors. equalled by of noble the your tribe, and if slandering by maliciously to you and your more shame the you told the truth, 3 was well woman of Hizzan The [P. 47] neighbours!2 a rid of you: with in you sho companioned ono-oyed dog, who wont round tho tents in search of discarded hones arid ' Do graves.'4 eagerly scraped up tho mould of sequestered verse one 'when Abu Basir cried you say this/ angrily, of yours, with all of ray composition is worth a hundred man one who preaches is like for the your prolixity, prolix at night. Doubtless there are tribesmen of llabl'utu'l-Faras You belong to the Banu Ja'da, and among the Jurthuma.5 of a dried-up well ?6 what is Ja'da but the redundance on kings, but if you, taunt me with my panegyrics You fool that you are, had been able to do the same, you would But you are by have deserted your family and children. never nature a weakling abroad and faint-hearted, walking under the scorching heat in the dark night nor journeying of noon. the woman You have mentioned ray divorcing from rae with of Hizzan, she parted though, raethinks,

1 ll^oj J&\)

\Lu C-<^
p. 71




? may mean versatility,'

_?, ^j d]?

as in TtaudatiCUAdab,

of Tamim

b. Abi Mukbil):


c^'ij.^ Jj iS^c***5
Perhaps viii, 83. instead of

t|_C'j U*j

*jl^ Jx
wo should

read t ?j

lii?j .

v CsXsiA*. 3 Aijhdnl,

Sju^*)l *lfa*)l Jx

iJi^i^ll oljc^Jl ?j?J(Mj Jjl ^^i
tho sense is:



fjOj^^ SwJl


* Cf. the saying:

(Lane, ali quid sub voc). boui


C_yi!l ^J^^T



est quod


676 secret anguish; (uij.UJJ

THE RISALATU'L-GHUFRAN. and divorce is no disgrace to high or low' O vagabond!'

'Peace, J, Y3ZM jSjXj l^uJ). ' I swear that your al-Ja'di, (UU ^j Ju? \j) cried Nabigha admission to Paradise is a scandal, albeit come to things to the will of You God. to be in deserve pass according the lowest division of Hell, where many better than you aro l . '. . . You the Banu burning Ja'da, but disparage one of their battles all the achievements [P. 48] outweighs of your tribe; and you call nio a coward who am braver than you and your father, and more apt to endure a journey in a dark and speedier of foot in the sultry frosty night,

midday hours' (J??A

Now in his

1\ S^l^H ^y Sljul t>^).

wrath Nabigha smote Abii Basir al-Ja'dl a with 'Thero ewer, but the Shaikh golden interposed. ' is no in were said not it Paradise,' written, he; brawling " their heads shall not ache from wine nor shall drinking their reason be disturbed" (Kor., lvi, 19), I should have fancied that you, Nabigha, were out of your mind. Abu Basir has tasted nothing but milk and honey : his mien is sober even Among when and discreet, and ho behaves like is relaxed ceremony (aJLiJl J_>us he holds the place of Abu Nuwas, who a gentleman ?Xjlu UjLsT $). says:a


... ,* A

J} r\jc*Jl


* \ 4-,; S : lW UlL^

^J ^jj\


cuyld ^.a U,;.:JI

1 Here ' Dhdn Nnbigha (Cairo, the Weiulicder.

1 Jl L^^ Jkz*. ?\ f-it $) Lj>\j\ &\

quotes some very coarso verses by al-A'sha. Tho vorses are not iu Ahlwardt's 1860), p. 201.






^-Jl-i J^ ^Jl L^jJu3 lI-oJlsII Jx

Uli-^Ti fj cLj

>h j\ ^O u^

JlJ j
al-Ja'dl, rdjiz says: 'milk

the world



said Niibigha
cause of



in low rascally



[P. 49]

JAS\ JCU! jjdSl

&j-h ^t^ j-*-*-/.

ftlu ^T v.
? ( ?*?^?*





And were milk'" wine,

someone, who was asked when to be feared, replied : "When (lyJt I jl). Al-A'shii

the Banu


Niibigha whereupon to restore his good-humour, The Shaikh, wishing depart. ono of the goose-maidens that ho take should proposed home with this but him, plan was upset by Labid, who out that tho be followed, and all preeodent might pointed the news thereof, and they would Paradise would ring with " husbands of the geese." be nicknamed came along, Now Hassan b. Thilbit and the [P. 50] : to his lines invited him Shaikh drink, quoting 1MS. LsJjl o^,

of they havo plenty retorted by a bitter tirade against roso in high dudgeon as if to


THE IUSALATU'l-GHUFRAN. t ... . a * *\<

Jm?xs\fr\j* &y?) x^\ *l^

' Were this not you ashamed,' in your eulogy of 'He was more I ' said he, to introduce a topic like ' the Apostle of God ? Hassan easy tempered (liiliL ^ \) than


at second ye imagine. Besides, only speak of wine I do not say that I over drank hand; it, and I am not on that score.' tho Shaikh put some Then [P. 51] guilty but before ho got a reply one of grammatical questions, ' the company said to Hassan: of your cowardice, How 0 father to me,' Six of and of 'Abdu'l-Rahmiln ?' 'Is this taunt addressed ' he cried, whoso tribe is the bravest of the Arabs ? them resolved to attack covenanted with

the pilgrims (+~>)<A\J^'), war upon the to make they Prophet all recalcitrants, and Rabi'a aud Mudar and all the Arabs shot at them with the bow of hostility and bore a deadly hatred against them. If at times I showed caution, it was dictated by prudence, in order that I might rally or execute a strategic retreat' (Kor., viii, 16). Then the party broke up after a sitting that had lasted the space of many mortal lives. And as the Shaikh was he met five2 men strolling through the fields of Paradise,
on camels. These were the one eyed men of


Kais 'Atnr

({j?~3 Jjl^?), namely, b Ahinar al-Bilhili,

p. 829, 1. 4 ;Kdmil,

Tamim Tamira
73. After

b. Mukbil b. Ubayy

al-'Ajlani, b. Mukbil,
iuseits :

1 Ibn Hisham,

this bcyt Abu'l-'Ala

^rfL-i LitJb J L^LJl Jx

C^Ii JJJI U I jl Ifci Jx *Lk*Jl l# JL^ ?l$i^

The fourthaud last bcyt isJ\
2 Six aro mentioned.



I Jl.



b. Sa'd of the Banu Tha'laba Shammiikh (Ma'kil b. Dirar b. Dhubyitn), RiiTl-Ibil 'Ubaid b. al-Husain al-Numairl, The Shaikh begged b. Thaur al-IIiliili. [P. 52] and Huraaid in z and j, as he to recite his poems rhymed Shammiikh wanted but Shammiikh points, Tho declared that ho could not remember a singlo verse. that these poems had made Shaikh rebuked him, saying to him than his two him famous and wero more profitable as stood him in better Niibigha's poem2 just daughters,1 him and who stead than his daughter 'Akrab, disgraced was was cause of gifts the taken and being captive,3 Then the Shaikh offered to recite withheld from hira. information certain Shammiikh's poem in z, which begins:4 on

But he found



delights 'I only

did not understand that Shammiikh it, for the him from all vanities. had weaned of Paradise

of poet,' said Shammiikh, the profession a she-camel for riding or of the loan 'in hope of getting of grain to feed my family the present of a scanty measure as the rdfiz says: in a year of drought,5 followed Jlota


u?C*?^ ^j?*



1 Tho notice in the AgJjdni throws no light upon this allusion. 2 v iu Ahlwardt's is meant, which by some was reckoned The Divans Probably Others gave this honour to a poem formed by combining among tho Mu'allakat. two pieces (xi in the JJivan and xxvi in the Appendix). a See ed. Derenbourg, pp. 9 and 238. Nabigha, 4 Cited of in Jamharatu 154, with ash'ari'l-'Arab, p. transposition

<J*&* ur*andj3 J^i 6MS. JLiU \# jA*\ d y

with an(1 ^' JwJ

^*^ C^li. <^-^ for Uljjyfl SS-&J-J (j^ Ul

The latt words

For read J ? <L* Jj j-J ^ILt L5Sai:l. ^J\c J seem to be corrupt. Terhaps JLjJ /llx Aakl J, J?>




[P. 53] Now the Shaikh turned to 'Amr b. Ahmar and

asked him to recite bis poem beginning:

'There means

he is a dispute,' or whether "life"

(the flesh between

' it whethor about added, j**&, it is tho singular of ^L*J1 i%^i In the gums).' reply 'Amr quoted:

<jJU Ul?

jJL 3\ ^Jty if j I

on the ground that ho He excused himself from reciting was still dazed and terrors of the expressed Judgment, by ' It his surprise that the Shaikh could remember so much. was always my custom,' 'at tho end of said tho Shaikh, to implore God allow me to that He would ray prayers, and He has granted in both worlds, retain my scholarship rae this boon.' these verses the Shaikh Then repeated 'Amr: by ' . ..
-. i i




[r. 54] A-a-^k# ^



? J-CJj

" Ilordia is a pass on tho road to Mecca, I.e., you may take it either way. It has two paths, and the traveller near nl-Juhfa, from which the sen is visible. where this verso ia cited {Sa/ulh under may use either to gain his end" itJbf

with LJ^\ ^j^k.

1 MS. -J .





for UH?).




















J ?





6>^L!le^OJ, ^Jl
1 App. *) s?^jk*\
8 Cf., MS. <JuLuu* .


?&? I , but ? L^vijL^il.

= j jJi (se? below) is not found It is derived in the dictionaries. from ^lJLj, USf-(l



liko the Lnlin improbus 8 See bolow.

<uicJ? jl. ?

(Lane under aJLj)' inordinate, excessive/

MS. ysii\.

Cf. Fnrazdalj's


682 ' What jLil would

the do you mean or Kail b.

risalatu'l-ghufran. he asked, ' the singular of

by Jij,' of

'AdP' 'Amr thought either insisted that the mention of the do, but the Shaikh Jariidatiin was a strong argument in favour of the proper name. 'I was astonished,' said he, 'to find in some copies a tuuo which tho Jariidatiin are said to havo of the Aghdni
sung, viz. :2 ^_i**a*!\ djjbl ^?/? .?.31


Jl Now the words

L^Q.? JLlli ScJx on


are modelled

to a tradition and, according iu the age of Hiiriin al-Rashld [P.


handed and


Jariidatiin. but
in his


do not is
by no

down to the singers later, were sung by the assert that the lines are 'Amr
involved a

forged, to Kail

the tradition




b. 'Itr, as the ancient Arabs to any singing-girl. A poet says: dL>j?? ,j??% J|rF?

applied UwJLAJ

the term


jyuil l^klU f\)\ ^JcJ

He then explained *Uao <uLl* as referring to tho cooking

pot 0^?") and t&rj] ?)\a JJ^*

of which
n O 9

as referring to the lute,

l*?) are called &>-j]j* for would denote clouds,

the ornaments with kasra of

(*:~* ^j**^ the Jim


'It a pure maintain the


'that you, in astonishment, cried the Shaikh verses are and whose cited, Arab, expressions This supports is derived from ~jj. that ^ry.) held by the author of the Kitdbu'l-'Ain3
p. 106, note 5.



1 See Letters Margoliouth, 1 viii, 2. AgJiani, * Khalil b. Abroad.'

of AbxVWAla,

the the

risalatu'l-ghufran. of Basra, that tho ddl in a6js^

683 is




and he said]: inspired Ibn Ahmar, under one and ?Jj to rank ^fj because no is formed from ^rf.)9 The verb rootP ^'p'\ verb can have five radical letters ; from this again is formed Then God superfluous.' should you refuse Why a noun i/vT, [P. 56] is oS'il You aro aware that the diminutive of ;j;'.i

yet jjl'i, answered 'Your hypothesis,' of the leaf.' the superfluity to the noun.' that the verb is prior the Shaikh, 'implies and argued the question to this statement, 'Amr demurred As the Shaikh found that little information at some length. ' of you is Tamlm was to be got from him, he said: Which verse : me to b. Ubayy ? Explain your

and the plural

this does not prove


rU- jx^
by Ajl;*ll ?

h\j*l\ i\
to others of


you mean
of a woman,

to some

it is


' I did not as equivalent to *JUH.' regard it ' an atom of poetry me to Paradise,' said Tamlm, bring with or rajaz, for I had to undergo a severe reckoning, and I was some charged with having al-llaritht3 'All b. Abl Tiilib, and fought against confronted mo, ere I escaped from me several times by the forelock.'


al-Najashi the fire, and dragged a long narrative Here of bis by the Shaikh begins of in the It be place may Judgment. abridged experiences without much loss to the reader. said he, 'the verse (Kor., lxx, 4), "The 'I remembered,' unto ascend Him, and the Spirit (Gabriel) also, iu angels a day whose space is 50,000 years," and the term seemed
1 Also -i'j's (Wright's Arabic Grammar, i, 168).

2MS. Li jJl A^j

. The frihdh, under ^^)

of 'All. Verses

reads bjj\


3 A satirical poet aud partisan Delectus, p. 80.

by him are quotcdin


684 tedious to rae, Now


for my thirst was terrible and the heat so I am a man quick to thirst (*_JLf*), I considered and perceived 'twas a matter one like me could The Recording [P. 58] not withstand. brought me Angel were and of merits book lo! few as my my good deeds, a in albeit ropcntanco at grassy meadows year of drought, the close resembled the lamp of the Christian monk that beacons aloft for him who threads his way through a water intense. he sought of Paradise, guardian verses in every metre called Zufar, by composing laudatory their names, but of being rhymed with capable they remained Then he saw a man crowned inflexible. [P. 60] with an aureole in the midst of a resplendent entourage. was and the Moslems This Hamza b. 'Abdu'l-Muttalib slain ' " at Ohod. is better laid And I said to myself: Poetry out on him than upon the guardians of Paradise, for he is a poet, and so are his brothers, and his father, and his there is no security for me between Methinks, grandsire. b. 'Adniin."' him and Ma'add the Shaikh Accordingly a verses in the of the Ka'b b. Malik, poem composed style by favour with which begin:l course.' The Shaikh Rid wan goes on to and another relate how

' said : I cannot do what you want, but I will [P. 61] Hamza send with you a messenger to my nephew 'Ali, that he may to the 'All affair.' When your speak Prophet touching ' heard the messenger's Where he asked the Shaikh, report, is your voucher?'?meaning his book of good deeds. ' an old man I had observed Now (says the Shaikh) as known 'All al-Farisi,2 who in the transitory world Abu used to teach grammar. He was being jostled by a crowd " him and crying, You have insulted us by your attacking interpretations." Espying me, he waved
der Araber,




1 Ibn Hishnm, p. C31. 2 Fliigel, Die grammatisehen


p. 110.

the I hastened al-IIakain,1 to his who


685 b. crowd was Yazld to you ! you mado

*U)l nominative

the aid. Among " was saying, Woe in my verse:2

aJLS lJJlji* Ji




in my verse

5LJL.L& uX4-^^

^^ l5-^


the mini of \^y&* with you have asserted that I pronounced it with damma." And a rdjiz fatha,9 whereas I pronounced said: "You havo libelled me, for in ray verse4

\j jU A^k* Ajj ^Jj^

you vocalize tho yri in ?u\i. By God, I never did this, nor a multitude was And there of this sort, all Arab." any him for his At last I said : interpretations. reviling " are not the old Do these abuse trifles. Gentlemen, surely
man. Ho may put forward as a plea for your consideration

[P. 62] his book never shed your blood him and was in peace." While


the Kor'iin, entitled al-IIujja. nor took your property. Pray, I was engaged in addressing

He leave them

the scroll, in which mention their answer, expecting made of my repentance, slipped from ray hand, and when I returned to seek for it, I could not find it.' consternation and distress, said : 'All, seeing the Shaikh's
'Never mind! Have you any witness to your repentance?'

1 Yazld 2

said he,
b. al-Hakara xi, 105. see



(Aghaut, xi,



100 sqq.). and Noldeke, for <JU)J.


8 For 4 Cited


'Amr's Mu'allaka, under > with




iu the ?ahah





Kadi of Aleppo and of its public officials (^^)

time of Shiblu'l-Daula.' Then

in tho

'All ordered a hdtif to cry ' out in the place of Judgmeut: 0 'Abdu'l-Mun'im (giving his full name), have you any of the repentance kuowledge of 'Ali b. Mansur b. Talib the scholar P' None al-Halabi, answered, and the Shaikh was seized with fear and trembling. Then he cried out a second time, but there was no response,

and the Shaikh fell prostrate on the ground ( j ^vij)# At

the third at summons, the present life however, of repentanco It a voice answered: lato 'I was in his 'Ali b. Mansfir, took place


in my house, and (e^oJI ^.i al^ta). a number of witnessed assessors.' tho by Thereupon come to his senses, stood up and Shaikh, having implored 'Ali to admit him to Paradise. 'All turned his back But ' on him, a thing thou seekest hard, Verily saying,

In his despair the Shaikh impossible' (IX^** 13jc?-). the kin of the Prophet, them to approached entreating the intercession of Fat.ima, when demand she came forth as she does every day, to greet [P. 63] from Paradise, her father, who is a spectator of the Judgment. So when Fntiraa his and she handed they urged appeared, petition, him over to her brother Ibrahim, and since his name was the seal of repentance in the Divanu'l-A'zam, interceded for him. the Prophet and Fat ima bade one of her Now he came to al-Sirat, across (for by himself he was unable), him and take girls as him she advanced, he swayed unsteadily outstripping ' ' to and fro. 0 damsel,' said he, if you desire to save me, practise with me the saying of the poet: found with

[P. 65]

A-Jj_A-Jij ^j^UrwLi

' 'It means,' What is P' said she. replied the Shaikh, ti*&j ' that a man throws his arms over the shoulders of another, who takes hold of his hands and carries him wilh his belly


risIlatu'l-ghufrIn. back. ?l? Have you not heard

687 the lines

resting on the bearer's of al-Jahjul of Kafartiib

1 AjjJJj



or 'No,' said she, 'I never heard of A3 ASj, or of al-Jahjiil, Then she bore him across al-Sirat like a flash of Kafartiib.' ' said: We and Filtima of lightning, give you this girl to ' in Paradise.' be your handmaid My stay in the place of in 'lasted only one said the Shaikh conclusion, Judgment,' is unimpaired.' and on this account my memory a brief after the Then, parley with HfiTl-Ibil, [P. 66] ' b. Thaur. 0 Humaid,' Shaikh accosted Humaid said he, ' you have excelled in your verse :2 year,

is your sight nowP' 'Truly,' answered he, 'I am in of the western Paradise, yet can I lightly glance at region my friend in the eastern part thereof, though between me and him is a thousand years' journey measured by the sun.' the Shaikh praised Humaid's Then poem in ddl* quoting How
these verses:



l^U ^kj



l_?JlJa_3 Jljj
ixl?J ^?fcj

51 ^L*-*


bj)~~> L$_-*Jj

1 My


is almost


to the damsel's. either about him

I never heard or about *j?ij?,


Ja^s^" Kafartab

and cannot

is a village and Ma'arra. 2 Cited in 125. Kamil, 1 I have not found it elsewhere. j.r.a.8. 1900. 46

get any between Halab


688 '



I have forgotton minis and ddls,' said he, ' and my time ' ' is occupied in sporting with plump What! houris.' ' cried the Shaikh, do you abandon a poem like this, which contains the passage:
t?-J*, *l_A_J l_$_.._.? ijXa^.

Jp-li*: cLj'U- bteA ^i3 U \J\


uJ^Uj cj'W X*ij?Ji\

that, I suspect, [P. 67], and contains also the description as were al-Kutaml you appropriated, contemporaries, though, mean the lines: his poem may have preceded yours?I

..j -*..



Vs^> J-Li

'jlpl Jlc

iJ uL^

I LJ*fit if. JU Jl

6,<j^)l *iili.l
This description

w^- ,i^t ^
where he says :

is like that of al-Kut.atnl,

^'f 3?\
(Aghhii, cited in De

cp\3j^ *L^t J^
? ^jjl ?^
ii, 4lf>). are cited.

I.e., we cannot exchangegreetings,



*MS. ^ 3


f-k?J ^



xx, 119. Four more distiehs


THE RISXLATU'ij-OHUFRlN. And in the same poem you say:


&Jlr>^-J& J?&




Jylx^iUl Jx ebji-^ Lfjx J-lDl j?* Uli

iLcl_Jl ^^1 -aJJI e^ix <ij

SJU !ui^ ^

' i?l^Jf l_?_;w?i A?*?iL^Jf l-^-Jx

[P. should and

it seemed good to the Shaikh that he 68] Now hold a salon (ajj'u), and invite the poets of Islam and not only the men who stablished the Mukhadrams,

and stored it in books, but also those the Arabic language who had some small tincture of scholarship. And presently the wheat he heard the sound of hand-mills of grinding as is to that which mentioned the Paradise, superior by in his verse Hudhalite

are superior to the earth. So he contrived God had lo! to pass) his contrivance already brought (and that there should be in front of him houris busily working was of One hand-mill [P. 69] the hand-mills. gold, one of pearl, and others were adorned with the like of jewels, which was never seen in the world. As the Shaikh looked as the heavens upon rdjiz: them he praised God and remembered tho lines of the

1 ulijiii
a.,)^M y

as isexplained Jli^^iJI^^l
Q~-r (Koacgarlen, Carmina



U^J^ ^'^






f*> ?

^i^-Lk Ui/uiw,i;J
Then mill were

turning tho

he smilingly said to tho damsels: 'Grind, from your right (C*^) and from your left* puzzled : by these terms, which the Shaikh

(CL>). They explained,



*l*X?Jw ^^J

the author's following extracts:? From description of the banquet I take the

iSt^k jjJu

ajjUU 4-jK Jl^

U ^^U


I jli

M j&\ jJA\ l-)3jJ, jJl^ ^* c^w!^ ^ljlJl Jj^


fcW |jV e^^' *jl*tf ^V ^Pf jv^J' <?*$

.UJ^^oJl *lxj ^..A-j^Li


<LGjJI -L-^ uLiJl J^jjmH

aJJI **xr aI? lJ3 j, <ojJI l^vJJI Ji* 3^ ybUJl^ aJ Jl 1)

a J^\

2MS. ^bcu.

c-^JI (or^^l) ^l
who cites this distich,

JUjj cJ^l JU)?.

ascribes it to "a mau of

tho Banu

of the Sahdh,

Hinnaz." Abu'L'Ala says : J\




\S& J





JJl* ^li^lj

jjAijDlJyi uo^ii\

iii C^Jjt^- I


[P. 70] 1^1

L?-Jl Uli ....

JUJ! ^

>s*\<UJI *\j Jli 'J* IxL flifl


j*s?J* ^UpHj^t* Jx


SlfLdl ^
^Ay^L-J ij

<Lish J


? /..? <ubr>

<oUli ^-j^jJI jUi^l ^^IjJjlll ^ ^jjl j^il <u*tNJI ^* ?^ UlU ^ U^-ii* ?, li*l*t ?*l&LxjJI J ^/^j li ^11 y^Ul Jli
A_jfj_iLi &j-.?c\JI uJ^Ja-J


\ l,\\ Cl^Ujl Jj^aJI ^ l$-J.S {jAsfTj^44^' l^T^V^'j ^ U^sfcjJl &y??\ j-^^i

Uli ^ c-^Jll l^ii ^jrdJ! izj\y*% cjLjjuj^


U*, ?ji) xului

3y'j+& tufu-

*JL?+J> ^uyi ^

Xj^sh uju^u

\JSAu *XJJ JjJUj ij^Lill ^ ijAJ ^j-* aLSLfill J.? L-AyA&i .... cjLlu!!^ ,^-^Ull L^JI <d v-i*--^ JOls^UI jljJI ciJ? ^t .. cyUSUb aJI *f*\j*) [P. 73] Jl v^uJ jdt ^U!


J,*4 *u?^

ujLLbjijliH <M j&Sli


1 I cannot 2 I.e. '

find As.


this meaning

in the dictionaries. See Dozy, Supplement, aub voc.



forth shoots.'



l^ JuUllJl i^u^ll c^Ul Jx

M \j a&ib jk^x ^ il AJLsSl j?xJIj I* *U-,lJ-^i J\j Jybj


UxrUJlJ J d Ui Ul Jyui ^Ul 51 JJniJlJyLi^^l

j^ J jys^j L-53 uyL>

S v^AuM 2TJJb l^?^Jl J-UJl Jy^i ui3 ^ux \j\ \) c'^.w.n Jyui Us*. J-S U c-ydl 8^j| L^olj ^^Jl
cJ^LjI U** &Ls*l ^^ijLiJ LI^juJIj^-X.^ was who of was broken Jtr^l J^*^ *?$/*** ci

The banquet and ai-Asma'I, original [P. 77] measure Shaikh

'TJthman al-Mazinf up by Abu had high words on the subject of tho i]A. When the guests departed, the

two houris. Their left alone with was of his amazed he lavish and hira, exceeding beauty one into of them burst but laughter, saying, compliments, in 'Do you know who I am, 0 Ibn Mansfir? My name was Hamdun, and I lived at tho the transitory world and was I worked a hand-mill, Babu'l - 'Irak in Aleppo. to a seller of odds and ends (UL), who divorced married me on account of my ill-smelliug breath. Being one of tho



aud the three which


aro cited by Ibn Kutniba


Btitrige, p. 46).

The MS. giyes jTUl J



j_,.\o*J\ j,*.

; *\

.Jp-,1 wJill.

fot S; &&\ ^iyj <-r?y e^M' A -, fyM!>




the ugliest women devoted myself



I renounced worldly vanities and to the service of God, and got a livelihood ' I am what you see.' Hence And 1/ said by spinning. ' am Tauf ik al-Sauda. I was a servant in [P. 78] the other, the Academy at Baghdad in the time of the Keeper AbO Mansur Muhammad b. 'All,1 and I used to fetch books for the copyists.' the Shaikh, wishing to satisfy his curiosity the was creation of led by an angel to houris, concerning a tree called 'The Tree of the Houris,' which was laden with every sort of fruit. 'Take one of these fruits,' said ' his guide, and break And it.' lo! there came forth a therefrom maiden with large black eyes, who informed the Shaikh that she had looked forward to this meeting four thousand years ere the of the world. beginning was Now the Shaikh to visit fain the people [P. 79] of the Fire, and to increase his thankfulness for the favour of God by their state, in accordance with His regarding So one he of the mounted (Kor., xxxvii, saying 49-5(5). a horses of Paradise and fared ou. And after space he beheld

in Aleppo,












the garden of the '1frits who believed in Muhammad and are mentioned in the Suratu'I-A hid f and in the Suratu'I-Jinn. And lo! there was an old man seated at the mouth ot a cavo. Him the Shaikh and got a courteous greeted ' ' answer. I have come,' said he, of seeking knowledge and what may perchance exist among you [P. 80] Paradise of the poetry of the Milrids.' said the greybeard, 'Surely/ one hit have with the bottom of the upon 'you acquainted one like the moon of the halo, not like him who matter, burns



by filling

it with






1 Letter


(ed. Margoliouth)

is addressed

to this person.

1 ?JUM ^

also means

*a decumbent

I aJI^I ^

^. />&^ y?

Ther0' ttrla>on




one of 'What is your name?' 'I am Khaishafiidh,1 we do not belong to the race of Iblls, the Banu Sha'saban1: but to the Jinn, who inhabited the earth before the children ' of Adam/ Then the Shaikh said : Inform me concerning a writer known as al-Marzubani3 the poetry of the Jinn; has 'All 'What about collected this a good deal of it' (is^l* A*k3 l^# g-^). man. is untrustworthy nonsense/ rejoined the old save as cattle know do men know about poetry,

of the earth? and the dimensions They astronomy have only fifteen kinds of metre, and this number is seldom wo havo thousands that exceeded by the poets,4 whereas . . . . never of'6 heard litterateur5 [P. 81] your Now the Shaikh's enthusiasm for learning mado him say to tho old man, 'Will you dictate to mo some of this poetryP I occupied myself with amassing In the transitory world admittance it and gained except by nothing scholarship, to the great. From them, indeed, I gained pigeon's milk
in plenty, for I was pulling at a she-camel whoso dugs wero




you therewith P' of children what

1 The _ )Q*-^ reading

is your knnya, that I may honour Had 'Abfi rash/ said he; 'I havo begotten cried God willed.' 'O Abu Iladrash/
If I am right, jaAAv*^ >8 the Persian

is not quite certain.

= cotton-seed.

Cf. Mustard-seed,

the name

of the fairy in A Mid

summer $Dream. Night1 2 I.e. sons of Decrepitude. 3 Ob. See Ibu Khallikfm 378 or 384 a.h. (English Trans, by De Slauc), 132 seq. He was the author of numerous works on poetry, iii, 67 seq. Fihrist,

iucludiugone entitled [i)JL^\ J^sll j\x?\ 4MS. U Ji. UjLUiN UjJuj 5 = sahn. . Cf. I ^^mJJII i^Lsr* ^jft
I do not fully understaud tho words

l->\z& .





iJ\rd}\ jljJU *$Jl C^lA^J

...I^jo t fl.l ~? (read s\ ^ \\)t between Mecca and T?'if

(?) u)yj\& ll^ ^l-i^Jbl rfijlaJ**

Na''1-Arak is a wadi situated

the ' the Shaikh, how folk of Paradise

msalatu'l-ghufran. is it that you


the have white hair, while the ?' 'In past youth enjoy perpetual said he, 'we received the power of transformation, world,' as he wished, become a speckled snake and one of us might, or a sparrow or a dove, but in the next world we are aro clothed in beautiful men of while this deprived faculty, " forms. Man has the gift of hila and Hence the saying, I have suffered evil from [P. 82] the Jinn that of haula" men, and he struck gathered Abu JIadrash thon related how thoy from mo.' ' a young with and her friends girl cpilopsy, and from every quarter and summoned magicians and lavished their delicacies, and left no charm the leeches plied her with medicines, but all

physicians and untried, she died

the time I never budged And when (Jjjl S l# uiJu* UU).

God I sought out another, aud so on like this, until caused me to repent and refrain from sin, and to Him I render praise for ever.' Then the old man recited a poem describing his past life. The following I?$?sy*) extracts i-?^))\ will show its character:? (a)

"k5** [j?* cDXi&-

\jy?-k? Jl\

J L5-^-3^li

i * '






1\ u1^) \>i?c*?* L5jc\-i, ... . > \-i-J) itj\ LXUJJ ^)J\








[P. 83]

*?JLJ d ^?ij-*J
\jj-3j-Jj \JL}j-A-k

uL+j* JlJ,
^-S-J *UtJli jJ


A-y-?jj b# C-^cXd-

^^^t J-4-fi^J


a^JjLj J

<_??, CSj jl


c^-vkc L* juo ij*

LioJl Li-^iXjT I jl 2>\Jrjyj J&~


Lib LjC-^j j?-it,

?J Gi* a-UI ^jUI

Then the Shaikh inquired about the languages of tho Jinn, ' are a peoplo of sharp wit said : We and Abii Iiadrash and there is none of us but knows all tho and intelligence, of which tongues of men, and wo have a speech besides men are ignorant.' He added that it was he who introduced the Kor'un 'I journeyed at nightfall in among the Jinn. a company of the Jinn, Marlds of Yaman, and we passed by iu the season of ripe dates, and heard a marvellous Yathrib that showed us the way to righteousness.4 So chanting
1 For * Kor., this use of b vii, 139. **e,? God caused me to sleep the sleep of death. ?ee TVright's Arabic Grammar, ii, 276.

3 JI


4 ^U:

ci s-^i-j



*>,^ J^^l

^r* $-?**J ci l^%JjI

jj^ll ^l ^j^j
reads ,k*JI %r*J| Ju *\>U*. #r*




of do-*

Ms? <_^ixfe*5\.The
used colloctivoly. Possibly

I naTC no example reading.

* the correct

the I returned



to my people and told thera the news, and some believed eagerly, the more so as they were punished [P. 84] for eavesdropping with stars.' by being blazing pelted ' ' 0 Abu Hadrash,' inform me exclaimed the Shaikh, " " this whether with stars existed in the Ignorance, pelting for it is said to have begun with Islam.' said 'Dear me!' ' the old man, have not you heard the lines of al-Audi ?'l? <U uJJJUl (&+*J%t j\j and of Aus c-jys=-^ c->lf?*? ij?j\i

<)JL? ci

b. Ha jar ??

Lit tt\&jfj


however, did increase at the time of Muhammad's "Pelting," mission.' Here Abu Hadrash repeats a poem of his own, ' **?i runs to sixty-seven which and couplets L5*''2 frjA covers three pages of : It manuscript. begins jJ^-jL^^JI ^j-^-j ^
U?+*m?*. ^j?^ I $ > {j



J^A*Jt)l J,* a ,^>l-?Jt>



J?X?J aLJi



..ft . ?U-Jl O

11 A-Ji

J-*ij?** Jj?^'

*?** F-

51 J-*} 1
" ^'-;t



c/-^-^ W-**j


1 al-Afwah nl-Audi, who is cited soveral times hy Yakut. Perhaps 3 This title is misleading. Tho poem is a replica, considerably enlarged, one that precedes it.

of the



risalatu'l-ghufran. possessed a girl on the

After describing how he diabolically eve of her marriage, he continues:

[P. 85]

* aJL?-^

$--SLi d *T-aJjLJt ?>4 J^-jjJI J^UJl jy &r J*

cJ^Jl-; ^U* d
U^.j> .ULc ^?* J_*.JLf-j

5j J?>LJl ijlL)

I?*?j JLjlJ J*****$\ ^JLkjJ

f 1/-J J?*-l

He says of the Jinn :

...& 7 j-i-jl,



d Al?J

,>-~0 ?} Ui ^.oJIJ^


? ^

a*X??L. ^SJu}
g ^, ?


&~* h))-^\


j^i ^i
1MS. the Jinn. 4jlxr?c?sJu *~>U? ci. i, 256 Cf. Lucretius,

^y\ ^A ^J
The sandy tracts hum with cauere undique the sound of : " no vis avibus silvas."

TIIE risIlatu'l-ghufrIn.


and wicked pranks, Then, having recounted sundry malicious ho took part in to how and his conversion he relates Islam, the where other battles and the fighting at Badr, Ohod, to exhortation Tho final believers were engaged. repentance steed: was like a spur (he says) to a willing
A?jyjj lo^cl^ 15-^* <*Jjl?*

[P. 87]


at what

>jii)T i^oKi

he heard from this JinnI, but would not stay with him longer, so he farewelled him and the lion which devoured After meeting went on his way. tho and the wolf which wounded 'Utba b. Abi Lahab a came to tent like he in the Prophet's Aslamite2 time, Inside the hut of a shepherdess (<LxL <ul (jma>- aJI?). Tho Shaikh marvelled was lacked the aureole of the people of Paradise, and hard by grew a sorry bush with scentless fruit. Hutai'a that intercession was made (for it was he) told the Shaikh in the verses :3 for him on account of his sincerity a man who

lilLi II ^Jl JUL* J^j\

aJl-jU IjI ^ ij^jl Li^

[P. 89]

AiiU aUT *ja l^rj (J ^s}


' Were lines P?









AJJ^5>- i^-*J

^>^i'l J*~<4


1The + J proverb is \Z*

(or L^ijU)


Arabian Proverbia, ii, 309). 2 I cannot explain this allusion. 3 Cited it is said that HutaPa in Raudatuyl-Adah, in his p. 85, where perplexity repeated the first couplet several times until he happened to catch sight of his own face in a pond.


L^vil? (Frcytag,




'No,' said he, 'the idea had been expressed by righteous men before me, and I did not practise what I preached.' b. Badr,1 and Hutai'a Then the Shaikh asked for Zibrikan ' a in this world as in the last; he said: He chieftain is profited

by my

satire when



to profit

by my

Leaving approached

as he the Shaikh on, and him, passed the place which commands a view of Hell-fire

of Sulaim, who said : ( .Ul Jl ?_iLjyi), he saw al-Khansa ' T wished to behold Sakhr, so I clambered up and saw him on its summit. And like a lofty peak with fire blazing " he said to rae, Tour words have come true," meaning my

to Iblls, Then the Shaikh ascended and introduced himself said tortures. who was sufferiug horrible 'My profession,' a 'was 'A bad scholar.' that of he, profession,' rejoined ' it brings it may afford a bare livelihood, Iblls; though no comfort the feet to one's family, and surely it makes ! But it destroyed stumble. How many like thee hath a has b. Burd P He peculiar [P. 90] what of Bashshar as no claim upon me, for he used to pay me compliments, other poet ever did, and he says:

^ ^LjI j;3T

^LUl ?J5\

^^k jtff,


. And restored


had been

b. Burd, whose sight he met Bashshar see his tortures, to him that he might
and satirized. Zibrikan

1*a*8patron, whom he quarrelled with to 'Omar, aud the poet was thrown into prison.





and '0 Abu Mu'adh/ cried the Shaikh, 'your poetry was as excellent as your belief was vile. I used to repeat some that you and felt pity for you, hoping of your verses, verses? e.g. your might be overtaken by penitence,

SulJ L* uv<y-i
and your verses?



[P. 91]



*U*_J Ufy


this poem you employ ji-JJl as a rhyme.1 Now if you the plural of <&L, you have done wrong, for J*j never makes this plural. if you made And the b of J?i You must not adduce sdkin, you have erred. irregular such as are found in tho verse of al-Akhtal3? examples, <uLi^ v_cJJi I jl jIj^j and in the verse? a-jU ^jfjv* Ji" Uj ?r-5rlrJ


JuJ L*

c^-LiLi ^.jly JLSJ.X*


UjT aUT JLftldL ^ c-jly

more iii, 37 Agjuhti, * It is not so 3 ed. Divan, 1 Five

is in

aro quoted. distichs Tho poom to which they belong seq. u.Mcd in tho verses cited in Aghini, Salhani, p. 137, where the verso is given in this form : sK, . .. h . i P?\

oLy The readings

i jl'iC )

<olj &Ji L.* <1 jl^J or j\?jj

j.-p-I^ (c-Ajk^ j|j,j jljT **J*j


are mentioned

<w? foe.

702 As for Jamil's

the verse!?


are wrong who read Sp>. 3y?, meaning crow "a black is i.e. having rendering Sj*>, they white." ji^* I i8 synonymous crow on with account

The no

correct speck of

juiSJI, which of the

is an

to the epithet applied of its leg-tendon.1 The


poet says:

he whom met Imru'u'1-Kais, some of of metre aud the grammar concerning questioned ails youP' 'What his verses,4 and 'Antara the 'Absite. at astonishment 'Antara's asked the Shaikh, observing ' had so think One would much you hearing poetry. [P. 92] Then tho Shaikh never said :

1Not ' MS. I do not

in Aghdnl, a^l^j ^^

vii, 77 sqq. a later hand f but an instance Cf. J^l^ comix) of \^J = has drawn applied boppiug cauuot grounds, a lino through tho hamza. gives

remember required. The suggest,

to a bird; or hobbling, be described <oU?J

this, howover, as though as 'U^ll *4ii) ; I don't

the meauing (Laue, s.v.).

shackled Afg'i . kuow



One might what s Cf.

ou palaeographical say. cited in Damlrl

the ornithologists tho tradition



^kil JtSfti j/j\ ^Ul JaJA^J L-iJJl

4 Ahlwardt, The Divans, 37 (b) bowl. sqq. xlviii, Tho * Mu'allaka, (a) dinar, poet commentators suggests that his explain

^1 ^-usT J>\?
^JJtlll \_. as iy**A\ f i.e., in order the to

8, 24, 39, 73 ; lix, 14, 16 ; xx, 58.


it refers

to the *fj. cloak

says, like Hafiz, purchase wiue.

that he has pawned


the When I recall your

risIlatu'l-ghufrIn. line


I say to myself, "This was spoken when tho sum of existing was now and retained in the memory, whereas small poetry there are more lizards than hunters and all the world is wise instead of ignorant."2 Had you heard all the poetry that has been written since the sending of Muhammad, you would rebuke yourself for this statement and would recognize that the truth of the matter is declared by Habib b. Aus :3

[p. 97]

u *Lif ;:*a!I jAs <l>p JUi?T \o\J^JLAJI 44s


jli eSQ,

'Who is this Habib?' asked 'Antara. 'A poet of Islam,' said the Shaikh, and recited some more of his poetry. 'The ' are said but he has taken ideas,' 'Antara, genuinely Arabic, the details from me, though plagiarism is not approved by some is the 'It borrowed that is part people.'4 just a retorted the Shaikh with smile of criticized,' triumph. ' is frequent in the ancient poetry; not, however, Borrowing ... . such wholesale borrowing as Habib was guilty of ' Now he saw 'Alkama b. 'Abada and exclaimed: How
1 Mu'allaka, 1.

take ^ J

<? to



here =




discernment, IJrit. Muh. M.S. ki' -; >


a connoisseur (so intclligere and w/jkiy; in Latin). 3 The author of the Hamdm. These verses arc found Add. Cl^Ls^l 7,638, . f. 16?, with <^j ?-^-'V b '<,r A^* *s in t,ie firBt

in the

"fcyt a,1(l

for ^\



an interlinear by

note: b


<Jj <??-i J-i


It appears from tho notice of Abu Tamuiam ?.. in the L* Jx. yj that he offence to Di'bil 'Ali b. his habit Aghdni of 'conveying* gave great by or adapting the poetry of others. j.r.a.8. 1900. 47




your plight grieves me! (ujClC^ jJ^jj^D'

two of pearll strings b% in and m.z rhymed L-^Ji in your verse P4? avail

^id not your

his poems you P'?meaning of is the signification 'And what

[P. 99]


Ijb/j U rl cJULll U, v^Ji *Wvp ^-i WJ \*kr



or does it mean (^j? ^J^A 1^), said 'Alkama, "a tomb"?' 'you are seeking 'Surely,' aro to double up smiles from one who is sad, and wishing tho dates when they are dry.5 Mind your business, O saved ' no said : If sincere verses containing The Shaikh one!' it the traditional

verses describing praise of God could intercede for any, your women 6 would have interceded for you. And I am anxious is variously AI3U- :7 for ^s^ as = *=>-, i.e. Ay*, by substitution of ivdio for one explained as the wdw being damma'd of the minis; *?*-, i.e. j^, as which that is made to circulate and by poetic license; And what does S-Us* signify the drinkers. (l^ a^C) among to know what by ^.L in your phrase JUJl ^j^* ?8 Some connect it with you mean

souse of froth or flesh or soft hair.' so he 'Alkama gave no heed to the Shaikh's questions, and said: '1 wish that you passed on to 'Amr b. Kulthum hud not committed sindd in your verse' (Mu'allaka, 78).
1 l called <*t\*\ jjjjjl lU+..i, IL^^j Gedichtc, According (Ahlwardt, p. C7), to I.Iaiiumld al-ltuwiya these poems der wero alien as

[P. 100]Jipjl

ly Jjlysll jUsU,

others with j~&.

in tho

Jirmerknttgen hut Abu'l-'Alu

iiber die Anhthrit must have known



9 ii in The Divans. 3 xiii, ibid. 4 ii, 7, ibid.

^ MS.


CV^ ^^



I road

, ^j ^jSj 6 17/r Divans, ii, S-10. 7 xiii, 38, ibid. * xiii, 51, t^*</.

' Verily,' he ' answered, brothers are three or four,


among not blamed a hundred 'Amr of and *lk*^


the one-eyed, yet they are on this account.1 when How, then, they reach in number ?' After had informed the Shaikh is the lame or caused he (Muia1lakn% 2) by Iv^ saw Harith al-Yashlcuri

the controversies

Jj (Mu'allaka, 20),2 and said to him: (Hiirith b. al-Hilliza) 'Truly, you have made the raids weary of explaining your verse (Mulallaha, . . . . And have said you 18)3 excellently:4
1 Abu Tammam 8 Abu't-'Alu* governed Lijl*>*. by '\ j\ made defends a similar the excuse for a bad verse ^? as one says on (A ghaut, xv, 100}. (a) it



two grouuds: <L?L*

i* rM

$ or iZAtf Cleaning

S understood, llatiut's

,iJ k^^*'

}L 5l*:>-,



is too well


to require

mention; (b) t^^ er* ^^. u'

is liko \?b


a!jl*J! LLJ\

jUL? \j\ %.*


J>3 <ol?i ^ J^,;k5Sv5 ?J -A** ^.*^>-

j;jul 0??~^

JttlUI &J1jLc 'Ul wOJ, J-; J). 8

The Shaikh accuses ikwa ; on what grounds

in thia verso tho built known lliirifh of committing it is dillicult to sec. lie also cites JIfiiiUYs verse :

\3o- uULil U tj^fll ^S^i

that the poet has combined remarking ot the yd, which is rare and bad. is: reading

Ijjtr lUi

the vocalization of the shut with oli-imi Iu Christian Arabic Poets, p. 417, the

l&r l^?
which is explained,

U (.si,) ^
of Abu

^ t^}4. ^
Ililal al-'Askari:

. Jt^jJ' 7,' j* ,1

on tlie authority

JJUN Jib J ,>-?? cr-^

("where ignorance i Lt. ^.?x?, is bliss, 'tis folly \&z>- H'-mJiI of course, reading it is Apparently

to be wise"). takes of the the Shaikh form

?-^!iJSi d ~'~^
Another l^? l^**^, which variuut giv?js whore-is, i>> tho

the Energetic Ho

Imperative, :

in Agha

in, ix, 181.


the verse

W^l 6^4 uJLiJ,!, d>})X\

making the observation that the elided Doets, p. ^^ should be written ^cL^wJ because when the sdhin is vocalized 4 Christian Arabic sd/cht returns. 118.




[P. 102]

j \jbjiJkLJ)iji fj&i 51 tJJj ^UT ^ ^jj

In the time of the Ignorance they used to tether (&)??**) that the dead man's camel beside his grave, maintaining on the day of him for her he find raised would Judgment to and would mount her. May her shoulder be too weak bear his weight! But alas ! men come to Judgment naked, without is tho same cast-off This barefooted, provision. ' camel that is mentioned in your verse (Mu'allaka, 14). to converse with Tarafa, and Then the Shaikh departed quoted his verse (Mu'allaka, 47), which, said he, is attributed some to 'Adi b. Zaid, in your stylo it is more by though aro at sixes and 'And tho grammarians (?U^\ cX?i?j ybj). sevens about your verse (Mn'allaka, 50), which, however, is
not more anomalous than the versel?

[P. 108]



Jl l^*U ^
thing in the verses?

you have done an extraordinary

))y Wi5


*-$j?> fj-J ^^^

*?<?i J?:*?^y?"

J^L-J ?U-iLjl*LLxJ? |)J

1 221. Kamil, i This couplet is discussed by Lauc under ^e., Ahlwardt (The Divans,

p. \**) route
*MS? lininetrical


^+s^. t?v which a marginal ia written note gives on tho margin: it^-t. Ljj An Ail?i

^s^ variant

of the second misra*




though this is in keeping with the Arabic idiom (lJC1?).

The metre c-^yJI imJ^Lu^ ?JLJkL>). Murakkishl? is that of the poem of

Li>- Ji p lU VJ5-LU
and of al-A'sha'e line?

J-*l? u^JLL J-^-JJ^aJil

and he said:

v3LL-* lj-cJ

Lie U U

j^i fJUi
Now And


. . . .' this is a departure from the system of al-Khalll and saw turned his head in expectation the Shaikh ' ' are said he, your companions Aus b. Hajar, and, 0 Aus,' but 1 hope to receive an answer dumb to the questioner, from you. I never cease to admire your poem in /, where mention the jurja (leathern bag), for after a description you of the bow you say :

[p. 104]

cj|* ;&jj!j

L5jiiii l^v

J e


on prosody agree that these verses "have no proper metre." See der Arabischen t>. 251 ; Noldcke's Verskunst, Darslellung Frcytag, fiei/ragc, This explains tho allusion in AbiVl-'Ala'g Letters p. 16. (ed. Margoliouth;, p. 84 : "And wo have observed that many of thoso who write verso according to rule have tried the metro of al-Murakkish, that people's tastes are supposing not averse to such experiments in these days." is al-Murakkish The author 189 al-Akbar sqq.). (Aghan't, v, 8 MS. I have not found this verse elsewhere. jls^rfjl. 8 of this verse in ZDMG., See Fiicher's vol. xlix, p. 112. explanation

1 Writers

708 'Oh/ whom exclaimed



of that I had been Darim,1 'would Aus, the proverb speaks! I behold thirst, Ovorpowered by the semblance of a river before my eyes, but when I draw a draught therefrom, I find it burning fire. Worse men than I have entered Paradise. like wealth is a windfall, Mercy in the transitory world/ said the Shaikh, 'I only wanted/ ' to get these words them doliver from you, that I might to the people and of Paradise, told "Aus me/' saying, " . . . . Abu after Then Shuraih informed nie."' the verse?


[p. 100]
the Shaikh

Ll\j3 ?u UbM-j J-sV-S


lJlLjI uf^U l$l jL.jLsM

: ' I dislike your line? ^..^^ J ^w? <U>^.

JLlz?JLn for

does not occur except in words that have a doubled JiJii radical, though one saj^s ?ib ^\ l# *J?l3/ Jl^j-^Now he saw in the Fire a man whoso features ho could ' ' not distinguish, who he cried, and, 0 miserable wretch/ are you?' 'I am Abii Kablr4 of Hudhail, lie answered: 'Amir b. al-Uulais/ said tho Shaikh, 'Indeed/ 'you aro one of for saying the chiefs of Hudhail, in oue poem: JtX** ^^ L+? but I do not commend you



then in another:

and iu a third: j?**
1 %^ 5 MS. c->^}l


ii, 817). toI. i, p. 121;

Kir^ $-~*i>^s.

(^r?ytao? drabum

See Slhawaihi d?*z . (ed. Dereubourg), aLiLJcsl Fischer in ZDMG., vol. xlix, p. 106 seq. s S1UVA., vol. cxxvi, p. IT of Geyer's Reccnsiou.

4 MS. Uj>\.



did is a proof of the poverty of your genius. Why a poem?1 Al show variety in commencing you never to you only these three kasldas, though ascribes Asraa'I it is related that he credits you with the poem rhymed in r, which begins:
.... I *

jf3*" Yet how

vir^ ft** ur* v-*j**j* :*

fine are your verses

[P. 106]

*j &J&J lJZ

*L)I Jj\Sj] jUUj *LJ1 ^ Z*S\jy?*Jl jj

*?jl ^i<k*

*,A,? %.?



asked the Shaikh. 'What of Sakhru'l-GhayyP' at was Sakhr close hand, and the Shaikh [And lo! there ' was young who said :] How fares your Dahmii, though she or no lot in your plighted and delicate had troth, but part .... her love inspired you with dread ?4 Hence you say:5


bd^*ai vcjIjcjI tyi.

the Hudhalite poems that has been published by

* JNot in the peri ion of and Wclihauson. Kosegarton 3 MS. auU. * Tho text has:






p. 12.


X, l?l (ms. cJlijS)


Carmina Hudsailitarum,




risalatu'l-ghufran. * Lib Jo




aro what is become of your Talid ?* Your thoughts from him by the doom that you shall abide in diverted Hell for ever, and it behoves you to forget him, even as . . .' a wild animal heeds not the bleeding of its leg-tendon2 in anguish,3 and asked his Now he saw a man writhing ' name. It was al-Akhtal, the Taghlibite. This,' ho cried, ' is the end of jrour poetry in praise of wine. How the lords were thrilled by your verses :4 And

L?jK cpUH


{j^s JVj>-^

J ^IJjmJ!

' [P. 107] Said the Taghlibite : I drew the spear-shaft

warrior,5 and when I parted along and faced the mail-clad from the woeful world I hoped that my devout soul would ' to bliss, but Fate You be summoned ruled otherwise.' ' two mistakes,' in rejecting made answered the Shaikh: a life of pleasure under the wing Islam and in embracing the transitory to the You preferred P' (v_jX ? then, can you escape punishment a Al-Akhtal heaved that astonished great sigh ^jbSlj c-Xl). ' the Zabiiniya, and exclaimed: Oh for the days of Yazld, of ambergris when I inhaled the perfume and mint, and as a friend, and he suffered me with the him with jested of Yazld eternal. b. Mu'awiya. How, sufferance of the noble ! How many did he give me to deck myself withal,
1 Son of Sakhr (ibid., p. 36 sqq.).

an embroidered and proudly


I trailed

4 Divan,


md . I


distichs are cited.

ed. Salhani,

p. 3.

Ten more

the its skirt at morn

risalatu'l-ghufran. and eve! Methinks before

711 the I see again him and singing

singing-girls lifting up their voices to him his own verses:

1 Jl
And one day when

I jl 1$Jj ^-LL^JLj JuAJ \xAS>c/iJ! J^Jl

I was drunk and confused (;XL?),

I said:2

IfxJli ?U~jJl i?Jj\

jZx? ^ He did not like vouchsafe tho me \jc~i LsM ti J$i a in his smile, but quivered 'Hence your banishment



from bliss
[P. 108] a climber

' (e^Jjl p

said tho Shaikh. ^y%),

the man of was sin P What

'Did not
and learn



a recalcitrant did you

of the mountains Was

of his religion?

he a Unitarian,

or did you


others with God (l^js^* uX**oJl ^i) associating to admire these verses/ * said al-Akhtal:

find hirn ' 'Ho P

LTir?^ yjr^ ^^ yJ&S)

1 This viz.:


and two others


in Kdmil,



cites a fourth,

ed. Salhani, p. 388. Divan, Jl Ls omitted iu tho MS. 3 From tho Shaikh's next remark it is is quoting plain that al-Akhtal editiou of tho Divan. verses, but they are not, I think, in Salhani's

his own




l# ^Js Ul JJ& ^

<Xd VjLo



\j-*] Ju
?i,a..m.iH JLjsH

v., a^


^ JjJi^i Ulyull

l^ ^*J\


J LjjJaJ l_* li! l<?-* JJL^Utv^rj

* Be accursed!' and Hell have cried

JjLJJuJl ci UJij t$-j

' tho Shaikh. The poets of Paradise their and love-poetry. forgotton panegyric You alone cleave to iniidelity and mischief.' of arms with Now the Shaikh, after a brief passage to the people of Hell, of talking [P. 109] Iblls, wearied and departed towards his lofty pavilion, but when he had a or to mile him that he had not two, it occurred gone and that he had and the Murakkishan, and Sharran. So he re al-Skanfara Ta'abbata neglected traced his steps, aud found Muhalhil, aud having questioned ' him about the derivation he said, of his name, Al-Asma'l,' ' verse to the ascribed :* you rejects for Muhalhil asked

1 MS. 3 Cf.

Ull^sf4, tho verse

I cannot


tho allusion.

f al-Mutnlammii:


^A^J iz)& L?-41s*- IjLi


in Christian



p. 341, with

tho following






V-*s rW^^^

cites it and

asserting defends that it as

J^l fi^j U*L

though Abu Zaid ' is al-Asma'i's What ?nd rtj} to clouds.' reference ' this verse was spoken of idiom, either me or turn your back on foolish of ground are not used

it is modern,

genuine/ objection P* 'lie affirms that s&j\ " or with iu the sense of threaten/' 'A false criticism/ cried Muhalhil: by ono who had a sound knowledge another. sayings/ Hold Then fast to it and the Shaikh and said:

Akbar, [P. Ill] youth ! In the past world I always grieved for what befell of the Banu Ghufaila you at the hands of the Ghafalite,1 b. Kasit?be he accursed! Some Moslems your depreciate a in in is certain which A m,2 poem ray opinion jewel. scholar used to consider it and the poem in mz composed to the Mufaddalite inferior by al-Murakkish al-Asghar verses but his is These unreasonable. poems, judgment are sometimes attributed to you :4 "I a piece of arak-wood ; ! but who shall give it into her hand P 0 my friends, take that path (God send you good Tho* far it lead you from your own dear land. ' Tell her: We come not erring and astray, " But only to salute thee left our way/ chose for Hind Alas find them in your divan/ ....

al al-Murakkish approached 'God give you ease, 0 injured


I do not, however,


Jlc^Ij j^j!


Sj .XiLjljJ&ff l?il Ar,^ j^ :^^Juill eL-^ ,^-lj ^i^r


Jli ^jI

Ujj> j^ix


Ui jJ c?C\^ r^

jjjj l> txxjjl^ jj^l

to Aghtni, loved his cousiu Asmii', \, 189 sqq., al-Munikkish According tho daughter oi 'Aul I).Malik, who gave her in to a man of Alurad. marriage this Ghafalite the husband of Asma'. Possibly represents * 707, note 1. 3 Scop. r, 194 seq. 4 Aghdni, x, 128 seq. Aghani,




a little with al-Murakkish conversed Having al-Asghar and al-Shaufara, the Shaikh accosted Ta'abbata Sharran. ' ' Is there any truth/ he asked, in tho story of your with the ghouls P' and he quoted the versos: marriage

jlL d JUS\


*3U? ^jU!i uL^b s tv.

: v ?^ . .. . r*-r. j

IjIj tj?+ d J-ii

' [P. 113] from your I infer that you

of these verses **I$3, i.o. ate

are the author

use of oll^f The

as the masdar jIlaj

of i-Uall


form is like

in the verse?

It is regular,


rare in poetry.





' are All men Sharran made no reply except was to as be little that the Shaikh and liars/ perceived in them he of left eternal the Hell, among people gleaned On the way woe and set off for his abode in Paradise.

the he met the Adam, and

risalatu'l-ghufran. fell into a discussion Adam of

715 some verses,1


of which

[P. 115] advancing where snakes were iu the water. Paradise, but He God


denied; and, vehemently he came to a delectable garden and balancing themselves gambolling that snakes one should of exist in them with


inspired Almighty and it of what was passing through his mind, knowledge ' never Did hear of who said: Dhatu'1-Safa, you paid her own in his friend coin P'2 to her tho Shaikh After tale, listening [P. 117] conversed with anothor snake who had lived in the house of Hasan dictation. that Hasan al-Basrl He used and learned the whole asked her whether Kor'an from his the tradition was correct

to read The jJI (Kor., vi, 96). J\s rL* ' : him I heard snake answered it thus, and pronouncing to the imitated him, but on his death I betook myself an aversion and conceived 'Amr b. al-'Ala, house of Abu to Hasan's Abu When 'Amr reading of ^\~*\ ftnd J-^? to Kiifa and dwelt with Hamza b. Habib, died, I went and from him I heard several readings3 abominated by is to lock the door of Arabic Arabic scholars.This

idiom (<&.*!!c-jIJ ^^1).

The Farkan is not subject to

\f?\lL} Jbjt\ )-*-> ^s?

&3yuJl ^JU ^s^'


of tho poem cited by Mas'udi, MnrujiCUDhahnb, and the first two distichs vol. i, p. 05. 2 Here follows the story of tho snake and the two brothers (Frcytag, Arahum The diction is largely drawn from Proverbia, ii, 330). poem {The Nubighu's is quoted. t * jU , 'dweller in the rock' Divans, xv), part of which IjuJI (ibid.,


1. 7).



(iv, 1),


(*"',27), ^J|


716 poetical [P. 118] license.


risalatu'l-giiufran. Doubtless affords examples liko poetry for the lines of the n\jiz?


*LUl {ir^kJ^\ Jtii?l

this is an

joJI d
form original Those who cite to make So was the

Mji _L>, verse maintain *7i cl^

case. Tho extraordinary is metrically which correct. that tho author wished exactly with

correspond *? of the Hudhalite

+ic Jj.

the ending in the verso

cpl^li ^U,* Jx


assert that the author's dislike of zihdf grammarians induced him to read cj?jU^ ; but this theory breaks down, verses for many in the poem admit zihdf, and it occurs in all poems, Arabic and mm-Arabic alike. It is said that never hoard the Arabs al-Asnia'i road this verse except the with have with Tho not weaken the pronunciation the position derived idiom' their a fact which (in itself) does ^l*-?, of the grammarians, sineo they must from persons well acquainted reading

(^Lsill ub>l). ' to hear this snake. Shaikh was astounded Will she continued. [P. 1.1?)] you not stay awhile with nio?' ' I can split my skin whenever I please, and become as But ho moved away lovely a lady as there is in Paradise/ ' at a quick pace, muttering to himself: How should ono
incline to a snake whose excellence is poison and her purpose

a sudden

as he fared on his way ho mot tho [P. 120] damsel who had come forth from the fruit, and the sand-hills She quoted they glided through together. some verses2 of ImruVl-Kais, which reminded the Shaikh of attack P' And
in Sibawaihi, vol. ii, p. 53,

1 b. 'Uwniniir. The verse is cited Mutnnnkhkhil Jamharatu ash*an %l-'Arab, p. 119, and elsewhere. 2 The xlviii, 2U-28. Divans,



717 and God Almighty in beauty surpassed of ImruVl-Kais), each other with And of the Shaikh its flesh with

at Da rat u Juljul,1 that poet's adventure houris created black-eyed (one of whom like the mistress all her companions, plunging tharmad in the his cool camel, stream and of the most


slaughtered indescribable

exquisite perfume. and they partook

of the tents in Paradiso. and spaciousness of the Iiajaz-miikorH. Here lived Aghlab and llu'ba and Abfi'l-Najm of the Banfi 'Ijl and al-'Ajjaj and 'Udhafir b. Aus al-Arkat and Abu und Ilumaid 2 and all the makers of rajaz that had been Nukhaila is God,' he exclaimed, 'Blessed 'the Mighty, forgiven. is verified that God love* Tho tradition the Beneficent! and loathes tho mean,3 lofty things 0 men, sort of verse. scanty was and scanty is your reward !' Now he met llu'ba ' abhorrent such for your rajaz is a mean

[P. 121] had not the height It was the Garden

and delight. enjoyment .... And he came

to some

tents which


and abused him for rhyming with \s b as and and that he d, adding letters,' or a a never coined classic phrase. well-known proverb ' 1 who am cited Do you tell this to me,' cried llu'ba angrily, In the past world and Abil 'Amr b. al-'Ala ? by Khalll on the interpretation of a word you would plume yourself these savants handed down to you as coming from which me and my fellows.' Ilu'ba's arrogance did not escape the
Shaikh, who said: ' If your rajaz and your father's rajaz


one mould, it would to be impossible poured a extract of I therefrom excellence. have poem single to you a poem containing addressed heard that Abu Muslim and had tho words *ij\j to inquire in the tribe ^l , you into
was meant. And you used to accept presents from


kings ontitled

to which

you had no right; .... to gifts and salaries

1 2 Ibid., MS. xlviii, <LLisr\ by Lane 8.


others are bettor No glory to you

Sec Ikd, iii, 425. Sen K)iizdnatuH-Adab, under , <L..a.^.

\, 79 seq.

3 Cited

718 that your



are cited, since we find them expressions citing a lame that fetches the [P. 122] the words of serving-maid to the fire' * . . . . Finally the Shaikh palm-trunk ' shot: I swear that the speech of you said, as a parting and no finer than liquid rfl/fls-niakers is unfit for panegyric, ears You deafen of tho the with person eulogizod pitch. the description of a camel, your stones (P), and after finishing on account of the which you commiserate it long journey has made, you proceed to describe a swift horse or a noisy 2 ye aro in tho wrong way/ Verily, hunting-dog. This


of the liisdla





^ \y^J

*\?A\ U.I ^sk. J6 U cjUUIj

<l)JI tJj\JS)t3

1 I give

the context

as it stands

in the MS.:

[/ $?> ^JkfuJUMj


jjls i?X*]l?j

(tyte^il J

k^A j?*

leu jou j&\ s^jjid 'isi^\j\A\j\ jya\ j^?

^l uLx> U-? ^y^ <Cju>. ik^-li tt^o/^ ^^ull

p *u^

Ar^l 1$)A&b) *&!%j

liLc ^.JoUl ^jaJ??j*!l JiL^ ^^

\^AS\ J^-lj *?)\ yj^s:Ul^^ill

aMS. ^?& JjC^Jl J\

> L$ll tf


^ 'UiD XJli

J^V. U c^^uil

Ullj JjC^Jb -Jc^mJI j-^Lm* (read i~)j*ut ^^Lw) J ^ySj J**- <iJL> ^ Jli [^;X**] J**!l Jjk^ f^r/^ ^^
as * ^? not
easily fall

I have not translated the words

understand out after them. J**jJ\. The insertion


JI <-r*Xy, l^\j>
is necessary;

of Jj sax.

it would



U-^-Jd <Uxb)l Uli ^UixllJ Jla? j*

lJU^- *^j**H h S^

k^Jj iUjl



^U*C ^ ^--;JI
[P. 123] aLs-Jl

ju ^

y uCjdj!
^-^ J^


Jx ^1;.
Jtj&AA i?<Ji

Jr> ^jt.j***

^^ibjJI ^


<uj j^Ul ^.^.Ji

o^sr* ^1J^j


j^? UIO 6)\J$\ j\?i JcJull <cU* U lJLa), j^\ e^l^JI


lSSj Js.


'Uj klJ*. v^JJ^l! *Uj 1|JUcI iL-Li^ iys^ Jj ^yJI *Uo ^ aUI^jJLw y*>
.^lall Jj:

A/JLJ^ H,r^


J_Jb ^*u^M tai b L-X-l JA

^^-Lum^ijJbj C^jl J-^ ^t

v_^d& I ^? hA\ <UyLL

^1 <^yl ^

taJL* (MS. dbl) jljl ^li u^J i^^l uJU-^'j

Jjhlj <ui^Jl i^JuLll <uU*wj <lIJ! i^Uj ?} y^r j^t^ ii^'Ui


^^yuii ci^, *ij j^i

a mistake


IJamasa, p. 563 Iyfi8 b. al-Aratt, j.h.a.s.

m for The verses are cited anonymously cy,J)l, of seq., but as they aro immediately preceded by four distiehs it seems likely that Abu'l-'AIa's memory has played him false. 48






Jcs* J &c?


IJollXj^ c^jyi J tf*ti lS^?

I reserve I

think, the Ri&dlatuH-Ghufrdn,

for another article the more characteristic which L^LLt.

the more and


but portion

interesting comprises what

also, of

a marginal

note calls

JLjjJjJl X^mj