Dr. C. Caprani 1
Chapter 1  Course Introduction
1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 2
1.1.1 Background .................................................................................................... 2
1.1.2 Course Aims .................................................................................................. 3
1.1.3 Programme ..................................................................................................... 4
1.1.4 Reading Material ........................................................................................... 5
1.1.5 Website .......................................................................................................... 8
1.2 Syllabus ................................................................................................................. 9
1.2.1 Semester 1 Only ............................................................................................. 9
1.3 Assessment .......................................................................................................... 10
1.3.1 Examination ................................................................................................. 10
1.3.2 Continuous Assessment ............................................................................... 11
Rev. 1
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 2
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Background
Within 9 months of starting this course you will be qualified to practice as a structural
engineer. Every single day of your career as a structural engineer, you will be
responsible for the lives of every person that will ever use the structures you design.
But more than that: at a minimum you will also be responsible for:
The safety of the people who will build your structure;
The quality of life of future generations structural engineers are in a unique
position to contribute to limiting the significant carbon emissions of the
construction industry;
The best economic use of your clients money to best achieve their goals;
The use of your time that best achieves your employers goals.
Though mistakes that lead to collapse of a structure are rare, they do happen. Often it
is through an unreasonable faith in a computer analysis that makes this so. With
excellent structural intuition; an ability to properly model the structure with structural
analysis software, and; an ability to check computer output with appropriate hand
calculations, the risk of such collapses can be minimized.
This course builds on your ability to analyse statically indeterminate structures from
the 3rd year course and introduces new ideas and areas of study. We do this so that
you are best equipped to deal with the realities of structural analysis and design.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 3
1.1.2 Course Aims
Given the background just discussed, the general aims of this course are to provide
students with:
An improved understanding and intuition of structural behaviour;
An ability to properly model structures and to check output by hand;
Knowledge of different types of structures and their behaviour.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 4
1.1.3 Programme
Teaching
This course is taught in Semester 1 only. It is taught as follows:
3 hours lectures per week;
2 hours of computer laboratory every two weeks.
Assessment
We asses your performance on this course as follows:
Submission of laboratory work  20% of the marks;
A 3hour endofsemester examination  80% of the marks.
In the unlikely event of changes to the above arrangements, the changes will be
notified to you well in advance of their implementation by your lecturer.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 5
1.1.4 Reading Material
Reading about projects and new techniques will be a major part of your engineering
career (CPD). You should read as many different versions or explanations of the
same topic or material as you can. This way it is more likely that you will find a
means of explanation that works best for you.
Some good sources for this course are:
General Understanding of Structural Behaviour
Brohn, D., Understanding Structural Analysis, 4th Edn., New Paradigm
Solutions, 2005.
Heyman, J ., Basic Structural Theory, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
J ennings, A., Structures: from theory to practice, Spon Press, 2004.
J i, T., and Bell, A., Seeing and Touching Structural Concepts, Taylor & Francis,
2008.
Williams, M.S., and Todd, J .D., Structures: theory & Analysis, Macmillan,
1999.
General Structural Anal ysis
Coates, R.C., Coutie, M.G., and Kong, F.K., Structural Analysis, 3rd Edn.,
Chapman & Hall, 1987.
Ghali, A., Neville, A., Brown, T.G., Structural Analysis: A Unified Classical
and Matrix Approach, 5th Edn., Taylor & Francis, 2003.
McKenzie, W.M.C., Examples in Structural Analysis, Taylor and Francis,
Abington, 2006.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 6
Books for Specific Topics
Charlton, T.M., Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Frameworks, Longmans,
1961.
Charlton, T.M., Energy Principles in Theory of Structures, Oxford University
Press, 1973.
Davies, G.A.O., Virtual Work in Structural Analysis, J ohn Wiley & Sons, 1982.
Dym, C.L., Structural Modeling and Analysis, Cambridge University Press,
2005.
Guarracino, F. and Walker, A., Energy Methods in Structural Mechanics,
Thomas Telford, 1999.
Heyman, J ., Beams and Framed Structures, 2nd Edn., Pergamon Press, 1974.
Heyman, J ., Elements of the Theory of Structures, Cambridge University Press,
1996.
Hodge, P.G., Plastic Analysis of Structures, McGrawHill, New York, 1959.
Kong, F.K., Prentis, J .M. and Charlton, T.M., Principle of virtual work for a
general deformable body a simple proof, The Structural Engineer, Vol. 61A,
No. 6, 1983.
Neal, B.G., Structural Theorems and their Applications, Pergamon Press, 1964.
Rees, D.W.A., Mechanics of Solids and Structures, Imperial College Press,
London, 2000.
Thompson, F., and Haywood, G.G., Structural Analysis Using Virtual Work,
Chapman and Hall, 1986.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 1 Course Introduction
Dr. C. Caprani 7
Structural Dynamics
Beards, C.F., Structural Vibration Analysis: modelling, analysis and damping of
vibrating structures, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, 1983.
Bhatt, P., Structures, Longman, Harlow, England, 1999.
Case, J ., Chilver, A.H. and Ross, C.T.F., Strength of Materials and Structures,
4th edn., Arnold, London, 1999.
Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J ., Dynamics of Structures, 2nd edn., McGrawHill,
New York, 1993.
Craig, R.R. and Kurdila, A.J ., Fundamentals of Structural Dynamics, 2nd End.,
Wiley, New York, 2006.
Irvine, M., Structural Dynamics for the Practising Engineer, Allen & Unwin,
London, 1986.
Kreyszig, E., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 7th edn., Wiley, 1993.
Smith, J .W., Vibration of Structures Applications in civil engineering design,
Chapman and Hall, London, 1988.
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Dr. C. Caprani 8
1.1.5 Website
The course will be supported through the lecturers website:
www.colincaprani.com go to the Structural Engineering section of the site.
On the site there are two main resources:
Lecture notes: most of the lecture notes will be available in PDF format for
download from the website. Class handouts will still be the main source of
material.
Discussion Forum: to facilitate students studying on their own, or maybe when
home for the weekend, there is a forum through which you can liaise with
others. Feel free to ask questions and to answer them. Though the forum will be
facilitated by your lecturer, there is no guarantee that a question will receive an
answer. This is primarily a way to encourage studenttostudent remote learning.
Some other resources that may prove useful will be links to sites with good material
and the provision of some software (with absolutely no guarantees!).
The website support for the course is only meant to help, so please:
Do not abuse either the facility or the facilitator!
Try to use the site to best help you and your friends.
Suggest ways to improve the usefulness of the website.
Do not post inappropriate comment/content your site access will be removed,
with more serious consequences also possible.
You are required to register for the forum only registrations in your own name
will be approved. You can change your display name later on.
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1.2 Syllabus
1.2.1 Semester 1 Only
The topics to be covered in the lectures are as follows:
Virtual Work (Compound Structures)
A Virtual Work analysis is used for structures whose members undergo a
combination of stress resultants, most notably bending and axial force.
Virtual Work (Arches)
Here we use Virtual Work to analyse moments/shears and axial forces in parabolic
and semicircular arches.
Matrix Stiffness Method
This topic provides an introduction to the basis of modern structural analysis
software. This is a particular case of finite element analysis.
Influence Line Anal ysis
These are used to determine design loads for members in structures subjected to
moving loads (e.g. bridges) or for repeated analysis of a structure under various
loading scenarios.
Structural Dynamics
This topic covers exact and approximate methods of determining the motion of
structures under dynamic loading situations.
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1.3 Assessment
1.3.1 Examination
The examination will be held at the end of Semester 1. The format is:
Layout
There will be 5 questions and you are to answer 4.
Marking
Each question is worth 25%.
Timing
The exam is 3 hours in duration.
Format
The questions will examine a topic or topics from the lectures. Further information
will be given.
Exam Handout
A handout will be attached to the paper in each exam with relevant information and
formulae. A copy of this will be given to you during Semester 1.
Note: in the event of any changes to these arrangements, they will be notified to you
well in advance.
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1.3.2 Continuous Assessment
General
Continuous Assessment is primarily carried out through laboratory work. These labs
are not the same as traditional labs you may have already done. You will be given
tasks, with a schedule of dates for delivering various aspects of the problem to ensure
an even distribution of workload. You will be given access to the lab to facilitate your
work, not only at scheduled lab times. We hope that this will improve your prospects
to selfdirect your learning.
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Dr. C. Caprani 1
Chapter 2  Virtual Work: Compound Structures
2.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3
2.1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Virtual Work Development ................................................................................ 4
2.2.1 The Principle of Virtual Work ....................................................................... 4
2.2.2 Virtual Work for Deflections ......................................................................... 8
2.2.3 Virtual Work for Indeterminate Structures.................................................... 9
2.2.4 Virtual Work for Compound Structures ...................................................... 11
2.3 Basic Examples .................................................................................................. 14
2.3.1 Example 1 .................................................................................................... 14
2.3.2 Example 2 .................................................................................................... 21
2.3.3 Example 3 .................................................................................................... 32
2.3.4 Example 4 .................................................................................................... 40
2.3.5 Problems ...................................................................................................... 48
2.4 Past Exam Questions ......................................................................................... 52
2.4.1 Sample Paper 2007 ...................................................................................... 52
2.4.2 Semester 1 Exam 2007 ................................................................................ 53
2.4.3 Semester 1 Exam 2008 ................................................................................ 54
2.4.4 Semester 1 Exam 2009 ................................................................................ 55
2.4.5 Semester 1 Exam 2010 ................................................................................ 56
2.4.6 Semester 1 Exam 2011 ................................................................................ 57
2.5 Appendix Trigonometric Integrals ............................................................... 58
2.5.1 Useful Identities ........................................................................................... 58
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2.5.2 Basic Results ................................................................................................ 59
2.5.3 Common Integrals ....................................................................................... 60
2.6 Appendix Volume Integrals ........................................................................... 67
Rev. 1
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 3
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Purpose
Previously we only used virtual work to analyse structures whose members primarily
behaved in flexure or in axial forces. Many real structures are comprised of a mixture
of such members. Cablestay and suspension bridges area good examples: the deck
level carries load primarily through bending whilst the cable and pylon elements
carry load through axial forces mainly. A simple example is a trussed beam:
Other structures carry load through a mixture of bending, axial force, torsion, etc. Our
knowledge of virtual work todate is sufficient to analyse such structures.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 4
2.2 Virtual Work Development
2.2.1 The Principle of Virtual Work
This states that:
A body is in equilibrium if, and only if, the virtual work of all forces acting on
the body is zero.
In this context, the word virtual means having the effect of, but not the actual form
of, what is specified.
There are two ways to define virtual work, as follows.
1. Virtual Displacement:
Virtual work is the work done by the actual forces acting on the body moving
through a virtual displacement.
2. Virtual Force:
Virtual work is the work done by a virtual force acting on the body moving
through the actual displacements.
Virtual Displacements
A virtual displacement is a displacement that is only imagined to occur:
virtual displacements must be small enough such that the force directions are
maintained.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 5
virtual displacements within a body must be geometrically compatible with
the original structure. That is, geometrical constraints (i.e. supports) and
member continuity must be maintained.
Virtual Forces
A virtual force is a force imagined to be applied and is then moved through the actual
deformations of the body, thus causing virtual work.
Virtual forces must form an equilibrium set of their own.
Internal and External Virtual Work
When a structures deforms, work is done both by the applied loads moving through a
displacement, as well as by the increase in strain energy in the structure. Thus when
virtual displacements or forces are causing virtual work, we have:
0
0
I E
E I
W
W W
W W
=
=
=
where
Virtual work is denoted W and is zero for a body in equilibrium;
External virtual work is
E
W , and;
Internal virtual work is
I
W .
And so the external virtual work must equal the internal virtual work. It is in this
form that the Principle of Virtual Work finds most use.
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Application of Virtual Displacements
For a virtual displacement we have:
0
E I
i i i i
W
W W
F y P e
=
=
=
In which, for the external virtual work,
i
F represents an externally applied force (or
moment) and
i
y its virtual displacement. And for the internal virtual work,
i
P
represents the internal force (or moment) in member i and
i
e its virtual deformation.
The summations reflect the fact that all work done must be accounted for.
Remember in the above, each the displacements must be compatible and the forces
must be in equilibrium, summarized as:
Set of forces in
equilibrium
Set of compatible
displacements
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Dr. C. Caprani 7
Application of Virtual Forces
When virtual forces are applied, we have:
0
E I
i i i i
W
W W
y F e P
=
=
=
And again note that we have an equilibrium set of forces and a compatible set of
displacements:
In this case the displacements are the real displacements that occur when the structure
is in equilibrium and the virtual forces are any set of arbitrary forces that are in
equilibrium.
Set of compatible
displacements
Set of forces in
equilibrium
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 8
2.2.2 Virtual Work for Deflections
Deflections in Beams and Frames
For a beam we proceed as:
1. Write the virtual work equation for bending:
0
E I
i i
W
W W
y F M
=
=
=
2. Place a unit load, F , at the point at which deflection is required;
3. Find the real bending moment diagram,
x
M , since the real curvatures are given
by:
x
x
x
M
EI
=
4. Solve for the virtual bending moment diagram (the virtual force equilibrium
set), M , caused by the virtual unit load.
5. Solve the virtual work equation:
0
1
L
x
x
M
y M dx
EI
(
=
(
6. Note that the integration tables can be used for this step.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
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2.2.3 Virtual Work for Indeterminate Structures
General Approach
Using compatibility of displacement, we have:
Final = Primary + Reactant
Next, further break up the reactant structure, using linear superposition:
Reactant = Multiplier Unit Reactant
We summarize this process as:
0 1
M M M = +
M is the force system in the original structure (in this case moments);
0
M is the primary structure force system;
1
M is the unit reactant structure force system.
The primary structure can be analysed, as can the unit reactant structure. Thus, the
only unknown is the multiplier, , for which we use virtual work to calculate.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 10
Finding the Multiplier
For beams and frames, we have:
( )
2
1
0 1
0 0
0
L L
i
i
i i
M
M M
dx dx
EI EI
= +
Thus:
( )
0 1
0
2
1
0
L
i
i
L
i
i
M M
dx
EI
M
dx
EI
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2.2.4 Virtual Work for Compound Structures
Basis
In the general equation for Virtual Work:
i i i i
y F e P =
We note that the summation on the right hand side is over all forms of real
displacement and virtual force combinations. For example, if a member is in
combined bending and axial force, then we must include the work done by both
effects:
( ) ( ) ( )
Axial Bending Member
i
W e P e P
PL M
P M dx
EA EI
= +
= +
The total Virtual Work done by any member is:
( )
Member
i
v
PL M T V
W P M dx T V
EA EI GJ GA
= + + +
In which Virtual Work done by axial, bending, torsion, and shear, respectively, is
accounted for. However, most members primarily act through only one of these stress
resultants, and so we commonly have only one term per member. A typical example
is when axial deformation of frame (bending) members is neglected; since the area is
large the contribution to virtual work is small.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 12
At the level of the structure as a whole, we must account for all such sources of
Virtual Work. For the typical structures we study here, we account for the Virtual
Work done by axial and flexural members separately:
0
E I
i i i i i i
W
W W
y F e P M
=
=
= +
In which the first term on the RHS is the internal virtual work done by axial members
and the second term is that done by flexural members.
Again considering only axial and bending members, if a deflection is sought:
0
1
i i i i
L
x
i x
i
y F e P M
PL M
y P M dx
EA EI
= +
  (
= +

(
\ .
To solve such an indeterminate structure, we have the contributions to Virtual Work:
0 1
M M M = +
0 1
P P P = +
for the structure as a whole. Hence we have:
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Dr. C. Caprani 13
( ) ( )
( )
1
0
0 1 0 1
1
0
2
1
0 1 0 1
1 1
0
0
0 1
0
0
E I
i i i i i i
L
x
i x
i
L
x x
i x
i
L
x
x x
i i
i i
W
W W
y F e P M
PL M
P M dx
EA EI
P P L M M
P M dx
EA EI
M
P L P L M M
P P dx
EA EA EI
=
=
= +
  (
= +

(
\ .
  (
+ +
 = + (

(
\ .
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
0
L
dx
EI
Hence the multiplier can be found as:
( ) ( )
0 1 0 1
0
2 2
1 1
0
L
i i i
i i
L
i i i
i i
P P L M M
dx
EA EI
P L M
dx
EA EI
+
=
+
Note the negative sign!
Though these expressions are cumbersome, the ideas and the algebra are both simple.
Integration of Diagrams
We are often faced with the integration of various diagrams when using virtual work
to calculate the deflections, etc. As such diagrams only have a limited number of
shapes, a table of volume integrals is used.
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Dr. C. Caprani 14
2.3 Basic Examples
2.3.1 Example 1
Problem
For the following structure, find:
(a) The force in the cable BC and the bending moment diagram;
(b) The vertical deflection at D.
Take
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
16 10 kN EA = .
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Dr. C. Caprani 15
Solution Part (a)
This is a one degree indeterminate structure and so we must release one redundant.
We could choose many, but the most obvious is the cable, BC. We next analyze the
primary structure for the actual loads, and the unit virtual force placed in lieu of the
redundant:
From the derivation of Virtual Work for indeterminate structures, we have:
( )
2
1
0 1 0 1
1 1
0 0
0
L L
x
x x
i i
i i
M
P L P L M M
P P dx dx
EA EA EI EI
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
We evaluate each term separately to simplify the calculations and to minimize
potential calculation error.
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Dr. C. Caprani 16
Term 1:
This term is zero since
0
P is zero.
Term 2:
Only member BC contributes to this term and so it is:
1
1
1 2 2
1
i
i
P L
P
EA EA EA
 
= =

\ .
Term 3:
Here we must integrate the bending moment diagrams. We use the volume integral
for the portion AD of both diagrams. Thus we multiply a triangle by a trapezoid:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
0 1
0
1 1
40 2 2 4 2
6
400 3
L
x x
M M
dx
EI EI
EI
(
= +
(
=
Term 4:
Here we multiply the virtual BMD by itself so it is a triangle by a triangle:
( )
( )( )( )
2
1
0
1 1 64 3
4 4 4
3
L
x
M
dx
EI EI EI
(
= =
(
With all terms evaluated the Virtual Work equation becomes:
2 400 3 64 3
0 0
EA EI EI
= + +
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Dr. C. Caprani 17
Which gives:
400 3
400
2 64 3
6 64
EI
EI
EA EI EA
= =
+ +
Given that
3 3
8 10 16 10 0.5 EI EA = = , we have:
( )
400
5.97
6 0.5 64
= =
+
Thus there is a tension (positive answer) in the cable of 5.97 kN, giving the BMD as:
Note that this comes from:
( )( )
( )( )
0
0
40 5.97 4 16.1 kN
0 5.97 2 11.9 kN
A
D
M M M
M M M
= + = + =
= + = + =
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Dr. C. Caprani 18
Solution Part (b)
Recalling that the only requirement on applying virtual forces to calculate real
displacements is that an equilibrium system results, we can apply a vertical unit force
at D to the primary structure only:
The Virtual Work equation useful for deflection is:
0
1
i i i i
L
x
Dy i x
i
y F e P M
PL M
P M dx
EA EI
= +
  (
= +

(
\ .
Since 0 P = , we need only calculate the term involving the Virtual Work done by
the beam bending. This involves the volume integral of the two diagrams:
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Dr. C. Caprani 19
Note that only the portion AD will count as there is no virtual moment on DB. Thus
we have:
However, this shape is not easy to work with, given the table to hand. Therefore we
recall that the real BMD came about as the superposition of two BMD shapes that are
easier to work with, and so we have:
A further benefit of this approach is that an equation of deflection in terms of the
multiplier is got. This could then be used to determine for a particular design
requirement, and in turn this could inform the choice of EI EA ratio. Thus:
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
0
1 1 1
2 40 2 2 2 2 4 2
3 6
160 20
3
L
x
Dy x
M
M dx
EI
EI
EI
(
=
(
(
= + +
(
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Dr. C. Caprani 20
Given 5.97 = , we then have:
( )
3
3
160 20 5.97
13.9 13.9
10 1.7 mm
3 8 10
Dy
EI EI
= = = =
The positive answer indicates that the deflection is in the direction of the applied
virtual vertical force and so is downwards as expected.
We can also easily work out the deflection at B, since it is the same as the elongation
of the cable:
( )( )
3
3
5.97 2
10 0.75 mm
16 10
By
PL
EA
= = =
Draw the deflected shape of the structure.
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2.3.2 Example 2
Problem
For the following structure, find:
(a) The force in the cable CD and the bending moment diagram;
(b) Determine the optimum EA of the cable for maximum efficiency of the beam.
Take
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
48 10 kN EA = .
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Solution Part (a)
Choose the cable CD as the redundant to give:
The equation of Virtual Work relevant is:
( )
2
1
0 1 0 1
1 1
0 0
0
L L
x
x x
i i
i i
M
P L P L M M
P P dx dx
EA EA EI EI
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
We evaluate each term separately:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 23
Term 1:
This term is zero since
0
P is zero.
Term 2:
Only member CD contributes to this term and so it is:
1
1
1 2 2
1
i
i
P L
P
EA EA EA
 
= =

\ .
Term 3:
Here we must integrate the bending moment diagrams. We use the volume integral
for each half of the diagram, and multiply by 2, since we have two such halves.
( )( )( )
0 1
0
2 5
1 10 2
12
50 3
L
x x
M M
dx
EI EI
EI
(
=
(
=
Term 4:
Here we multiply the virtual BMD by itself:
( )
( )( )( )
2
1
0
2 1 4 3
1 1 2
3
L
x
M
dx
EI EI EI
(
= =
(
Thus the Virtual Work equation becomes:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 24
2 50 3 4 3
0 0
EA EI EI
= + +
Which gives:
50 3
50
2 4 3
6 4
EI
EI
EA EI EA
= =
+ +
Given that
3 3
8 10 48 10 0.167 EI EA = = , we have:
( )
50
10
6 0.167 4
= =
+
Thus there is a tension (positive answer) in the cable of 10 kN, giving:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 25
As designers, we want to control the flow of forces. In this example we can see that
by changing the ratio EI EA we can control the force in the cable, and the resulting
bending moments. We can plot the cable force and maximum sagging bending
moment against the stiffness ratio to see the behaviour for different relative
stiffnesses:
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Ratio EI/EA
Cable Tension (kN)
Sagging Moment (kNm)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 26
Solution Part (b)
Efficiency of the beam means that the moments are resisted by the smallest possible
beam. Thus the largest moment anywhere in the beam must be made as small as
possible. Therefore the hogging and sagging moments should be equal:
We know that the largest hogging moment will occur at 2 L . However, we do not
know where the largest sagging moment will occur. Lastly, we will consider sagging
moments positive and hogging moments negative. Consider the portion of the net
bending moment diagram, ( )
M x , from 0 to 2 L :
The equations of these bending moments are:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 27
( )
2
P
P
M x x =
( )
2
2 2
W
w wL
M x x x = +
Thus:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
W P
M x M x M x
wL w P
x x x
= +
=
The moment at 2 L is:
( )
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 8 4
8 4
wL L w L P L
M L
wL wL PL
wL PL
     
=
  
\ . \ . \ .
=
=
Which is as we expected. The maximum sagging moment between 0 and 2 L is
found at:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 28
( )
max
max
0
0
2 2
2 2
dM x
dx
wL P
wx
L P
x
w
=
=
=
Thus the maximum sagging moment has a value:
( )
2
max
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4
8 4 8
wL L P w L P P L P
M x
w w w
wL PL w L PL P PL P
w w w
wL PL P
w
     
=
  
\ . \ . \ .
 
= + +

\ .
= +
Since we have assigned a sign convention, the sum of the hogging and sagging
moments should be zero, if we are to achieve the optimum BMD. Thus:
( ) ( )
max
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2 0
0
8 4 8 8 4
0
4 2 8
1
0
8 2 4
M x M L
wL PL P wL PL
w
wL PL P
w
L wL
P P
w
+ =
( (
+ + =
( (
+ =
     
+ + =
  
\ . \ . \ .
This is a quadratic equation in P and so we solve for P using the usual method:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 29
( )
2 2
8
2 4 8
2
2 2 8
8
2 2
L L L
w L L
P
w
wL
 
= =

\ .
=
Since the load in the cable must be less than the total amount of load in the beam, that
is, P wL < , we have:
( )
2 2 0.586 P wL wL = =
With this value for P we can determine the hogging and sagging moments:
( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
8 4
2 2 3
8
0.0214
wL L
wL
M L
wL
wL
=
 
=

\ .
=
And:
( )
( )
2 2
max
2
2
2
2
8 4 8
2 2
2 2 3
8 8
3 2 2
8
0.0214
wL PL P
M x
w
wL
wL
w
wL
wL
 
= +

\ .
(
 
= +

\ .
 
=

\ .
= +
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 30
Lastly, the location of the maximum sagging moment is given by:
( )
( )
max
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 1
2
0.207
L P
x
w
wL
L
w
L
L
=
=
=
=
For our particular problem, 5 kN/m w= , 4 m L = , giving:
( )
0.586 5 4 11.72 kN P = =
( ) ( )
2
max
0.0214 5 4 1.71 kNm M x = =
Thus, as we expected, 10 kN P > , the value obtained from Part (a) of the problem.
Now since, we know P we now also know the required value of the multiplier, .
Hence, we write the virtual work equations again, but this time keeping Term 2 in
terms of L, since that is what we wish to solve for:
50
11.72
6 4
1 50
4 0.044
6 11.72
EI
EA
EI
EA
= =
+
 
= =

\ .
Giving
3 3
8 10 0.044 180.3 10 kN EA = = . This is 3.75 times the original cable area
a lot of extra material just to change the cable force by 17%. However, there is a
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 31
large saving by reducing the overall moment in the beam from 10 kNm (simply
supported) or 2.5 kNm (twospan beam) to 1.71 kNm.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 32
2.3.3 Example 3
Problem
For the following structure:
1. Determine the tension in the cable AB;
2. Draw the bending moment diagram;
3. Determine the vertical deflection at D with and without the cable AB.
Take
3 2
120 10 kNm EI = and
3
60 10 kN EA = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 33
Solution
As is usual, we choose the cable to be the redundant member and split the frame up
as follows:
Primary Structure Redundant Structure
We must examine the BMDs carefully, and identify expressions for the moments
around the arch. However, since we will be using virtual work and integrating one
diagram against another, we immediately see that we are only interested in the
portion of the structure CB. Further, we will use the anticlockwise angle from
vertical as the basis for our integration.
Primary BMD
Drawing the BMD and identify the relevant distances:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 34
Hence the expression for
0
M is:
( ) ( )
0
20 10 2sin 20 1 sin M
= + = +
Reactant BMD
This calculation is slightly easier:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 35
( ) ( )
1
1 2 2cos 2 1 cos M
= =
Virtual Work Equation
As before, we have the equation:
( )
2
1
0 1 0 1
1 1
0 0
0
L L
x
x x
i i
i i
M
P L P L M M
P P dx dx
EA EA EI EI
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
Term 1 is zero since there are no axial forces in the primary structure. We take each
other term in turn.
Term 2
Since only member AB has axial force:
( )
2
1 2
2
Term 2
EA EA
= =
Term 3
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 36
Since we want to integrate around the member an integrand ds  but only have the
moment expressed according to , we must change the integration limits by
substituting:
2 ds R d d = =
Hence:
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
2
0 1
0 0
2
0
2
0
1
2 1 cos 20 1 sin 2
80
1 cos 1 sin
80
1 sin cos cos sin
L
x x
M M
dx d
EI EI
d
EI
d
EI
= + ( (
= + +
= + +
To integrate this expression we refer to the appendix of integrals to get each of the
terms, which then give:
( )
2
0 1
0 0
80 1
cos sin cos2
4
80 1 1
0 1 1 0 1 0
2 4 4
80 1 1
1 1
2 4 4
80 1
2
L
x x
M M
dx
EI EI
EI
EI
EI
(
= + +
(
( (
= + + + +
`
( (
)
 
= + + +

\ .
 
=

\ .
Term 4
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 37
Proceeding similarly to Term 3, we have:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
2
0 0
2
2
0
1
2 1 cos 2 1 cos 2
8
1 2cos cos
L
x
M
dx d
EI EI
d
EI
= ( (
= +
Again we refer to the integrals appendix, and so for Term 4 we then have:
( )
( )
 
2
1
2
2
0 0
2
0
8
1 2cos cos
8 1
2sin sin2
2 4
8 1
2 0 0 0 0
2 4 4
8 3 7
4
L
x
M
dx d
EI EI
EI
EI
EI
= +
(
 
= + +

(
\ .
(
 
= + + + +
`

(
\ .
)
 
=

\ .
Solution
Substituting the calculated values into the virtual work equation gives:
2 80 1 8 3 7
0 0
2 4 EA EI EI
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
And so:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 38
80 1
2
2 8 3 7
4
EI
EA EI
 

\ .
=
 
+

\ .
Simplifying:
20 20
3 7
EI
EA
=
+
In this problem, 2 EI EA = and so:
20 20
9.68 kN
3 5
= =
We can examine the effect of different ratios of EI EA on the structure from our
algebraic solution for . We show this, as well as a point representing the solution
for this particular EI EA ratio on the following graph:
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Ratio EI/EA
F
a
c
t
o
r
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 39
As can be seen, by choosing a stiffer frame member (increasing EI) or by reducing
the area of the cable, we can reduce the force in the cable (which is just 1 ).
However this will have the effect of increasing the moment at A, for example:
Deflections and shear would also be affected.
Draw the final BMD and determine the deflection at D.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000
Ratio EI/EA
B
e
n
d
i
n
g
M
o
m
e
n
t
a
t
A
(
k
N
m
)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 40
2.3.4 Example 4
Problem
For the following structure:
1. draw the bending moment diagram;
2. Find the vertical deflection at E.
Take
3 2
120 10 kNm EI = and
3
60 10 kN EA = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 41
Solution
To begin we choose the cable BF as the obvious redundant, yielding:
Virtual Work Equation
The Virtual Work equation is as before:
( )
2
1
0 1 0 1
1 1
0 0
0
L L
x
x x
i i
i i
M
P L P L M M
P P dx dx
EA EA EI EI
   
= + + +
 
\ . \ .
Term 1 is zero since there are no axial forces in the primary structure. As we have
done previously, we take each other term in turn.
Term 2
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 42
Though member AB has axial force, it is primarily a flexural member and so we only
take account of the axial force in the cable BF:
1
1
1 2 2 2 2
1
i
i
P L
P
EA EA EA
 
 
= =


\ .
\ .
Term 3
Since only the portion AB has moment on both diagrams, it is the only section that
requires integration here. Thus:
( )
( )
( )
0 1
0
1 1 220 2
200 2 2
2
L
x x
M M
dx
EI EI EI
(
= =
(
Term 3
Similar to Term 3, we have:
( )
( )( )
( )
2
1
0
1 1 4 3
2 2 2
3
L
x
M
dx
EI EI EI
(
= =
(
Solution
Substituting the calculated values into the virtual work equation gives:
2 2 220 2 4 3
0 0
EA EI EI
= + +
Thus:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 43
220 2
2 2 4 3
EI
EA EI
=
+
And so:
220 2
4
2 2
3
EI
EA
=
+
Since:
3
3
120 10
2
60 10
EI
EA
= =
We have:
( )
220 2
40.46
4
2 2 2
3
= = +
+
Thus the force in the cable BF is 40.46 kN tension, as assumed.
The bending moment diagram follows from superposition of the two previous
diagrams:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 44
To find the vertical deflection at E, we must apply a unit vertical load at E. We will
apply a downwards load since we think the deflection is downwards. Therefore we
should get a positive result to confirm our expectation.
We need not apply the unit vertical force to the whole structure, as it is sufficient to
apply it to a statically determinate substructure. Thus we apply the force as follows:
For the deflection, we have the following equation:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 45
0
1
i i i i
L
x
Ey i x
i
y F e P M
PL M
P M dx
EA EI
= +
  (
= +

(
\ .
However, since 0 P = , we only need calculate the second term:
For AB we have:
( )( )( )
1 1 1371.2
200 142.8 4 2
2
B
x
x
A
M
M dx
EI EI EI
( (
= + =
( (
For BC we have:
( )( )( )
1 1600
200 4 2
C
x
x
B
M
M dx
EI EI EI
(
= = (
(
For CD, we have the following equations for the bending moments:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 46
( ) ( )( )
100 2sin
200sin
M
=
=
( ) ( )( )
2 1 2sin
2 2sin
M
= +
= +
Also note that we want to integrate around the member an integrand ds  but only
have the moment expressed according to , we must change the integration limits by
substituting:
2 ds R d d = =
Thus we have:
( )( )
( )
2
0
2
2
0
2 2
2
0 0
1
200sin 2 2sin 2
800
sin sin
800
sin sin
D
x
x
C
M
M dx d
EI EI
d
EI
d d
EI
(
= +
(
= +
(
= +
(
Taking each term in turn:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 47
  ( )
2
2
0
0
sin cos 0 1 1 d
= = = +
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0
1 1 1 1
sin sin 1 0 0
2 4 4 4 4 4
d
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
Thus:
800 1 200 600
1
4
D
x
x
C
M
M dx
EI EI EI
+
(  
= + =

(
\ .
Thus:
1371.2 1600 200 600 4200
Ey
EI EI EI EI
+
= + + = +
Thus we get a downwards deflection as expected. Also, since
3 2
120 10 kNm EI = ,
we have:
3
4200
35 mm
120 10
Ey
= =
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 48
2.3.5 Problems
Problem 1
For the following structure, find the BMD and the vertical deflection at D. Take
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
16 10 kN EA = .
(Ans. 7.8 = for BC, 1.93 mm
By
= )
Problem 2
For the following structure, find the BMD and the vertical deflection at C. Take
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
16 10 kN EA = .
(Ans. 25.7 = for BD, 25 mm
Cv
= )
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 49
Problem 3
For the following structure, find the BMD and the horizontal deflection at C. Take
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
16 10 kN EA = .
(Ans. 47.8 = for BD, 44.8 mm
Cx
= )
Problem 4
For the following structure, find the BMD and the vertical deflection at B. Take P =
20 kN,
3 2
8 10 kNm EI = and
3
16 10 kN EA = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 50
(Ans. 14.8 = for CD, 14.7 mm
By
= )
Problem 5
For the following structure, find the BMD and the vertical deflection at C. Take
3 2
50 10 kNm EI = and
3
20 10 kN EA = .
(Ans. 100.5 = for BC, 55.6 mm
Cy
= )
Problem 6
Analyze the following structure and determine the BMD and the vertical deflection at
D. For ABCD, take
2
10 kN/mm E = ,
4 2
12 10 mm A = and
8 4
36 10 mm I = , and for
AEBFC take
2
200 kN/mm E = and
3 2
2 10 mm A = .
(Ans. 109.3 = for BF, 54.4 mm
Cy
= )
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 51
Problem 7
Analyze the following structure. For all members, take
2
10 kN/mm E = , for ABC,
4 2
6 10 mm A = and
7 4
125 10 mm I = ; for all other members
2
1000 mm A = .
(Ans. 72.5 = for DE)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 52
2.4 Past Exam Questions
2.4.1 Sample Paper 2007
3. For the rigidly jointed frame shown in Fig. Q3, using Virtual Work:
(i) Determine the bending moment moments due to the loads as shown;
(15 marks)
(ii) Draw the bending moment diagram, showing all important values;
(4 marks)
(iii) Determine the reactions at A and E;
(3 marks)
(iv) Draw the deflected shape of the frame.
(3 marks)
Neglect axial effects in the flexural members.
Take the following values:
I for the frame =15010
6
mm
4
;
Area of the stay EB =100 mm
2
;
Take E =200 kN/mm
2
for all members.
FIG. Q3
A
C
D
10 kN
B
E
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 53
2.4.2 Semester 1 Exam 2007
3. For the rigidly jointed frame shown in Fig. Q3, using Virtual Work:
(i) Determine the bending moment moments due to the loads as shown;
(15 marks)
(ii) Draw the bending moment diagram, showing all important values;
(4 marks)
(iii) Determine the reactions at A and E;
(3 marks)
(iv) Draw the deflected shape of the frame.
(3 marks)
Neglect axial effects in the flexural members.
Take the following values:
I for the frame =15010
6
mm
4
;
Area of the stay EF =200 mm
2
;
Take E =200 kN/mm
2
for all members.
Ans. 35.0 = .
FIG. Q3
A
C
D
10 kN
B
E
20 kN
F
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 54
2.4.3 Semester 1 Exam 2008
QUESTION 3
For the frame shown in Fig. Q3, using Virtual Work:
(i) Determine the force in the tie;
(ii) Draw the bending moment diagram, showing all important values;
(iii) Determine the deflection at C;
(iv) Determine an area of the tie such that the bending moments in the beam are minimized;
(v) For this new area of tie, determine the deflection at C;
(vi) Draw the deflected shape of the structure.
(25 marks)
Note:
Neglect axial effects in the flexural members and take the following values:
For the frame,
6 4
600 10 mm I = ;
For the tie,
2
300 mm A = ;
For all members,
2
200 kN/mm E = .
Ans. 21.24 = ; 4.1 mm
Cy
= ;
2
2160 mm A = ; 2.0 mm
Cy
=
D
A
FIG. Q3
B
C
20 kN/m
TIE
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 55
2.4.4 Semester 1 Exam 2009
QUESTION 3
For the frame shown in Fig. Q3, using Virtual Work:
(i) Determine the axial forces in the members;
(ii) Draw the bending moment diagram, showing all important values;
(iii) Determine the reactions;
(iv) Determine the vertical deflection at D;
(v) Draw the deflected shape of the structure.
(25 marks)
Note:
Neglect axial effects in the flexural members and take the following values:
For the beam ABCD,
6 4
600 10 mm I = ;
For members BF and CE,
2
300 mm A = ;
For all members,
2
200 kN/mm E = .
Ans. 113.7 = (for CE); 55 mm
Dy
=
E
A
FIG. Q3
C
D
F
60 kN
B
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 56
2.4.5 Semester 1 Exam 2010
QUESTION 3
For the frame shown in Fig. Q3, using Virtual Work:
(i) Draw the bending moment diagram, showing all important values;
(ii) Determine the horizontal displacement at C;
(iii) Determine the vertical deflection at C;
(iv) Draw the deflected shape of the structure.
(25 marks)
Note:
Neglect axial effects in the flexural members and take the following values:
For the beam ABC,
3 2
5 10 kNm EI = ;
For member BD,
2
200 kN/mm E = and
2
200 mm A = ;
The following integral results may assist in your solution:
sin cos d =
1
cos sin cos2
4
d =
2
1
sin sin2
2 4
d
=
Ans. 37.1 = (for BD); 104 mm
Cx
= 83 mm
Cy
=
A
FIG. Q3
C
D
50 kN
B
Ans. 48.63 = (for BF); 108.4 mm
Dy
=
FIG. Q3
50 kN
E F
A
C
D
B
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 58
2.5 Appendix Trigonometric Integrals
2.5.1 Useful Identities
In the following derivations, use is made of the trigonometric identities:
1
cos sin sin2
2
= (1)
( )
2
1
cos 1 cos2
2
= + (2)
( )
2
1
sin 1 cos2
2
= (3)
Integration by parts is also used:
u dx ux x du C = +
(4)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 59
2.5.2 Basic Results
Neglecting the constant of integration, some useful results are:
cos sin d =
(5)
sin cos d =
(6)
1
sin cos a d a
a
=
(7)
1
cos sin a d a
a
=
(8)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 60
2.5.3 Common Integrals
The more involved integrals commonly appearing in structural analysis problems are:
cos sin d
Using identity (1) gives:
1
cos sin sin2
2
d d =
Next using (7), we have:
1 1 1
sin2 cos2
2 2 2
1
cos2
4
d
(
=
(
=
And so:
1
cos sin cos2
4
d =
(9)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 61
2
cos d
Using (2), we have:
( )
2
1
cos 1 cos2
2
1
1 cos2
2
d d
d d
= +
( = +
Next using (8):
1 1 1
1 cos2 sin2
2 2 2
1
sin2
2 4
d d
(
( + = +
(
= +
And so:
2
1
cos sin2
2 4
d
= +
(10)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 62
2
sin d
Using (3), we have:
( )
2
1
sin 1 cos2
2
1
1 cos2
2
d d
d d
=
( =
Next using (8):
1 1 1
1 cos2 sin2
2 2 2
1
sin2
2 4
d d
(
( =
(
=
And so:
2
1
sin sin2
2 4
d
=
(11)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 63
cos d
Using integration by parts write:
cos d u dx =
Where:
cos u dx d = =
To give:
du d =
And
cos
sin
dx d
x
=
=
Which uses (5). Thus, from (4), we have:
cos sin sin
u dx ux x du
d d
=
=
And so, using (6) we have:
cos sin cos d = +
(12)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 64
sin d
Using integration by parts write:
sin d u dx =
Where:
sin u dx d = =
To give:
du d =
And
sin
cos
dx d
x
=
=
Which uses (6). Thus, from (4), we have:
( ) ( )
sin cos cos
u dx ux x du
d d
=
=
And so, using (5) we have:
sin cos sin d = +
(13)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 65
( )
cos A d
Using integration by substitution, we write u A = to give:
1
du
d
du d
=
=
Thus:
( ) ( )
cos cos A d u du =
And since, using (5):
cos sin u du u =
We have:
( ) ( )
cos sin A d A =
(14)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 66
( )
sin A d
Using integration by substitution, we write u A = to give:
1
du
d
du d
=
=
Thus:
( ) ( )
sin sin A d u du =
And since, using (6):
( )
sin cos u du u =
We have:
( ) ( )
sin cos A d A =
(15)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 2 Virtual Work: Compound Structures
Dr. C. Caprani 67
2.6 Appendix Volume Integrals
1
3
jkl
1
6
jkl ( )
1 2
1
2
6
j j kl +
1
2
jkl
1
6
jkl
1
3
jkl ( )
1 2
1
2
6
j j kl +
1
2
jkl
( )
1 2
1
2
6
j k k l + ( )
1 2
1
2
6
j k k l +
( )
( )
1 1 2
2 1 2
1
2
6
2
j k k
j k k l
+ +
+ (
( )
1 2
1
2
j k k l +
1
2
jkl
1
2
jkl ( )
1 2
1
2
j j kl + jkl
( )
1
6
jk l a + ( )
1
6
jk l b +
( )
( )
1
2
1
6
j l b
j l a k
+ +
+ (
1
2
jkl
5
12
jkl
1
4
jkl ( )
1 2
1
3 5
12
j j kl +
2
3
jkl
1
4
jkl
5
12
jkl ( )
1 2
1
5 3
12
j j kl +
2
3
jkl
1
4
jkl
1
12
jkl ( )
1 2
1
3
12
j j kl +
1
3
jkl
1
12
jkl
1
4
jkl ( )
1 2
1
3
12
j j kl +
1
3
jkl
1
3
jkl
1
3
jkl ( )
1 2
1
3
j j kl +
2
3
jkl
l
j
l
j
l
j j
1 2
l
j
l
k
l
k
l
k k
1 2
l
k
a b
k
l
k
l
k
l
k
l
k
k
l
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 1
Chapter 3  Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 2
3.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 2
3.2 Ring Beam Examples .......................................................................................... 3
3.2.1 Example 1 ...................................................................................................... 3
3.2.2 Example 2 ...................................................................................................... 8
3.2.3 Example 3 .................................................................................................... 15
3.2.4 Example 4 .................................................................................................... 23
3.2.5 Example 5 .................................................................................................... 32
3.2.6 Review of Examples 1 5 ........................................................................... 53
3.3 Grid Examples ................................................................................................... 64
3.3.1 Example 1 .................................................................................................... 64
3.3.2 Example 2 .................................................................................................... 70
3.3.3 Example 3 .................................................................................................... 79
Rev. 1
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 2
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 General
To further illustrate the virtual work method applied to more complex structures, the
following sets of examples are given. The examples build upon each other to
illustrate how the analysis of a complex structure can be broken down.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 3
3.2 Ring Beam Examples
3.2.1 Example 1
Problem
For the quartercircle beam shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI
and GJ respectively, show that the deflection at A due to the point load, P, at A is:
3 3
3 8
4 4
Ay
PR PR
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 4
Solution
The point load will cause both bending and torsion in the beam member. Therefore
both effects must be accounted for in the deflection calculations. Shear effects are
ignored.
Drawing a plan view of the structure, we can identify the perpendicular distance of
the force, P, from the section of consideration, which we locate by the angle from
the yaxis:
The bending moment at C is P times the perpendicular distance AC , called m. The
torsion at C is the force times the transverse perpendicular distance CD , called t.
Using the triangle ODA, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 5
sin sin
cos cos
m
m R
R
OD
OD R
R
= =
= =
The distance CD , or t, is R OD , thus:
( )
cos
1 cos
t R OD
R R
R
=
=
=
Thus the bending moment at point C is:
( )
sin
M Pm
PR
=
=
(1)
The torsion at C is:
( )
( )
1 cos
T Pt
PR
=
=
(2)
Using virtual work, we have:
0
E I
Ay
W
W W
M T
F M ds T ds
EI GJ
=
=
= +
(3)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 6
This equation represents the virtual work done by the application of a virtual force,
F , in the vertical direction at A, with its internal equilibrium virtual moments and
torques, M and T and so is the equilibrium system. The compatible
displacements system is that of the actual deformations of the structure, externally at
A, and internally by the curvatures and twists, M EI and T GJ .
Taking the virtual force, 1 F = , and since it is applied at the same location and
direction as the actual force P, we have, from equations (1) and (2):
( )
sin M R = (4)
( ) ( )
1 cos T R = (5)
Thus, the virtual work equation, (3), becomes:
   ( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
1 1
1
1 1
sin sin 1 cos 1 cos
Ay
M M ds T T ds
EI GJ
PR R Rd PR R Rd
EI GJ
= +
= + ( (
(6)
In which we have related the curve distance, ds , to the arc distance, ds Rd = , which
allows us to integrate round the angle rather than along the curve. Multiplying out:
( )
2 2
3 3
2
2
0 0
sin 1 cos
Ay
PR PR
d d
EI GJ
= +
(7)
Considering the first term, from the integrals appendix, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 7
( )
2 2
2
0 0
1
sin sin2
2 4
1
0 0 0
4 4
4
d
(
=
(
(
 
=

(
\ .
=
(8)
The second term is:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
0 0
2 2 2
2
0 0 0
1 cos 1 2cos cos
1 2 cos cos
d d
d d d
= +
= +
(9)
Thus, from the integrals in the appendix:
( )    
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
0 0
0 0
1
1 cos 2 sin sin2
2 4
1
0 2 1 0 0 0 0
2 4 4
2
2 4
3 8
4
d
(
= + +
(
( (
   
= + + + (
 
( (
\ . \ .
= +
(10)
Substituting these results back into equation (7) gives the desired result:
3 3
3 8
4 4
Ay
PR PR
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
(11)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 8
3.2.2 Example 2
Problem
For the quartercircle beam shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI
and GJ respectively, show that the deflection at A due to the uniformly distributed
load, w, shown is:
( )
2
4 4
2
1
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
= +
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 9
Solution
The UDL will cause both bending and torsion in the beam member and both effects
must be accounted for. Again, shear effects are ignored.
Drawing a plan view of the structure, we must identify the moment and torsion at
some point C, as defined by the angle from the yaxis, caused by the elemental
load at E, located at from the yaxis. The load is given by:
Force UDL length
w ds
w R d
=
=
=
(12)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 10
The bending moment at C is the load at E times the perpendicular distance DE ,
labelled m. The torsion at C is the force times the transverse perpendicular distance
CD , labelled t. Using the triangle ODE, we have:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin sin
cos cos
m
m R
R
OD
OD R
R
= =
= =
The distance t is thus:
( )
( )
cos
1 cos
t R OD
R R
R
=
=
= (
The differential bending moment at point C, caused by the elemental load at E is
thus:
( )
 
  ( )
( )
2
Force Distance
sin
sin
dM
wRd m
wRd R
wR d
=
=
= (
=
Integrating to find the total moment at C caused by the UDL from A to C around the
angle 0 to gives:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 11
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
0
2
0
sin
sin
M dM
wR d
wR d
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
In this integral is a constant and only is considered a variable. Using the identity
from the integral table gives:
( ) ( )
( )
2
0
2
cos
cos0 cos
M wR
wR
=
=
= (
= (
And so:
( ) ( )
2
1 cos M wR = (13)
Along similar lines, the torsion at C caused by the load at E is:
( )  
  ( )
{ }
( )
2
1 cos
1 cos
dT wRd t
wRd R
wR d
=
= (
= (
And integrating for the total torsion at C:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 12
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
0
2
0
2
0 0
1 cos
1 cos
1 cos
T dT
wR d
wR d
wR d d
=
=
=
=
= =
= =
=
= (
= (
=
`
)
Using the integral identity for ( )
cos gives:
( )   ( )
{ }
  { }
2
0
0
2
sin
sin0 sin
T wR
wR
=
=
=
=
= (
= +
And so the total torsion at C is:
( ) ( )
2
sin T wR = (14)
To determine the deflection at A, we apply a virtual force, F , in the vertical
direction at A. Along with its internal equilibrium virtual moments and torques, M
and T and this set forms the equilibrium system. The compatible displacements
system is that of the actual deformations of the structure, externally at A, and
internally by the curvatures and twists, M EI and T GJ . Therefore, using virtual
work, we have:
0
E I
Ay
W
W W
M T
F M ds T ds
EI GJ
=
=
= +
(15)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 13
Taking the virtual force, 1 F = , and using the equation for moment and torque at
any angle from Example 1, we have:
( )
sin M R = (16)
( ) ( )
1 cos T R = (17)
Thus, the virtual work equation, (15), using equations (13) and (14), becomes:
( )  
( ) ( )
2
2
0
2
2
0
1 1
1
1
1 cos sin
1
sin 1 cos
Ay
M M ds T T ds
EI GJ
wR R Rd
EI
wR R Rd
GJ
= +
( =
( + (
(18)
In which we have related the curve distance, ds , to the arc distance, ds Rd =
allowing us to integrate round the angle rather than along the curve. Multiplying out:
( )
( )
2
4
0
2
4
0
sin sin cos
sin cos cos sin
Ay
wR
d
EI
wR
d
GJ
=
+ +
(19)
Using the respective integrals from the appendix yields:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 14
( )
( ) ( )
2
4
0
2
4 2
0
4
4 2
4
4 2
1
cos cos2
4
1
cos sin cos cos2
2 4
1 1
0 1
4 4
1 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
8 2 4 4
1
2
1 1
8 2 4 4
Ay
wR
EI
wR
GJ
wR
EI
wR
GJ
wR
EI
wR
GJ
(
= +
(
(
+ + +
(
(
   
= +
 
(
\ . \ .
(
 
   
+ + + + +
(   
\ . \ .
\ .
(
=
(
+ + +
(
(
Writing the second term as a common fraction:
4 4 2
1 4 4
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
  +
= +

\ .
And then factorising, gives the required deflection at A:
( )
2
2
4 4
2
1
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
= + (20)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 15
3.2.3 Example 3
Problem
For the quartercircle beam shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI
and GJ respectively, show that the vertical reaction at A due to the uniformly
distributed load, w, shown is:
( )
( )
2
4 2
2 2 3 8
A
V wR
(
+
=
(
+
(
where
GJ
EI
= .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 16
Solution
This problem can be solved using two apparently different methods, but which are
equivalent. Indeed, examining how they are equivalent leads to insights that make
more difficult problems easier, as we shall see in subsequent problems. For both
approaches we will make use of the results obtained thus far:
Deflection at A due to UDL:
( )
2
4 4
2
1
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
= + (21)
Deflection at A due to point load at A:
3 3
3 8
4 4
Ay
PR PR
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
(22)
Using Compatibility of Displacement
The basic approach, which does not require virtual work, is to use compatibility of
displacement in conjunction with superposition. If we imagine the support at A
removed, we will have a downwards deflection at A caused by the UDL, which
equation (21) gives us as:
( )
2
4 4
0
2
1
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
= + (23)
As illustrated in the following diagram.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 17
Since in the original structure we will have a support at A we know there is actually
no displacement at A. The vertical reaction associated with the support at A, called V,
must therefore be such that it causes an exactly equal and opposite deflection,
V
Ay
, to
that of the UDL,
0
Ay
, so that we are left with no deflection at A:
0
0
V
Ay Ay
+ = (24)
Of course we dont yet know the value of V, but from equation (22), we know the
deflection caused by a unit load placed in lieu of V:
3 3
1
1 1 3 8
4 4
Ay
R R
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
(25)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 18
This is shown in the following diagram:
Using superposition, we know that the deflection caused by the reaction, V, is V times
the deflection caused by a unit load:
1 V
Ay Ay
V = (26)
Thus equation (24) becomes:
0 1
0
Ay Ay
V + = (27)
Which we can solve for V:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 19
0
1
Ay
Ay
V
= (28)
If we take downwards deflections to be positive, we then have, from equations(23),
(25), and (28):
( )
2
4 4
3 3
2
1
2 8
1 1 3 8
4 4
wR wR
EI GJ
V
R R
EI GJ
 
+


\ .
=
(
 
+

(
\ .
(29)
The two negative signs cancel, leaving us with a positive value for V indicating that it
is in the same direction as the unit load, and so is upwards as expected. Introducing
GJ
EI
= and doing some algebra on equation (29) gives:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 2
1 2
1
2
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 3 8
2 8 4 4
2
1 1 1 3 8
2 8 4 4
4 2 3 8
8 4
4 2
8
8 2 2 3 8
V wR
EI EI EI EI
wR
wR
wR
 
(
 
= + +

 (

\ .
\ .
 
(
 
= + +

 (

\ .
\ .
 
+ + (
=

(

\ .
 
(
+
=

(

+
\ .
And so we finally have the required reaction at A as:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 20
( )
( )
2
4 2
2 2 3 8
A
V wR
 
+
=


+
\ .
(30)
Using Virtual Work
To calculate the reaction at A using virtual work, we use the following:
Equilibrium system: the external and internal virtual forces corresponding to a
unit virtual force applied in lieu of the required reaction;
Compatible system: the real external and internal displacements of the original
structure subject to the real applied loads.
Thus the virtual work equations are:
0
E I
Ay
W
W W
F M ds T ds
=
=
= +
(31)
At this point we introduce some points:
The real external deflection at A is zero: 0
Ay
= ;
The virtual force, 1 F = ;
The real curvatures can be expressed using the real bending moments,
M
EI
= ;
The real twists are expressed from the torque,
T
GJ
= .
These combine to give, from equation (31):
0 0
0 1
L L
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
( (
= +
( (
(32)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 21
Next, we use superposition to express the real internal forces as those due to the real
loading applied to the primary structure plus a multiplier times those due to the unit
virtual load applied in lieu of the reaction:
0 1 0 1
M M M T T T = + = + (33)
Notice that
1
M M = and
1
T T = , but they are still written with separate notation to
keep the ideas clear. Thus equation (32) becomes:
( ) ( )
0 1 0 1
0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0
0
0
L L
L L L L
M M T T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
M M T T
M ds M ds T ds T ds
EI EI GJ GJ
( (
+ +
= + ( (
( (
= + + +
(34)
And so finally:
0 0
0 0
1 1
0 0
L L
L L
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
(
+
(
=
(
+
(
(35)
At this point we must note the similarity between equations (35) and (28). From
equation (3), it is clear that the numerator in equation (35) is the deflection at A of the
primary structure subject to the real loads. Further, from equation (15), the
denominator in equation (35) is the deflection at A due to a unit (virtual) load at A.
Neglecting signs, and generalizing somewhat, we can arrive at an empirical
equation for the calculation of redundants:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 22
of primary structure along
due to actual loads
line of action of redundant due to unit redundant
=
`
)
(36)
Using this form we will quickly be able to determine the solutions to further ring
beam problems.
The solution for follows directly from the previous examples:
The numerator is determined as per Example 1;
The denominator is determined as per Example 2, with 1 P = .
Of course, these two steps give the results of equations (23) and (25) which were
used in equation (28) to obtain equation (29), and leading to the solution, equation
(30).
From this it can be seen that compatibility of displacement and virtual work are
equivalent ways of looking at the problem. Also it is apparent that the virtual work
framework inherently calculates the displacements required in a compatibility
analysis. Lastly, equation (36) provides a means for quickly calculating the redundant
for other arrangements of the structure from the existing solutions, as will be seen in
the next example.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 23
3.2.4 Example 4
Problem
For the structure shown, the quartercircle beam has flexural and torsional rigidities
of EI and GJ respectively and the cable has axial rigidity EA, show that the tension in
the cable due to the uniformly distributed load, w, shown is:
( ) ( )
1
2
3
4 2 2 2 3 8 8
L
T wR
R
(
(
= + + +
(
where
GJ
EI
= and
EA
EI
= .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 24
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 25
Solution
For this solution, we will use the insights gained from Example 3, in particular
equation (36). We will then verify this approach using the usual application of virtual
work. We will be choosing the cable as the redundant throughout.
Empirical Form
Repeating our empirical equation here:
of primary structure along
due to actual loads
line of action of redundant due to unit redundant
=
`
)
(37)
We see that we already know the numerator: the deflection at A in the primary
structure, along the line of the redundant (vertical, since the cable is vertical), due to
the actual loads on the structure is just the deflection of Example 1:
( )
2
4 4
0
2
1
2 8
Ay
wR wR
EI GJ
= + (38)
This is shown below:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 26
Next we need to identify the deflection of the primary structure due to a unit
redundant, as shown below:
The components that make up this deflection are:
Deflection of curved beam caused by unit load (bending and torsion);
Deflection of the cable AC caused by the unit tension.
The first of these is simply the unit deflection of Example 3, equation (25):
( )
3 3
1
1 1 3 8
beam
4 4
Ay
R R
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
(39)
The second of these is not intuitive, but does feature in the virtual work equations, as
we shall see. The elongation of the cable due to a unit tension is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 27
( )
1
1
cable
Ay
L
EA
= (40)
Thus the total deflection along the line of the redundant, of the primary structure, due
to a unit redundant is:
( ) ( )
1 1 1
3 3
beam cable
1 1 3 8 1
4 4
Ay Ay Ay
R R L
EI GJ EA
= +
 
= + +

\ .
(41)
Both sets of deflections (equations (39) and (41)) are figuratively summarized as:
And by making
0 1
Ay Ay
T = , where T is the tension in the cable, we obtain our
compatibility equation for the redundant. Thus, from equations (37), (38) and (41) we
have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 28
( )
2
4 4
3 3
2
1
2 8
1 1 3 8 1
4 4
wR wR
EI GJ
T
R R L
EI GJ EA
+
(
(
=
(
 
+ +

(
\ .
(42)
Setting
GJ
EI
= and
EA
EI
= , and performing some algebra gives:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
1 1 1 1 1 3 8
2 8 4 4
4 2 3 8
8 4
8
2 2 3 8
4 2
8 8
L
T wR
EI EI EI EI R EI
L
wR
R
L
R
wR
(
(
 
= + + +
(
 (
\ .
(
(
+ + (
= +
(
(
(
(
+ +
(
+
(
=
(
(
(
(
(43)
Which finally gives the required tension as:
( ) ( )
1
2
3
4 2 2 2 3 8 8
L
T wR
R
(
(
= + + +
(
(44)
Comparing this result to the previous result, equation (30), for a pinned support at A,
we can see that the only difference is the term related to the cable:
3
8
L
R
. Thus the
reaction (or tension in the cable) at A depends on the relative stiffnesses of the beam
and cable (through the
3
R
EI
,
3
R
GJ
and
L
EA
terms inherent through and ). This
dependence on relative stiffness is to be expected.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 29
Formal Virtual Work Approach
Without the use of the insight that equation (37) gives, the more formal application of
virtual work will, of course, yield the same result. To calculate the tension in the
cable using virtual work, we use the following:
Equilibrium system: the external and internal virtual forces corresponding to a
unit virtual force applied in lieu of the redundant;
Compatible system: the real external and internal displacements of the original
structure subject to the real applied loads.
Thus the virtual work equations are:
0
E I
Ay
W
W W
F M ds T ds e P
=
=
= + +
(45)
In this equation we have accounted for all the major sources of displacement (and
thus virtual work). At this point we acknowledge:
There is no external virtual force applied, only an internal tension, thus 0 F = ;
The real curvatures and twists are expressed using the real bending moments and
torques as
M
EI
= and
T
GJ
= respectively;
The elongation of the cable is the only source of axial displacement and is
written in terms of the real tension in the cable, P, as
PL
e
EA
= .
These combine to give, from equation (45):
0 0
0
L L
Ay
M T PL
M ds T ds P
EI GJ EA
( (
= + +
( (
(46)
As was done in Example 3, using superposition, we write:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 30
0 1 0 1 0 1
M M M T T T P P P = + = + = + (47)
However, we know that there is no tension in the cable in the primary structure, since
it is the cable that is the redundant and is thus removed, hence
0
0 P = . Using this and
equation (47) in equation (46) gives:
( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 0 1 1
0 0
0
L L
M M T T P L
M ds T ds P
EI GJ EA
( (
+ +
= + + ( (
( (
(48)
Hence:
0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0
1
0
L L
L L
M M
M ds M ds
EI EI
T T
T ds T ds
GJ GJ
P L
P
EA
= +
+ +
+
(49)
And so finally:
0 0
0 0
1 1 1
0 0
L L
L L
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
M T P L
M ds T ds P
EI GJ EA
(
+
(
=
(
+ +
(
(50)
Equation (50) matches equation (35) except for the term relating to the cable. Thus
the other four terms are evaluated exactly as per Example 3. The cable term,
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 31
1
P L
P
EA
, is easily found once it is recognized that
1
1 P P = = as was the case for
the moment and torsion in Example 3. With all the terms thus evaluated, equation
(50) becomes the same as equation (42) and the solution progresses as before.
The virtual work approach yields the same solution, but without the added insight of
the source of each of the terms in equation (50) represented by equation (37).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 32
3.2.5 Example 5
Problem
For the structure shown, the quartercircle beam has the properties:
torsional rigidity of GJ;
flexural rigidity about the local yy axis
Y
EI ;
flexural rigidity about the local zz axis
Z
EI .
The cable has axial rigidity EA. Show that the tension in the cable due to the
uniformly distributed load, w, shown is:
( )
( )
1
2
2
4 2
1 1 8 2
1 3 8
2
T wR
R
(
(
+
 
= + + +
(
( 
\ .
(
where
Y
GJ
EI
= ,
Y
EA
EI
= and
Z
Y
EI
EI
= .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 33
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 34
Solution
We will carry out this solution using both the empirical and virtual work approaches
as was done for Example 4. However, it is in this example that the empirical
approach will lead to savings in effort over the virtual work approach, as will be seen.
Empirical Form
Repeating our empirical equation:
of primary structure along
due to actual loads
line of action of redundant due to unit redundant
=
`
)
(51)
We first examine the numerator with the following yz axis elevation of the primary
structure loaded with the actual loads:
Noting that it is the deflection along the line of the redundant that is of interest, we
can draw the following:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 35
The deflection
Az
, which is the distance ' AA is known from Example 2 to be:
( )
2
4 4
2
1
2 8
Az
wR wR
EI GJ
= + (52)
It is the deflection '' AA that is of interest here. Since the triangle AAA is a 11
2 triangle, we have:
, 4
2
Az
A
= (53)
And so the numerator is thus:
( )
2
4 4
0
2
2 2 8 2
A
wR wR
GJ EI
= + (54)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 36
To determine the denominator of equation (51) we must apply a unit load in lieu of
the redundant (the cable) and determine the deflection in the direction of the cable.
Firstly we will consider the beam. We can determine the deflection in the z and y
axes separately and combine, by examining the deflections that the components of the
unit load cause:
To find the deflection that a force of
1
2
causes in the z and yaxes directions, we
will instead find the deflections that unit loads cause in these directions, and then
divide by 2.
Since we are now calculating deflections in two orthogonal planes of bending, we
must consider the different flexural rigidities the beam will have in these two
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 37
directions:
Y
EI for the horizontal plane of bending (vertical loads), and
Z
EI for loads
in the xy plane, as shown in the figure:
First, consider the deflection at A in the zdirection, caused by a unit load in the z
direction, as shown in the following diagram. This is the same as the deflection
calculated in Example 1 and used in later examples:
3 3
1
1 1 3 8
4 4
Az
Y
R R
EI GJ
 
= +

\ .
(55)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 38
Considering the deflection at A in the ydirection next, we see from the following
diagram that we do not have this result to hand, and so must calculate it:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 39
Looking at the elevation of the xy plane, we have:
The lever arm, m, is:
sin m R = (56)
Thus the moment at point C is:
( )
1 1 sin M m R = = (57)
Using virtual work:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 40
0
1
E I
Ay
W
W W
M ds
=
=
=
(58)
In which we note that there is no torsion term, as the unit load in the xy plane does
not cause torsion in the structure. Using
Z
M EI = and ds Rd = :
2
0
1
Ay
Z
M
M Rd
EI
=
(59)
Since sin M M R = = , and assuming the beam is prismatic, we have:
3 2
2
0
1 sin
Ay
z
R
d
EI
=
(60)
This is the same as the first term in equation (7) and so immediately we obtain the
solution as that of the first term of equation (11):
3
1
4
Ay
z
R
EI
= (61)
In other words, the bending deflection at A in the xy plane is the same as that in the
zy plane. This is apparent given that the lever arm is the same in both cases.
However, the overall deflections are not the same due to the presence of torsion in the
zy plane.
Now that we have the deflections in the two orthogonal planes due to the units loads,
we can determine the deflections in these planes due to the load
1
2
:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 41
3
1 2
1 1 3 8
4 4 2
Az
Y
R
EI GJ
(
 
= +
 (
\ .
(62)
3
1 2
1
4 2
Ay
z
R
EI
(
=
(
(63)
The deflection along the line of action of the redundant is what is of interest:
Looking at the contributions of each of these deflections along the line of action of
the redundant:
From this we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 42
1 2
3
3
1
2
1 1 1 3 8
4 4 2 2
1 1 3 8
2 4 4
Az Az
Y
Y
AE
R
EI GJ
R
EI GJ
=
(
 
= +
 (
\ .
(
 
= +
 (
\ .
(64)
1 2
3
3
1
2
1 1
4 2 2
1
2 4
Ay Ay
z
z
AD
R
EI
R
EI
=
(
=
(
(
=
(
(65)
Thus the total deflection along the line of action of the redundant is:
1
, 4
3 3
1 1 3 8 1
2 4 4 2 4
A Az Ay
Y z
AE AD
R R
EI GJ EI
= +
( (
 
= + +
 ( (
\ .
(66)
This gives, finally:
3
1
, 4
1 1 1 3 8
2 4 4
A
Y z
R
EI EI GJ
(
 
 
= + +
(  
\ .
\ .
(67)
To complete the denominator of equation (51), we must include the deflection that
the cable undergoes due to the unit tension that is the redundant:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 43
1
2
L
e
EA
R
EA
=
=
(68)
The relationship between R and L is due to the geometry of the problem the cable is
at an angle of 45.
Thus the denominator of equation (51) is finally:
3
1
, 4
2
1 1 1 3 8 2 2
2 4 4
A
Y z
R
EI EI GJ R EA
(
 
 
= + + +
(  
\ .
\ .
(69)
The solution for the tension in the cable becomes, from equations (51), (54) and (69):
( )
2
4
3
2
2
1 1
2 2 8 2
1 1 1 3 8 2 2
2 4 4
Y z
wR
GJ EI
T
R
EI EI GJ R EA
+
(
(
=
(
 
 
+ + +
(  
\ .
\ .
(70)
Using
Y
GJ
EI
= ,
Y
EA
EI
= and
Z
Y
EI
EI
= , we have:
( )
2
1
2
2
1 1
2 2 8 2
1 1 1 3 8 2
8 8
Y Y
Y Y Y Y
T wR
EI EI
EI EI EI R EI
= +
(
(
(
 
 
+ + +
(  
\ .
\ .
(71)
Continuing the algebra:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 44
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 1 1 1 3 8 2
1
8 8 2 2 8 2
4 2
1 1 8 2
1 3 8
8 8 8 8 2
T wR
R
wR
R
(
(
   
= + + + +
(
(  
\ . \ .
(
(
( +
 
= + + +
(
( 
\ .
(
(72)
Which finally gives the desired result:
( )
( )
1
2
2
4 2
1 1 8 2
1 3 8
2
T wR
R
(
(
+
 
= + + +
(
( 
\ .
(
(73)
Formal Virtual Work Approach
In the empirical approach carried out above there were some steps that are not
obvious. Within a formal application of virtual work we will see how the results of
the empirical approach are obtained naturally.
Following the methodology of the formal virtual work approach of Example 4, we
can immediately jump to equation (46):
0 0
0
L L
Ay
M T PL
M ds T ds P
EI GJ EA
( (
= + +
( (
(74)
For the next step we need to recognize that the unit redundant causes bending about
both axes of bending and so the first term in equation (74) must become:
0 0 0
L L L
Y Z
Y Z
Y Z
M M M
M ds M ds M ds
EI EI EI
( (
(
= +
( (
(
(75)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 45
In which the notation
Y
M and
Z
M indicate the final bending moments of the actual
structure about the YY and ZZ axes of bending respectively. Again we use
superposition for the moments, torques and axial forces:
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
Y Y Y
Z Z Z
M M M
M M M
T T T
P P P
= +
= +
= +
= +
(76)
We do not require more torsion terms since there is only torsion in the zy plane. With
equations (75) and (76), equation (74) becomes:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 1 0 1
0 0
0 1 0 1
0
0
L L
Y Y Z Z
Y Z
Y Z
L
M M M M
M ds M ds
EI EI
T T P P L
T ds P
GJ EA
( (
+ +
= + ( (
( (
(
+ +
+ + (
(
(77)
Multiplying out gives:
0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 1
0
L L
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
L L
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
L L
M M
M ds M ds
EI EI
M M
M ds M ds
EI EI
T T
T ds T ds
GJ GJ
P L P L
P P
EA EA
= +
+ +
+ +
+ +
(78)
At this point we recognize that some of the terms are zero:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 46
There is no axial force in the primary structure since the cable is cut, and so
0
0 P = ;
There is no bending in the xy plane (about the zz axis of the beam) in the
primary structure as the loading is purely vertical, thus
0
0
Z
M = .
Including these points, and solving for gives:
0 0
0 0
1 1 1 1
0 0 0
L L
Y
Y
Y
L L L
Y Z
Y Z
Y Z
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
M M T P L
M ds M ds T ds P
EI EI GJ EA
(
+
(
=
(
+ + +
(
(79)
We will next examine this expression termbyterm.
0
0
L
Y
Y
Y
M
M ds
EI
For this term,
0
Y
M are the moments caused by the UDL about the yy axis of bending,
as per equation (13):
( ) ( )
0 2
1 cos
Y
M wR = (80)
Y
M are the moments about the same axis caused by the unit redundant. Since this
redundant acts at an angle of 45 to the plane of interest, these moments are caused
by its vertical component of
1
2
. From equation (4), we thus have:
( )
1
sin
2
Y
M R = (81)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 47
Notice that we have taken it that downwards loading causes positive bending
moments. Thus we have:
( )
( )
0
2
0 0
2
3
0
1 1
1 cos sin
2
sin sin cos
2
L L
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
M
M ds wR R ds
EI EI
wR
Rd
EI
(
( =
(
=
(82)
In which we have used the relation ds Rd = . From the integral appendix we thus
have:
 
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 4
2
0
0 0
3
1
cos cos2
4 2
1
0 1 1 1
4 2
L
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
M wR
M ds
EI EI
wR
EI
(
=
`
(
)
= + ( (
`
)
(83)
And so finally:
0 4
0
2 2
L
Y
Y
Y Y
M wR
M ds
EI EI
=
(84)
0
0
L
T
T ds
GJ
The torsion caused by the UDL in the primary structure is the same as that from
equation (14):
( ) ( )
0 2
sin T wR = (85)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 48
Similarly to the bending term, the torsion caused by the unit redundant is
1
2
that of
the unit load of equation (17):
( ) ( )
1
1 cos
2
T R = (86)
Again note that we take the downwards loads as causing positive torsion. Noting
ds Rd = we thus have:
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
0
2
0 0
2
4
0
1 1
sin 1 cos
2
sin 1 cos
2
L
T
T ds wR R Rd
GJ GJ
wR
d
GJ
(
( =
(
=
(87)
This integral is exactly that of the second term in equation (19). Hence we can take its
result from equation (20) to give:
( )
2
2
0 4
0
2
8 2
L
T wR
T ds
GJ GJ
(88)
1
0
L
Y
Y
Y
M
M ds
EI
For this term we recognize that
1
Y Y
M M = and are the moments caused by the
1
2
component of the unit redundant in the vertical direction and are thus given by
equation (1):
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 49
( )
1
1
sin
2
Y Y
M M R = = (89)
Hence this term becomes:
1 2
0 0
3 2
2
0
1 1 1
sin sin
2 2
sin
2
L
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
M
M ds R R Rd
EI EI
R
d
EI
( (
=
( (
=
(90)
From the integral tables we thus have:
( )
2
1 3
0
0
3
1
sin2
2 2 4
1
0 0 0
2 4 4
L
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
M R
M ds
EI EI
R
EI
(
=
(
(
 
=

(
\ .
(91)
And so we finally have:
1 3
0
8
L
Y
Y
Y Y
M R
M ds
EI EI
(92)
1
0
L
Z
Z
Z
M
M ds
EI
Again we recognize that
1
Z Z
M M = and are the moments caused by the
1
2
component of the unit redundant in the xy plane and are thus given by equation (57).
Hence this term becomes:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 50
1 2
0 0
1 1 1
sin sin
2 2
L
Y
Y
Y Y
M
M ds R R Rd
EI EI
( (
=
( (
(93)
This is the same as equation (90) except for the different flexural rigidity, and so the
solution is got from equation (92) to be:
1 3
0
8
L
Z
Z
Z Z
M R
M ds
EI EI
(94)
1
0
L
T
T ds
GJ
Once again note that
1
T T = and are the torques caused by the
1
2
vertical
component of the unit redundant. From equation (2), then we have:
( )
1
1
1 cos
2
T T R = = (95)
Thus:
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
0 0
2
3
2
0
1 1 1
1 cos 1 cos
2 2
1 cos
2
L
T
T ds R R Rd
GJ GJ
R
d
GJ
( (
=
( (
=
(96)
This integral is that of equation (9) and so the solution is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 51
1 3
0
3 8
8
L
T R
T ds
GJ GJ
 
=

\ .
(97)
1
P L
P
EA
Lastly then, since
1
1 P P = = and 2 L R = , this term is easily calculated to be:
1
2 P L R
P
EA EA
= (98)
With the values for all terms now worked out, we substitute these values into
equation (79) to determine the cable tension:
( )
2
2
4 4
3 3 3
2
8 2 2 2
3 8 2
8 8 8
Y
Y Z
wR wR
EI GJ
R R R R
EI EI GJ EA
(
(
=
(
 
+ + +
( 
\ .
(99)
Cancelling the negatives and rearranging gives:
( )
2
4
3
2
2
1 1
2 2 8 2
1 1 1 3 8 2 2
2 4 4
Y
Y z
wR
GJ EI
T
R
EI EI GJ R EA
+
(
(
=
(
 
 
+ + +
(  
\ .
\ .
(100)
And this is the same as equation (70) and so the solution can proceed as before to
obtain the tension in the cable as per equation (73).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 52
Comparison of the virtual work with the empirical form illustrates the interpretation
of each of the terms in the virtual work equation that is inherent in the empirical view
of such problems.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 53
3.2.6 Review of Examples 1 5
Example 1
For a radius of 2 m and a point load of 10 kN, the bending and torsion moment
diagrams are:
Using the equations derived in Example 1, the Matlab script for this is:
f unct i on Ri ngBeam_Ex1
%Exampl e 1
R = 2; %m
P = 10; %kN
t het a = 0: ( pi / 2) / 50: pi / 2;
M = P*R*si n( t het a) ;
T = P*R*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
hol d on;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , M, ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , T, ' r   ' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Moment ( kNm) ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Degr ees f r omY axi s' ) ;
l egend( ' Bendi ng' , ' Tor si on' , ' l ocat i on' , ' NW' ) ;
hol d of f ;
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0
5
10
15
20
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
m
)
Degrees from Yaxis
Bending
Torsion
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 54
Example 2
For a radius of 2 m and a UDL of 10 kN/m, the bending and torsion moment
diagrams are:
Using the equations derived in Example 2, the Matlab script for this is:
f unct i on Ri ngBeam_Ex2
%Exampl e 2
R = 2; %m
w = 10; %kN/ m
t het a = 0: ( pi / 2) / 50: pi / 2;
M = w*R^2*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
T = w*R^2*( t het a si n( t het a) ) ;
hol d on;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , M, ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , T, ' r   ' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Moment ( kNm) ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Degr ees f r omY axi s' ) ;
l egend( ' Bendi ng' , ' Tor si on' , ' l ocat i on' , ' NW' ) ;
hol d of f ;
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
m
)
Degrees from Yaxis
Bending
Torsion
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 55
Example 3
For the parameters given below, the bending and torsion moment diagrams are:
Using the equations derived in Example 3, the Matlab script for this is:
f unct i on [ M T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex3( bet a)
%Exampl e 3
R = 2; %m
w = 10; %kN/ m
I = 2. 7e7; %mm4
J = 5. 4e7; %mm4
E = 205; %kN/ mm2
v = 0. 30; %Poi sson' s Rat i o
G = E/ ( 2*( 1+v) ) ; %Shear modul us
EI = E*I / 1e6; %kNm2
GJ = G*J / 1e6; %kNm2
i f nar gi n < 1
bet a = GJ / EI ; %Tor si on st i f f ness r at i o
end
al pha = w*R*( 4*bet a+( pi  2) ^2) / ( 2*bet a*pi +2*( 3*pi  8) ) ;
t het a = 0: ( pi / 2) / 50: pi / 2;
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
X: 90
Y: 17.19
X: 59.4
Y: 4.157
X: 90
Y: 0.02678 M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
m
)
Degrees from Yaxis
X: 28.8
Y: 6.039
Bending
Torsion
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 56
M0 = w*R^2*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
T0 = w*R^2*( t het a si n( t het a) ) ;
M1 =  R*si n( t het a) ;
T1 =  R*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
M = M0 + al pha. *M1;
T = T0 + al pha. *T1;
i f nar gi n < 1
hol d on;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , M, ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , T, ' r   ' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Moment ( kNm) ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Degr ees f r omY axi s' ) ;
l egend( ' Bendi ng' , ' Tor si on' , ' l ocat i on' , ' NW' ) ;
hol d of f ;
end
The vertical reaction at A is found to be 11.043 kN. Note that the torsion is
(essentially) zero at support B. Other relevant values for bending moment and torsion
are given in the graph.
By changing , we can examine the effect of the relative stiffnesses on the vertical
reaction at A, and consequently the bending moments and torsions. In the following
plot, the reaction at A and the maximum and minimum bending and torsion moments
are given for a range of values.
Very small values of reflect little torsional rigidity and so the structure movements
will be dominated by bending solely. Conversely, large values of reflect structures
with small bending stiffness in comparison to torsional stiffness. At either extreme
the variables converge to asymptotes of extreme behaviour. For 0.1 10 the
variables are sensitive to the relative stiffnesses. Of course, this reflects the normal
range of values for .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 57
The Matlab code to produce this figure is:
%Var i at i on wi t h Bet a
bet a = l ogspace(  3, 3) ;
n = l engt h( bet a) ;
f or i = 1: n
[ M T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex3( bet a( i ) ) ;
Ef f ( i , 1) = al pha;
Ef f ( i , 2) = max( M) ;
Ef f ( i , 3) = mi n( M) ;
Ef f ( i , 4) = max( T) ;
Ef f ( i , 5) = mi n( T) ;
end
hol d on;
pl ot ( bet a, Ef f ( : , 1) , ' b: ' ) ;
pl ot ( bet a, Ef f ( : , 2) , ' k ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( bet a, Ef f ( : , 3) , ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( bet a, Ef f ( : , 4) , ' r   ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( bet a, Ef f ( : , 5) , ' r   ' ) ;
hol d of f ;
set ( gca, ' xscal e' , ' l og' ) ;
l egend( ' Va' , ' Max M' , ' Mi n M' , ' Max T' , ' Mi n T' , ' Locat i on' , ' NO' , . . .
' Or i ent at i on' , ' hor i zont al ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Bet a' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Load Ef f ect ( kN & kNm) ' ) ;
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
Beta
L
o
a
d
E
f
f
e
c
t
(
k
N
&
k
N
m
)
Va Max M Min M Max T Min T
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 58
Example 4
For a 20 mm diameter cable, and for the other parameters given below, the bending
and torsion moment diagrams are:
The values in the graph should be compared to those of Example 3, where the support
was rigid. The Matlab script, using Example 4s equations, for this problem is:
f unct i on [ M T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex4( gamma, bet a)
%Exampl e 4
R = 2; %m r adi us of beam
L = 2; %m l engt h of cabl e
w = 10; %kN/ m UDL
A = 314; %mm2  ar ea of cabl e
I = 2. 7e7; %mm4
J = 5. 4e7; %mm4
E = 205; %kN/ mm2
v = 0. 30; %Poi sson' s Rat i o
G = E/ ( 2*( 1+v) ) ; %Shear modul us
EA = E*A; %kN  axi al st i f f ness
EI = E*I / 1e6; %kNm2
GJ = G*J / 1e6; %kNm2
i f nar gi n < 2
bet a = GJ / EI ; %Tor si on st i f f ness r at i o
end
i f nar gi n < 1
gamma = EA/ EI ; %Axi al st i f f ness r at i o
end
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
X: 90
Y: 17.58
X: 59.4
Y: 3.967
X: 28.8
Y: 5.853
X: 90
Y: 0.4128
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
m
)
Degrees from Yaxis
Bending
Torsion
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 59
al pha = w*R*( 4*bet a+( pi  2) ^2) / ( 2*bet a*pi +2*( 3*pi  8) +8*( bet a/ gamma) *( L/ R^3) ) ;
t het a = 0: ( pi / 2) / 50: pi / 2;
M0 = w*R^2*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
T0 = w*R^2*( t het a si n( t het a) ) ;
M1 =  R*si n( t het a) ;
T1 =  R*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
M = M0 + al pha. *M1;
T = T0 + al pha. *T1;
i f nar gi n < 1
hol d on;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , M, ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , T, ' r   ' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Moment ( kNm) ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Degr ees f r omY axi s' ) ;
l egend( ' Bendi ng' , ' Tor si on' , ' l ocat i on' , ' NW' ) ;
hol d of f ;
end
Whist keeping the constant, we can examine the effect of varying the cable
stiffness on the behaviour of the structure, by varying . Again we plot the reaction
at A and the maximum and minimum bending and torsion moments for the range of
values.
For small , the cable has little stiffness and so the primary behaviour will be that of
Example 1, where the beam was a pure cantilever. Conversely for high , the cable is
very stiff and so the beam behaves as in Example 3, where there was a pinned support
at A. Compare the maximum (hogging) bending moments for these two cases with
the graph. Lastly, for 0.01 3 , the cable and beam interact and the variables are
sensitive to the exact ratio of stiffness. Typical values in practice are towards the
lower end of this region.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 60
The Matlab code for this plot is:
%Var i at i on wi t h Gamma
gamma = l ogspace(  3, 3) ;
n = l engt h( gamma) ;
f or i = 1: n
[ M T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex4( gamma( i ) ) ;
Ef f ( i , 1) = al pha;
Ef f ( i , 2) = max( M) ;
Ef f ( i , 3) = mi n( M) ;
Ef f ( i , 4) = max( T) ;
Ef f ( i , 5) = mi n( T) ;
end
hol d on;
pl ot ( gamma, Ef f ( : , 1) , ' b: ' ) ;
pl ot ( gamma, Ef f ( : , 2) , ' k ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( gamma, Ef f ( : , 3) , ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( gamma, Ef f ( : , 4) , ' r   ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( gamma, Ef f ( : , 5) , ' r   ' ) ;
hol d of f ;
set ( gca, ' xscal e' , ' l og' ) ;
l egend( ' T' , ' Max M' , ' Mi n M' , ' Max T' , ' Mi n T' , ' Locat i on' , ' NO' , . . .
' Or i ent at i on' , ' hor i zont al ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Gamma' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Load Ef f ect ( kN & kNm) ' ) ;
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
0
10
20
30
40
Gamma
L
o
a
d
E
f
f
e
c
t
(
k
N
&
k
N
m
)
T Max M Min M Max T Min T
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 61
Example 5
Again we consider a 20 mm diameter cable, and a doubly symmetric section, that is
Y Z
EI EI = . For the parameters below the bending and torsion moment diagrams are:
The values in the graph should be compared to those of Example 4, where the cable
was vertical. The Matlab script, using Example 5s equations, for this problem is:
f unct i on [ My T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex5( l amda, gamma, bet a)
%Exampl e 5
R = 2; %m r adi us of beam
w = 10; %kN/ m UDL
A = 314; %mm2  ar ea of cabl e
I y = 2. 7e7; %mm4
I z = 2. 7e7; %mm4
J = 5. 4e7; %mm4
E = 205; %kN/ mm2
v = 0. 30; %Poi sson' s Rat i o
G = E/ ( 2*( 1+v) ) ; %Shear modul us
EA = E*A; %kN  axi al st i f f ness
EI y = E*I y/ 1e6; %kNm2
EI z = E*I z/ 1e6; %kNm2
GJ = G*J / 1e6; %kNm2
i f nar gi n < 3
bet a = GJ / EI y; %Tor si on st i f f ness r at i o
end
i f nar gi n < 2
gamma = EA/ EI y; %Axi al st i f f ness r at i o
end
i f nar gi n < 1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
20
10
0
10
20
30
X: 90
Y: 19.22
X: 52.2
Y: 2.605
X: 90
Y: 3.61
X: 90
Y: 20.78
X: 25.2
Y: 4.378
M
o
m
e
n
t
(
k
N
m
)
Degrees from Yaxis
YY Bending
ZZ Bending
Torsion
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 62
l amda = EI y/ EI z; %Bendi ng st i f f ness r at i o
end
numer at or = ( 4*bet a+( pi  2) ^2) / ( bet a*sqr t ( 2) ) ;
denomi nat or = ( pi *( 1+1/ l amda) +( 3*pi  8) / bet a+8*sqr t ( 2) / ( gamma*R^2) ) ;
al pha = w*R*numer at or / denomi nat or ;
t het a = 0: ( pi / 2) / 50: pi / 2;
M0y = w*R^2*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
M0z = 0;
T0 = w*R^2*( t het a si n( t het a) ) ;
M1y =  R*si n( t het a) ;
M1z =  R*si n( t het a) ;
T1 =  R*( 1 cos( t het a) ) ;
My = M0y + al pha. *M1y;
Mz = M0z + al pha. *M1z;
T = T0 + al pha. *T1;
i f nar gi n < 1
hol d on;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , My, ' k' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , Mz, ' k: ' ) ;
pl ot ( t het a. *180/ pi , T, ' r   ' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Moment ( kNm) ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Degr ees f r omY axi s' ) ;
l egend( ' YY Bendi ng' , ' ZZ Bendi ng' , ' Tor si on' , ' l ocat i on' , ' NW' ) ;
hol d of f ;
end
Keep all parameters constant, but varying the ratio of the bending rigidities by
changing , the output variables are as shown below. For low (a tall slender
beam) the beam behaves as a cantilever. Thus the cable requires some transverse
bending stiffness to be mobilized. With high (a wide flat beam) the beam behaves
as if supported at A with a vertical roller. Only vertical movement takes place, and the
effect of the cable is solely its vertical stiffness at A. Usually 0.1 2 which means
that the output variables are usually quite sensitive to the input parameters.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 63
The Matlab code to produce this graph is:
%Var i at i on wi t h Lamda
l amda = l ogspace(  3, 3) ;
n = l engt h( l amda) ;
f or i = 1: n
[ My T al pha] = Ri ngBeam_Ex5( l amda( i ) ) ;
Ef f ( i , 1) = al pha;
Ef f ( i , 2) = max( My) ;
Ef f ( i , 3) = mi n( My) ;
Ef f ( i , 4) = max( T) ;
Ef f ( i , 5) = mi n( T) ;
end
hol d on;
pl ot ( l amda, Ef f ( : , 1) , ' b: ' ) ;
pl ot ( l amda, Ef f ( : , 2) , ' k ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( l amda, Ef f ( : , 3) , ' k ' ) ;
pl ot ( l amda, Ef f ( : , 4) , ' r   ' , ' Li neWi dt h' , 2) ;
pl ot ( l amda, Ef f ( : , 5) , ' r   ' ) ;
hol d of f ;
set ( gca, ' xscal e' , ' l og' ) ;
l egend( ' T' , ' Max My' , ' Mi n My' , ' Max T' , ' Mi n T' , ' Locat i on' , ' NO' , . . .
' Or i ent at i on' , ' hor i zont al ' ) ;
xl abel ( ' Lamda' ) ;
yl abel ( ' Load Ef f ect ( kN & kNm) ' ) ;
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
Lamda
L
o
a
d
E
f
f
e
c
t
(
k
N
&
k
N
m
)
T Max My Min My Max T Min T
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 64
3.3 Grid Examples
3.3.1 Example 1
Problem
For the grid structure shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI and GJ
respectively, show that the vertical reaction at C is given by:
1
2 3
C
V P
 
=

+
\ .
Where
EI
GJ
=
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 65
Solution
Using virtual work, we have:
0
0
E I
W
W W
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
=
=
= +
(101)
Choosing the vertical reaction at C as the redundant gives the following diagrams:
And the free bending moment diagram is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 66
But the superposition gives:
0 1
M M M = + (102)
0 1
T T T = + (103)
Substituting, we get:
( ) ( )
0 1 0 1
0
M M T T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
+ +
= +
(104)
2 2
0 1 1 0 1 1
0
M M M T T T
ds ds ds ds
EI EI GJ GJ
+ + + =
(105)
2 2
0 1 1 0 1 1
0
M M M T T T
ds ds ds ds
EI EI GJ GJ
+ + + =
(106)
Taking the beam to be prismatic, and
EI
GJ
= gives:
2 2
0 1 1 0 1 1
0 M M ds M ds T T ds T ds + + + =
(107)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 67
From which:
0 1 0 1
2 2
1 1
M M ds T T ds
M ds T ds
(
+
=
(
+
(108)
From the various diagrams and volume integrals tables, the terms evaluate to:
( )( )( )
( )
( )( )( )
( )( )( )
3
0 1
0 1
2 3
1
2 3
1
1
3 3
0 0
1 2
2
3 3
PL
M M ds L PL L
T T ds
M ds L L L L
T ds L L L L
= =
= =
 
= =

\ .
= =
(109)
Substituting gives:
( )
3
3 3
3
3
2
3
0
3
2
3
1 1
3
PL
L L
PL
L
(
+
(
=
(
+
(
=
+
(110)
Which yields:
1
2 3
C
V P
 
=

+
\ .
(111)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 68
Numerical Example
Using a 200 400 mm deep rectangular concrete section, gives the following:
3 4 3 4
1.067 10 m 0.732 10 m I J = =
The material model used is for a 50N concrete with:
2
30 kN/mm 0.2 E = =
Using the elastic relation, we have:
( ) ( )
6
6 2
30 10
12.5 10 kN/m
2 1 2 1 0.2
E
G
= = =
+ +
From the model, LUSAS gives: 0.809 kN
C
V = . Other results follow.
Deflected Shape
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 69
Bending Moment Diagram
Torsion Moment Diagram
Shear Force Diagram
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 70
3.3.2 Example 2
Problem
For the grid structure shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI and GJ
respectively, show that the reactions at C are given by:
4 4 4 2
8 5 8 5
C C
V P M PL
    + +
= =
 
+ +
\ . \ .
Where
EI
GJ
=
(Note that the support symbol at C indicates a moment and vertical support at C, but
no torsional restraint.)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 71
Solution
The general virtual work equations are:
0
0
E I
W
W W
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
=
=
= +
(112)
We choose the moment and vertical restraints at C as the redundants. The vertical
redundant gives the same diagrams as before:
And, for the moment restraint, we apply a unit moment:
Which yields the following:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 72
Again the free bending moment diagram is:
Since there are two redundants, there are two possible equilibrium sets to use as the
virtual moments and torques. Thus there are two equations that can be used:
1 1
0
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
= +
(113)
2 2
0
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
= +
(114)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 73
Superposition gives:
0 1 1 2 2
M M M M = + + (115)
0 1 1 2 2
T T T T = + + (116)
Substituting, we get from equation (113):
( ) ( )
0 1 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 2
1 1
0
M M M T T T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
+ + + +
= +
(117)
2
0 1 1 2 1
1 2
2
0 1 1 2 1
1 2
0
M M M M M
ds ds ds
EI EI EI
T T T T T
ds ds ds
GJ GJ GJ
+ +
+ + + =
(118)
Taking the beam to be prismatic, and
EI
GJ
= gives:
2
0 1 1 1 2 2 1
2
0 1 1 1 1 2 1
0
M M ds M ds M M ds
T T ds T ds T T ds
+ +
+ + + =
(119)
Similarly, substituting equations (115) and (116) into equation (114) gives:
2
0 2 1 1 2 2 2
2
0 2 1 1 2 2 2
0
M M ds M M ds M ds
T T ds TT ds T ds
+ +
+ + + =
(120)
We can write equations (119) and (120) in matrix form for clarity:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 74
0 1 0 1
0 2 0 2
2 2
1 1 2 1 2 1
1
2 2
2
1 2 1 2 2 2
0
M M ds T T ds
M M ds T T ds
M ds T ds M M ds T T ds
M M ds TT ds M ds T ds
+
+
`
+
)
(
+ +
(
=
`
(
+ + )
(121)
Evaluating the integrals for the first equation gives:
3
0 1 0 1
3
2 2 3
1 1
2 2
2 1 2 1
0
3
2
3
1
2
PL
M M ds T T ds
L
M ds T ds L
M M ds L T T ds L
= =
= =
= =
(122)
And for the second:
0 2 0 2
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
2 2
0 0
1
2
M M ds T T ds
M M ds L TT ds L
M ds L T ds L
= =
= =
= =
(123)
Substituting these into equation (121), we have:
( )
3 2
3
1
2 2
2
3 2
0
3
0 1
2
L L
PL
L L
1 (
   
+ +
 
(
\ . \ .
(
+ =
` `
( 1
 
)
+ +
)
 (
\ .
(124)
Giving:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 75
( )
1
3 2
3
1
2 2
2
3 2
3
0 1
2
L L
PL
L L
1 (
   
+ +
 
(
\ . \ .
(
=
` `
( 1
 
)
+ +
)
 (
\ .
(125)
Inverting the matrix gives:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
3 2
1
2
2
12 6
1 1 2
1
3
5 8 6 4
0 1 2 2 3
PL
L L
L L
(
   
+ +
 
(
\ . \ .
(
=
` `
+ (
   
)
+ +
)
  (
\ . \ .
(126)
Thus:
( )
( )
( )
( )
3
3
1
3
2
2
12
1
3 4 1
1
2 1 2 5 8 5 8
6
1 2
3
PL
L
P
L
PL
L
 
 
+
 
+ \ .
\ .
= =
` ` `
+ + +
 
)   )
+
 
\ .
\ .
)
(127)
Thus, since
1
2
C
C
V
M
` `
) )
, we have:
4 4 4 2
8 5 8 5
C C
V P M PL
    + +
= =
 
+ +
\ . \ .
(128)
And this is the requested result.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 76
Some useful Matlab symbolic computation script appropriate to this problem is:
syms bet a L P
A = [ L^3*( 2/ 3+bet a)  L^2*( 0. 5+bet a) ;
 L^2*( 0. 5+bet a) L*( 1+bet a) ] ;
A0 = [ P*L^3/ 3; 0] ;
i nvA = i nv( A) ;
i nvA = si mpl i f y( i nvA) ;
di sp( si mpl i f y( det ( A) ) ) ;
di sp( i nvA) ;
al pha = i nvA*A0;
al pha = si mpl i f y( al pha) ;
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 77
Numerical Example
For the numerical model previously considered, for these support conditions, LUSAS
gives us:
5.45 kN 14.5 kNm
C C
V M = =
Deflected Shape
Shear Force Diagram
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 78
Torsion Moment Diagram
Bending Moment Diagram
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 79
3.3.3 Example 3
Problem
For the grid structure shown, which has flexural and torsional rigidities of EI and GJ
respectively, show that the reactions at C are given by:
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1
2 4 1 4 1
C C C
P PL PL
V M T
+
= = =
+ +
Where
EI
GJ
=
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 80
Solution
The general virtual work equations are:
0
0
E I
W
W W
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
=
=
= +
(129)
We choose the moment, vertical, and torsional restraints at C as the redundants. The
vertical and moment redundants give (as before):
Applying the unit torsional moment gives:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 81
Again the free bending moment diagram is:
Since there are three redundants, there are three possible equilibrium sets to use. Thus
we have the following three equations:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 3 Virtual Work: Advanced Examples
Dr. C. Caprani 82
1 1
0
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
= +
(130)
2 2
0
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
= +
(131)
3 3
0
M T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
= +
(132)
Superposition of the structures gives:
0 1 1 2 2 3 3
M M M M M = + + + (133)
0 1 1 2 2 3 3
T T T T T = + + + (134)
Substituting, we get from equation (113):
( ) ( )
0 1 1 2 2 3 3 0 1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1
0
M M M M T T T T
M ds T ds
EI GJ
+ + + + + +
= +
(135)
2
0 1 1 2 1 3 1
1 2 3
2
0 1 1 2 1 3 1
1 2 3
0
M M M M M M M
ds ds ds ds
EI EI EI EI
T T T T T T T
ds ds ds ds
GJ GJ GJ GJ
+ + +
+ + + + =
(136)
Taking the beam to be prismatic, and
EI
GJ
= gives:
2
0 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1
2
0 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1
0
M M ds M ds M M ds M M ds
T T ds T ds T T ds T T ds
+ + +
+ + + + =
(137)
Similarly, substituting equations (115) and (116) into equations (114) and (132)
gives:
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Dr. C. Caprani 83
2
0 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2
2
0 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 2
0
M M ds M M ds M ds M M ds
T T ds TT ds T ds T T ds
+ + +
+ + + + =
(138)
2
0 3 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 3
2
0 3 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 3
0
M M ds M M ds M M ds M ds
T T ds TT ds T T ds T ds
+ + +
+ + + + =
(139)
We can write equations (119), (120), and (139) in matrix form for clarity:
{ }  { } { }  { } { }
0 0
M + M + T + T = 0 (140)
Or more concisely:
{ }  { } { }
+ =
0
A A 0 (141)
In which { }
0
A is the free actions vector:
{ } { } { }
0 1 0 1
0 2 0 2
0 3 0 3
M M ds T T ds
M M ds T T ds
M M ds T T ds
+
= = +
`
+
)
0 0 0
A M + T (142)
And
 
A is the virtual actions matrix:
     
2 2
1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 3
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3
2 2
1 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 3 3
M ds T ds M M ds T T ds M M ds TT ds
M M ds TT ds M ds T ds M M ds T T ds
M M ds TT ds M M ds T T ds M ds T ds
=
(
+ + +
(
(
= + + +
(
(
+ + +
A M + T
(143)
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Dr. C. Caprani 84
And { }
is the redundant multipliers vector:
{ }
1
2
3
=
`
)
(144)
Evaluating the free actions vector integrals gives:
3
0 1 0 1
0 2 0 2
2
0 3 0 3
0
3
0 0
0
2
PL
M M ds T T ds
M M ds T T ds
PL
M M ds T T ds
= =
= =
= =
(145)
The virtual moment and torsion integrals are (noting that the matrices are
symmetrical):
3 2 2
2
1 2 1 1 3
2
2 2 3
2
3
2
3 2 2
0
L L L
M ds M M ds M M ds
M ds L M M ds
M ds L
= = =
= =
=
(146)
2 3 2
1 2 1 1 3
2
2 2 3
2
3
0
0
T ds L T T ds L TT ds
T ds L T T ds
T ds L
= = =
= =
=
(147)
Substituting these integral results into equation (141) gives:
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Dr. C. Caprani 85
3 2 2
3 2
3
1
2
2
2
2
2 3
2
3 2 2
3
0 0 0
2
0
2
2
L L L
L L
PL
L
L L L
PL
L
L L
(
+
(
(
(
+ + =
` `
(
(
)
(
+
)
(
(148)
( )
( )
2
3 2
3
1
2
2
2
3
2
2 1
3 2 2
3
1
1 0 0
2
0 1 2
2
L
L L
PL
L L
PL
L
L
(
   
+ +
  (
\ . \ .
(
(
 
+ + =
` `
( 
\ .
(
)
(
+
) (
(149)
Inverting the matrix gives:
( )( ) ( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
3 2 2
1
2
2 2
3
2
6 1 3 2 1 3 1
4 1 4 1 4 1
3 2 1 1 12 20 5 3 2 1
4 1 2 4 1 1 2 4 1 1
3 1 3 2 1 1 8 5
4 1 2 4 1 1 2 4 1 1
L L L
L L L
L L L
(
      + +
(
  
+ + +
( \ . \ . \ .
(
( (
  + + + +
(
=
` ( (

(
+ + + + +
\ .
(
)
( (
  + +
( (

+ + + + +
\ .
3
2
3
0
2
PL
PL
`
(
)
(
(
(150)
Thus:
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Dr. C. Caprani 86
( )
( )
3 2
3 2
1
3 2
2 2
3
3 2
2
6 3
1
3 2
1 3 3 2 1
2 1
4 1 3 2 2 1
3 1 8 5
3 2 2 1
PL PL
L L
PL PL
L L
PL PL
L L
   
+
 
\ . \ .
    +    
= +
` `
   
+ +
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
)
  +
   
  
+
\ . \ .
\ .
)
(151)
Simplifying, we get:
( )
( )
( )
1
2
3
2
2 1
4 1
1
4 1
P
PL
PL
+
=
` `
+
)
+
)
(152)
Since the redundants chosen are the reactions required, the problem is solved.
Some useful Matlab symbolic computation script appropriate to this problem is:
syms bet a L P
A = [ L^3*( bet a+2/ 3)  L^2*( bet a+0. 5)  L^2/ 2;
 L^2*( bet a+0. 5) L*( bet a+1) 0;
 L^2/ 2 0 L*( bet a+1) ] ;
A0 = [ P*L^3/ 3; 0;  P*L^2/ 2] ;
i nvA = i nv( A) ;
i nvA = si mpl i f y( i nvA) ;
di sp( si mpl i f y( det ( A) ) ) ;
di sp( i nvA) ;
al pha = i nvA*A0;
al pha = si mpl i f y( al pha) ;
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Dr. C. Caprani 87
Numerical Example
For the numerical model previously considered, for these support conditions, LUSAS
gives us:
5.0 kN 13.3 kNm 1.67 kNm
C C C
V M T = = =
Deflected Shape
Shear Force Diagram
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Dr. C. Caprani 88
Torsion Moment Diagram
Bending Moment Diagram
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 1
Chapter 4  Matrix Stiffness Method
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3
4.1.1 Background .................................................................................................... 3
4.1.2 Basic Concepts............................................................................................... 4
4.1.3 Computer Programs to Support Learning...................................................... 6
4.2 Basic Approach .................................................................................................. 10
4.2.1 Individual Element ...................................................................................... 10
4.2.2 Assemblies of Elements ............................................................................... 12
4.2.3 Example 1 .................................................................................................... 14
4.2.4 General Methodology .................................................................................. 20
4.2.5 Member contribution to global stiffness matrix .......................................... 22
4.2.6 Interpretation of Stiffness Matrix ................................................................ 27
4.2.7 Restricting a Matrix Imposing Restraints ................................................. 29
4.3 Plane Trusses ..................................................................................................... 32
4.3.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 32
4.3.2 Truss Element Stiffness Matrix ................................................................... 35
4.3.3 Element Forces ............................................................................................ 40
4.3.4 Example 2: Basic Truss ............................................................................... 43
4.3.5 Example 3: Adding Members ...................................................................... 52
4.3.6 Example 4: Using Symmetry ....................................................................... 56
4.3.7 SelfStrained Structures ............................................................................... 59
4.3.8 Example 5 Truss with Differential Temperature ...................................... 63
4.3.9 Example 6 Truss with Loads & Self Strains ............................................ 69
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Dr. C. Caprani 2
4.3.10 Problems ................................................................................................... 74
4.4 Beams .................................................................................................................. 77
4.4.1 Beam Element Stiffness Matrix ................................................................... 77
4.4.2 Beam Element Loading ............................................................................... 82
4.4.3 Example 7 Simple TwoSpan Beam ......................................................... 84
4.4.4 Example 8 NonPrismatic Beam .............................................................. 88
4.4.5 Problems ...................................................................................................... 92
4.5 Plane Frames ...................................................................................................... 95
4.5.1 Plane Frame Element Stiffness Matrix ........................................................ 95
4.5.2 Example 9 Simple Plane Frame ............................................................. 104
4.5.3 Example 10 Plane Frame Using Symmetry............................................. 109
4.5.4 Problems .................................................................................................... 115
4.6 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 120
4.6.1 Plane Truss Element Stiffness Matrix in Global Coordinates ................... 120
4.6.2 Coordinate Transformations ...................................................................... 129
4.6.3 Past Exam Questions ................................................................................. 137
4.7 References ........................................................................................................ 148
Rev. 1
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 3
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Background
The matrix stiffness method is the basis of almost all commercial structural analysis
programs. It is a specific case of the more general finite element method, and was in
part responsible for the development of the finite element method. An understanding
of the underlying theory, limitations and means of application of the method is
therefore essential so that the user of analysis software is not just operating a black
box. Such users must be able to understand any errors in the modelling of structures
which usually come as obtuse warnings such as zero pivot or determinant zero:
structure unstable: aborting. Understanding the basics presented herein should
hopefully lead to more fruitful use of the available software.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 4
4.1.2 Basic Concepts
Node
The more general name for a connection between adjacent members is termed a node.
For trusses and frames the terms joint and node are interchangeable. For more
complex structures (e.g. plates), they are not.
Element
For trusses and frames element means the same as member. For more complex
structures this is not the case.
Degree of Freedom
The number of possible directions that displacements or forces at a node can exist in
is termed a degree of freedom (dof). Some examples are:
Plane truss: has 2 degrees of freedom at each node: translation/forces in the x and y
directions.
Beams: have 2 degrees of freedom per node: vertical displacement/forces and
rotation/moment.
Plane Frame: has 3 degrees of freedom at each node: the translations/forces similar
to a plane truss and in addition, the rotation or moment at the joint.
Space Truss: a truss in three dimensions has 3 degrees of freedom: translation or
forces along each axis in space.
Space Frame: has 6 degrees of freedom at each node: translation/forces along each
axis, and rotation/moments about each axis.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 5
Thus a plane truss with 10 joints has 20 degrees of freedom. A plane frame with two
members will have three joints (one common to both members) and thus 9 degrees of
freedom in total.
Local and Global
Forces, displacements and stiffness matrices are often derived and defined for an axis
system local to the member. However there will exist an overall, or global, axis
system for the structure as a whole. We must therefore transform forces,
displacements etc from the local coordinate system into the global coordinate system.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 6
4.1.3 Computer Programs to Support Learning
Matlab Truss Analysis Program
Description
To support the ideas developed here we will introduce some Matlab scripts at each
point to demonstrate how the theory described can be implemented for computer
calculation. This collection of scripts will build into a program that can analyse pin
jointed trusses. The scripts will only demonstrate the calculations process, and do not
have any graphical user interface facilities. This keeps the calculation process
unencumbered by extra code. (In fact probably 90+% of code in commercial
programs is for the graphical user interface and not for the actual calculations
process.) Of course, this is not to say that graphical displays of results are
unimportant; gross mistakes in data entry can sometimes only be found with careful
examination of the graphical display of the input data.
The scripts that are developed in these notes are written to explain the underlying
concepts, and not to illustrate best programming practice. The code could actually be
a lot more efficient computationally, but this would be at cost to the clarity of
calculation. In fact, a full finite element analysis program can be implemented in
under 50 lines (Alberty et al, 1999)!
It is necessary to use a scripting language like Matlab, rather than a spreadsheet
program (like MS Excel) since the number of members and member connectivity can
change from structure to structure.
The program will be able to analyse plane pinjointedtrusses subject to nodal loads
only. It will not deal with member prestress, support stiffness or lack of fits: it is quite
rudimentary on purpose.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 7
Use
To use the program, download it from the course website (www.colincaprani.com).
Extract the files to a folder and change the current Matlab directory to that folder.
After preparing the data (as will be explained later), execute the following statement
at the command line:
>> [ D F R] = Anal yzeTr uss( nDat a, eDat a)
This assumes that the nodal data is stored in the matrix nDat a, and the element data
matrix is stored in eDat a these names are arbitrary. Entering the required data into
Matlab will also be explained later.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 8
TrussMaster
To provide a bridge between the obvious workings of the Matlab program and the
more black box nature of commercial programs, TrussMaster has been developed.
This program can analyse plane trusses of any size. It has a front end that illustrates a
fairly rudimentary commercial program interface, coupled with a back end (and some
dialogs) that expose the calculations the program carries out. In this manner it is easy
to link the hand calculations of the examples with the computer output, strengthening
the link between theory and practice of the method.
TrussMaster is available on the college computers. The help file can be downloaded
from the course website (www.colincaprani.com). It will be used in some labs.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 9
LinPro
LinPro is very useful as a study aid for this topic: for example, right click on a
member and select Stiffness Matrix to see the stiffness matrix for any member. The
latest version (2.7.3) has a very useful Study Mode, which exposes the structure
and member stiffness matrices to the user. A user familiar with the underlying theory
can then use the program for more advanced purposes, such as spring supports, for
example.
You can download LinPro from www.line.co.ba.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 10
4.2 Basic Approach
4.2.1 Individual Element
We consider here the most basic form of stiffness analysis. We represent a structural
member by a spring which has a node (or connection) at each end. We also consider
that it can only move in the xdirection. Thus it only has 1 DOF per node. At each of
its nodes, it can have a force and a displacement (again both in the xdirection):
Notice that we have drawn the force and displacement vector arrows in the positive x
direction. Matrix analysis requires us to be very strict in our sign conventions.
Using the basic relationship that force is equal to stiffness times displacement, we can
determine the force at node 1 as:
( )
1
net displacement at 1 F k =
Thus:
( )
1 1 2 1 2
F k u u ku ku = = (4.2.1)
Similarly for node 2:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 11
( )
2 2 1 1 2
F k u u ku ku = = + (4.2.2)
We can write equations (4.2.1) and (4.2.2) in matrix form to get the element stiffness
matrix for a 1DOF axial element:
1 1
2 2
F u k k
F u k k
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.3)
And using matrix notation, we write:
{ }  { }
e e
= F k u (4.2.4)
Here:
{ }
e
F is the element force vector;
 
k is the element stiffness matrix;
{ }
e
u is the element displacement vector.
It should be clear that the element stiffness matrix is of crucial importance it links
nodal forces to nodal displacements; it encapsulates how the element behaves under
load.
The derivation of the element stiffness matrix for different types of elements is
probably the most awkward part of the matrix stiffness method. However, this does
not pose as a major disadvantage since we only have a few types of elements to
derive, and once derived they are readily available for use in any problem.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 12
4.2.2 Assemblies of Elements
Real structures are made up of assemblies of elements, thus we must determine how
to connect the stiffness matrices of individual elements to form an overall (or global)
stiffness matrix for the structure.
Consider the following simple structure:
Note that the individual elements have different stiffnesses,
1
k and
2
k . Thus we can
write the force displacement relationships for both elements as:
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2
F k k u
F k k u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.5)
2 2 2 2
3 3 2 2
F u k k
F u k k
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.6)
We can expand these equations so that they encompass all the nodes in the structure:
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2
3 3
0
0
0 0 0
F k k u
F k k u
F u
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.2.7)
1 1
2 2 2 2
3 2 2 3
0 0 0
0
0
F u
F k k u
F k k u
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.2.8)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 13
We can add equations (4.2.7) and (4.2.8) to determine the total of both the forces and
displacements at each node in the structure:
1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2
3 2 2 3
0
0
F k k u
F k k k k u
F k k u
(
(
= +
` `
(
(
) )
(4.2.9)
As can be seen from this equation, by adding, we have the total stiffness at each node,
with contributions as appropriate by each member. In particular node 2, where the
members meet, has total stiffness
1 2
k k + . We can rewrite this equation as:
{ }  { }
= F K u (4.2.10)
In which:
{ }
F is the force vector for the structure;
 
K is the global stiffness matrix for the structure;
{ }
u is the displacement vector for the structure.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 14
4.2.3 Example 1
Problem
The following axiallyloaded structure has loads applied as shown:
The individual member properties are:
Member Length (m) Area (mm
2
) Material, E (kN/mm
2
)
1 0.28 400 70
2 0.1 200 100
3 0.1 70 200
Find the displacements of the connections and the forces in each member.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 15
Solution
Our first step is to model the structure with elements and nodes, as shown:
Calculate the spring stiffnesses for each member:
3
1
1
70 400
100 10 kN/m
0.28
EA
k
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.2.11)
3
2
2
100 200
200 10 kN/m
0.1
EA
k
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.2.12)
3
3
3
200 70
140 10 kN/m
0.1
EA
k
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.2.13)
Next we calculate the individual element stiffness matrices:
1 1 3
2 2
100 100
10
100 100
F u
F u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.14)
2 2 3
3 3
200 200
10
200 200
F u
F u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.15)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 16
3 3 3
4 4
140 140
10
140 140
F u
F u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.16)
We expand and add the element stiffness matrices to get:
( )
( )
1 1
2 2 3
3 3
4 4
100 100 0 0
100 100 200 200 0
10
0 200 200 140 140
0 0 140 140
F u
F u
F u
F u
(
(
+
(
=
` `
( +
(
) )
(4.2.17)
Notice how each member contributes to the global stiffness matrix:
Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4
Node 1
0 0
Node 2 0
Node 3 0
Node 4 0 0
Notice also that where the member stiffness matrices overlap in the global stiffness
matrix that the components (or entries) are added. Also notice that zeros are entered
where there is no connection between nodes, e.g. node 1 to node 3.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 17
We cannot yet solve equation (4.2.17) as we have not introduced the restraints of the
structure: the supports at nodes 1 and 4. We must modify equation (4.2.17) in such a
way that we will obtain the known results for the displacements at nodes 1 and 4.
Thus:
( )
( )
1
2 2 3
3 3
4
0 1 0 0 0
0 100 200 200 0
10
0 200 200 140 0
0 0 0 0 1
u
u F
u F
u
(
(
+
(
=
` `
( +
(
) )
(4.2.18)
What we have done here is to restrict the matrix: we have introduced a 1 on the
diagonal of the node number, and set all other entries on the corresponding row and
column to zero. We have entered the known displacement as the corresponding entry
in force vector (zero). Thus when we now solve we will obtain
1 4
0 u u = = .
For the remaining two equations, we have:
2 2 3
3 3
300 200
10
200 340
F u
F u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.19)
And so:
( )( ) ( )( )
2 3
3
3
340 200 50 3
1 1 1
10 m
200 300 100 20 10 300 340 200 200 62
0.048
mm
0.322
u
u
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
=
`
)
(4.2.20)
To find the forces in the bars, we can now use the member stiffness matrices, since
we know the end displacements:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 18
Member 1
1 3 3
2
100 100 0 4.8
10 10
100 100 0.048 4.8
F
F
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.2.21)
Thus Member 1 has a tension of 4.8 kN, since the directions of the member forces are
interpreted by our sign convention:
Also note that it is in equilibrium (as we might expect).
Member 2
2 3 3
3
200 200 0.048 54.8
10 10
200 200 0.322 54.8
F
F
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.2.22)
Member 2 thus has tension of 54.8 kN.
Member 3
3 3 3
4
140 140 0.322 45.08
10 10
140 140 0 45.08
F
F
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.2.23)
Thus Member 3 has a compression of 45.08 kN applied to it.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 19
Problem
Find the displacements of the connections and the forces in each member for the
following structure:
Ans. 0.22 mm, 2.11 mm
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 20
4.2.4 General Methodology
Steps
The general steps in Matrix Stiffness Method are:
1. Calculate the member stiffness matrices
2. Assemble the global stiffness matrix
3. Restrict the global stiffness matrix and force vector
4. Solve for the unknown displacements
5. Determine member forces from the known displacements and member stiffness
matrices
6. Determine the reactions knowing member end forces.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 21
Matlab Program  Implementation
These steps are implemented in the Matlab Program as follows:
f unct i on [ D F R] = Anal yzeTr uss( nDat a, eDat a)
%Thi s f unct i on anal yzes t he t r uss def i ned by nDat a and eDat a:
%nDat a = [ x, y, xLoad, yLoad, xRest r ai nt , yRest r ai nt ]
%eDat a = [ i Node, j Node, E, A] ;
kg = Assembl eTr ussK( nDat a, eDat a) ; %Assembl e gl obal st i f f ness mat r i x
f v = Assembl eFor ceVect or ( nDat a) ; %And t he f or ce vect or
[ kgr f v] = Rest r i ct ( kg, f v, nDat a) ; %I mpose r est r ai nt s
D = f v/ kgr ; %Sol ve f or di spl acement s
F = El ement For ces( nDat a, eDat a, D) ; %Get t he el ement f or ces
R = D*kg; %Get t he r eact i ons
The output from the function Anal yzeTr uss is:
D: vector of nodal deflections;
F: vector of element forces;
R: vector of nodal forces (indicating the reactions and applied loads).
The input data required (nDat a and eDat a) will be explained later.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 22
4.2.5 Member contribution to global stiffness matrix
Consider a member, ij, which links node i to node j. Its member stiffness matrix will
be:
Node i Node j
Node i k11
ij
k12
ij
Node j k21
ij
k22
ij
Its entries must then contribute to the corresponding entries in the global stiffness
matrix:
Node i Node j
Node i k11
ij
k12
ij
Node j k21
ij
k22
ij
If we now consider another member, jl, which links node j to node l. Its member
stiffness matrix will be:
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Dr. C. Caprani 23
Node j Node l
Node j k11
jl
k12
jl
Node l k21
jl
k22
jl
And now the global stiffness matrix becomes:
Node i Node j Node l
Node i k11
ij
k12
ij
Node j k21
ij
k22
ij
+
k11
jl
k12
jl
Node l k21
lj
k22
jl
In the above, the identifiers k11 etc are submatrices of dimension:
ndof ndof
where ndof refers to the number of degrees of freedom that each node has.
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Matlab Program Element Contribution
Considering trusses, we have 2 degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node, the x direction
and the y direction. Thus, for a truss with nn number of nodes, there are 2nn DOFs in
total. The xDOF for any node i is thus located at 2i1 and the yDOF at 2i.
Consider a truss member connecting nodes i and j. To add the 44 truss element
stiffness matrix into the truss global stiffness matrix, we see that each row adds into
the following matrix columns:
2i1 2i 2j1 2j
The rows in the global stiffness matrix corresponding to the rows of the element
stiffness matrix are:
1. Row 1: Adds to row 2i1 of the global stiffness matrix;
2. Row 2: Adds to row 2i;
3. Row 3: adds to row 2j1;
4. Row 4: adds to row 2j.
Note of course that the column and row entries occur in the same order.
These rules are implemented for our Truss Analysis Program as follows:
f unct i on kg = AddEl ement ( i El e, eDat a, ke, kg)
%Thi s f unct i on adds member i El e st i f f ness mat r i x ke t o t he gl obal
%st i f f ness mat r i x kg.
%What nodes does t he el ement connect t o?
i Node = eDat a( i El e, 1) ;
j Node = eDat a( i El e, 2) ;
%The DOFs i n kg t o ent er t he pr oper t i es i nt o
DOFs = [ 2*i Node 1 2*i Node 2*j Node 1 2*j Node] ;
%For each r ow of ke
f or i = 1: 4
%Add t he r ow t o t he cor r ect ent r i es i n kg
kg( DOFs( i ) , DOFs) = kg( DOFs( i ) , DOFs) + ke( i , : ) ;
end
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Matlab Program Global Stiffness Matrix Assembl y
The function that assembles the truss global stiffness matrix for the truss is as
follows:
f unct i on kg = Assembl eTr ussK( nDat a, eDat a)
%Thi s f unct i on assembl es t he gl obal st i f f ness mat r i x f or a t r uss f r omt he
%j oi nt and member dat a mat r i ces
%How many nodes and el ement s ar e t her e?
[ ne ~] = si ze( eDat a) ;
[ nn ~] = si ze( nDat a) ;
%Set up a bl ank gl obal st i f f ness mat r i x
kg = zer os( 2*nn, 2*nn) ;
%For each el ement
f or i = 1: ne
E = eDat a( i , 3) ; %Get i t s E and A
A = eDat a( i , 4) ;
[ L c s] = Tr ussEl ement Geom( i , nDat a, eDat a) ; %Geomet r i c Pr oper t i es
ke = Tr ussEl ement K( E, A, L, c, s) ; %St i f f ness mat r i x
kg = AddEl ement ( i , eDat a, ke, kg) ; %Ent er i t i nt o kg
end
Note that we have not yet covered the calculation of the truss element stiffness
matrix. However, the point here is to see that each element stiffness matrix is
calculated and then added to the global stiffness matrix.
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Dr. C. Caprani 26
Matlab Program Force Vector
Examine again the overall equation (4.2.10) to be solved:
{ }  { }
= F K u
We now have the global stiffness matrix, we aim to calculate the deflections thus we
need to have a force vector representing the applied nodal loads. Again remember
that each node as two DOFs (x and yloads). The code for the force vector is thus:
f unct i on f = Assembl eFor ceVect or ( nDat a)
%Thi s f unct i on assembl es t he f or ce vect or
%How may nodes ar e t her e?
[ nn ~] = si ze( nDat a) ;
%Set up a bl ank f or ce vect or
f = zer os( 1, 2*nn) ;
%For each node
f or i = 1: nn
f ( 2*i  1) = nDat a( i , 3) ; %x l oad i nt o x DOF
f ( 2*i ) = nDat a( i , 4) ; %y l oad i nt o y DOF
end
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4.2.6 Interpretation of Stiffness Matrix
It is useful to understand what each term in a stiffness matrix represents. If we
consider a simple example structure:
We saw that the global stiffness matrix for this is:
11 12 13 1 1
21 22 23 1 1 2 2
31 32 33 2 2
0
0
K K K k k
K K K k k k k
K K K k k
( (
( (
= = +
( (
( (
K
If we imagine that all nodes are fixed against displacement except for node 2, then we
have the following:
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Dr. C. Caprani 28
From our general equation:
1 11 12 13 12
2 21 22 23 22
3 31 32 33 32
0
1
0
F K K K K
F K K K K
F K K K K
(
(
= =
` ` `
(
(
) ) )
(4.2.24)
Thus:
1 12 1
2 22 1 2
3 32 2
F K k
F K k k
F K k
= = +
` ` `
) ) )
(4.2.25)
These forces are illustrated in the above diagram, along with a freebody diagram of
node 2.
Thus we see that each column in a stiffness matrix represents the forces required to
maintain equilibrium when the columns DOF has been given a unit displacement.
This provides a very useful way to derive member stiffness matrices.
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Dr. C. Caprani 29
4.2.7 Restricting a Matrix Imposing Restraints
In Example 1 we solved the structure by applying the known supports into the global
stiffness matrix. We did this because otherwise the system is unsolvable; technically
the determinant of the stiffness matrix is zero. This mathematically represents the fact
that until we apply boundary conditions, the structure is floating in space.
To impose known displacements (i.e. supports) on the structure equations we modify
the global stiffness matrix and the force vector so that we get back the zero
displacement result we know.
Considering our twoelement example again, if node 1 is supported,
1
0 u = . Consider
the system equation:
1 11 12 13 1
2 21 22 23 2
3 31 32 33 3
F K K K u
F K K K u
F K K K u
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.2.26)
Therefore to obtain
1
0 u = from this, we change K and F as follows:
1
2 22 23 2
3 32 33 3
0 1 0 0
0
0
u
F K K u
F K K u
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.2.27)
Now when we solve for
1
u we will get the answer we want:
1
0 u = . In fact, since we
now do not need this first equation, we could just consider the remaining equations:
2 22 23 2
3 32 33 3
F K K u
F K K u
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.2.28)
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Dr. C. Caprani 30
And these are perfectly solvable.
Thus to summarize:
To impose a support condition at degree of freedom i:
1. Make the force vector element of DOF i zero;
2. Make the i column and row entries of the stiffness matrix all zero;
3. Make the diagonal entry
( )
, i i of the stiffness matrix 1.
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Matlab Program Imposing Restraints
To implement these rules for our Truss Analysis Program, we will first create of
vector which tells us whether or not a DOF is restrained. This vector will have a zero
if the DOF is not restrained, and a 1 if it is.
Once we have this vector of restraints, we can go through each DOF and modify the
force vector and global stiffness matrix as described before. The implementation of
this is as follows:
f unct i on [ kg f ] = Rest r i ct ( kg, f , nDat a)
%Thi s f unct i on i mposes t he r est r ai nt s on t he gl obal st i f f ness mat r i x and
%t he f or ce vect or
%How may nodes ar e t her e?
[ nn ~] = si ze( nDat a) ;
%St or e each r est r ai ned DOF i n a vect or
Rest r ai nedDOFs = zer os( 2*nn, 1) ;
%For each node, st or e i f t her e i s a r est r ai nt
f or i = 1: nn
%x di r ect i on
i f nDat a( i , 5) ~= 0 %i f t her e i s a non zer o ent r y ( i . e. suppor t ed)
Rest r ai nedDOFs( 2*i  1) = 1;
end
%y di r ect i on
i f nDat a( i , 6) ~= 0 %i f t her e i s a suppor t
Rest r ai nedDOFs( 2*i ) = 1;
end
end
%f or each DOF
f or i = 1: 2*nn
i f Rest r ai nedDOFs( i ) == 1 %i f i t i s r est r ai ned
f ( i ) = 0; %Ensur e f or ce zer o at t hi s DOF
kg( i , : ) = 0; %make ent i r e r ow zer o
kg( : , i ) = 0; %make ent i r e col umn zer o
kg( i , i ) = 1; %put 1 on t he di agonal
end
end
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4.3 Plane Trusses
4.3.1 Introduction
Trusses are assemblies of members whose actions can be linked directly to that of the
simple spring studied already:
EA
k
L
= (4.3.1)
There is one main difference, however: truss members may be oriented at any angle
in the xy coordinate system (Cartesian) plane:
Thus we must account for the coordinate transformations from the local member axis
system to the global axis system.
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Matlab Program Data Preparation
In the following sections we will put the final pieces of code together for our Truss
Analysis Program. At this point we must identify what information is required as
input to the program, and in what format it will be delivered.
The node data is stored in a matrix nData. Each node of the truss is represented by a
row of data. In the row, we put the following information in consecutive order in
columns:
1. xcoordinate;
2. ycoordinate;
3. xload: 0 or the value of load;
4. yload: 0 or the value of load;
5. xrestraint: 0 if unrestrained, any other number if restrained;
6. yrestraint: 0 if unrestrained, any other number if restrained.
The element data is stored in a matrix called eData. Each element has a row of data
and for each element the information stored in the columns in order is:
1. iNode number: the node number at the start of the element;
2. jNode number: the other node the element connects to;
3. E: the Modulus of Elasticity of the element material;
4. A: the element area;
We will prepare input data matrices in the above formats for some of the examples
that follow so that the concepts are clear. In doing so we keep the units consistent:
Dimensions are in m;
Forces in kN
Elastic modulus is in kN/mm
2
;
Area is mm
2
.
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Dr. C. Caprani 34
Matlab Program Data Entry
To enter the required data, one way is:
1. Create a new variable in the workspace (click on New Variable);
2. Name it eDat a for example;
3. Double click on the new variable to open the Matlab Variable Editor;
4. Enter the necessary input data (can paste in from MS Excel, or type in);
5. Repeat for the nodal data.
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Dr. C. Caprani 35
4.3.2 Truss Element Stiffness Matrix
For many element types it is very difficult to express the element stiffness matrix in
global coordinates. However, this is not so for truss elements. Firstly we note that the
local axis system element stiffness matrix is given by equation (4.2.3):
 
1 1
1 1
k k
k
k k
( (
= =
( (
k (4.3.2)
Next, introducing equation (4.3.1), we have:
 
1 1
1 1
EA
L
(
=
(
k (4.3.3)
However, this equation was written for a 1dimensional element. Expanding this to a
twodimensional axis system is straightforward since there are no yaxis values:
 
1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
i
i
j
j
x
y
EA
x
L
y
(
(
(
=
(
(
k (4.3.4)
Next, using the general element stiffness transformation equation (See the Appendix):
      
T
k = T k T (4.3.5)
And noting the transformation matrix for a plane truss element from the Appendix:
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Dr. C. Caprani 36
cos sin 0 0
sin cos 0 0
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos
P
P
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
T 0
T =
0 T
(4.3.6)
We have:
 
1
cos sin 0 0 1 0 1 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 cos sin 1 0 1 0
0 0 sin cos 0 0 0 0
cos sin 0 0
sin cos 0 0
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos
EA
L
( (
( (
( (
=
( (
( (
(
(
(
(
(
k
(4.3.7)
Carrying out the multiplication gives:
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
EA
L
(
(
(
=
(
(
k (4.3.8)
If we examine the nodal submatrices and write cos c , sin s :
 
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
EA
L c cs c cs
cs s cs s
(
(
(
=
(
(
k (4.3.9)
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Dr. C. Caprani 37
Labelling the nodal submatrices as:
 
(
=
(
k11 k12
k
k21 k22
(4.3.10)
Then we see that the submatrices are of dimension 2 2 (No. DOF No. DOF) and
are:
2
2
c cs
EA
L cs s
(
=
(
k11 (4.3.11)
And also note:
k11 = k22 = k12 = k21 (4.3.12)
Therefore, we need only evaluate a single nodal submatrix (k11) in order to find the
total element stiffness matrix in global coordinates.
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Dr. C. Caprani 38
Matlab Program Element Stiffness Matrix
Calculating the element stiffness matrix for our Truss Analysis Program is easy. The
only complexity is extracting the relevant data from the input node and element data
matrices. Rather than try determine the angle that the truss member is at (remember
we only have the nodal coordinates), we can calculate cos and sin directly (e.g.
adjacent/hypotenuse). Further, the element length can be found using Pythagoras,
given the nodal coordinates. These element properties are found in the script below:
f unct i on [ L c s] = Tr ussEl ement Geom( i El e, nDat a, eDat a) ;
%Thi s f unct i on r et ur ns t he el ement l engt h
%What nodes does t he el ement connect t o?
i Node = eDat a( i El e, 1) ;
j Node = eDat a( i El e, 2) ;
%What ar e t he coor di nat es of t hese nodes?
i NodeX = nDat a( i Node, 1) ;
i NodeY = nDat a( i Node, 2) ;
j NodeX = nDat a( j Node, 1) ;
j NodeY = nDat a( j Node, 2) ;
%Use Pyt hagor as t o wor k out t he member l engt h
L = sqr t ( ( j NodeX  i NodeX) ^ 2 + ( j NodeY  i NodeY) ^ 2) ;
%Cos i s adj acent over hyp, si n i s opp over hyp
c = ( j NodeX  i NodeX) / L;
s = ( j NodeY  i NodeY) / L;
The E and A values for each element are directly found from the input data element
matrix as follows:
E = eDat a( i , 3) ; %Get i t s E and A
A = eDat a( i , 4) ;
Thus, with all the relevant data assembled, we can calculate the truss element
stiffness matrix. In the following Matlab function, note that we make use of the fact
that each nodal submatrix can be determined from the nodal submatrix k11:
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Dr. C. Caprani 39
f unct i on k = Tr ussEl ement K( E, A, L, c, s)
%Thi s f unct i on r et ur ns t he st i f f ness mat r i x f or a t r uss el ement
k11 = [ c^2 c*s;
c*s s^2] ;
k = ( E*A/ L) * [ k11  k11;
 k11 k11] ;
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Dr. C. Caprani 40
4.3.3 Element Forces
The forces applied to a members ends are got from the element equation:
{ }  { }
e e
= F k u (4.3.13)
Expanding this in terms of nodal equations we have:
i i
j j
(
=
` `
(
) )
F k11 k12
F k21 k22
(4.3.14)
Thus we know:
j i j
= + F k21 k22 (4.3.15)
From which we could determine the members axial force. However, for truss
members, we can determine a simple expression to use if we consider the change in
length in terms of the member end displacements:
x jx ix
L = (4.3.16)
y jy iy
L = (4.3.17)
And using the coordinate transforms idea:
cos sin
x y
L L L = + (4.3.18)
Also we know that the member force is related to the member elongation by:
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Dr. C. Caprani 41
EA
F L
L
= (4.3.19)
Thus we have:
cos sin
x y
EA
F L L
L
( = +
(4.3.20)
And introducing equations (4.3.16) and (4.3.17) gives:
 
cos sin
jx ix
jy iy
EA
F
L
=
`
)
(4.3.21)
A positive result from this means tension and negative compression.
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Dr. C. Caprani 42
Matlab Program Element Force
Once the element nodal deflections are known, the element forces are found as
described above. Most of the programming effort is dedicated to extracting the nodal
deflections that are relevant for the particular member under consideration:
f unct i on F = Tr ussEl ement For ce( nDat a, eDat a, d, i El e)
%Thi s f unct i on r et ur ns t he el ement f or ce f or i El e gi ven t he gl obal
%di spl acement vect or , d, and t he node and el ement dat a mat r i ces.
%What nodes does t he el ement connect t o?
i Node = eDat a( i El e, 1) ;
j Node = eDat a( i El e, 2) ;
%Get t he el ement pr oper t i es
E = eDat a( i El e, 3) ; %Get i t s E and A
A = eDat a( i El e, 4) ;
[ L c s] = Tr ussEl ement Geom( i El e, nDat a, eDat a) ; %Geomet r i c Pr oper t i es
di x = d( 2*i Node 1) ; %x di spl acement at node i
di y = d( 2*i Node) ; %y di spl acement at node i
dj x = d( 2*j Node 1) ; %x di spl acement at node j
dj y = d( 2*j Node) ; %y di spl acement at node j
F = ( E*A/ L) * ( c*( dj x di x) + s*( dj y di y) ) ;
Note also that the way the program is written assumes that tension is positive and
compression is negative. We also want to return all of the element forces, so we use
the function just described to calculate all the truss elements forces:
f unct i on F = El ement For ces( nDat a, eDat a, d)
%Thi s f unct i on r et ur ns a vect or of t he el ement f or ces
%How many el ement s ar e t her e?
[ ne ~] = si ze( eDat a) ;
%Set up a bl ank el ement f or ce vect or
F = zer os( ne, 1) ;
%For each el ement
f or i = 1: ne
%Get i t s f or ce and ent er i nt o vect or
F( i ) = Tr ussEl ement For ce( nDat a, eDat a, d, i ) ;
end
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4.3.4 Example 2: Basic Truss
Problem
Analyse the following truss using the stiffness matrix method.
Note that:
2
200 kN/mm E = ;
The reference area is
2
100mm A = .
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Dr. C. Caprani 44
Solution
STEP 1: Determine the member stiffness matrices:
Member 12
The angle this member makes to the global axis system and the relevant values are:
2
1 1
cos cos45
2 2
c c = = =
2
1 1 1
sin sin45
2 2 2
s s cs = = = =
Therefore:
2
12
2
12
0.5 0.5
200 100 2
0.5 0.5
10 2
c cs
EA
L cs s
( (
 
= =
 ( (
\ .
k11
Thus:
3
12
0.5 0.5
10
0.5 0.5
(
=
(
k11 (4.3.22)
Notice that the matrix is symmetrical as it should be.
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Dr. C. Caprani 45
Member 23
The angle this member makes to the global axis system and the relevant values are:
2
1 1
cos cos315
2 2
c c = = =
2
1 1 1
sin sin315
2 2 2
s s cs = = = =
Therefore:
2
23
2
23
0.5 0.5
200 100 2
0.5 0.5
10 2
c cs
EA
L cs s
( (
 
= =
 ( (
\ .
k11
Thus:
3
23
0.5 0.5
10
0.5 0.5
(
=
(
k11 (4.3.23)
Again the matrix is symmetrical.
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Dr. C. Caprani 46
STEP 2: Assemble the global stiffness matrix
For 3 nodes, the unrestricted global stiffness matrix will look as follows:
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
Node 1
Node 2
Node 3
(
(
=
(
(
K K K
K K K K
K K K
(4.3.24)
Note that each of the submatrices is a 22 matrix, e.g.:
11 12
21 22
Node 1
Node 1
xx xy
yx yy
k k x
k k y
(
=
(
11
K (4.3.25)
The member stiffness nodal submatrices contribute to the global stiffness nodal sub
matrices as follows:
11 12 13 12 12
21 22 23 12 12 23 23
31 32 33 23 23
( (
( (
= =
( (
( (
K K K k11 k12 0
K K K K k21 k22 +k11 k12
K K K 0 k21 k22
(4.3.26)
Expanding this out and filling in the relevant entries from equations (4.3.22) and
(4.3.23) whilst using equation (4.3.12) gives:
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Dr. C. Caprani 47
3
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0
0.5 0.5 1 0 0.5 0.5
10
0.5 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.5
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
K (4.3.27)
STEP 3: Write the solution equation in full
{ }  { }
F = K (4.3.28)
Thus, keeping the nodal submatrices identifiable for clarity:
1 1
1 1
2
3
2
3 3
3 3
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0
0 0.5 0.5 1 0 0.5 0.5
10
100 0.5 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.5
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
x x
y y
x
y
x x
y y
R
R
R
R
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.3.29)
In which we have noted:
1x
R is the reaction at node 1 in the xdirection (and similarly for the others);
The force at node 2 is 0 in the xdirection and 100 kN (downwards) in the y
direction.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 48
STEP 4: Restrict the equation.
Now we impose the boundary conditions on the problem. We know:
1 1
0
x y
= = since node 1 is pinned;
3 3
0
x y
= = again, since node 3 is pinned.
Thus equation (4.3.29) becomes:
1
1
2
3
2
3
3
0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0
10
100 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
x
y
x
y
x
y
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.3.30)
Since both DOFs are restricted for nodes 1 and 3, we can thus write the remaining
equations for node 2:
2
3
2
0 1 0
10
100 0 1
x
y
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.3.31)
STEP 5: Solve the system
The ydirection is thus the only active equation:
3
2
100 10
y
= (4.3.32)
Thus:
2
0.1 m 100 mm
y
= = (4.3.33)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 49
STEP 6: Determine the member forces
For truss members we outlined a simple method encompassed in equation (4.3.21).
In applying this to Member 12 we note:
1 1
0
x y
= = since it is a support;
2
0
x
= by solution;
2
0.1
y
= again by solution.
Thus:
 
cos sin
jx ix
jy iy
EA
F
L
=
`
)
3
0 0
1 1 100
10 50 2kN
0.1 0
2 2 2
F
(
= = =
`
(
)
(4.3.34)
And so Member 12 is in compression, as may be expected. For Member 23 we
similarly have:
( )
3
0 0
1 1 100
10 50 2kN
0 0.1
2 2 2
F
(
= = =
`
(
)
(4.3.35)
And again Member 23 is in compression. Further, since the structure is symmetrical
and is symmetrically loaded, it makes sense that Members 12 and 23 have the same
force.
STEP 7: Determine the reactions
To determine the remaining unknown forces we can use the basic equation now that
all displacements are known:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 50
1
1
3
3
3
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0
0 0.5 0.5 1 0 0.5 0.5 0
10
100 0.5 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.5 0.1
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0
0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0
x
y
x
y
R
R
R
R
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.3.36)
Thus we have:
 
1
0
0.5 0.5 50kN
0.1
x
R
= = +
`
)
(4.3.37)
 
1
0
0.5 0.5 50kN
0.1
y
R
= = +
`
)
(4.3.38)
 
3
0
0.5 0.5 50kN
0.1
x
R
= =
`
)
(4.3.39)
 
3
0
0.5 0.5 50kN
0.1
y
R
= = +
`
)
(4.3.40)
Again note that the sign indicates the direction along the global coordinate system.
We can now plot the full solution:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 51
Matlab Program First Use
All necessary functions have been explained. The main function is given on page 21.
This also gives the single line of code that finds the reactions. The input data for the
example truss just given is:
Node Data Element Data
x y F
x
F
y
R
x
R
y
Node i Node j E A
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 200 70.71
10 10 0 100 0 0 2 3 200 70.71
20 0 0 0 1 1
And the results from the program are:
Node DOF D R Element F
1 x 0 50 1 70.71
y 0 50 2 70.71
2 x 0 0
y 0.100 100
3 x 0 50
y 0 50
These results, of course, correspond to those found by hand.
The importance of the graphical display of the results should also be noted: there
could have been clear mistakes made in the preparation of the input data that would
not reveal themselves unless the physical interpretation of the results is appreciate by
drawing the deflected shape, the member forces, and the directions of the reactions.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 52
4.3.5 Example 3: Adding Members
Problem
Analyse the truss of Example 2 but with the following member 14 added:
Solution
With the addition of node 4 we now know that the nodal submatrices global stiffness
equation will be 44 with the fully expanded matrix being 1616. Rather than
determine every entry in this, lets restrict it now and only determine the values we
will actually use. Since nodes 1, 3 and 4 are pinned, all their DOFs are fully restricted
out. The restricted equation thus becomes:
{ }  { }
2 2
= F K22 (4.3.41)
Next we must identify the contributions from each member:
We already know the contributions of Members 12 and 23 from Example 2.
The contribution of Member 24 is to nodes 2 and 4. Since node 4 is restricted, we
only have the contribution
24
k11 to K22.
Thus K22 becomes:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 53
12 23 24
= + + K22 k22 k11 k11 (4.3.42)
Next determine
24
k11 : this member makes an angle of 270 to the global axis system
giving:
2
cos cos270 0 0 c c = = =
2
sin sin270 1 1 0 s s cs = = = =
Therefore:
2
3
24
2
24
0 0 0 0
200 100
2 10
0 1 0 1 10
c cs
EA
L cs s
( ( (
 
= = =
 ( ( (
\ .
k11
Thus:
3
24
0 0
10
0 2
(
=
(
k11 (4.3.43)
Hence the global restricted stiffness matrix becomes:
3 3 3
1 0 0 0 1 0
10 10 10
0 1 0 2 0 3
( ( (
= + =
( ( (
K22 (4.3.44)
Writing the restricted equation, we have:
2
3
2
0 1 0
10
100 0 3
x
y
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.3.45)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 54
From which we find the only equation
( )
3
2
100 10 3
y
= (4.3.46)
Thus:
2
0.033 m 33.3 mm
y
= = (4.3.47)
The member forces are:
3
12
0 0
1 1
10 23.6kN
0.033 0
2 2
F
(
= =
`
(
)
(4.3.48)
( )
3
23
0 0
1 1
10 23.6kN
0 0.033
2 2
F
(
= =
`
(
)
(4.3.49)
 
3
24
0 0
10 0 2 66.6kN
0.033 0
F
= =
`
)
(4.3.50)
Thus we have the following solution:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 55
Matlab Program Input/Output
The input data for this example is:
Node Data Element Data
x y F
x
F
y
R
x
R
y
Node i Node j E A
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 200 70.71
10 10 0 100 0 0 2 3 200 70.71
20 0 0 0 1 1 2 4 200 100
10 0 0 0 1 1
The results are:
Node DOF D R Element F
1 x 0 16.66 1 23.57
y 0 16.66 2 23.57
2 x 0 0 3 66.66
y 0.033 100
3 x 0 16.66
y 0 16.66
4 x 0 0
y 0 66.66
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 56
4.3.6 Example 4: Using Symmetry
Problem
Analyse the truss of Example 3 taking advantage of any symmetry:
Solution
Looking at the structure it is clear that by splitting the structure down the middle
along member 24 that we will have two equal halves:
Notice that we have changed the following:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 57
The load is halved since it is now equally shared amongst two halves;
Similarly the area of member 24 is halved.
We now analyse this new truss as usual. However, we can make use of some previous
results. For Member 12:
3
12
0.5 0.5
10
0.5 0.5
(
=
(
k11 (4.3.51)
And for Member 24
3 3
24
0 0 0 0
1
10 10
0 2 0 1 2
( (
= =
`
( (
)
k11 (4.3.52)
Since the area is halved from that of Example 3, its stiffnesses are halved.
In restricting we note that the only possible displacement is node 2 in the ydirection.
However, we will keep using the node 2 submatrices until the last moment:
3 3 3
0.5 0 0 0 0.5 0
10 10 10
0 0.5 0 1 0 1.5
( ( (
= + =
( ( (
K22 (4.3.53)
Thus:
2
3
2
0 0.5 0
10
50 0 1.5
x
y
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.3.54)
And now imposing the boundary condition
2
0
x
= :
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 58
{ }  { }
3
2
50 10 1.5
y
= (4.3.55)
From which we solve for the displacement:
{ }  { }
3
2
2
50 10 1.5
0.033 m 33.3 mm
y
y
=
= =
(4.3.56)
This (of course) is the same result we obtained in Example 3. For the member forces
we have:
3
12
0 0
1 1
10 23.6kN
0.033 0
2 2
F
(
= =
`
(
)
(4.3.57)
 
( )
3
24
0 0
10 0 1 33.3kN
0 0.033
F
= =
`
)
(4.3.58)
Member 12 has the same force as per Example 3 as is expected.
It might appear that Member 24 has an erroneous force result. It must be remembered
that this is the force in the halfmember (brought about since we are using symmetry).
Therefore the force in the full member is 2 33.3 66.6 kN = as per Example 3.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 59
4.3.7 SelfStrained Structures
Introduction
A selfstrained structure is one where strains are induced by sources other than
externally applied loads. The two main examples are temperature difference and lack
of fit of a member. For example consider the effect if member 13 in the following
structure was too long and had to be squeezed into place:
It should be intuitively obvious that to squeeze the member into place a
compressive force was required to shorten it to the required length:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 60
Once the member has been put in place, the source of the squeezing is removed.
Since the member wants to spring back to its original length, it pushes on its joints:
In this way members 12 and 14 will now go into tension whilst member 13 will
remain in compression, but a smaller compression than when it was squeezed into
place since joint 1 will deflect to the right some amount.
In a similar way to lack of fit, examined above, if member 13 had been subject to a
temperature increase it would try to elongate. However this elongation is restrained
by the other members inducing them into tension and member 13 into some
compression.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 61
Lack of Fit
We consider a member with original length of
O
L that is required to be of length
Req'd
L . Thus a change in length of L must be applied:
Req'd O
L L L = + (4.3.59)
Thus:
L is positive: the member is too short and must be lengthened to get into place;
L is negative, it is too long and must be shortened to get into place.
Thus we must apply a force to the member that will cause a change in length of L .
From basic mechanics:
O
FL
L
EA
= (4.3.60)
Thus the force required is:
O
L
F EA
L
= (4.3.61)
From the above sign convention for L :
F is positive when the member must be put into tension to get it in place;
F is negative when the member must be put into compression to get it in place.
Lastly, remember to apply the member force in opposite direction to the members
nodes.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 62
Temperature Change
We consider a member that is subject to a differential (i.e. different to the rest of the
structure) temperature change of T degrees Celsius. Also we must know the
coefficient of linear thermal expansion, , for the material. This is the change in
length, per unit length, per unit change in temperature:
O
L
C
L
 

\ .
(4.3.62)
Thus the thermal strain induced in the member is:
T
T = (4.3.63)
And so the change in length is:
O
L L T = (4.3.64)
Also, since E = , we find the force in the member:
T T T
F A EA = = (4.3.65)
So finally, from equation (4.3.63), the force required to suppress the temperature
change is:
T
F EA T = (4.3.66)
Once again, apply this force in the opposite direction to the members nodes.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 63
4.3.8 Example 5 Truss with Differential Temperature
Problem
Member 13 of the following truss is subject to a temperature change of +100 C.
Calculate the deflections of node 1 and the final forces in the members.
Take:
5 1
2 10 C
=
;
4
2 10 kN EA = ; the area of member 12 as 2A; the area of
member 13 as A; and, the area of member 14 as A2.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 64
Solution
First we must recognize that there are two stages to the actions in the members:
Stage I: all displacements are suppressed and only the temperature force in
member 13 is allowed for;
Stage II: displacements are allowed and the actions of the temperature force in
member 13 upon the rest of the structure are analyzed for.
The final result is then the summation of these two stages:
The force induced in member 13 when displacements are suppressed is:
( )( )( )
4 5
2 10 2 10 100
40kN
T
F EA T
=
= +
=
(4.3.67)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 65
Stage I
All displacements are suppressed. Thus:
1 1
0; 0
x y
= = (4.3.68)
12 13 14
0; ; 0
I I I
T
F F F F = = = (4.3.69)
Stage II
Displacements are allowed occur and thus we must analyse the truss. Using the
matrix stiffness method, and recognizing that only joint 1 can displace, we have:
{ }  { }
1 1
= F K11 (4.3.70)
Also, since we cleverly chose the node numbers, the member contributions are just:
12 13 14
= + + K11 k11 k11 k11 (4.3.71)
Member 12:
2
1 1
cos cos120
2 4
c c = = =
2
3 3 3
sin sin120
2 4 4
s s cs = = = =
( )
2 4
12
2
23
1 3
2 10 2
4 4
2.0
3 3
4 4
c cs
EA
L cs s
(
(
(
 
(
= =
 (
( \ .
(
k11
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 66
Member 13:
2
cos cos180 1 1 c c = = =
2
sin sin180 0 0 0 s s cs = = = =
2
4
13
2
23
1 0
2 10
0 0 1.0
c cs
EA
L cs s
( (
 
= =
 ( (
\ .
k11
Member 14:
2
1 1
cos cos225
2 2
c c = = =
2
1 1 1
sin sin225
2 2 2
s s cs
= = = =
( )
4
2
14
2
23
2 10 2
0.5 0.5
0.5 0.5
1.0 2
c cs
EA
L cs s
( (
 
= =
 ( (
\ .
k11
Thus from equation (4.3.71) we have:
4
7 2 3
2 10
4
2 3 5
(
=
(
(
K11 (4.3.72)
From the diagram for Stage II, we can see that the force applied to joint 1 is acting to
the right and so is positive. Thus:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 67
4
1
1
40 7 2 3
2 10
0 4
2 3 5
x
y
(
=
(
` `
) ( )
(4.3.73)
Solve this to get:
( )
1
2 4
1
3
5 3 2 40
4 1
0 2 10
3 2 7
7 5 2 3
1.15
10 m
0.06
x
y
(
=
(
` `
(
) ( )
(
=
`
)
(4.3.74)
Using equation (4.3.21) we can now find the member forces for Stage II:
( ) ( )
( )
4
3
12
0 1.15 2 10 2
1 3
10 12.54 kN
0 0.06 2.0 2 2
II
F
(
= = +
` (
)
(4.3.75)
 
( )
( )
4
3
13
0 1.15
2 10
1 0 10 23.0 kN
0 0.06 1.0
II
F
= = +
`
)
(4.3.76)
( )
( )
( )
4
3
14
2 10 2
0 1.15
1 1
10 15.4 kN
0 0.06
1.0 2 2 2
II
F
(
= = +
`
(
)
(4.3.77)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 68
Final
The final member forces are the superposition of Stage I and Stage II forces:
12 12 12
0 12.54 12.54 kN
I II
F F F = + = + = (4.3.78)
13 13 13
40 23.0 17.0 kN
I II
F F F = + = + = (4.3.79)
14 14 14
0 15.4 15.4 kN
I II
F F F = + = + = (4.3.80)
Thus the final result is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 69
4.3.9 Example 6 Truss with Loads & Self Strains
Problem
Analyse the same truss as Example 5, allowing for the following additional load
sources:
80 kN acting horizontally to the left at node 1;
100 kN acting vertically downwards at node 1;
Member 14 is 52 mm too short upon arrival on site.
All as shown below:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 70
Solution
Again we will separate the actions into Stage I and Stage II scenarios.
Stage I
Displacements are suppressed and as a result the only sources of forces are self
straining forces:
The forces and displacements for Stage I are thus:
40kN
T
F = as before,
( )
3
4
5 2 10
2 2 10 100 2 kN
2
L
L
F EA
L
= = = (4.3.81)
1 1
0; 0
x y
= = (4.3.82)
12 13 14
0; 40; 100 2
I I I
F F F = = = (4.3.83)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 71
Stage II
In this stage displacements are allowed and the forces in the selfstrained members
are now applied to the joints, in addition to any external loads. Thus we have:
Clearly we need to resolve the forces at node 1 into net vertical and horizontal forces:
Since the members have not changed from Example 5, we can use the same stiffness
matrix. Therefore we have :
4
1
1
140 7 2 3
2 10
200 4
2 3 5
x
y
(
=
(
` `
) ( )
(4.3.84)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 72
Solve this:
( )
1
2 4
1
3
5 3 2 140
4 1
200 2 10
3 2 7
7 5 2 3
3.7
10 m
7.8
x
y
(
=
(
` `
(
) ( )
(
=
`
)
(4.3.85)
Using equation (4.3.21) we can find the member forces for Stage II:
( ) ( )
( )
4
3
12
0 3.7 2 10 2
1 3
10 98.1 kN
0 7.8 2.0 2 2
II
F
(
= = +
` (
)
(4.3.86)
 
( )
( )
4
3
13
0 3.7
2 10
1 0 10 74.0 kN
0 7.8 1.0
II
F
= =
`
)
(4.3.87)
( )
( )
( )
4
3
14
2 10 2
0 3.7
1 1
10 162.6 kN
0 7.8
1.0 2 2 2
II
F
(
= =
`
(
)
(4.3.88)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 73
Final
As before, the final member forces are the Stage I and Stage II forces:
12 12 12
0 98.1 98.1 kN
I II
F F F = + = + = (4.3.89)
13 13 13
40 74.0 114.0 kN
I II
F F F = + = = (4.3.90)
14 14 14
100 2 162.6 21.6 kN
I II
F F F = + = = (4.3.91)
Thus the final result is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 74
4.3.10 Problems
Problem 1
Determine the displacements of joint 1 and the member forces for the following truss.
Take
4
2 10 kN EA = .
Problem 2
Determine the displacements of joint 1 and the member forces for the following truss.
Take
4
2 10 kN EA = , the area of both members is A2.
Ans.
1
5 mm
x
= + ,
1
0
y
=
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 75
Problem 3
Using any pertinent results from Problem 2, determine the area of member 14 such
that the horizontal displacement of node 1 is half what is was prior to the installation
of member 14. Determine also the force in member 14. Take
4
2 10 kN EA = ,
Ans.
14
A A = ,
14
50 kN F =
Problem 4
Determine the displacements of the joints and the member forces for the following
truss. Take
4
2 10 kN EA = , the area of all members is A2, except for member 24
which has an area of A.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 76
Problem 5
Determine the displacements of the joints and the member forces for the following
truss. Take
4
2 10 kN EA = , the area of the members is as shown.
Problem 6
Determine the displacements of the joints and the member forces for the following
truss. Take
4
2 10 kN EA = , the area of all members is A, except for member 14
which has an area of A2.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 77
4.4 Beams
4.4.1 Beam Element Stiffness Matrix
To derive the beam element stiffness matrix, we recall some results obtained
previously, summarized here:
Next we must adopt strict local element sign convention and node identification:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 78
Anticlockwise moments and rotations (i.e. from the xaxis to the yaxis) are positive
and upwards forces are positive.
Thus for a vertical displacement of at node i, now labelled
iy
, we have the
following force vector:
3
2
3
2
12
6
12
6
iy
i
iy
jy
j
EI
L
F
EI
M
L
F EI
L M
EI
L
=
` `
)
)
(4.4.1)
Similarly, applying the same deflection, but at node j,
jy
, gives:
3
2
3
2
12
6
12
6
iy
i
jy
jy
j
EI
L
F
EI
M
L
F EI
L M
EI
L
=
` `
)
)
(4.4.2)
Next, applying a rotation to node i,
i
, gives:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 79
2
2
6
4
6
2
iy
i
i
jy
j
EI
L
F
EI
M
L
F EI
L M
EI
L
=
` `
)
)
(4.4.3)
And a rotation to node j,
j
, gives:
2
2
6
2
6
4
iy
i
j
jy
j
EI
L
F
EI
M
L
F EI
L M
EI
L
=
` `
)
)
(4.4.4)
Since all of these displacement could happen together, using superposition we thus
have the total force vector as:
3 2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2
12 6 12 6
6 4 6 2
12 6 12 6
6 2 6 4
iy
i
iy i jy
jy
j
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
F
EI EI EI EI
M
L L L L
F EI EI EI EI
L L L L M
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
= + + +
` ` ` `
)
) ) )
j
)
(4.4.5)
Writing this as a matrix equation, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 80
3 2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2
12 6 12 6
6 4 6 2
12 6 12 6
6 2 6 4
iy iy
i i
jy jy
j j
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
F
EI EI EI EI
M
L L L L
F EI EI EI EI
L L L L M
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
(
(
(
(
=
` `
(
(
(
) )
(
(
(4.4.6)
This is in the typical form:
{ }  { }
e e
= F k u (4.4.7)
And so the beam element stiffness matrix is given by:
 
3 2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2
12 6 12 6
6 4 6 2
12 6 12 6
6 2 6 4
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
k (4.4.8)
Next we note a special case where the vertical displacements of the beam nodes are
prevented and only rotations of the beam ends is allowed. In this case, all terms
relating to the translation DOFs are removed giving us the reduced stiffness matrix
for a beam on rigid vertical supports:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 81
 
4 2
2 4
EI EI
L L
EI EI
L L
(
(
=
(
(
(
k (4.4.9)
As we did for trusses, we will often write these equations in terms of nodal sub
matrices as:
i i
j j
(
=
` `
(
) )
F k11 k12
F k21 k22
(4.4.10)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 82
4.4.2 Beam Element Loading
Applied Loads
Beam loads are different to truss loads since they can be located anywhere along the
element, not only at the nodes termed intermodal loading Beams can also have
loads applied to the nodes nodal loading. We deal with these two kinds of loads as
follows:
Nodal loads: apply the load to the joint as usual;
Internodal loads: apply the equivalent concentrated loads to the joints (these are
just fixed end moment reactions to the load, with the direction reversed).
If a members nodes are locked against rotation, the member end forces due to inter
nodal loading will just be the fixed end moment and force reaction vector we are
familiar with
{ }
F
F . If a member also displaces, the total member end forces are:
{ } { }  { }
Tot
= +
F
F F k (4.4.11)
Thus the general stiffness equation becomes:
{ }  { }
= F K (4.4.12)
Where
{ }
F is now the vector of net nodal loads:
Net Nodal Load Nodal Load Fixed End Reactions =
(4.4.13)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 83
Lastly, we must note that internodal loads on adjacent members will result in
multiple loads on a node. Thus we must take the algebraic sum of the forces/moments
on each node in our analysis, bearing in mind the sign convention.
As an example, the equivalent nodal loads for a UDL applied to a beam element are:
Member End Forces
After the deformations of the beam are known, we can use the element stiffness
matrices to recover the end forces/moments on each element due to both
deformations and the internodal loading directly from equation (4.4.11).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 84
4.4.3 Example 7 Simple TwoSpan Beam
Problem
For the following beam, find the rotations of joints 2 and 3 and the bending moment
diagram. Take
3 2
6 10 kNm EI = .
Solution
First we write the general equation in terms of nodal submatrices:
1 11 12 13 1
2 21 22 23 2
3 31 32 33 3
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
F K K K
F K K K
F K K K
(4.4.14)
Next we note that the only possible displacements are the rotations of joints 2 and 3.
Thus we can restrict the equation by eliminating joint 1 as follows:
1 11 12 13 1
2 21 22 23 2
3 31 32 33 3
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
F K K K
F K K K
F K K K
(4.4.15)
To give:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 85
2 22 23 2
3 32 33 3
(
=
` `
(
) )
F K K
F K K
(4.4.16)
Since this beam is on rigid vertical supports, we can use the beam stiffness matrix
given by equation (4.4.9). Thus we are left with two equations:
2 22 23 2
3 32 33 3
M k k
M k k
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.4.17)
The member contributions to each of these terms are:
22
Term 22 of Member 12 +Term 11 of Member 23 k = ;
23
Term 12 of Member 23 k = ;
32
Term 21 of Member 23 k = ;
33
Term 22 of Member 23 k =
Thus, for Member 12 we have:
 
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
12
4 6 2 6
4 2
4 2
6 6
10 10
2 4 2 4
2 6 4 6
6 6
EI EI
L L
EI EI
L L
(
(
(
(
(
( = = =
(
(
(
(
(
(
k (4.4.18)
And for Member 23:
 
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
23
4 6 2 6
4 2
6 6
10 10
2 4
2 6 4 6
6 6
(
(
(
( = =
(
(
(
k (4.4.19)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 86
Thus the global stiffness equation is:
2 2 3
3 3
8 2
10
2 4
M
M
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.4.20)
To find the moments to apply to the nodes, we determine the fixedend moments
caused by the loads on each members. Only Member 23 has load, and its fixed end
moments are:
Our sign convention is anticlockwise positive. Thus the moments to apply to the
joints become (refer to equation (4.4.13)):
2 3
3
30 8 2
10
30 2 4
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.4.21)
Solving the equation:
( )
2 3
3
3
4 2 30 9014
1 1
10 rads
2 8 30 15014 10 8 4 2 2
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.4.22)
Since we know that anticlockwise is positive, we can draw the displaced shape (in
mrads):
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 87
Using the member stiffness matrices we can recover the bending moments at the end
of each member, now that the rotations are known, from equation (4.4.11):
1 3 3
2
0 4 2 0 12.9
10 10 kNm
0 2 4 9014 25.7
M
M
(
= + =
` ` ` `
(
) ) ) )
(4.4.23)
2 3 3
3
30 4 2 9014 25.7
10 10 kNm
30 2 4 15014 0
M
M
+ (
= + =
` ` ` `
(
) ) ) )
(4.4.24)
Thus the final BMD can be drawn as:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 88
4.4.4 Example 8 NonPrismatic Beam
Problem
For the following beam, find the vertical deflection of joint 2 and the bending
moment diagram. Take
3 2
12 10 kNm EI = .
Solution
First we write the general equation in terms of nodal submatrices:
1 11 12 13 1
2 21 22 23 2
3 31 32 33 3
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
F K K K
F K K K
F K K K
(4.4.25)
Next we note that the only possible displacements are those of joint 2. Thus we can
restrict the equation to:
{ }  { }
2 22 2
= F K (4.4.26)
The member contributions to
22
K are:
Submatrix k22 of member 12;
Submatrix k11 of member 23.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 89
That is:
     
22 12 23
= + K k22 k11 (4.4.27)
For member 12, we have, from equation (4.4.8):
3 2 3 2
3 3
12
2 2
12 6 12 12 6 12
2.25 4.5
4 4
10 10
6 4 6 12 4 12 4.5 12
4 4
EI EI
L L
EI EI
L L
( (
( (
(
= = =
( (
(
( (
( (
k22 (4.4.28)
And for member 23:
3 2 3 2
3 3
23
2 2
12 6 12 24 6 24
4.5 9
4 4
10 10
6 4 6 24 4 24 9 24
4 4
EI EI
L L
EI EI
L L
( (
( (
(
= = =
( (
(
( (
( (
k11 (4.4.29)
Since the load is a directly applied nodal load we can now write equation (4.4.26),
using equations (4.4.27), (4.4.28), and (4.4.29), as:
2 2 3
2 2
100 6.75 4.5
10
0 4.5 36
y y
F
M
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.4.30)
Solving:
( )
2 3 3
2
36 4.5 100 16.16
1
10 10
4.5 6.75 0 2.02 6.75 36 4.5 4.5
y
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.4.31)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 90
Thus we have a downwards (negative) displacement of 16.2 mm and an
anticlockwise rotation of 2.02 mrads at joint 2, as shown:
Next we recover the element end forces. For member 12, from equation (4.4.6) we
have:
1
1 3 3
2
2
2.25 4.5 2.25 4.5 0 45.5
4.5 12 4.5 6 0 84.8
10 10
2.25 4.5 2.25 4.5 16.16 45.5
4.5 6 4.5 12 2.02 97.0
y
y
F
M
F
M
(
(
(
= =
` ` `
(
(
) ) )
(4.4.32)
And for member 23:
2
2 3 3
3
3
4.5 9 4.5 9 16.16 54.5
9 24 9 12 2.02 97.0
10 10
4.5 9 4.5 9 0 54.5
9 12 9 24 0 121.2
y
y
F
M
F
M
(
(
(
= =
` ` `
(
(
) ) )
(4.4.33)
Thus the member end forces are:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 91
As can be seen, the load is split between the two members in a way that depends on
their relative stiffness.
The total solution is thus:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 92
4.4.5 Problems
Problem 1
Determine the bending moment diagram and rotation of joint 2. Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = .
Problem 2
Determine the bending moment diagram and the rotations of joints 1 and 2. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 93
Problem 3
Determine the bending moment diagram and the displacements of joints 2 and 3.
Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = .
Problem 4
Determine the bending moment diagram and the vertical displacement under the 100
kN point load. Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 94
Problem 5
Determine the bending moment diagram and the rotations of joints 2 and 3. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = .
Problem 6
Determine the bending moment diagram and the rotations of all joints. Take
3 2
40 10 kNm EI = . You may use Excel or Matlab to perform some of the numerical
calculations. Check your member stiffness and global stiffness matrices with LinPro,
and your final results. Identify and explain discrepancies. Verify with LUSAS.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 95
4.5 Plane Frames
4.5.1 Plane Frame Element Stiffness Matrix
A plane frame element is similar to a beam element except for some differences:
The presence of axial forces;
The member may be oriented at any angle in the global axis system;
The internodal loads may be applied in the local or global coordinates.
These points are illustrated in the following:
Lastly, an easy way to deal with internodal point loads (
G
P ,
L
P ) is to introduce a
node under the point load (splitting the member in two), then it is no longer inter
nodal and so no transformations or equivalent load analysis is required. The downside
to this is that the number of equations increases (which is only really a problem for
analysis by hand).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 96
Axial Forces
To include axial forces, we can simply expand the beam element stiffness matrix to
allow for the extra degree of freedom of xdisplacement at each node in the member
local coordinates. Thus expanding equation (4.4.8) to allow for the extra DOFs gives:
 
11 14
3 2 3 2
2 2
41 44
3 2 3 2
2 2
0 0 0 0
12 6 12 6
0 0
6 4 6 2
0 0
0 0 0 0
12 6 12 6
0 0
6 2 6 4
0 0
X X
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
X X
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
k (4.5.1)
However, these terms that account for axial force are simply those of a plane truss
element in its local coordinate system:
 
1 1
1 1
EA
L
(
=
(
k (4.5.2)
Thus equation (4.5.1) becomes:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 97
 
3 2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3 2
2 2
0 0 0 0
12 6 12 6
0 0
6 4 6 2
0 0
0 0 0 0
12 6 12 6
0 0
6 2 6 4
0 0
EA EA
L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EA EA
L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
EI EI EI EI
L L L L
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
k (4.5.3)
This is the stiffness matrix for a plane frame element in its local coordinate system
and can also be written in terms of nodal submatrices as:
 
(
=
(
k11 k12
k
k21 k22
(4.5.4)
Where the nodal submatrices are as delineated in equation (4.5.3).
Note that if axial forces are neglected, we can just use the regular beam element
stiffness matrix instead, though coordinate transformation may be required.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 98
Transformation to Global Coordinates
From the Appendix, the plane frame element stiffness matrix in global coordinates is:
    
T
e
(
K = T k T (4.5.5)
As a consequence, note that we do not need to perform the transformation when:
1. The member local axis and global axis system coincide;
2. The only unrestrained DOFs are rotations/moments.
Again from the Appendix, the transformation matrix for a plane frame element is:
cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
T (4.5.6)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 99
Internodal Loads
In plane frames, loads can be applied in the global axis system, or the local axis
system. For example, if we consider a member representing a roof beam, we can have
the following laods:
Case 1: Gravity loads representing the weight of the roof itself;
Case 2: Horizontal loads representing a horizontal wind;
Case 3: Net pressure loads caused by outside wind and inside pressures.
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
Most structural analysis software will allow you to choose the axis system of your
loads. However, in order to deal with these loads for simple hand analysis we must
know how it works and so we consider each case separately.
In the following the member local axis system has a prime (e.g. x) and the global
axis system does not (e.g. x).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 100
Case 1: Vertically Applied Loads
In this case we can consider an equivalent beam which is the projection of the load
onto a horizontal beam of length
X
L :
Since the resulting nodal forces and moments are in the global axis system no further
work is required.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 101
Case 2: Horizontally Applied Loads:
Similarly to vertically applied loads, we can consider the horizontal projection of load
onto an equivalent member of length
Y
L .
Again the resulting nodal loads are in the global axis system and do not require any
modification.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 102
Case 3: Loads Applied in Local Member Axis System
In this case there is no need for an equivalent beam and the fixedfixed reactions are
worked out as normal:
However, there is a complication here since the reactions are now not all in the global
axis system. Thus the forces (not moments) must be transformed from the local axis
to the global axis system. Thus there is a simple case:
If axial forces are neglected, only moments are relevant and so no transformations are
required.
For generality though we can use the transformations given in the Appendix:
{ }   { }
'
T
F = T F (4.5.7)
Writing this out in full for clarity, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 103
'
'
'
'
cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
ij ij
ix ix
ij ij
iy iy
ij ij
i i
ij ij
jx jx
ij ij
jy jy
ij ij
j j
F F
F F
M M
F F
F F
M M
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.5.8)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 104
4.5.2 Example 9 Simple Plane Frame
Problem
For the following frame, determine the rotation of the joints and the bending moment
diagram. Neglect axial deformations. Take
3 2
1 10 kNm EI = .
Solution
The fact that we can neglect axial deformation makes this problem much simpler. As
a consequence, the only possible displacements are the rotations of joints 1 and 2.
Since node 3 is fully restricted out, we have the following partiallyrestricted set of
equations in terms of nodal submatrices:
(
=
` `
(
) )
1 1
2 2
F K11 K12
F K21 K22
(4.5.9)
If we expand this further, we will be able to restrict out all but the rotational DOFs:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 105
1 33 36 1
2 63 66 2
M k k
M k k
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.5.10)
The member contributions to each of these terms are:
33
Term 33 of Member 12 k = ;
36
Term 36 of Member 12 k = ;
63
Term 63 of Member 12 k = ;
66
Term 66 of Member 12 Term 33 of Member 23 k = + .
Member 12:
Looking at equation (4.5.3):
3
3
12
4 4 10
Term 33 4 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.11)
3
3
12
2 2 10
Term 36 2 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.12)
3
3
12
2 2 10
Term 63 2 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.13)
3
3
12
4 4 10
Term 66 4 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.14)
Member 23:
Again, from equation (4.5.3):
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 106
3
3
23
4 4 10
Term 33 4 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.15)
Thus the system equation becomes:
1 1 3
2 2
4 2
10
2 8
M
M
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.5.16)
Next we must find the net moments applied to each node. There are no directly
applied nodal moment loads, so the force vector is, from equation (4.4.13):
{ } { }
=
F
F F (4.5.17)
Member 12 Moments:
2 2
12
1
2 2
12
2
12 1
1 kNm
12 12
12 1
1 kNm
12 12
wL
M
wL
M
= = = +
= = =
(4.5.18)
Member 23 Moments:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 107
23
2
23
3
16 1
2 kNm
8 8
16 1
2 kNm
8 8
PL
M
PL
M
= = = +
= = =
(4.5.19)
Thus the net nodal loads become:
{ } { }
1
2
1 1
kNm
1 2 1
M
M
+
= = = =
` ` `
+
) ) )
F
F F (4.5.20)
And so equation (4.5.16) is thus:
1 3
2
1 4 2
10
1 2 8
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.5.21)
Which is solved to get:
( )
1 3
3
2
8 2 1 314
1 1
10 rads
2 4 1 114 10 4 8 2 2
(
= =
` ` `
(
) ) )
(4.5.22)
The negative results indicate both rotations are clockwise.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 108
Lastly, we must find the member end forces. Since we only need to draw the bending
moment diagram so we need only consider the terms of the member stiffness matrix
relating to the moments/rotations (similar to equation (4.4.9)). Also, we must account
for the equivalent nodal loads as per equation (4.4.11):
Member 12:
12
1 3 3
12
2
1 4 2 314 0
10 10 kNm
1 2 4 114 12 7
M
M
+ (
= + =
` ` ` `
(
) ) ) )
(4.5.23)
Member 23:
23
2 3 3
23
3
2 4 2 114 12 7
10 10 kNm
2 2 4 0 17 7
M
M
+ + (
= + =
` ` ` `
(
) ) ) )
(4.5.24)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 109
4.5.3 Example 10 Plane Frame Using Symmetry
Problem
For the following frame, determine the rotation of the joints, the displacement under
the 8 kN point load and the bending moment diagram. Neglect axial deformations.
Take
3 2
1 10 kNm EI = .
Solution
Again, the fact that we can neglect axial deformation makes this problem much
simpler. Since the structure is symmetrical and it is symmetrically loaded, it will not
sway. Further, because of this symmetry, we can adopt the following model for
analysis:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 110
Notice two things from this model:
we have renumber the joints there is no need to retain the old numbering system;
The remaining DOFs are
2
and
3y
 we can restrict all other DOFs. Thus in terms
of nodal submatrices we immediately have:
2 2
3 3
(
=
` `
(
) )
F K11 K12
F K21 K22
(4.5.25)
And expanding this further, we restrict out all other restrained DOFs:
2 66 68 2
3 86 88 3 y y
M k k
F k k
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.5.26)
The member contributions to each of these terms are:
66
Term 66 of Member 12 Term 33 of Member 23 k = + ;
68
Term 35 of Member 23 k = ;
86
Term 53 of Member 23 k = ;
66
Term 55 of Member 23 k = .
Transformation of the member stiffness matrices is not required. Member 12 only has
a rotational DOF and Member 23s local member coordinate system is parallel to the
global axis coordinate system.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 111
Member 12:
From equation (4.5.3):
3
3
12
4 4 10
Term 66 4 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.27)
Member 23:
Again, from equation (4.5.3):
3
3
23
4 4 10
Term 33 4 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.28)
3
3
2 2
23
6 6 10
Term 35 6 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.29)
3
3
2 2
23
6 6 10
Term 53 6 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.30)
3
3
3 3
23
12 12 10
Term 55 12 10
1
EI
L
 
= = =

\ .
(4.5.31)
Thus the system equation becomes:
2 2
3
3 3
8 6
10
6 12
y y
M
F
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.5.32)
The 4 kN point load is directly applied to node 3 so this causes no difficulty. The
equivalent nodal loads for the UDL are:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 112
2 2
12
1
2 2
12
2
12 1
1 kNm
12 12
12 1
1 kNm
12 12
wL
M
wL
M
= = = +
= = =
(4.5.33)
Notice that we do not need to find the vertical reaction forces as there is no sway of
the frame and we are neglecting axial deformation.
The nodal load vector, from equation (4.4.13) is thus:
{ } { } { }
0 1 1
4 0 4
+
= = =
` ` `
) ) )
F
F F F (4.5.34)
And so equation (4.5.32) is thus:
2
3
3
1 8 6
10
4 6 12
y
+ (
=
` `
(
) )
(4.5.35)
Which is solved to get:
( )( )
2
3
3
3
12 6 1 0.2 rads
1 1
10
6 8 4 0.43 m 10 8 12 6 6
y
+ (
= =
` ` `
(
(
) ) )
(4.5.36)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 113
The negative results indicate the rotation is clockwise and the displacement
downwards, as may be expected:
Lastly then we find the bending moments. For member 12 only the terms relating to
bending moments are relevant.
Member 12:
12
1 3 3
12
2
1 4 2 0 0.6
10 10 kNm
1 2 4 0.2 1.8
M
M
+ + (
= + =
` ` ` `
(
) ) ) )
(4.5.37)
However, for member 23, the downwards deflection also causes moments and so the
relevant DOFs are rotation of node i and vertical movement of node j (as calculated
earlier). It is easier to see this if we write the member equation in full:
Member 23:
23
2 3 3
23
3
4 6 0.2
10 10
0.43
2 6
M
M
(
(
(
(
=
` ` (
(
(
(
) )
(4.5.38)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 114
Thus:
23
2
23
3
1.8
kNm
2.2
M
M
+
=
` `
+
) )
(4.5.39)
And so the BMD is:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 115
4.5.4 Problems
Problem 1
Determine the bending moment diagram and the rotation of joint 2. Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial deformations.
(Ans.
2
5 6 mrads = )
Problem 2
Determine the bending moment diagram and the rotations of joints 1 and 2. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial deformations.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 116
Problem 3
Determine the bending moment diagram. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial
deformations.
Problem 4
Determine the bending moment diagram, the rotation of joint 2, and the horizontal
displacements of joints 2 and 3. Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial
deformations.
(Ans.
2 2
11.33 mrads; 44.0mm
x
= = )
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 117
Problem 5
Determine the bending moment diagram. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial
deformations.
Problem 6
Determine the bending moment diagram and the vertical displacement of joint 3.
Take
3 2
40 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial deformations.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 118
Problem 7
Determine the bending moment diagram, the rotation of joint 2, and the vertical
displacement under the 80 kN point load. Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial
deformations.
(Ans.
2
1.071 mrads; 1.93mm
y
= = )
Problem 8
For the frame of Problem 1, determine the bending moment diagram and the rotation
and vertical displacement of joint 2 if member 24 has
3
10 10 kN EA = . Neglect axial
deformation in the other members.
(Ans.
2
0.833 mrads; 0.01mm
y
= = )
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 119
Problem 9
Determine the bending moment diagram for the prismatic portal frame. Take
3 2
20 10 kNm EI = and neglect axial deformations. You may use Excel or Matlab to
perform some of the numerical calculations. Check your member stiffness and global
stiffness matrices with LinPro, and your final results. Identify and explain
discrepancies. Verify with LUSAS.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 120
4.6 Appendix
4.6.1 Plane Truss Element Stiffness Matrix in Global Coordinates
Compatibility Conditions
Firstly we indentify the conditions of compatibility of a truss element nodal
deflections and the member elongation. We use the following notation for the
deflections at each node of the truss:
If we now consider the deflected position of the truss member, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 121
Obviously the change in length of the truss will be related to the difference between
the nodal deflections. Hence, we define the changes in movements such that an
elongation gives positive changes:
x jx ix y jy iy
= =
Moving the deflected position of node i back to its original location gives:
Looking more closely at the triangle of displacements at node j, and remembering
that we are assuming small deflectionswhich in this case means the deflected
position of the member is still at a rotation of . Hence we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 122
And so the elongation is given by:
( ) ( )
cos sin
cos sin
x y
jx ix jy iy
e
= +
= +
(4.6.1)
Now multiply out and reorder to get:
cos sin cos sin
ix iy jx jy
e = + + +
(4.6.2)
If we define a direction vector, , and a displacement vector, , as:
cos
sin
cos
sin
ix
iy
jx
jy
= =
` `
) )
(4.6.3)
Then, from (4.6.2) and (4.6.3), we can say:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 123
t
e = (4.6.4)
Thus we have related the end displacements to the elongation of the member which
therefore maintain compatibility of displacement.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 124
Virtual Work for Element Forces
Looking at the forces acting on the nodes of the bar element, we have:
This is a force system in equilibriumthe external nodal loading is in equilibrium
with the internal bar force, N. If we consider a pattern of compatible displacements
such as the following:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 125
We can apply virtual work to this:
0
E I
W
W W
=
=
And we have:
Substituting in our notations for the bar element:
ix ix iy iy jx jx jy jy
eN F F F F = + + + (4.6.5)
If we define the force vector, F, as:
ix
iy
jx
jy
F
F
F
F
=
`
)
F (4.6.6)
Then we can write (4.6.5) as:
t
eN = F (4.6.7)
Set of forces in
equilibrium
Set of compatible
displacements
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 126
If we use (4.6.4) we how have:
t t
N = F (4.6.8)
Postmultiply both sides by
1
, and noting that N is a scalar, gives:
t t
N = F
N = F (4.6.9)
Expanding this out gives:
cos
sin
cos
sin
ix
iy
jx
jy
F N
F N
F N
F N
=
` `
) )
(4.6.10)
Which are the equations of equilibrium of the bar element:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 127
Relating Forces to Displacements
Lastly, in order to relate the end forces to the element nodal displacements, we note
from the constitutive law:
EA
N e
L
= (4.6.11)
And so from (4.6.9) we have:
EA
e
L
= F (4.6.12)
And using equation (4.6.4) gives:
t
EA
L
= F (4.6.13)
Hence the term
t
EA
L
relates force to displacement and is called the stiffness
matrix, k , which is evaluated by multiplying out terms:
 
cos
sin
cos sin cos sin
cos
sin
t
EA
L
EA
L
=
`
)
k
(4.6.14)
And multiplying this out gives:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 128
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
EA
L
(
(
(
=
(
(
k (4.6.15)
And for clarity, we write out the final equation in matrix form and in full:
= F k (4.6.16)
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos sin sin
ix ix
iy iy
jx jx
jy jy
F
F
EA
F
L
F
(
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.6.17)
So for example, the stiffness that relates a horizontal force at node j to the horizontal
displacement at node j is:
2
cos
jx jx
EA
F
L
 
=

\ .
And other relationships can be found similarly.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 129
4.6.2 Coordinate Transformations
Point Transformation
We consider the transformation of a single point P from one coordinate axis system
xy to another xy:
From the diagram, observe:
' coordinate of
' coordinate of
OC x P
PC y P
=
=
(4.6.18)
Also:
coordinate of
coordinate of
OB x P
PB y P
=
=
(4.6.19)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 130
Next we can say:
OC OA AC = + (4.6.20)
PC PD CD = (4.6.21)
Introducing the relevant coordinates:
cos cos OA OA x = = (4.6.22)
sin sin AC BD PB y = = = (4.6.23)
Thus equation (4.6.20) becomes:
' cos sin OC x x y = = + (4.6.24)
Next we have:
cos cos PD PB y = = (4.6.25)
sin sin CD AB OB x = = = (4.6.26)
Thus equation (4.6.21) becomes:
' cos sin PC y y x = = (4.6.27)
Writing equations (4.6.24) and (4.6.27) together:
' cos sin x x y = + (4.6.28)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 131
' sin cos y x y = + (4.6.29)
And now in matrix form gives:
' cos sin
' sin cos
x x
y y
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.6.30)
Often we write:
cos
sin
c
s
(4.6.31)
To give:
'
'
x c s x
y s c y
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.6.32)
Lastly, if we generically name the two coordinate systems as q and q, we then have
in matrix form:
{ }  { }
N
q' = T q (4.6.33)
Where
 
N
T is the nodal transformation matrix given by:
cos sin
sin cos
N
(
=
(
T (4.6.34)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 132
Force/Displacement Transformation
Forces and moments can be oriented in the local member axis system or in the global
structure axis system. In general we will need to transform the forces and
displacements of both nodes, thus we write:
'
'
i i N
j j N
(
` `
(
) )
F F T 0
=
F F 0 T
(4.6.35)
And finally we can write:
{ }  { }
' F = T F (4.6.36)
Where:
 
N
N
(
(
T 0
T =
0 T
(4.6.37)
Similarly for deflections:
{ }  { }
' = T (4.6.38)
A very useful property of the transformation matrix (not derived here) is that it is
orthogonal. This means that its transpose is equal to its inverse:
   
1 T
= T T (4.6.39)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 133
Thus when either a force or displacement is known for the local axis system, it can be
found in the global axis system as follows:
{ }   { }
'
T
F = T F (4.6.40)
{ }   { }
'
T
= T (4.6.41)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 134
Transformations for Plane Truss Element
For a plane truss member, there will be x and y components of force at each of its
nodes. Using the transformation for a point, we therefore have:
'
'
cos sin
sin cos
x x
y y
F F
F F
(
=
` `
(
) )
(4.6.42)
And so for a truss element, we have directly from equation (4.6.34):
cos sin
sin cos
N
(
=
(
T (4.6.43)
And so, from equation (4.6.37),
 
cos sin 0 0
sin cos 0 0
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos
(
(
(
=
(
(
T (4.6.44)
For clarity, we write the transformation out in full:
'
'
'
'
cos sin 0 0
sin cos 0 0
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos
ix ix
iy iy
jx jx
jy jy
F F
F F
F F
F F
(
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.6.45)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 135
Transformations for Plane Frame Element
Based on the DOF transformation matrix for a plane truss member (in terms of
forces), we can determine the transformation matrix for a plane frame node quite
easily:
cos sin 0
sin cos 0
0 0 1
e
x x
e
y y
e
F F
F F
M M
(
(
=
` `
(
(
) )
(4.6.46)
This is because a moment remains a moment in the plane. So for a single node, and
both nodes, we have, respectively:
{ }  { }
'
N
F = T F (4.6.47)
'
'
i i N
j j N
(
` `
(
) )
F F T 0
=
F F 0 T
(4.6.48)
Thus, we can now write the final transformation matrix for a plane frame element as:
cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
(
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
(
T (4.6.49)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 136
Element Stiffness Matrix Transformation
Using the general expression for a single element:
e e e
F = K (4.6.50)
Regardless of member type or the number of dimensions, we will always have some
coordinate transform from local to global coordinates such that:
e
F = TF (4.6.51)
e
= T (4.6.52)
Hence from equation (4.6.50) we can write:
e
TF = K T (4.6.53)
And so the forcedisplacement relationship in the global axis system is:
1 e
(
F = T K T (4.6.54)
The term in brackets can now be referred to as the element stiffness matrix in global
coordinates. Thus, using equation (4.6.39), we write:
e T e
G L
K = T K T (4.6.55)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 137
4.6.3 Past Exam Questions
Summer 2001
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 138
Summer 2002
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 139
Summer 2004
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 140
Summer 2006
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 141
Sample Paper 2006/7
1. (a) Using the stiffness method, determine the displacement of the joints of the pinjointed truss shown in Fig.
Q1(a), under the load as shown.
(10 marks)
(b) Members 15 and 16 are added to the truss of Fig. 1(a) to form the truss shown in Fig. Q1(b). However,
member 16 is found to be 15 mm too long and is forced into place. The same load of 100 kN is again to be
applied. Using the stiffness method, determine the displacement of the joints and the force in member 16.
(15 marks)
Take EA =210
4
kN and the cross sectional areas of the members as:
Members 12, 13, and 16: 3A;
Diagonal Members 14 and 15: 32A.
Ans. (a) 25 kN; 75 kN; 252 kN;
(b) 502 kN; 156.1 kN; 60.4 kN; 1002 kN; 502 kN
FIG. Q1(a)
100 kN
3
2
1
4
FIG. Q1(b)
100 kN
3
2
1
4
5
6
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 142
Semester 1 2006/7
1. Using the stiffness method, determine the displacement of the joints and the forces in the members of the pin
jointed truss shown in Fig. Q1, allowing for:
(i) The 100 kN vertical load as shown, and;
(ii) A lack of fit of member 12, which was found to be 5 mm too short upon arrival at site, and
which was then forced into place.
Take EA =210
4
kN and the cross sectional areas of the members as:
Members 12: 3A;
Members 13 and 14: 32A.
(25 marks)
Ans. 50 kN; 752 kN; 252 kN.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 143
Semester 1 Repeat 2006/7
1. Using the stiffness method, determine the displacement of the joints and the forces in the members of the pin
jointed truss shown in Fig. Q1, allowing for:
(ii) The 100 kN vertical load as shown, and;
(ii) A lack of fit of member 12, which was found to be 102 mm too short upon arrival at site, and
which was then forced into place.
Take EA =210
4
kN and the cross sectional areas of all members as 32A.
(25 marks)
Ans. 1252 kN; 502 kN; 752 kN.
FIG. Q1
100 kN
1
2
3
4
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 144
Semester 1 2007/8
QUESTION 1
Using the stiffness method, determine the displacement of the joints and the forces in the members of the pinjointed
truss shown in Fig. Q1, allowing for:
(i) The 100 kN load as shown, and;
(ii) A lack of fit of member 13, which was found to be 4 mm too short upon arrival at site, and which was then
forced into place;
(iii) A temperature rise of 20 C in member 24.
Note:
Take
3
125 10 kN EA = and the coefficient of thermal expansion
5 1
2 10 C = .
(25 marks)
Ans. 55.7 kN; +69.7 kN; 55.3 kN.
FIG. Q1
100 kN
1
2
3
4
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 145
Semester 1 2008/9
QUESTION 1
Using the stiffness method, for the continuous beam shown in Fig. Q1, do the following:
(i) determine the displacement of the joints;
(ii) draw the bending moment diagram;
(iii) determine the reactions.
Note:
Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = .
(25 marks)
Ans. 98.7 kNm; 102.6 kNm; 60.9 kNm.
FIG. Q1
A
B C
30 kN/m
D
100 kN
4EI
3EI 4EI
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 146
Semester 1 2009/10
QUESTION 1
Using the stiffness method, for the frame shown in Fig. Q1, do the following:
(i) determine the vertical displacement at the centre of the middle span;
(ii) draw the bending moment diagram;
(iii) determine the reactions.
Note:
Take
3 2
10 10 kNm EI = .
(25 marks)
Ans. 11.88 mm
FIG. Q1
48 kN/m
80 kN
80 kN
EI
EI
2EI 2EI
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 147
Semester 1 2010/11
QUESTION 1
Using the stiffness method, for the truss shown in Fig. Q1:
(a) Determine:
(i) The displacement of the joints;
(ii) The forces in the members;
(iii) The deflected shape of the structure.
(15 marks)
(b) Determine the lack of fit of member 23, which would result in no horizontal displacement of joint 2 under the
100 kN load shown.
(10 marks)
Note:
Take
2
200kN/mm E = for all members.
Area for member 12 is
2
400 10mm A = .
Area for member 23 is
2
960mm A = .
Area for member 13 is
2
640 2mm A = .
Ans. 68.7 kN, 34.6 kN, 49.3 kN; 5.21 mm.
FIG. Q1
100 kN
1
2 3
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method
Dr. C. Caprani 148
4.7 References
Alberty, J ., Carstensen, C. and Funken, S.A. (1999), Remarks around 50 lines of
Matlab: short finite element implementation, Numerical Algorithms, 20, pp. 117
137, available at: web address.
Brown, D.K. (1990), An Introduction to the Finite Element Method using Basic
Programs, 2nd Edn., Taylor and Francis, London.
Carroll, W.F. (1999), A Primer for Finite Elements in Elastic Structures, J ohn
Wiley & Sons, New York.
Coates, R.C., Coutie, M.G. and Kong, F.K. (1987), Structural Analysis, Chapman
and Hall.
Davies, G.A.O. (1982), Virtual Work in Structural Analysis, J ohn Wiley & Sons.
Desai, C.S. and Abel, J .F. (1972), Introduction to the Finite Element Method: A
Numerical Method for Engineering Analysis, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Ghali, A. and Neville, A.M. (1997), Structural Analysis A unified classical and
matrix approach, 4th edn., E&FN Spon, London.
McGuire, W., Gallagher, R.H. and Ziemian, R.D. (2000), Matrix Structural
Analysis, 2nd Edn., J ohn Wiley & Sons.
Meek, J .L. (1991), Computer Methods in Structural Analysis, 2nd Edn., E&FN
Spon.
Przemieniecki, J .S. (1968), Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, McGrawHill,
New York.
Sack, R.L. (1989), Matrix Structural Analysis, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights,
Illinois, US.
Thompson, F., and Haywood, G.G. (1986), Structural Analysis Using Virtual
Work, Chapman and Hall.
Weaver, W. and Gere, J .M (1990), Matrix Analysis of Framed Structures, 3rd
Edn., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 1
Chapter 5  Structural Dynamics
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3
5.1.1 Outline of Structural Dynamics ..................................................................... 3
5.1.2 An Initial Numerical Example ....................................................................... 5
5.1.3 Case Study Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland .............................................. 8
5.1.4 Structural Damping ...................................................................................... 10
5.2 Single DegreeofFreedom Systems ................................................................. 11
5.2.1 Fundamental Equation of Motion ................................................................ 11
5.2.2 Free Vibration of Undamped Structures...................................................... 16
5.2.3 Computer Implementation & Examples ...................................................... 20
5.2.4 Free Vibration of Damped Structures .......................................................... 26
5.2.5 Computer Implementation & Examples ...................................................... 30
5.2.6 Estimating Damping in Structures ............................................................... 33
5.2.7 Response of an SDOF System Subject to Harmonic Force ........................ 35
5.2.8 Computer Implementation & Examples ...................................................... 42
5.2.9 Numerical Integration Newmarks Method ............................................. 47
5.2.10 Computer Implementation & Examples ................................................... 53
5.2.11 Problems ................................................................................................... 59
5.3 MultiDegreeofFreedom Systems .................................................................. 63
5.3.1 General Case (based on 2DOF) ................................................................... 63
5.3.2 FreeUndamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems ............................................. 66
5.3.3 Example of a 2DOF System ........................................................................ 68
5.3.4 Case Study Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland ............................................ 73
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 2
5.4 Continuous Structures ...................................................................................... 76
5.4.1 Exact Analysis for Beams ............................................................................ 76
5.4.2 Approximate Analysis Boltons Method .................................................. 86
5.4.3 Problems ...................................................................................................... 95
5.5 Practical Design Considerations ...................................................................... 97
5.5.1 Human Response to Dynamic Excitation .................................................... 97
5.5.2 Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading .......................................................... 99
5.5.3 Damping in Structures ............................................................................... 107
5.5.4 Design Rules of Thumb ............................................................................. 109
5.6 Appendix .......................................................................................................... 114
5.6.1 Past Exam Questions ................................................................................. 114
5.6.2 References .................................................................................................. 121
5.6.3 Amplitude Solution to Equation of Motion ............................................... 123
5.6.4 Solutions to Differential Equations ........................................................... 125
5.6.5 Important Formulae ................................................................................... 134
5.6.6 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 139
Rev. 1
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 3
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Outline of Structural Dynamics
Modern structures are increasingly slender and have reduced redundant strength due
to improved analysis and design methods. Such structures are increasingly responsive
to the manner in which loading is applied with respect to time and hence the dynamic
behaviour of such structures must be allowed for in design; as well as the usual static
considerations. In this context then, the word dynamic simply means changes with
time; be it force, deflection or any other form of load effect.
Examples of dynamics in structures are:
 Soldiers breaking step as they cross a bridge to prevent harmonic excitation;
 The Tacoma Narrows Bridge footage, failure caused by vortex shedding;
 The London Millennium Footbridge: lateral synchronise excitation.
(a) (after Craig 1981)
(b)
Figure 1.1
m
k
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 4
The most basic dynamic system is the massspring system. An example is shown in
Figure 1.1(a) along with the structural idealisation of it in Figure 1.1(b). This is
known as a Single DegreeofFreedom (SDOF) system as there is only one possible
displacement: that of the mass in the vertical direction. SDOF systems are of great
importance as they are relatively easily analysed mathematically, are easy to
understand intuitively, and structures usually dealt with by Structural Engineers can
be modelled approximately using an SDOF model (see Figure 1.2 for example).
Figure 1.2 (after Craig 1981).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 5
5.1.2 An Initial Numerical Example
If we consider a springmass system as shown in Figure 1.3 with the properties m =
10 kg and k = 100 N/m and if give the mass a deflection of 20 mm and then release it
(i.e. set it in motion) we would observe the system oscillating as shown in Figure 1.3.
From this figure we can identify that the time between the masses recurrence at a
particular location is called the period of motion or oscillation or just the period, and
we denote it T; it is the time taken for a single oscillation. The number of oscillations
per second is called the frequency, denoted f, and is measured in Hertz (cycles per
second). Thus we can say:
1
f
T
= (5.1.1)
We will show (Section 2.b, equation (2.19)) for a springmass system that:
1
2
k
f
m t
= (5.1.2)
In our system:
1 100
0.503 Hz
2 10
f
t
= =
And from equation (5.1.1):
1 1
1.987 secs
0.503
T
f
= = =
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 6
We can see from Figure 1.3 that this is indeed the period observed.
Figure 1.3
To reach the deflection of 20 mm just applied, we had to apply a force of 2 N, given
that the spring stiffness is 100 N/m. As noted previously, the rate at which this load is
applied will have an effect of the dynamics of the system. Would you expect the
system to behave the same in the following cases?
 If a 2 N weight was dropped onto the mass from a very small height?
 If 2 N of sand was slowly added to a weightless bucket attached to the mass?
Assuming a linear increase of load, to the full 2 N load, over periods of 1, 3, 5 and 10
seconds, the deflections of the system are shown in Figure 1.4.
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
Period T
m = 10
k = 100
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 7
Figure 1.4
Remembering that the period of vibration of the system is about 2 seconds, we can
see that when the load is applied faster than the period of the system, large dynamic
effects occur. Stated another way, when the frequency of loading (1, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1
Hz for our sample loading rates) is close to, or above the natural frequency of the
system (0.5 Hz in our case), we can see that the dynamic effects are large.
Conversely, when the frequency of loading is less than the natural frequency of the
system little dynamic effects are noticed most clearly seen via the 10 second ramp
up of the load, that is, a 0.1 Hz load.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
D
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
Dynamic Effect of Load Application Duration
1sec
3sec
5sec
10sec
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 8
5.1.3 Case Study Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland
Aberfeldy footbridge is a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) cablestayed bridge
over the River Tay on Aberfeldy golf course in Aberfeldy, Scotland (Figure 1.5). Its
main span is 63 m and its two side spans are 25 m, also, tests have shown that the
natural frequency of this bridge is 1.52 Hz, giving a period of oscillation of 0.658
seconds.
Figure 1.5: Aberfeldy Footbridge
Figure 1.6: Forcetime curves for walking: (a) Normal pacing. (b) Fast pacing
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 9
Footbridges are generally quite light structures as the loading consists of pedestrians;
this often results in dynamically lively structures. Pedestrian loading varies as a
person walks; from about 0.65 to 1.3 times the weight of the person over a period of
about 0.35 seconds, that is, a loading frequency of about 2.86 Hz (Figure 1.6). When
we compare this to the natural frequency of Aberfeldy footbridge we can see that
pedestrian loading has a higher frequency than the natural frequency of the bridge
thus, from our previous discussion we would expect significant dynamic effects to
results from this. Figure 1.7 shows the response of the bridge (at the midspan) when
a pedestrian crosses the bridge: significant dynamics are apparent.
Figure 1.7: Midspan deflection (mm) as a function of distance travelled (m).
Design codes generally require the natural frequency for footbridges and other
pedestrian traversed structures to be greater than 5 Hz, that is, a period of 0.2
seconds. The reasons for this are apparent after our discussion: a 0.35 seconds load
application (or 2.8 Hz) is slower than the natural period of vibration of 0.2 seconds (5
Hz) and hence there will not be much dynamic effect resulting; in other words the
loading may be considered to be applied statically.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 10
5.1.4 Structural Damping
Look again at the frog in Figure 1.1, according to the results obtained so far which
are graphed in Figures 1.3 and 1.4, the frog should oscillate indefinitely. If you have
ever cantilevered a ruler off the edge of a desk and flicked it you would have seen it
vibrate for a time but certainly not indefinitely; buildings do not vibrate indefinitely
after an earthquake; Figure 1.7 shows the vibrations dying down quite soon after the
pedestrian has left the main span of Aberfeldy bridge  clearly there is another action
opposing or damping the vibration of structures. Figure 1.8 shows the undamped
response of our model along with the damped response; it can be seen that the
oscillations die out quite rapidly this depends on the level of damping.
Figure 1.8
Damping occurs in structures due to energy loss mechanisms that exist in the system.
Examples are friction losses at any connection to or in the system and internal energy
losses of the materials due to thermoelasticity, hysteresis and intergranular bonds.
The exact nature of damping is difficult to define; fortunately theoretical damping has
been shown to match real structures quite well.
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
Undamped
Damped
m = 10
k = 100
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 11
5.2 Single DegreeofFreedom Systems
5.2.1 Fundamental Equation of Motion
(a) (b)
Figure 2.1: (a) SDOF system. (b) Freebody diagram of forces
Considering Figure 2.1, the forces resisting the applied loading are considered as:
 a force proportional to displacement (the usual static stiffness);
 a force proportional to velocity (the damping force);
 a force proportional to acceleration (DAlamberts inertial force).
We can write the following symbolic equation:
applied stiffness damping inertia
F F F F = + + (5.2.1)
Noting that:
stiffness
damping
inertia
F
F
F
ku
cu
mu
=
=
`
=
)
(5.2.2)
that is, stiffness displacement, damping coefficient velocity and mass
acceleration respectively. Note also that u represents displacement from the
equilibrium position and that the dots over u represent the first and second derivatives
m
k
u(t)
c
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 12
with respect to time. Thus, noting that the displacement, velocity and acceleration are
all functions of time, we have the Fundamental Equation of Motion:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mu t cu t ku t F t + + = (5.2.3)
In the case of free vibration, there is no forcing function and so ( )
0 F t = which gives
equation (5.2.3) as:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 mu t cu t ku t + + = (5.2.4)
We note also that the system will have a state of initial conditions:
( )
0
0 u u = (5.2.5)
( )
0
0 u u = (5.2.6)
In equation (5.2.4), dividing across by m gives:
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
c k
u t u t u t
m m
+ + = (5.2.7)
We introduce the following notation:
cr
c
c
= (5.2.8)
2
k
m
e = (5.2.9)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 13
Or equally,
k
m
e = (5.2.10)
In which
 e is called the undamped circular natural frequency and its units are radians per
second (rad/s);
 is the damping ratio which is the ratio of the damping coefficient, c, to the
critical value of the damping coefficient
cr
c .
We will see what these terms physically mean. Also, we will later see (equation
(5.2.18)) that:
2 2
cr
c m km e = = (5.2.11)
Equations (5.2.8) and (5.2.11) show us that:
2
c
m
e = (5.2.12)
When equations (5.2.9) and (5.2.12) are introduced into equation (5.2.7), we get the
prototype SDOF equation of motion:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 0 u t u t u t e e + + = (5.2.13)
In considering free vibration only, the general solution to (5.2.13) is of a form
t
u Ce
= (5.2.14)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 14
When we substitute (5.2.14) and its derivates into (5.2.13) we get:
( )
2 2
2 0
t
Ce
e e + + = (5.2.15)
For this to be valid for all values of t,
t
Ce
e e
=
=
(5.2.17)
Therefore the solution depends on the magnitude of relative to 1. We have:
 1 < : Subcritical damping or underdamped;
Oscillatory response only occurs when this is the case as it is for almost all
structures.
 1 = : Critical damping;
No oscillatory response occurs.
 1 > : Supercritical damping or overdamped;
No oscillatory response occurs.
Therefore, when 1 = , the coefficient of ( ) u t in equation (5.2.13) is, by definition,
the critical damping coefficient. Thus, from equation (5.2.12):
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 15
2
cr
c
m
e = (5.2.18)
From which we get equation (5.2.11).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 16
5.2.2 Free Vibration of Undamped Structures
We will examine the case when there is no damping on the SDOF system of Figure
2.1 so 0 = in equations (5.2.13), (5.2.16) and (5.2.17) which then become:
( ) ( )
2
0 u t u t e + = (5.2.19)
respectively, where 1 i = . From the Appendix we see that the general solution to
this equation is:
( ) cos sin u t A t B t e e = + (5.2.20)
where A and B are constants to be obtained from the initial conditions of the system,
equations (5.2.5) and (5.2.6). Thus, at 0 t = , from equation (5.2.20):
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0 cos 0 sin 0 u A B u e e = + =
0
A u = (5.2.21)
From equation (5.2.20):
( ) sin cos u t A t B t e e e e = + (5.2.22)
And so:
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
0 sin 0 cos 0 u A B u
B u
e e e e
e
= + =
=
0
u
B
e
= (5.2.23)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 17
Thus equation (5.2.20), after the introduction of equations (5.2.21) and (5.2.23),
becomes:
( )
0
0
cos sin
u
u t u t t e e
e
 
= +

\ .
(5.2.24)
where
0
u and
0
u are the initial displacement and velocity of the system respectively.
Noting that cosine and sine are functions that repeat with period 2t , we see that
( )
1 1
2 t T t e e t + = + (Figure 2.3) and so the undamped natural period of the SDOF
system is:
2
T
t
e
= (5.2.25)
The natural frequency of the system is got from (1.1), (5.2.25) and (5.2.9):
1 1
2 2
k
f
T m
e
t t
= = = (5.2.26)
and so we have proved (1.2). The importance of this equation is that it shows the
natural frequency of structures to be proportional to
k
m
. This knowledge can aid a
designer in addressing problems with resonance in structures: by changing the
stiffness or mass of the structure, problems with dynamic behaviour can be
addressed.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 18
Figure 2.2: SDOF free vibration response for (a)
0
20mm u = ,
0
0 u = , (b)
0
0 u = ,
0
50mm/s u = , and (c)
0
20mm u = ,
0
50mm/s u = .
Figure 2.2 shows the freevibration response of a springmass system for various
initial states of the system. It can be seen from (b) and (c) that when
0
0 u = the
amplitude of displacement is not that of the initial displacement; this is obviously an
important characteristic to calculate. The cosine addition rule may also be used to
show that equation (5.2.20) can be written in the form:
( ) ( ) cos u t C t e u = (5.2.27)
where
2 2
C A B = + and tan
B
A
u
= . Using A and B as calculated earlier for the
initial conditions, we then have:
( ) ( ) cos u t t e u = (5.2.28)
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
m = 10
k = 100
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 19
where is the amplitude of displacement and u is the phase angle, both given by:
2
2
0
0
u
u
e
 
= +

\ .
(5.2.29)
0
0
tan
u
u
u
e
= (5.2.30)
The phase angle determines the amount by which ( ) u t lags behind the function
cos t e . Figure 2.3 shows the general case.
Figure 2.3 Undamped freevibration response.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 20
5.2.3 Computer Implementation & Examples
Using MS Excel
To illustrate an application we give the spreadsheet used to generate Figure 1.3. This
can be downloaded from the course website.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 21
The input parameters (shown in red) are:
 m the mass;
 k the stiffness;
 delta_t the time step used in the response plot;
 u_0 the initial displacement,
0
u ;
 v_0 the initial velocity,
0
u .
The properties of the system are then found:
 w, using equation (5.2.10);
 f, using equation (5.2.26);
 T, using equation (5.2.26);
 , using equation (5.2.29);
 u , using equation (5.2.30).
A column vector of times is dragged down, adding delta_t to each previous time
value, and equation (5.2.24) (Direct Eqn), and equation (5.2.28) (Cosine Eqn) is
used to calculate the response, ( )
u t , at each time value. Then the column of uvalues
is plotted against the column of tvalues to get the plot.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 22
Using Matlab
Although MS Excel is very helpful since it provides direct access to the numbers in
each equation, as more concepts are introduced, we will need to use loops and create
regularlyused functions. Matlab is ideally suited to these tasks, and so we will begin
to use it also on the simple problems as a means to its introduction.
A script to directly generate Figure 1.3, and calculate the system properties is given
below:
% Script to plot the undamped response of a single degree of freedom system
% and to calculate its properties
k = 100; % N/m  stiffness
m = 10; % kg  mass
delta_t = 0.1; % s  time step
u0 = 0.025; % m  initial displacement
v0 = 0; % m/s  initial velocity
w = sqrt(k/m); % rad/s  circular natural frequency
f = w/(2*pi); % Hz  natural frequency
T = 1/f; % s  natural period
ro = sqrt(u0^2+(v0/w)^2); % m  amplitude of vibration
theta = atan(v0/(u0*w)); % rad  phase angle
t = 0:delta_t:4;
u = ro*cos(w*ttheta);
plot(t,u);
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
The results of this script are the system properties are displayed in the workspace
window, and the plot is generated, as shown below:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 23
Whilst this is quite useful, this script is limited to calculating the particular system of
Figure 1.3. Instead, if we create a function that we can pass particular system
properties to, then we can create this plot for any system we need to. The following
function does this.
Note that we do not calculate f or T since they are not needed to plot the response.
Also note that we have commented the code very well, so it is easier to follow and
understand when we come back to it at a later date.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 24
function [t u] = sdof_undamped(m,k,u0,v0,duration,plotflag)
% This function returns the displacement of an undamped SDOF system with
% parameters:
% m  mass, kg
% k  stiffness, N/m
% u0  initial displacement, m
% v0  initial velocity, m/s
% duration  length of time of required response
% plotflag  1 or 0: whether or not to plot the response
% This function returns:
% t  the time vector at which the response was found
% u  the displacement vector of response
Npts = 1000; % compute the response at 1000 points
delta_t = duration/(Npts1);
w = sqrt(k/m); % rad/s  circular natural frequency
ro = sqrt(u0^2+(v0/w)^2); % m  amplitude of vibration
theta = atan(v0/(u0*w)); % rad  phase angle
t = 0:delta_t:duration;
u = ro*cos(w*ttheta);
if(plotflag == 1)
plot(t,u);
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
end
To execute this function and replicate Figure 1.3, we call the following:
[t u] = sdof_undamped(10,100,0.025,0,4,1);
And get the same plot as before. Now though, we can really benefit from the
function. Lets see the effect of an initial velocity on the response, try +0.1 m/s:
[t u] = sdof_undamped(10,100,0.025,0.1,4,1);
Note the argument to the function in bold this is the +0.1 m/s initial velocity. And
from this call we get the following plot:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 25
From which we can see that the maximum response is now about 40 mm, rather than
the original 25.
Download the function from the course website and try some other values.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 26
5.2.4 Free Vibration of Damped Structures
Figure 2.4: Response with critical or supercritical damping
When taking account of damping, we noted previously that there are 3, cases but only
when 1 < does an oscillatory response ensue. We will not examine the critical or
supercritical cases. Examples are shown in Figure 2.4.
To begin, when 1 < (5.2.17) becomes:
1,2 d
i e e = (5.2.31)
where
d
e is the damped circular natural frequency given by:
2
1
d
e e = (5.2.32)
which has a corresponding damped period and frequency of:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 27
2
d
d
T
t
e
= (5.2.33)
2
d
d
f
e
t
= (5.2.34)
The general solution to equation (5.2.14), using Eulers formula again, becomes:
( ) ( ) cos sin
t
d d
u t e A t B t
e
e e
= + (5.2.35)
and again using the initial conditions we get:
0 0
0
( ) cos sin
t
d
d d
d
u u
u t e u t t
e
e
e e
e
(
  +
= +
( 
\ .
(5.2.36)
Using the cosine addition rule again we also have:
( ) ( ) cos
t
d
u t e t
e
e u
= (5.2.37)
In which
2
2
0 0
0
d
u u
u
e
e
  +
= +

\ .
(5.2.38)
0 0
0
tan
d
u u
u
e
u
e
+
= (5.2.39)
Equations (5.2.35) to (5.2.39) correspond to those of the undamped case looked at
previously when 0 = .
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 28
Figure 2.5: SDOF free vibration response for:
(a) 0 = ; (b) 0.05 = ; (c) 0.1 = ; and (d) 0.5 = .
Figure 2.5 shows the dynamic response of the SDOF model shown. It may be clearly
seen that damping has a large effect on the dynamic response of the system even for
small values of . We will discuss damping in structures later but damping ratios for
structures are usually in the range 0.5 to 5%. Thus, the damped and undamped
properties of the systems are very similar for these structures.
Figure 2.6 shows the general case of an undercritically damped system.
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
m = 10
k = 100
varies
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 29
Figure 2.6: General case of an undercritically damped system.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 30
5.2.5 Computer Implementation & Examples
Using MS Excel
We can just modify our previous spreadsheet to take account of the revised equations
for the amplitude (equation (5.2.38)), phase angle (equation (5.2.39)) and response
(equation (5.2.37)), as well as the damped properties, to get:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 31
Using Matlab
Now can just alter our previous function and take account of the revised equations for
the amplitude (equation (5.2.38)), phase angle (equation (5.2.39)) and response
(equation (5.2.37)) to get the following function. This function will (of course) also
work for undamped systems where 0 = .
function [t u] = sdof_damped(m,k,xi,u0,v0,duration,plotflag)
% This function returns the displacement of a damped SDOF system with
% parameters:
% m  mass, kg
% k  stiffness, N/m
% xi  damping ratio
% u0  initial displacement, m
% v0  initial velocity, m/s
% duration  length of time of required response
% plotflag  1 or 0: whether or not to plot the response
% This function returns:
% t  the time vector at which the response was found
% u  the displacement vector of response
Npts = 1000; % compute the response at 1000 points
delta_t = duration/(Npts1);
w = sqrt(k/m); % rad/s  circular natural frequency
wd = w*sqrt(1xi^2); % rad/s  damped circular frequency
ro = sqrt(u0^2+((v0+xi*w*u0)/wd)^2); % m  amplitude of vibration
theta = atan((v0+u0*xi*w)/(u0*w)); % rad  phase angle
t = 0:delta_t:duration;
u = ro*exp(xi*w.*t).*cos(w*ttheta);
if(plotflag == 1)
plot(t,u);
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
end
Lets apply this to our simple example again, for 0.1 = :
[t u] = sdof_damped(10,100,0.1,0.025,0,4,1);
To get:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 32
To plot Figure 2.5, we just call out function several times (without plotting it each
time), save the response results and then plot all together:
xi = [0,0.05,0.1,0.5];
for i = 1:length(xi)
[t u(i,:)] = sdof_damped(10,100,xi(i),0.025,0,4,0);
end
plot(t,u);
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
legend('Damping: 0%','Damping: 5%','Damping: 10%','Damping: 50%');
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
Damping: 0%
Damping: 5%
Damping: 10%
Damping: 50%
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 33
5.2.6 Estimating Damping in Structures
Examining Figure 2.6, we see that two successive peaks,
n
u and
n m
u
+
, m cycles apart,
occur at times nT and ( ) n m T + respectively. Using equation (5.2.37) we can get the
ratio of these two peaks as:
2
exp
n
n m d
u m
u
te
e
+
 
=

\ .
(5.2.40)
where ( ) exp
x
x e . Taking the natural log of both sides we get the logarithmic
decrement of damping, o , defined as:
ln 2
n
n m d
u
m
u
e
o t
e
+
= = (5.2.41)
for low values of damping, normal in structural engineering, we can approximate
this:
2m o t ~ (5.2.42)
thus,
( ) exp 2 1 2
n
n m
u
e m m
u
o
t t
+
= ~ ~ + (5.2.43)
and so,
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 34
2
n n m
n m
u u
m u
t
+
+
~ (5.2.44)
This equation can be used to estimate damping in structures with light damping (
0.2 < ) when the amplitudes of peaks m cycles apart is known. A quick way of
doing this, known as the HalfAmplitude Method, is to count the number of peaks it
takes to halve the amplitude, that is 0.5
n m n
u u
+
= . Then, using (5.2.44) we get:
0.11
m
~ when 0.5
n m n
u u
+
= (5.2.45)
Further, if we know the amplitudes of two successive cycles (and so 1 m= ), we can
find the amplitude after p cycles from two instances of equation (5.2.43):
1
p
n
n p n
n
u
u u
u
+
+
 
=

\ .
(5.2.46)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 35
5.2.7 Response of an SDOF System Subject to Harmonic Force
Figure 2.7: SDOF undamped system subjected to harmonic excitation
So far we have only considered free vibration; the structure has been set vibrating by
an initial displacement for example. We will now consider the case when a time
varying load is applied to the system. We will confine ourselves to the case of
harmonic or sinusoidal loading though there are obviously infinitely many forms that
a timevarying load may take refer to the references (Appendix) for more.
To begin, we note that the forcing function ( ) F t has excitation amplitude of
0
F and
an excitation circular frequency of O and so from the fundamental equation of
motion (5.2.3) we have:
0
( ) ( ) ( ) sin mu t cu t ku t F t + + = O (5.2.47)
The solution to equation (5.2.47) has two parts:
 The complementary solution, similar to (5.2.35), which represents the transient
response of the system which damps out by ( ) exp t e . The transient response
may be thought of as the vibrations caused by the initial application of the load.
 The particular solution, ( )
p
u t , representing the steadystate harmonic response of
the system to the applied load. This is the response we will be interested in as it
will account for any resonance between the forcing function and the system.
m
k
u(t)
c
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 36
The complementary solution to equation (5.2.47) is simply that of the damped free
vibration case studied previously. The particular solution to equation (5.2.47) is
developed in the Appendix and shown to be:
( ) ( ) sin
p
u t t u = O (5.2.48)
In which
( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2
0
1 2
F
k
 
(
= +
(5.2.49)
2
2
tan
1

u

=
(5.2.50)
where the phase angle is limited to 0 u t < < and the ratio of the applied load
frequency to the natural undamped frequency is:

e
O
= (5.2.51)
the maximum response of the system will come at ( ) sin 1 t u O = and dividing
(5.2.48) by the static deflection
0
F k we can get the dynamic amplification factor
(DAF) of the system as:
( ) ( )
1 2
2 2
2
DAF 1 2 D  
(
= +
(5.2.52)
At resonance, when e O= , we then have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 37
1
1
2
D

=
= (5.2.53)
Figure 2.8 shows the effect of the frequency ratio  on the DAF. Resonance is the
phenomenon that occurs when the forcing frequency coincides with that of the
natural frequency, 1  = . It can also be seen that for low values of damping, normal
in structures, very high DAFs occur; for example if 0.02 = then the dynamic
amplification factor will be 25. For the case of no damping, the DAF goes to infinity
 theoretically at least; equation (5.2.53).
Figure 2.8: Variation of DAF with damping and frequency ratios.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 38
The phase angle also helps us understand what is occurring. Plotting equation
(5.2.50) against  for a range of damping ratios shows:
Figure 2.9: Variation of phase angle with damping and frequency ratios.
Looking at this then we can see three regions:
 1  << : the force is slowly varying and u is close to zero. This means that the
response (i.e. displacement) is in phase with the force: for example, when the
force acts to the right, the system displaces to the right.
 1  >> : the force is rapidly varying and u is close to 180. This means that the
force is out of phase with the system: for example, when the force acts to the
right, the system is displacing to the left.
 1  = : the forcing frequency is equal to the natural frequency, we have
resonance and 90 u = . Thus the displacement attains its peak as the force is
zero.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
45
90
135
180
Frequency Ratio
P
h
a
s
e
A
n
g
l
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
Damping: 0%
Damping: 10%
Damping: 20%
Damping: 50%
Damping: 100%
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 39
We can see these phenomena by plotting the response and forcing fun(5.2.54)ction
together (though with normalized displacements for ease of interpretation), for
different values of  . In this example we have used 0.2 = . Also, the three phase
angles are 2 0.04, 0.25, 0.46 u t = respectively.
Figure 2.10: Steadystate responses to illustrate phase angle.
Note how the force and response are firstly in sync ( ~ 0 u ), then halfway out of
sync ( 90 u = ) at resonance; and finally, fully out of sync ( ~180 u ) at high
frequency ratio.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
2
0
2
D
i
s
p
.
R
a
t
i
o
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
2
0
2
D
i
s
p
.
R
a
t
i
o
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
2
0
2
D
i
s
p
.
R
a
t
i
o
Time Ratio (t/T)
Dynamic Response
Static Response
 = 0.5; DAF = 1.29
 = 0.5; DAF = 2.5
 = 2.0; DAF = 0.32
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 40
Maximum SteadyState Displacement
The maximum steadystate displacement occurs when the DAF is a maximum. This
occurs when the denominator of equation (5.2.52) is a minimum:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
0
1 2 0
4 1 4 2
1
0
2
1 2
1 2 0
d D
d
d
d

 

  
 
 
=
(
+ =
(
+
(
=
(
+
+ + =
The trivial solution to this equation of 0  = corresponds to an applied forcing
function that has zero frequency the static loading effect of the forcing function. The
other solution is:
2
1 2  = (5.2.54)
Which for low values of damping, 0.1 s approximately, is very close to unity. The
corresponding maximum DAF is then given by substituting (5.2.54) into equation
(5.2.52) to get:
max
2
1
2 1
D
=
(5.2.55)
Which reduces to equation (5.2.53) for 1  = , as it should.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 41
Measurement of Natural Frequencies
It may be seen from equation (5.2.50) that when 1  = , 2 u t = ; this phase
relationship allows the accurate measurements of the natural frequencies of
structures. That is, we change the input frequency O in small increments until we can
identify a peak response: the value of O at the peak response is then the natural
frequency of the system. Example 2.1 gave the natural frequency based on this type
of test.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 42
5.2.8 Computer Implementation & Examples
Using MS Excel
Again we modify our previous spreadsheet and include the extra parameters related
to forced response. Weve also used some of the equations from the Appendix to
show the transient, steadysate and total response. Normally however, we are only
interested in the steadystate response, which the total response approaches over time.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 43
Using Matlab
First lets write a little function to return the DAF, since we will use it often:
function D = DAF(beta,xi)
% This function returns the DAF, D, associated with the parameters:
% beta  the frequency ratio
% xi  the damping ratio
D = 1./sqrt((1beta.^2).^2+(2*xi.*beta).^2);
And another to return the phase angle (always in the region 0 u t < < ):
function theta = phase(beta,xi)
% This function returns the pahse angle, theta, associated with the
% parameters:
% beta  the frequency ratio
% xi  the damping ratio
theta = atan2((2*xi.*beta),(1beta.^2)); % refers to complex plane
With these functions, and modifying our previous damped response script, we have:
function [t u] = sdof_forced(m,k,xi,u0,v0,F,Omega,duration,plotflag)
% This function returns the displacement of a damped SDOF system with
% parameters:
% m  mass, kg
% k  stiffness, N/m
% xi  damping ratio
% u0  initial displacement, m
% v0  initial velocity, m/s
% F  amplitude of forcing function, N
% Omega  frequency of forcing function, rad/s
% duration  length of time of required response
% plotflag  1 or 0: whether or not to plot the response
% This function returns:
% t  the time vector at which the response was found
% u  the displacement vector of response
Npts = 1000; % compute the response at 1000 points
delta_t = duration/(Npts1);
w = sqrt(k/m); % rad/s  circular natural frequency
wd = w*sqrt(1xi^2); % rad/s  damped circular frequency
beta = Omega/w; % frequency ratio
D = DAF(beta,xi); % dynamic amplification factor
ro = F/k*D; % m  amplitude of vibration
theta = phase(beta,xi); % rad  phase angle
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 44
% Constants for the transient response
Aconst = u0+ro*sin(theta);
Bconst = (v0+u0*xi*wro*(Omega*cos(theta)xi*w*sin(theta)))/wd;
t = 0:delta_t:duration;
u_transient = exp(xi*w.*t).*(Aconst*cos(wd*t)+Bconst*sin(wd*t));
u_steady = ro*sin(Omega*ttheta);
u = u_transient + u_steady;
if(plotflag == 1)
plot(t,u,'k');
hold on;
plot(t,u_transient,'k:');
plot(t,u_steady,'k');
hold off;
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
legend('Total Response','Transient','SteadyState');
end
Running this for the same problem as before with
0
10 N F = and 15 rad/s O= gives:
[t u] = sdof_forced(10,100,0.1,0.025,0,20,15,6,1);
As can be seen, the total response quickly approaches the steadystate response.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
Total Response
Transient
SteadyState
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 45
Next lets use our little DAF function to plot something similar to Figure 2.8, but this
time showing the frequency ratio and maximum response from equation (5.2.54):
% Script to plot DAF against Beta for different damping ratios
xi = [0.0001,0.1,0.15,0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,1.0];
beta = 0.01:0.01:3;
for i = 1:length(xi)
D(i,:) = DAF(beta,xi(i));
end
% A new xi vector for the maxima line
xi = 0:0.01:1.0;
xi(end) = 0.99999; % very close to unity
xi(1) = 0.00001; % very close to zero
for i = 1:length(xi)
betamax(i) = sqrt(12*xi(i)^2);
Dmax(i) = DAF(betamax(i),xi(i));
end
plot(beta,D); hold on;
plot(betamax,Dmax,'k');
xlabel('Frequency Ratio');
ylabel('Dynamic Amplification');
ylim([0 6]); % set yaxis limits since DAF at xi = 0 is enormous
legend( 'Damping: 0%','Damping: 10%','Damping: 15%',...
'Damping: 20%','Damping: 30%','Damping: 40%',...
'Damping: 50%', 'Damping: 100%', 'Maxima');
This gives:
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Frequency Ratio
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
A
m
p
l
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
Damping: 0%
Damping: 10%
Damping: 15%
Damping: 20%
Damping: 30%
Damping: 40%
Damping: 50%
Damping: 100%
Maxima
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 46
Lastly then, using the phase function we wrote, we can generate Figure 2.9:
% Script to plot phase against Beta for different damping ratios
xi = [0.0001,0.1,0.2,0.5,1.0];
beta = 0.01:0.01:3;
for i = 1:length(xi)
T(i,:) = phase(beta,xi(i))*(180/pi); % in degrees
end
plot(beta,T);
xlabel('Frequency Ratio');
ylabel('Phase Angle (degrees)');
ylim([0 180]);
set(gca,'ytick',[0 45 90 135 180]);
grid on;
legend('Damping: 0%','Damping: 10%','Damping: 20%','Damping: 50%',...
'Damping: 100%','Location','SE');
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 47
5.2.9 Numerical Integration Newmarks Method
Introduction
The loading that can be applied to a structure is infinitely variable and closedform
mathematical solutions can only be achieved for a small number of cases. For
arbitrary excitation we must resort to computational methods, which aim to solve the
basic structural dynamics equation, at the next timestep:
1 1 1 1 i i i i
mu cu ku F
+ + + +
+ + = (5.2.56)
There are three basic timestepping approaches to the solution of the structural
dynamics equations:
1. Interpolation of the excitation function;
2. Use of finite differences of velocity and acceleration;
3. An assumed variation of acceleration.
We will examine one method from the third category only. However, it is an
important method and is extensible to nonlinear systems, as well as multi degreeof
freedom systems (MDOF).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 48
Development of Newmarks Method
In 1959 Newmark proposed a general assumed variation of acceleration method:
( ) ( )
1 1
1
i i i i
u u t u t u
+ +
= + A + A (
(5.2.57)
( ) ( )( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
0.5
i i i i i
u u t u t u t u  
+ +
( (
= + A + A + A
(5.2.58)
The parameters  and define how the acceleration is assumed over the time step,
t A . Usual values are
1
2
= and
1 1
6 4
 s s . For example:
 Constant (average) acceleration is given by:
1
2
= and
1
4
 = ;
 Linear variation of acceleration is given by:
1
2
= and
1
6
 = .
The three equations presented thus far (equations (5.2.56), (5.2.57) and (5.2.58)) are
sufficient to solve for the three unknown responses at each time step. However to
avoid iteration, we introduce the incremental form of the equations:
1 i i i
u u u
+
A (5.2.59)
1 i i i
u u u
+
A (5.2.60)
1 i i i
u u u
+
A (5.2.61)
1 i i i
F F F
+
A (5.2.62)
Thus, Newmarks equations can now be written as:
( ) ( )
i i i
u t u t u A = A + A A (5.2.63)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 49
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
i i i i
t
u t u u t u 
A
A = A + + A A (5.2.64)
Solving equation (5.2.64) for the unknown change in acceleration gives:
( )
( )
2
1 1 1
2
i i i i
u u u u
t
t
 

A = A
A
A
(5.2.65)
Substituting this into equation (5.2.63) and solving for the unknown increment in
velocity gives:
( )
1
2
i i i i
u u u t u
t
  
 
A = A + A

A
\ .
(5.2.66)
Next we use the incremental equation of motion, derived from equation (5.2.56):
i i i i
m u c u k u F A + A + A = A (5.2.67)
And introduce equations (5.2.65) and (5.2.66) to get:
( )
( )
( )
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
i i i
i i i i i
m u u u
t
t
c u u t u k u F
t
 

  
(
A
(
A
A
(
(
 
+ A + A + A = A
(

A
\ .
(5.2.68)
Collecting terms gives:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 50
( )
( )
( )
2
1
1 1
1
2 2
i
i i i
m c k u
t
t
F m c u m t c u
t


   
(
+ + A
(
A
A
(
( (
 
= A + + + + A
( ( 
A
\ .
(5.2.69)
Lets introduce the following for ease of representation:
( )
( )
2
1
k m c k
t
t


= + +
A
A
(5.2.70)
( )
1 1
1
2 2
i i i i
F F m c u m t c u
t
   
( (
 
A = A + + + + A
( ( 
A
\ .
(5.2.71)
Which are an effective stiffness and effective force at time i. Thus equation (5.2.69)
becomes:
i i
k u F A = A (5.2.72)
Since
k and
i
F A are known from the system properties (m, c, k); the algorithm
properties ( ,  , t A ); and the previous timestep (
i
u ,
i
u ), we can solve equation
(5.2.72) for the displacement increment:
i
i
F
u
k
A
A = (5.2.73)
Once the displacement increment is known, we can solve for the velocity and
acceleration increments from equations (5.2.66) and (5.2.65) respectively. And once
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 51
all the increments are known we can compute the properties at the current timestep
by just adding to the values at the previous timestep, equations (5.2.59) to (5.2.61).
Newmarks method is stable if the timesteps is about 0.1 t T A = of the system.
The coefficients in equation (5.2.71) are constant (once t A is), so we can calculate
these at the start as:
( )
1
A m c
t
 
= +
A
(5.2.74)
1
1
2 2
B m t c
 
 
= + A

\ .
(5.2.75)
Making equation (5.2.71) become:
i i i i
F F Au Bu A = A + + (5.2.76)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 52
Newmarks Algorithm
1. Select algorithm parameters, ,  and t A ;
2. Initial calculations:
a. Find the initial acceleration:
( )
0 0 0 0
1
u F cu ku
m
= (5.2.77)
b. Calculate the effective stiffness,
i i i i
F F Au Bu A = A + + (5.2.78)
i
i
F
u
k
A
A = (5.2.79)
( )
1
2
i i i i
u u u t u
t
  
 
A = A + A

A
\ .
(5.2.80)
( )
( )
2
1 1 1
2
i i i i
u u u u
t
t
 

A = A
A
A
(5.2.81)
1 i i i
u u u
= + A (5.2.82)
1 i i i
u u u
= + A (5.2.83)
1 i i i
u u u
= + A (5.2.84)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 53
5.2.10 Computer Implementation & Examples
Using MS Excel
Based on our previous spreadsheet, we implement Newmark Integration. Download it
from the course website, and see how the equations and algorithm are implemented.
In the example shown, weve applied a sinusoidal load of 10 N for 0.6 secs to the
system weve been using so far:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 54
Using Matlab
There are no shortcuts to this one. We must write a completely new function that
implements the Newmark Integration algorithm as weve described it:
function [u ud udd] = newmark_sdof(m, k, xi, t, F, u0, ud0, plotflag)
% This function computes the response of a linear damped SDOF system
% subject to an arbitrary excitation. The input parameters are:
% m  scalar, mass, kg
% k  scalar, stiffness, N/m
% xi  scalar, damping ratio
% t  vector of length N, in equal time steps, s
% F  vector of length N, force at each time step, N
% u0  scalar, initial displacement, m
% v0  scalar, initial velocity, m/s
% plotflag  1 or 0: whether or not to plot the response
% The output is:
% u  vector of length N, displacement response, m
% ud  vector of length N, velocity response, m/s
% udd  vector of length N, acceleration response, m/s2
% Set the Newmark Integration parameters
% gamma = 1/2 always
% beta = 1/6 linear acceleration
% beta = 1/4 average acceleration
gamma = 1/2;
beta = 1/6;
N = length(t); % the number of integration steps
dt = t(2)t(1); % the time step
w = sqrt(k/m); % rad/s  circular natural frequency
c = 2*xi*k/w; % the damping coefficient
% Calulate the effective stiffness
keff = k + (gamma/(beta*dt))*c+(1/(beta*dt^2))*m;
% Calulate the coefficients A and B
Acoeff = (1/(beta*dt))*m+(gamma/beta)*c;
Bcoeff = (1/(2*beta))*m + dt*(gamma/(2*beta)1)*c;
% calulate the change in force at each time step
dF = diff(F);
% Set initial state
u(1) = u0;
ud(1) = ud0;
udd(1) = (F(1)c*ud0k*u0)/m; % the initial acceleration
for i = 1:(N1) % N1 since we already know solution at i = 1
dFeff = dF(i) + Acoeff*ud(i) + Bcoeff*udd(i);
dui = dFeff/keff;
dudi = (gamma/(beta*dt))*dui(gamma/beta)*ud(i)+dt*(1
gamma/(2*beta))*udd(i);
duddi = (1/(beta*dt^2))*dui(1/(beta*dt))*ud(i)(1/(2*beta))*udd(i);
u(i+1) = u(i) + dui;
ud(i+1) = ud(i) + dudi;
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 55
udd(i+1) = udd(i) + duddi;
end
if(plotflag == 1)
subplot(4,1,1)
plot(t,F,'k');
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Force (N)');
subplot(4,1,2)
plot(t,u,'k');
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Displacement (m)');
subplot(4,1,3)
plot(t,ud,'k');
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Velocity (m/s)');
subplot(4,1,4)
plot(t,udd,'k');
xlabel('Time (s)');
ylabel('Acceleration (m/s2)');
end
Bear in mind that most of this script is either comments or plotting commands
Newmark Integration is a fast and small algorithm, with a huge range of applications.
In order to use this function, we must write a small script that sets the problem up and
then calls the newmark_sdof function. The main difficulty is in generating the
forcing function, but it is not that hard:
% script that calls Newmark Integration for sample problem
m = 10;
k = 100;
xi = 0.1;
u0 = 0;
ud0 = 0;
t = 0:0.1:4.0; % set the time vector
F = zeros(1,length(t)); % empty F vector
% set sinusoidal force of 10 over 0.6 s
Famp = 10;
Tend = 0.6;
i = 1;
while t(i) < Tend
F(i) = Famp*sin(pi*t(i)/Tend);
i = i+1;
end
[u ud udd] = newmark_sdof(m, k, xi, t, F, u0, ud0, 1);
This produces the following plot:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 56
Explosions are often modelled as triangular loadings. Lets implement this for our
system:
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
5
0
5
10
Time (s)
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.1
0
0.1
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.5
0
0.5
Time (s)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
1
0
1
Time (s)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
2
)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 57
% script that finds explosion response
m = 10;
k = 100;
xi = 0.1;
u0 = 0;
ud0 = 0;
Fmax = 50; % N
Tend = 0.2; % s
t = 0:0.01:2.0; % set the time vector
F = zeros(1,length(t)); % empty F vector
% set reducing triangular force
i = 1;
while t(i) < Tend
F(i) = Fmax*(1t(i)/Tend);
i = i+1;
end
[u ud udd] = newmark_sdof(m, k, xi, t, F, u0, ud0, 1);
As can be seen from the following plot, even though the explosion only lasts for a
brief period of time, the vibrations will take several periods to dampen out. Also
notice that the acceleration response is the most sensitive this is the most damaging
to the building, as force is mass times acceleration: the structure thus undergoes
massive forces, possibly leading to damage or failure.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 58
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
20
40
60
Time (s)
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.2
0
0.2
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.5
0
0.5
Time (s)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
m
/
s
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
5
0
5
Time (s)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
2
)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 59
5.2.11 Problems
Problem 1
A harmonic oscillation test gave the natural frequency of a water tower to be 0.41 Hz.
Given that the mass of the tank is 150 tonnes, what deflection will result if a 50 kN
horizontal load is applied? You may neglect the mass of the tower.
Ans: 50.2 mm
Problem 2
A 3 m high, 8 m wide singlebay singlestorey frame is rigidly jointed with a beam of
mass 5,000 kg and columns of negligible mass and stiffness of EI
c
= 4.510
3
kNm
2
.
Calculate the natural frequency in lateral vibration and its period. Find the force
required to deflect the frame 25 mm laterally.
Ans: 4.502 Hz; 0.222 sec; 100 kN
Problem 3
An SDOF system (m = 20 kg, k = 350 N/m) is given an initial displacement of 10 mm
and initial velocity of 100 mm/s. (a) Find the natural frequency; (b) the period of
vibration; (c) the amplitude of vibration; and (d) the time at which the third maximum
peak occurs.
Ans: 0.666 Hz; 1.502 sec; 25.91 mm; 3.285 sec.
Problem 4
For the frame of Problem 2, a jack applied a load of 100 kN and then instantaneously
released. On the first return swing a deflection of 19.44 mm was noted. The period of
motion was measured at 0.223 sec. Assuming that the stiffness of the columns cannot
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 60
change, find (a) the damping ratio; (b) the coefficient of damping; (c) the undamped
frequency and period; and (d) the amplitude after 5 cycles.
Ans: 0.04; 11,367 kgs/m; 4.488 Hz; 0.2228 sec; 7.11 mm.
Problem 5
From the response timehistory of an SDOF system given:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 61
(a) estimate the damped natural frequency; (b) use the half amplitude method to
calculate the damping ratio; and (c) calculate the undamped natural frequency and
period.
Ans: 4.021 Hz; 0.05; 4.026 Hz; 0.248 sec.
Problem 6
Workers movements on a platform (8 6 m high, m = 200 kN) are causing large
dynamic motions. An engineer investigated and found the natural period in sway to
be 0.9 sec. Diagonal remedial ties (E = 200 kN/mm
2
) are to be installed to reduce the
natural period to 0.3 sec. What tie diameter is required?
Ans: 28.1 mm.
Problem 7
The frame of examples 2.2 and 2.4 has a reciprocating machine put on it. The mass of
this machine is 4 tonnes and is in addition to the mass of the beam. The machine
exerts a periodic force of 8.5 kN at a frequency of 1.75 Hz. (a) What is the steady
state amplitude of vibration if the damping ratio is 4%? (b) What would the steady
state amplitude be if the forcing frequency was in resonance with the structure?
Ans: 2.92 mm; 26.56 mm.
Problem 8
An air conditioning unit of mass 1,600 kg is place in the middle (point C) of an 8 m
long simply supported beam (EI = 810
3
kNm
2
) of negligible mass. The motor runs
at 300 rpm and produces an unbalanced load of 120 kg. Assuming a damping ratio of
5%, determine the steadystate amplitude and deflection at C. What rpm will result in
resonance and what is the associated deflection?
Ans: 1.41 mm; 22.34 mm; 206.7 rpm; 36.66 mm.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 62
Problem 9
Determine the response of our example system, with initial velocity of 0.05 m/s,
when acted upon by an impulse of 0.1 s duration and magnitude 10 N at time 1.0 s.
Do this up for a duration of 4 s.
Ans. below
Problem 10
Determine the maximum responses of a water tower which is subjected to a
sinusoidal force of amplitude 445 kN and frequency 30 rad/s over 0.3 secs. The
tower has properties, mass 17.5 t, stiffness 17.5 MN/m and no damping.
Ans. 120 mm, 3.8 m/s, 120.7 m/s
2
Problem 11
Determine the maximum response of a system (m = 1.75 t, k = 1.75 MN/m, = 10%)
when subjected to an increasing triangular load which reaches 22.2 kN after 0.1 s.
Ans. 14.6 mm, 0.39 m/s, 15.0 m/s
2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
Time (s)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 63
5.3 MultiDegreeofFreedom Systems
5.3.1 General Case (based on 2DOF)
(a)
(b) (c)
Figure 3.1: (a) 2DOF system. (b) and (c) Freebody diagrams of forces
Considering Figure 3.1, we can see that the forces that act on the masses are similar
to those of the SDOF system but for the fact that the springs, dashpots, masses, forces
and deflections may all differ in properties. Also, from the same figure, we can see
the interaction forces between the masses will result from the relative deflection
between the masses; the change in distance between them.
For each mass, 0
x
F =
, hence:
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
mu cu k u c u u k u u F + + + + = (5.3.1)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 64
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
mu c u u k u u F + + = (5.3.2)
In which we have dropped the time function indicators and allowed u A and u A to
absorb the directions of the interaction forces. Rearranging we get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1
2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2
u m u c c u c u k k u k F
u m u c u c u k u k F
+ + + + + + =
+ + + + =
(5.3.3)
This can be written in matrix form:
1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
m u c c c u k k k u F
m u c c u k k u F
+ +
( ( (
+ + =
` ` ` `
( ( (
) ) ) )
(5.3.4)
Or another way:
Mu+Cu+Ku =F (5.3.5)
where:
M is the mass matrix (diagonal matrix);
u is the vector of the accelerations for each DOF;
C is the damping matrix (symmetrical matrix);
u is the vector of velocity for each DOF;
K is the stiffness matrix (symmetrical matrix);
u is the vector of displacements for each DOF;
F is the load vector.
Equation (5.3.5) is quite general and reduces to many forms of analysis:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 65
Free vibration:
Mu+Cu+Ku = 0 (5.3.6)
Undamped free vibration:
Mu+Ku = 0 (5.3.7)
Undamped forced vibration:
Mu+Ku = F (5.3.8)
Static analysis:
Ku = F (5.3.9)
We will restrict our attention to the case of undamped freevibration equation
(5.3.7)  as the inclusion of damping requires an increase in mathematical complexity
which would distract from our purpose.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 66
5.3.2 FreeUndamped Vibration of 2DOF Systems
The solution to (5.3.7) follows the same methodology as for the SDOF case; so
following that method (equation (2.42)), we propose a solution of the form:
( ) sin t e  + u = a (5.3.10)
where a is the vector of amplitudes corresponding to each degree of freedom. From
this we get:
( )
2 2
sin t e e  e + = u = a u (5.3.11)
Then, substitution of (5.3.10) and (5.3.11) into (5.3.7) yields:
( ) ( )
2
sin sin t t e e  e  + + Ma +Ka = 0 (5.3.12)
Since the sine term is constant for each term:
2
e (
K M a = 0 (5.3.13)
We note that in a dynamics problem the amplitudes of each DOF will be nonzero,
hence, = a 0 in general. In addition we see that the problem is a standard eigenvalues
problem. Hence, by Cramers rule, in order for (5.3.13) to hold the determinant of
2
e K M must then be zero:
2
0 e K M = (5.3.14)
For the 2DOF system, we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 67
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2
0 k k m k m k e e e + = ( (
K M = (5.3.15)
Expansion of (5.3.15) leads to an equation in
2
e called the characteristic polynomial
of the system. The solutions of
2
e to this equation are the eigenvalues of
2
e (
K M
. There will be two solutions or roots of the characteristic polynomial in this case and
an nDOF system has n solutions to its characteristic polynomial. In our case, this
means there are two values of
2
e (
2
1
e and
2
2
e ) that will satisfy the relationship; thus
there are two frequencies for this system (the lowest will be called the fundamental
frequency). For each
2
n
e substituted back into (5.3.13), we will get a certain
amplitude vector
n
a . This means that each frequency will have its own characteristic
displaced shape of the degrees of freedoms called the mode shape. However, we will
not know the absolute values of the amplitudes as it is a freevibration problem;
hence we express the mode shapes as a vector of relative amplitudes,
n
, relative to,
normally, the first value in
n
a .
As we will see in the following example, the implication of the above is that MDOF
systems vibrate, not just in the fundamental mode, but also in higher harmonics.
From our analysis of SDOF systems its apparent that should any loading coincide
with any of these harmonics, large DAFs will result (Section 2.d). Thus, some modes
may be critical design cases depending on the type of harmonic loading as will be
seen later.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 68
5.3.3 Example of a 2DOF System
The twostorey building shown (Figure
3.2) has very stiff floor slabs relative to
the supporting columns. Calculate the
natural frequencies and mode shapes.
3 2
4.5 10 kNm
c
EI =
Figure 3.2: Shear frame problem.
Figure 3.3: 2DOF model of the shear frame.
We will consider the free lateral vibrations of the twostorey shear frame idealised as
in Figure 3.3. The lateral, or shear stiffness of the columns is:
1 2
3
6
3
6
12
2
2 12 4.5 10
3
4 10 N/m
c
EI
k k k
h
k
(
= = =
(
=
=
The characteristic polynomial is as given in (5.3.15) so we have:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 69
6 2 6 2 12
6 4 10 2 12
8 10 5000 4 10 3000 16 10 0
15 10 4.4 10 16 10 0
e e
e e
= ( (
+ =
This is a quadratic equation in
2
e and so can be solved using
6
15 10 a = ,
10
4.4 10 b = and
12
16 10 c = in the usual expression
2
2
4
2
b b ac
a
e
=
Hence we get
2
1
425.3 e = and
2
2
2508 e = . This may be written:
2
425.3
2508
n
=
`
)
hence
20.6
50.1
n
=
`
)
rad/s and
3.28
7.97 2
n
t
= =
`
)
f Hz
To solve for the mode shapes, we will use the appropriate form of the equation of
motion, equation (5.3.13):
2
e (
K M a = 0. First solve for the
2
e = (
E K M
matrix and then solve Ea = 0 for the amplitudes
n
a . Then, form
n
.
In general, for a 2DOF system, we have:
2
1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
n
n n
n
k k k m k k m k
k k m k k m
e
e
e
+ + ( ( (
= =
( ( (
E
For
2
1
425.3 e = :
6
1
5.8735 4
10
4 2.7241
(
=
(
E
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 70
Hence
1 6
1 1
2
5.8735 4 0
10
4 2.7241 0
a
a
(
= =
` `
(
) )
Ea
Taking either equation, we calculate:
1 2 1 2
1 1
1 2 1 2
5.8735 4 0 0.681 1
4 2.7241 0 0.681 0.681
a a a a
a a a a
= =
=
` `
+ = =
) )
Similarly for
2
2
2508 e = :
6
2
4.54 4
10
4 3.524
(
=
(
E
Hence, again taking either equation, we calculate:
1 2 1 2
2 1
1 2 1 2
4.54 4 0 0.881 1
4 3.524 0 0.881 0.881
a a a a
a a a a
= =
=
` `
= =
) )
The complete solution may be given by the following two matrices which are used in
further analysis for more complicated systems.
2
425.3
2508
n
=
`
)
and
1 1
1.468 1.135
(
=
(
For our frame, we can sketch these two frequencies and associated mode shapes:
Figure 3.4.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 71
Figure 3.4: Mode shapes and frequencies of the example frame.
Larger and more complex structures will have many degrees of freedom and hence
many natural frequencies and mode shapes. There are different mode shapes for
different forms of deformation; torsional, lateral and vertical for example. Periodic
loads acting in these directions need to be checked against the fundamental frequency
for the type of deformation; higher harmonics may also be important.
As an example; consider a 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever which assumes stiffness
proportional to the static deflection at 0.5L and L as well as half the cantilever mass
lumped at the midpoint and one quarter of it lumped at the tip. The mode shapes are
shown in Figure 3.5. In Section 4(a) we will see the exact mode shape for this it is
clear that the approximation is rough; but, with more DOFs it will approach a better
solution.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 72
Figure 3.5: Lumped mass, 2DOF idealisation of a cantilever.
Mode 1
Mode 2
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 73
5.3.4 Case Study Aberfeldy Footbridge, Scotland
Returning to the case study in Section 1, we will look at the results of some research
conducted into the behaviour of this bridge which forms part of the current research
into lateral synchronise excitation discovered on the London Millennium footbridge.
This is taken from a paper by Dr. Paul Archbold, formerly of University College
Dublin.
Mode
Mode
Type
Measured
Frequency
(Hz)
Predicted
Frequency (Hz)
1 L1 0.98 1.14 +16%
2 V1 1.52 1.63 +7%
3 V2 1.86 1.94 +4%
4 V3 2.49 2.62 +5%
5 L2 2.73 3.04 +11%
6 V4 3.01 3.11 +3%
7 V5 3.50 3.63 +4%
8 V6 3.91 4.00 +2%
9 T1 3.48 4.17 20%
10 V7 4.40 4.45 +1%
11 V8 4.93 4.90 1%
12 T2 4.29 5.20 +21%
13 L3 5.72 5.72 +0%
14 T3 5.72 6.07 +19%
Table 1: Modal frequencies Figure 3.6: Undeformed shape
Table 1 gives the first 14 mode and associated frequencies from both direct
measurements of the bridge and from finiteelement modelling of it. The type of
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 74
mode is also listed; L is lateral, V is vertical and T is torsional. It can be seen that the
predicted frequencies differ slightly from the measured; however, the modes have
been estimated in the correct sequence and there may be some measurement error.
We can see now that (from Section 1) as a person walks at about 2.8 Hz, there are a
lot of modes that may be excited by this loading. Also note that the overall
fundamental mode is lateral this was the reason that this bridge has been analysed
it is similar to the Millennium footbridge in this respect. Figure 1.7 illustrates the
dynamic motion due to a person walking on this bridge this is probably caused by
the third or fourth mode. Several pertinent mode shapes are given in Figure 3.7.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 75
Mode 1:
1
st
Lateral mode
1.14 Hz
Mode 2:
1
st
Vertical mode
1.63 Hz
Mode 3:
2
nd
Vertical mode
1.94 Hz
Mode 9:
1
st
Torsional mode
4.17 Hz
Figure 3.7: Various Modes of Aberfeldy footbridge.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 76
5.4 Continuous Structures
5.4.1 Exact Analysis for Beams
General Equation of Motion
Figure 4.1: Basic beam subjected to dynamic loading: (a) beam properties and
coordinates; (b) resultant forces acting on the differential element.
In examining Figure 4.1, as with any continuous structure, it may be seen that any
differential element will have an associated stiffness and deflection which changes
with time and hence a different acceleration. Thus, any continuous structure has an
infinite number of degrees of freedom. Discretization into an MDOF structure is
certainly an option and is the basis for finiteelement dynamic analyses; the more
DOFs used the more accurate the model (Section 3.b). For some basic structures
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 77
though, the exact behaviour can be explicitly calculated. We will limit ourselves to
freeundamped vibration of beams that are thin in comparison to their length. A
general expression can be derived and from this, several usual cases may be
established.
Figure 4.2: Instantaneous dynamic deflected position.
Consider the element A of Figure 4.1(b); , hence:
(5.4.1)
after having cancelled the common shear term. The resultant transverse
inertial force is (mass acceleration; assuming constant mass):
(5.4.2)
Thus we have, after dividing by the common term:
(5.4.3)
0
y
F =
( )
( )
( )
,
, , 0
I
V x t
p x t dx dx f x t dx
x
c
=
c
( ) , V x t
( )
( )
2
2
,
,
I
v x t
f x t dx mdx
t
c
=
c
dx
( )
( )
( )
2
2
, ,
,
V x t v x t
p x t m
x t
c c
=
c c
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 78
which, with no acceleration, is the usual static relationship between shear force and
applied load. By taking moments about the point A on the element, and dropping
second order and common terms, we get the usual expression:
(5.4.4)
Differentiating this with respect to and substituting into (5.4.3), in addition to the
relationship (which assumes that the beam is of constant stiffness):
(5.4.5)
With free vibration this is:
(5.4.6)
( )
( ) ,
,
M x t
V x t
x
c
=
c
x
2
2
v
M EI
x
c
=
c
( ) ( )
( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
,
v x t v x t
EI m p x t
x t
c c
+ =
c c
( ) ( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
0
v x t v x t
EI m
x t
c c
+ =
c c
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 79
General Solution for FreeUndamped Vibration
Examination of equation (5.4.6) yields several aspects:
 It is separated into spatial ( ) and temporal ( ) terms and we may assume that the
solution is also;
 It is a fourthorder differential in ; hence we will need four spatial boundary
conditions to solve these will come from the support conditions at each end;
 It is a second order differential in and so we will need two temporal initial
conditions to solve initial deflection and velocity at a point for example.
To begin, assume the solution is of a form of separated variables:
(5.4.7)
where will define the deformed shape of the beam and the amplitude of
vibration. Inserting the assumed solution into (5.4.6) and collecting terms we have:
(5.4.8)
This follows as the terms each side of the equals are functions of and separately
and so must be constant. Hence, each function type (spatial or temporal) is equal to
and so we have:
(5.4.9)
(5.4.10)
x t
x
t
( ) ( ) ( ) , v x t x Y t  =
( ) x  ( ) Y t
( )
( )
( )
( )
4 2
2
4 2
1 1
constant
x Y t
EI
m x x Y t t

e

c c
= = =
c c
x t
2
e
( )
( )
4
2
4
x
EI m x
x

e 
c
=
c
( ) ( )
2
0 Y t Y t e + =
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 80
Equation (5.4.10) is the same as for an SDOF system (equation (2.4)) and so the
solution must be of the same form (equation (2.17)):
(5.4.11)
In order to evaluate we will use equation (5.4.9) and we introduce:
2
4
m
EI
e
o = (5.4.12)
And assuming a solution of the form , substitution into (5.4.9) gives:
( ) ( )
4 4
exp 0 s G sx o = (5.4.13)
There are then four roots for and when each is put into (5.4.13) and added we get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
exp exp exp exp x G i x G i x G x G x  o o o o = + + + (5.4.14)
In which the s may be complex constant numbers, but, by using Eulers
expressions for cos, sin, sinh and cosh we get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
sin cos sinh cosh x A x A x A x A x  o o o o = + + + (5.4.15)
where the s are now real constants; three of which may be evaluated through the
boundary conditions; the fourth however is arbitrary and will depend on .
( )
0
0
cos sin
Y
Y t Y t t e e
e
 
= +

\ .
e
( ) exp( ) x G sx  =
s
G
A
e
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Simplysupported Beam
Figure 4.3: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for an ss beam.
The boundary conditions consist of zero deflection and bending moment at each end:
( ) ( )
2
2
0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t EI t
x
c
= =
c
(5.4.16)
( ) ( )
2
2
, 0 and , 0
v
v L t EI L t
x
c
= =
c
(5.4.17)
Substituting (5.4.16) into equation (5.4.14) we find . Similarly, (5.4.17)
gives:
( )
( )
1 3
2 2
1 3
sin( ) sinh( ) 0
'' sin( ) sinh( ) 0
L A L A L
L A L A L
 o o
 o o o
= + =
= + =
(5.4.18)
from which, we get two possibilities:
2 4
0 A A = =
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3
1
0 2 sinh( )
0 sin( )
A L
A L
o
o
=
=
(5.4.19)
however, since is never zero,
3
A must be, and so the nontrivial solution
must give us:
sin( ) 0 L o = (5.4.20)
which is the frequency equation and is only satisfied when L n t = . Hence, from
(5.4.12) we get:
2
n
n EI
L m
t
e
 
=

\ .
(5.4.21)
and the corresponding modes shapes are therefore:
( )
1
sin
n
n x
x A
L
t

 
=

\ .
(5.4.22)
where
1
A is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity. We can see that there are an
infinite number of frequencies and mode shapes ( n ) as we would expect from
an infinite number of DOFs. The first three mode shapes and frequencies are shown
in Figure 4.3.
sinh( ) x
1
0 A =
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Cantilever Beam
This example is important as it describes the sway behaviour of tall buildings. The
boundary conditions consist of:
( ) ( ) 0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t t
x
c
= =
c
(5.4.23)
( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
, 0 and , 0
v v
EI L t EI L t
x x
c c
= =
c c
(5.4.24)
Which represent zero displacement and slope at the support and zero bending
moment and shear at the tip. Substituting (5.4.23) into equation (5.4.14) we get
4 2
A A = and
3 1
A A = . Similarly, (5.4.24) gives:
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 3 4
3 3 3 3
1 2 3 4
'' sin( ) cos( ) sinh( ) cosh( ) 0
''' cos( ) sin( ) cosh( ) sinh( ) 0
L A L A L A L A L
L A L A L A L A L
 o o o o o o o o
 o o o o o o o o
= + + =
= + + + =
(5.4.25)
where a prime indicates a derivate of x , and so we find:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
sin( ) sinh( ) cos( ) cosh( ) 0
cos( ) cosh( ) sin( ) sinh( ) 0
A L L A L L
A L L A L L
o o o o
o o o o
+ + + =
+ + + =
(5.4.26)
Solving for
1
A and
2
A we find:
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
2
1
2
2
cos( ) cosh( )
0
sin( ) sinh( ) sin( ) sinh( )
cos( ) cosh( )
0
sin( ) sinh( ) sin( ) sinh( )
L L
A
L L L L
L L
A
L L L L
o o
o o o o
o o
o o o o
(
+
= (
+ +
(
(
+
= (
+ +
(
(5.4.27)
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In order that neither
1
A and
2
A are zero, the expression in the brackets must be zero
and we are left with the frequency equation:
cos( )cosh( ) 1 0 L L o o + = (5.4.28)
The mode shape is got by expressing
2
A in terms of
1
A :
2 1
sin( ) sinh( )
cos( ) cosh( )
L L
A A
L L
o o
o o
+
=
+
(5.4.29)
and the modes shapes are therefore:
( )
( )
1
sin( ) sinh( )
sin( ) sinh( )
cosh( ) cos( )
cos( ) cosh( )
n
x x
x A
L L
x x
L L
o o

o o
o o
o o
(
(
=
+
(
+
+ (
(5.4.30)
where again
1
A is arbitrary and normally taken to be unity. We can see from (5.4.28)
that it must be solved numerically for the corresponding values of L o The natural
frequencies are then got from (5.4.21) with the substitution of L o for nt . The first
three mode shapes and frequencies are shown in Figure 4.4.
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Figure 4.4: First three mode shapes and frequency parameters for a cantilever.
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5.4.2 Approximate Analysis Boltons Method
We will now look at a simplified method that requires an understanding of dynamic
behaviour but is very easy to implement. The idea is to represent, through various
manipulations of mass and stiffness, any complex structure as a single SDOF system
which is easily solved via an implementation of equation (1.2):
1
2
E
E
K
f
M t
= (5.4.31)
in which we have equivalent SDOF stiffness and mass terms.
Consider a massless cantilever which carries two different masses, Figure 4.5:
Figure 4.5: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for a cantilever.
The end deflection of a cantilever loaded at its end by a force P is well known to be
3
3
PL
EI
and hence the stiffness is
3
3EI
L
. Therefore, the frequencies of the two
cantilevers of Figure 4.5 are:
1
3
1
1 3
2
EI
f
M x t
= (5.4.32)
3
1 3
;
2
E
E
EI
f
M L t
= (5.4.33)
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And so, if the two frequencies are to be equal, and considering
1
M as the mass of a
small element dx when the mass per metre is m, the corresponding part of
E
M is:
3
E
x
dM mdx
L
 
=

\ .
(5.4.34)
and integrating:
3
0
0.25
L
E
x
M mdx
L
mL
 
=

\ .
=
}
(5.4.35)
Therefore the cantilever with selfmass uniformly distributed along its length vibrates
at the same frequency as would the massless cantilever loaded with a mass one
quarter its actual mass. This answer is not quite correct but is within 5%; it ignores
the fact that every element affects the deflection (and hence vibration) of every other
element. The answer is reasonable for design though.
Figure 4.6: Equivalent dynamic mass distribution for an ss beam
Similarly for a simply supported beam, we have an expression for the deflection at a
point:
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( )
2
2
3
x
Px L x
EIL
o
= (5.4.36)
and so its stiffness is:
( )
2
2
3
x
EIL
K
x L x
=
(5.4.37)
Considering Figure 4.6, we see that, from (5.4.31):
( )
2
3
2
1
3 48
E
EIL EI
L M
x L x M
=
(5.4.38)
and as the two frequencies are to be equal:
( )
2
2
4
0
16
8/15
L
E
L x
M x mdx
L
mL
=
=
}
(5.4.39)
which is about half of the selfmass as we might have guessed.
Proceeding in a similar way we can find equivalent spring stiffnesses and masses for
usual forms of beams as given in Table 1. Table 4.1 however, also includes a
refinement of the equivalent masses based on the known dynamic deflected shape
rather than the static deflected shape.
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Table 4.1: Boltons table for equivalent mass, stiffnesses and relative amplitudes.
Figure 4.7: Effective SDOFs: (a) neglecting relative amplitude; (b) including relative
amplitude.
In considering continuous beams, the continuity over the supports requires all the
spans to vibrate at the same frequency for each of its modes. Thus we may consider
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Dr. C. Caprani 90
summing the equivalent masses and stiffnesses for each span and this is not a bad
approximation. It is equivalent to the SDOF model of Figure 4.7(a). But, if we
allowed for the relative amplitude between the different spans, we would have the
model of Figure 4.7(b) which would be more accurate especially when there is a
significant difference in the member stiffnesses and masses: long heavy members will
have larger amplitudes than short stiff light members due to the amount of kinetic
energy stored. Thus, the stiffness and mass of each span must be weighted by its
relative amplitude before summing. Consider the following examples of the beam
shown in Figure 4.8; the exact multipliers are known to be 10.30, 13.32, 17.72, 21.67,
40.45, 46.10, 53.89 and 60.53 for the first eight modes.
Figure 4.8: Continuous beam of Examples 1 to 3.
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Example 1: Ignoring relative amplitude and refined M
E
From Table 4.1, and the previous discussion:
( )
3
48 3 101.9
E
EI
K
L
= +
; and
8 1
3
15 2
E
M mL
 
= +

\ .
,
and applying (5.4.31) we have: ( )
4
1
10.82
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 10.30: an error of 5%.
Example 2: Including relative amplitude and refined M
E
From Table 4.1 and the previous discussion, we have:
3 3 3
48 101.9
3 1 0.4108 185.9
E
EI EI EI
K
L L L
= + =
3 0.4928 1 0.4299 0.4108 1.655
E
M mL mL mL = + =
and applying (5.4.31) we have:
( )
4
1
10.60
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 10.30: a reduced error of 2.9%.
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Example 3: Calculating the frequency of a higher mode
Figure 4.9: Assumed mode shape for which the frequency will be found.
The mode shape for calculation is shown in Figure 4.7. We can assume supports at
the midpoints of each span as they do not displace in this mode shape. Hence we have
seven simply supported halfspans and one cantilever halfspan, so from Table 4.1 we
have:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3
3
48 101.9
7 1 0.4108
0.5 0.5
3022.9
7 0.4928 0.5 1 0.4299 0.5 0.4108
1.813
E
E
EI EI
K
L L
EI
L
M m L m L
mL
= +
=
= +
=
again, applying (5.4.31), we have:
( )
4
1
40.8
2
EI
f
mL t
=
The multiplier in the exact answer is 40.45: and error of 0.9%.
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Mode Shapes and Frequencies
Section 2.d described how the DAF is very large when a force is applied at the
natural frequency of the structure; so for any structure we can say that when it is
vibrating at its natural frequency it has very low stiffness and in the case of no
damping: zero stiffness. Higher modes will have higher stiffnesses but stiffness may
also be recognised in one form as
1 M
EI R
= (5.4.40)
where R is the radius of curvature and M is bending moment. Therefore, smaller
stiffnesses have a larger R and larger stiffnesses have a smaller R. Similarly then,
lower modes have a larger R and higher modes have a smaller R. This enables us to
distinguish between modes by their frequencies. Noting that a member in single
curvature (i.e. no point of contraflexure) has a larger R than a member in double
curvature (1 point of contraflexure) which in turn has a larger R than a member in
triple curvature (2 points of contraflexure), we can distinguish modes by deflected
shapes. Figures 4.3 and 4.4 illustrate this clearly.
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Figure 4.10: Typical modes and reduced structures.
An important fact may be deduced from Figure 4.10 and the preceding arguments: a
continuous beam of any number of identical spans has the same fundamental
frequency as that of one simply supported span: symmetrical frequencies are
similarly linked. Also, for nonidentical spans, symmetry may exist about a support
and so reduced structures may be used to estimate the frequencies of the total
structure; reductions are shown in Figure 4.10(b) and (d) for symmetrical and anti
symmetrical modes.
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5.4.3 Problems
Problem 1
Calculate the first natural frequency of a simply supported bridge of mass 7 tonnes
with a 3 tonne lorry at its quarter point. It is known that a load of 10 kN causes a 3
mm deflection.
Ans.: 3.95Hz.
Problem 2
Calculate the first natural frequency of a 4 m long cantilever (EI = 4,320 kNm
2
)
which carries a mass of 500 kg at its centre and has self weight of 1200 kg.
Ans.: 3.76 Hz.
Problem 3
What is the fundamental frequency of a 3span continuous beam of spans 4, 8 and 5
m with constant EI and m? What is the frequency when EI = 610
3
kNm
2
and m =
150 kg/m?
Ans.: 6.74 Hz.
Problem 4
Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a twospan continuous beam;
fixed at A and on rollers at B and C. Span AB is 8 m with flexural stiffness of 2EI and
a mass of 1.5m. Span BC is 6 m with flexural stiffness EI and mass m per metre.
What are the frequencies when EI = 4.510
3
kNm
2
and m = 100 kg/m?
Ans.: 9.3 Hz; ? Hz.
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Problem 5
Calculate the first and second natural frequencies of a 4span continuous beam of
spans 4, 5, 4 and 5 m with constant EI and m? What are the frequencies when EI =
410
3
kNm
2
and m = 120 kg/m? What are the new frequencies when support A is
fixed? Does this make it more or less susceptible to humaninduced vibration?
Ans.: ? Hz; ? Hz.
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5.5 Practical Design Considerations
5.5.1 Human Response to Dynamic Excitation
Figure 5.1: Equal sensation contours for vertical vibration
The response of humans to vibrations is a complex phenomenon involving the
variables of the vibrations being experienced as well as the perception of it. It has
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Dr. C. Caprani 98
been found that the frequency range between 2 and 30 Hz is particularly
uncomfortable because of resonance with major body parts (Figure 5.2). Sensation
contours for vertical vibrations are shown in Figure 5.1. This graph shows that for a
given frequency, as the amplitude gets larger it becomes more uncomfortable; thus it
is acceleration that is governing the comfort. This is important in the design of tall
buildings which sway due to wind loading: it is the acceleration that causes
discomfort. This may also be realised from cartravel: at constant velocity nothing is
perceptible, but, upon rapid acceleration the motion if perceived ( F ma = ).
Figure 5.2: Human body response to vibration
Response graphs like Figure 5.1 have been obtained for each direction of vibration
but vertical motion is more uncomfortable for standing subjects; for the transverse
and longitudinal cases, the difference has the effect of moving the illustrated bands
up a level. Other factors are also important: the duration of exposure; waveform
(which is again linked to acceleration); type of activity; and, psychological factors.
An example is that low frequency exposure can result in motion sickness.
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5.5.2 Crowd/Pedestrian Dynamic Loading
Lightweight Floors
Figure 5.3: Recommended vibration limits for light floors.
Vibration limits for light floors from the 1984 Canadian Standard is shown in Figure
5.2; the peak acceleration is got from:
( )
0
0.9 2
I
a f
M
t = (5.5.1)
where I is the impulse (the area under the force time graph) and is about 70 Ns and
M is the equivalent mass of the floor which is about 40% of the distributed mass.
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This form of approach is to be complemented by a simple analysis of an equivalent
SDOF system. Also, as seen in Section 1, by keeping the fundamental frequency
above 5 Hz, human loading should not be problematic.
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Crowd Loading
This form of loading occurs in grandstands and similar structures where a large
number of people are densely packed and will be responding to the same stimulus.
Coordinated jumping to the beat of music, for example, can cause a DAF of about
1.97 at about 2.5 Hz. Dancing, however, normally generates frequencies of 2 3 Hz.
Once again, by keeping the natural frequency of the structure above about 5 Hz no
undue dynamic effects should be noticed.
In the transverse or longitudinal directions, allowance should also be made due to the
crowdsway that may accompany some events a value of about 0.3 kN per metre of
seating parallel and 0.15 kN perpendicular to the seating is an approximate method
for design.
Staircases can be subject to considerable dynamic forces as running up or down such
may cause peak loads of up to 45 times the persons bodyweight over a period of
about 0.3 seconds the method for lightweight floors can be applied to this scenario.
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Footbridges
As may be gathered from the Case Studies of the Aberfeldy Bridge, the problem is
complex, however some rough guidelines are possible. Once again controlling the
fundamental frequency is important; the lessons of the London Millennium and the
Tacoma Narrows bridges need to be heeded though: dynamic effects may occur in
any direction or mode that can be excited by any form of loading.
An approximate method for checking foot bridges is the following:
max st
u u K = (5.5.2)
where
st
u is the static deflection under the weight of a pedestrian at the point of
maximum deflection; K is a configuration factor for the type of structure (given in
Table 5.1); and is the dynamic response factor got again from Figure 5.4. The
maximum acceleration is then got as
2
max max
u u e = (see equations (2.30) and (3.11) for
example, note:
2
2 f e t = ). This is then compared to a rather simple rule that the
maximum acceleration of footbridge decks should not exceed 0.5 f .
Alternatively, BD 37/01 states:
For superstructures for which the fundamental natural frequency of vibration
exceeds 5Hz for the unloaded bridge in the vertical direction and 1.5 Hz for the
loaded bridge in the horizontal direction, the vibration serviceability requirement is
deemed to be satisfied. Appendix B.1 General.
Adhering to this clause (which is based on the discussion of Section 1s Case Study)
is clearly the easiest option.
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Also, note from Figure 5.4 the conservative nature of the damping assumed, which,
from equation (2.35) can be seen to be so based on usual values of damping in
structures.
Table 5.1: Configuration factors for footbridges.
Table 5.2: Values of the logarithmic decrement for different bridge types.
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Figure 5.4: Dynamic response factor for footbridges
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Design Example
A simplysupported footbridge of 18 m span has a total mass of 12.6 tonnes and
flexural stiffness of 310
5
kNm
2
. Determine the maximum amplitude of vibration and
vertical acceleration caused by a 0.7 kN pedestrian walking in frequency with the
bridge: the pedestrian has a stride of 0.9 m and produces an effective pulsating force
of 180 N. Assume the damping to be related to 0.05 o = . Is this a comfortable bridge
for the pedestrian (Figure 5.1)?
The natural frequency of the bridge is, from equations (2.19) and (4.21):
8
2
3 10
3.17 Hz
2 18 12600/18
f
t
= =
The static deflection is:
3
8
700 18
0.2835 mm
48 3 10
st
u
= =
Table 5.1 gives 1 K = and Figure 5.4 gives 6.8 = and so, by (5.5.2) we have:
max
0.2835 1.0 6.8 1.93 mm u = =
and so the maximum acceleration is:
( )
2
2 3 2
max max
2 3.17 1.93 10 0.78 m/s u u e t
= = =
We compare this to the requirement that:
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max
2
0.5
0.5
0.78 0.89 m/s
u f
f
s
s
s
And so we deem the bridge acceptable. From Figure 5.1, with the amplitude 1.93 mm
and 3.17 Hz frequency, we can see that this pedestrian will feel decidedly
uncomfortable and will probably change pace to avoid this frequency of loading.
The above discussion, in conjunction with Section 2.d reveals why, historically,
soldiers were told to break step when crossing a slender bridge unfortunately for
some, it is more probable that this knowledge did not come from any detailed
dynamic analysis; rather, bitter experience.
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5.5.3 Damping in Structures
The importance of damping should be obvious by this stage; a slight increase may
significantly reduce the DAF at resonance, equation (2.47). It was alluded to in
Section 1 that the exact nature of damping is not really understood but that it has been
shown that our assumption of linear viscous damping applies to the majority of
structures a notable exception is soilstructure interaction in which alternative
damping models must be assumed. Table 5.3 gives some typical damping values in
practice. It is notable that the materials themselves have very low damping and thus
most of the damping observed comes from the joints and so can it depend on:
 The materials in contact and their surface preparation;
 The normal force across the interface;
 Any plastic deformation in the joint;
 Rubbing or fretting of the joint when it is not tightened.
Table 5.4: Recommended values of damping.
When the vibrations or DAF is unacceptable it is not generally acceptable to detail
joints that will have higher damping than otherwise normal there are simply too
many variables to consider. Depending on the amount of extra damping needed, one
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could wait for the structure to be built and then measure the damping, retrofitting
vibration isolation devices as required. Or, if the extra damping required is
significant, the design of a vibration isolation device may be integral to the structure.
The devices that may be installed vary; some are:
 Tuned mass dampers (TMDs): a relatively small mass is attached to the primary
system and is tuned to vibrate at the same frequency but to oppose the primary
system;
 Sloshing dampers: A large water tank is used the sloshing motion opposes the
primary system motion due to inertial effects;
 Liquid column dampers: Two columns of liquid, connected at their bases but at
opposite sides of the primary system slosh, in a more controlled manner to oppose
the primary system motion.
These are the approaches taken in many modern buildings, particularly in Japan and
other earthquake zones. The Citicorp building in New York (which is famous for
other reasons also) and the John Hancock building in Boston were among the first to
use TMDs. In the John Hancock building a concrete block of about 300 tonnes
located on the 54
th
storey sits on a thin film of oil. When the building sways the
inertial effects of the block mean that it moves in the opposite direction to that of the
sway and so opposes the motion (relying heavily on a lack of friction). This is quite a
rudimentary system compared to modern systems which have computer controlled
actuators that take input from accelerometers in the building and move the block an
appropriate amount.
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5.5.4 Design Rules of Thumb
General
The structure should not have any modal frequency close to the frequency of any
form of periodic loading, irrespective of magnitude. This is based upon the large
DAFs that may occur (Section 2.d).
For normal floors of span/depth ratio less than 25 vibration is not generally a
problem. Problematic floors are lightweight with spans of over about 7 m.
Human loading
Most forms of human loading occur at frequencies < 5 Hz (Sections 1 and 5.a) and so
any structure of natural frequency greater than this should not be subject to undue
dynamic excitation.
Machine Loading
By avoiding any of the frequencies that the machine operates at, vibrations may be
minimised. The addition of either more stiffness or mass will change the frequencies
the structure responds to. If the response is still not acceptable vibration isolation
devices may need to be considered (Section 5.c).
Approximate Frequencies
The Bolton Method of Section 4.b is probably the best for those structures outside the
standard cases of Section 4.a. Careful thought on reducing the size of the problem to
an SDOF system usually enables good approximate analysis.
Other methods are:
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Structures with concentrated mass:
1
2
g
f
t o
=
Simplified rule for most structures:
18
f
o
=
where o is the static deflection and g is the acceleration under gravity.
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Rayleigh Approximation
A method developed by Lord Rayleigh (which is always an upper bound), based on
energy methods, for estimating the lowest natural frequency of transverse beam
vibration is:
2
2
2
0 2
1
2
0
L
L
d y
EI dx
dx
y dm
e
 

\ .
=
}
}
(5.5.3)
This method can be used to estimate the fundamental frequency of MDOF systems.
Considering the frame of Figure 5.5, the fundamental frequency in each direction is
given by:
2
1
2 2
i i i i
i i
i i i i
i i
Qu mu
g g
Qu mu
e = =
(5.5.4)
where
i
u is the static deflection under the dead load of the structure
i
Q , acting in the
direction of motion, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the first mode is
approximated in shape by the static deflection under dead load. For a building, this
can be applied to each of the X and Y directions to obtain the estimates of the
fundamental sway modes.
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Figure 5.5: Rayleigh approximation for the fundamental sway frequencies of a
building.
Figure 5.6: Rayleigh method for approximating bridge fundamental frequencies.
Likewise for a bridge, by applying the dead load in each of the vertical and horizontal
directions, the fundamental lift and drag modes can be obtained. The torsional mode
can also be approximated by applying the dead load at the appropriate radius of
gyration and determining the resulting rotation angle, Figure 5.6.
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This method is particularly useful when considering the results of a detailed analysis,
such as finiteelement. It provides a reasonable approximate check on the output.
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5.6 Appendix
5.6.1 Past Exam Questions
Summer 2005
Question 5
(a) The system shown in Figure Q.5(a) is known to have a static deflection of 32.7 mm for an unknown mass.
1) Find the natural frequency of the system.
(10%)
2) Given that the mass is 10 kg, find the peak displacement when this mass is given an initial
velocity of 500 mm/s and an initial displacement of 25 mm.
(10%)
3) What time does the first positive peak occur?
(10%)
4) What value of damping coefficient is required such that the amplitude after 5 oscillations is 10%
of the first peak?
(10%)
5) What is the peak force in the spring?
(20%)
(b) A cantilever riverside boardwalk has been opened to the public as shown in Figure Q.5(b); however, it was
found that the structure experiences significant human and trafficinduced vibrations. An harmonic
oscillation test found the natural frequency of the structure to be 2.25 Hz. It is proposed to retrofit braced
struts at 5m spacings so that the natural period of vibration will be 9 Hz given E = 200 kN/mm
2
and
ignoring buckling effects, what area of strut is required?
(40%)
Ans. (a) 2.756 Hz; 38.2 mm; 0.05 s; 99 kg.s/m;114.5 N; (b) 67.5 mm
2
.
FIG. Q.5(b)
A B
C
D
PIN
PROPOSED
STRUT
100 kg/m
2
m
k
FIG. Q.5(a)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 115
Sample Paper Semester 1 2006/7
5. (a) The singledegreeoffreedom system shown in Fig. Q5(a) is known to have a static deflection of 32.7
mm for an unknown mass.
(i) Find the natural frequency of the system;
(2 marks)
(ii) Given that the mass is 10 kg, find the peak displacement when the mass is given an initial
velocity of 500 mm/s and an initial displacement of 25 mm;
(2 marks)
(iii) At what time does the first positive peak occur?
(2 marks)
(iv) What damping ratio is required such that the amplitude after 5 oscillations is 10% of the first
peak?
(2 marks)
(v) What is the peak force in the spring?
(6 marks)
(b) The beam shown in Fig. Q5(b) is loaded with an air conditioning (AC) unit at its tip. The AC unit
produces an unbalanced force of 100 kg which varies sinusoidally. When the speed of the AC unit is
varied, it is found that the maximum steadystate deflection is 20.91 mm. Determine:
(i) The damping ratio;
(4 marks)
(ii) The maximum deflection when the units speed is 250 rpm;
(7 marks)
Take the following values:
EI = 110
6
kNm
2
;
Mass of the unit is 500 kg.
Ans. (a) 2.756 Hz; 38.2 mm; 0.05 s; 99 kg.s/m;114.5 N; (b) ??.
k
m
FIG. Q5(a)
A B
A.C.
UNIT
FIG. Q5(a)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 116
Semester 1 2006/7
5. (a) A simplysupported reinforced concrete beam, 300 mm wide 600 mm deep spans 8 m. Its
fundamental natural frequency is measured to be 6.5 Hz. In your opinion, is the beam cracked or
uncracked?
Use a single degreeoffreedom (SDOF) system to represent the deflection at the centre of the beam.
Assume that 8/15 of the total mass of the beam contributes to the SDOF model. Take the density of
reinforced concrete to be 24 kN/m
3
and E = 30 kN/mm
2
.
(10 marks)
(b) The beam shown in Fig. Q5(b) is loaded with an air conditioning (AC) unit at its tip. The AC unit
produces an unbalanced force of 200 kg which varies sinusoidally. When the speed of the AC unit is
varied, it is found that the maximum steadystate amplitude of vibration is 34.6 mm. Determine:
(i) The damping ratio;
(5 marks)
(ii) The maximum deflection when the units speed is 100 rpm;
(10 marks)
Take the following values:
EI = 4010
3
kNm
2
;
Mass of the unit is 2000 kg;
Ignore the mass of the beam.
Ans. (a) Cracked; (b) 5.1%; 41.1 mm.
k
m
FIG. Q5(a)
A B
A.C.
UNIT
FIG. Q5(b)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 117
Semester 1 2007/8
QUESTION 5
(a) For the frame shown in Fig. Q5, using a singledegreeoffreedom model, determine:
(i) The natural frequency and period in free vibration;
(ii) An expression for the displacement at time t if member BC is displaced 20 mm and suddenly released
at time t = 1 sec.
(8 marks)
(b) The frame is found to have 5% damping. Using appropriate approximations, what is the percentage change in
deflection, 4 cycles after the frame is released, of the damped behaviour compared to the undamped behaviour?
(10 marks)
(c) A machine is placed on member BC which has an unbalanced force of 500 kg which varies sinusoidally.
Neglecting the mass of the machine, determine:
(i) the maximum displacement when the units speed is 150 rpm;
(ii) the speed of the machine at resonance;
(iii) the displacement at resonance.
(7 marks)
Note:
Take the following values:
 EI = 2010
3
kNm
2
;
 M = 20 tonnes;
 Consider BC as infinitely rigid.
Ans.(a) 3.93 Hz; 0.254 s; 20cos[24.72(t1)], t>1; (b) Ratio: 28.4%, change: 71.6%;
(c) 0.67 mm; 236 rpm; 4.01 mm.
B
A
C
D
3EI
EI
M kg
FIG. Q5
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 118
Semester 1 2008/9
QUESTION 5
The structure shown in Fig. Q5 supports a scoreboard at a sports centre. The claxton (of total mass M) which sounds
the end of playing periods includes a motor which has an unbalanced mass of 100 kg which varies sinusoidally when
sounded. Using a singledegreeoffreedom model for vibrations in the vertical direction, and neglecting the mass of
the truss members, determine:
(i) the natural frequency and period in free vibration;
(ii) the damping, given that a test showed 5 cycles after a 10 mm initial displacement was imposed, the
amplitude was 5.30 mm;
(iii) the maximum displacement when the units speed is 1500 rpm;
(iv) the speed of the machine at resonance;
(v) the displacement at resonance.
(25 marks)
Note:
Take the following values:
 For all truss members:
3
20 10 kN EA= ;
 M = 5 tonnes;
 Ignore the stiffness and mass of member EF.
Ans. 4.9 Hz; 0.205 s; 2%; 0.008 mm; 293.2 rpm; 5.2 mm.
FIG. Q5
A
E
C
B
D
CLAXTON
F
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 119
Semester 1 2009/10
QUESTION 5
(a) A 3 m high, 6 m wide singlebay singlestorey frame is rigidly jointed with a beam of mass 2,000 kg and columns
of negligible mass and stiffness of
3 2
2.7 10 kNm EI = . Assuming the beam to be infinitely rigid, calculate the
natural frequency in lateral vibration and its period. Find the force required to deflect the frame 20 mm laterally.
(10 marks)
(b) A springmassdamper SDOF system is subject to a harmonically varying force. At resonance, the amplitude of
vibration is found to be 10 mm, and at 0.80 of the resonant frequency, the amplitude is found to be 5.07 mm.
Determine the damping of the system.
(15 marks)
Ans. 5.51 Hz, 48 kN.; 0.1.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 120
Semester 1 2010/11
QUESTION 5
(a) For the shear frame shown in Fig. Q5(a), ignoring the mass of the columns:
(i) How many modes will this structure have?
(ii) Sketch the mode shapes;
(iii) Indicate the order of the natural frequencies associated with each mode shape (i.e. lowest to highest).
(10 marks)
(b) For the frame shown in Fig. Q5(b), using a singledegreeoffreedom model, determine the natural frequency and
period in free vibration given that EI = 2710
3
kNm
2
and M = 24 tonnes. If a machine is placed on member BC
which has an unbalanced force of 500 kg varying sinusoidally, neglecting the mass of the machine, determine:
(i) the maximum displacement when the units speed is 360 rpm;
(ii) the speed of the machine at resonance;
(iii) the displacement at resonance.
(15 marks)
Ans. 0.34 mm, 426.6 rpm, 1.02 mm.
B
A
E
F
FIG. Q5(a)
C D
B
A
C
D
3EI EI
M kg
FIG. Q5(b)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 121
5.6.2 References
The following books/articles were referred to in the writing of these notes;
particularly Clough & Penzien (1993), Smith (1988) and Bolton (1978)  these should
be referred to first for more information. There is also a lot of information and
software available online; the software can especially help intuitive understanding.
The class notes of Mr. R. Mahony (D.I.T.) and Dr. P. Fanning (U.C.D.) were also
used.
 Archbold, P., (2002), Modal Analysis of a GRP CableStayed Bridge,
Proceedings of the First Symposium of Bridge Engineering Research In Ireland,
Eds. C. McNally & S. Brady, University College Dublin.
 Beards, C.F., (1983), Structural Vibration Analysis: modelling, analysis and
damping of vibrating structures, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.
 Bhatt, P., (1999), Structures, Longman, Harlow, England.
 Bolton, A., (1978), Natural frequencies of structures for designers, The
Structural Engineer, Vol. 56A, No. 9, pp. 245253; Discussion: Vol. 57A, No. 6,
p.202, 1979.
 Bolton, A., (1969), The natural frequencies of continuous beams, The Structural
Engineer, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp.233240.
 Case, J., Chilver, A.H. and Ross, C.T.F., (1999), Strength of Materials and
Structures, 4th edn., Arnold, London.
 Chopra, A.K., (2007), Dynamics of Structures Theory and Applications to
Earthquake Engineering, 3rd edn., PearsonPrentice Hall, New Jersey.
 Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J., (1993), Dynamics of Structures, 2nd edn., McGraw
Hill, New York.
 Cobb, F. (2004), Structural Engineers Pocket Book, Elsevier, Oxford.
 Craig, R.R., (1981), Structural Dynamics An introduction to computer methods,
Wiley, New York.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 122
 Ghali, A. and Neville, A.M., (1997), Structural Analysis A unified classical and
matrix approach, 4th edn., E&FN Spon, London.
 Irvine, M., (1986), Structural Dynamics for the Practising Engineer, Allen &
Unwin, London.
 Kreyszig, E., (1993), Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 7th edn., Wiley.
 Paz, M. and Leigh, W., (2004), Structural Dynamics Theory and Computation,
5th edn., Springer, New York.
 Smith, J.W., (1988), Vibration of Structures Applications in civil engineering
design, Chapman and Hall, London.
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 123
5.6.3 Amplitude Solution to Equation of Motion
The solution to the equation of motion is found to be in the form:
( )
cos sin u t A t B t e e = + (5.5.5)
However, we regularly wish to express it in one of the following forms:
( ) ( )
cos u t C t e o = + (5.5.6)
( ) ( )
cos u t C t e  = (5.5.7)
Where
2 2
C A B = + (5.5.8)
tan
A
B
o = (5.5.9)
tan
B
A
 = (5.5.10)
To arrive at this result, rewrite equation (5.5.5) as:
( )
cos sin
A B
u t C t t
C C
e e
(
= +
(
(5.5.11)
If we consider that A, B and C represent a rightangled triangle with angles o and  ,
then we can draw the following:
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 124
Thus:
sin cos
A
C
o  = = (5.5.12)
cos sin
B
C
o  = = (5.5.13)
Introducing these into equation (5.5.11) gives two relationships:
( )  
sin cos cos sin u t C t t o e o e = + (5.5.14)
( )  
cos cos sin sin u t C t t  e  e = + (5.5.15)
And using the wellknown trigonometric identities:
( )
sin sin cos cos sin X Y X Y X Y + = + (5.5.16)
( )
cos cos cos sin sin X Y X Y X Y = + (5.5.17)
Gives the two possible representations, the last of which is the one we adopt:
( ) ( )
sin u t C t e o = + (5.5.18)
( ) ( )
cos u t C t e  = (5.5.19)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 125
5.6.4 Solutions to Differential Equations
The Homogenous Equation
To find the solution of:
2
2
2
0
d y
k y
dx
+ = (5.5.20)
we try
x
y e
= (note that this k has nothing to do with stiffness but is the conventional
mathematical notation for this problem). Thus we have:
2
2
2
;
x x
dy d y
e e
dx dx
= =
Substituting this into (5.5.20) gives:
2 2
0
x x
e k e
+ =
And so we get the characteristic equation by dividing out
x
e
:
2 2
0 k + =
From which:
2
k =
Or,
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 126
1 2
; ik ik = + =
Where 1 i = . Since these are both solutions, they are both valid and the expression
for y becomes:
1 2
ikx ikx
y Ae Ae
= + (5.5.21)
In which
1
A and
2
A are constants to be determined from the initial conditions of the
problem. Introducing Eulers equations:
cos sin
cos sin
ikx
ikx
e kx i kx
e kx i kx
= +
=
(5.5.22)
into (5.5.21) gives us:
( ) ( )
1 2
cos sin cos sin y A kx i kx A kx i kx = + +
Collecting terms:
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
cos sin y A A kx iA iA kx = + +
Since the coefficients of the trigonometric functions are constants we can just write:
cos sin y A kx B kx = + (5.5.23)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 127
The Nonhomogenous Equation
Starting with equation (5.2.47) (repeated here for convenience):
0
( ) ( ) ( ) sin mu t cu t ku t F t + + = O (5.5.24)
We divide by m and introduce equations (5.2.10) and (5.2.12) to get:
2
0
( ) 2 ( ) ( ) sin
F
u t u t u t t
m
e e + + = O (5.5.25)
At this point, recall that the solution to nonhomogenous differential equations is
made up of two parts:
 The complimentary solution ( ( )
C
u t ): this is the solution to the corresponding
homogenous equation, which we already have (equation (5.5.23));
 The particular solution ( ( )
P
u t ): particular to the function on the right hand side
of equation (5.5.24), which we must now find.
The final solution is the sum of the complimentary and particular solutions:
( ) ( ) ( )
C P
u t u t u t = + (5.5.26)
For the particular solution we try the following:
( )
sin cos
P
u t C t D t = O + O (5.5.27)
Then we have:
( )
cos sin
P
u t C t D t = O O O O (5.5.28)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 128
And
( )
2 2
sin cos
P
u t C t D t = O O O O (5.5.29)
Substituting equations (5.5.27), (5.5.28) and (5.5.29) into equation (5.5.25) gives:
 
 
2 2
2
0
sin cos
2 cos sin
sin cos sin
C t D t
C t D t
F
C t D t t
m
e
e
O O O O (
+ O O O O
+ O + O = O
(5.5.30)
Collecting sine and cosine terms:
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
0
2 sin
2 cos sin
C D t
F
C D t t
m
e e
e e
( O O O
( + O + O O = O
(5.5.31)
For this to be valid for all t, the sine and cosine terms on both sides of the equation
must be equal. Thus:
( )
2 2
0
2
F
C D
m
e e O O = (5.5.32)
( )
2 2
2 0 C D e e O + O = (5.5.33)
Next, divide both sides by
2
e :
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 129
2
0
2 2
1 2
F
C D
m
e e e
O O  
=

\ .
(5.5.34)
2
2
2 1 0 C D
e e
O O  
+ =

\ .
(5.5.35)
Introduce the frequency ratio, equation (5.2.51),  e = O , and
2
k m e = from
equation (5.2.9) to get:
( )
2
0
1 2
F
C D
k
  = (5.5.36)
( )
2
2 1 0 C D   + = (5.5.37)
From equation (5.5.37), we have:
( )
2
1
2
C D


= (5.5.38)
And using this in equation (5.5.36) gives:
( )
2
2
0
1
2
2
F
D
k



(
= (
(
(5.5.39)
To get:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
1 2
2
F
D
k
 

(
+
= (
(
(5.5.40)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 130
And rearrange to get, finally:
( ) ( )
0
2 2
2
2
1 2
F
D
k

 
=
+
(5.5.41)
Now using this with equation (5.5.38), we have:
( )
( ) ( )
2
0
2 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
F
C
k



 
(
= (
+ (
(5.5.42)
To get, finally:
( )
( ) ( )
2
0
2 2
2
1
1 2
F
C
k

 
=
+
(5.5.43)
Again we use the cosine addition rule:
2 2
C D = + (5.5.44)
tan
D
C
u = (5.5.45)
To express the solution as:
( ) ( ) sin
P
u t t u = O (5.5.46)
So we have, from equations (5.5.44), (5.5.43) and (5.5.41):
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 131
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
2 2 2 2
2 2
1
2
1 2 1 2
F
k


   
( (
( ( = +
+ + ( (
(5.5.47)
This simplifies to:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
0
2
2 2
2
1 2
1 2
F
k
 
 
+
=
(
+
(5.5.48)
And finally we have the amplitude of displacement:
( ) ( )
1
2 2
2
2
0
1 2
F
k
 
(
= +
(5.5.49)
To obtain the phase angle, we use equation (5.5.45) with equations (5.5.43) and
(5.5.41) again to get:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
0
2 2
2
2
0
2 2
2
2
1 2
tan
1
1 2
F
k
F
k

 
u

 
+
=
+
(5.5.50)
Immediately we see that several terms (and the minus signs) cancel to give:
2
2
tan
1

u

=
(5.5.51)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 132
Thus we have the final particular solution of equation (5.5.46) in conjunction with
equations (5.5.49) and (5.5.51).
As referred to previously, the total solution is the sum of the particular and
complimentary solutions, which for us now becomes:
( ) ( ) ( )
C P
u t u t u t = + (5.5.52)
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin sin
t
d d
u t e A t B t t
e
e e u
= + + O (5.5.53)
Notice here that we used equation (5.2.35) since we have redefined the amplitude and
phase in terms of the forcing function. To determine the unknown constants from the
initial parameters,
0
u and
0
u we differentiate equation (5.5.53) to get:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin cos
t
d d d d
u t e B A t A B t t
e
e e e e e e u
= + +O O (
(5.5.54)
Now at 0 t = , we have from equations (5.5.53) and (5.5.54):
( )
0
0 sin u u A u = = (5.5.55)
And:
( ) ( )
0
0 cos
d
u u B A e e u = = +O (5.5.56)
Solving for A first from equation (5.5.55) gives:
0
sin A u u = + (5.5.57)
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 133
And introducing this into equation (5.5.56) gives:
( )
0 0
sin cos
d
u B u e u e u = + +O (5.5.58)
Multiplying out and rearranging gives:
( )
0 0
cos sin
d
u B u e e u e u = + O (5.5.59)
From which we get:
( )
0 0
cos sin
d
u u
B
e u e u
e
+ O
= (5.5.60)
And now we have completely defined the time history of the problem in terms of its
initial parameters.
Remember that:
 The complimentary solution ( ( )
C
u t ): represents the transient state of the system
which dampens out after a period of time, as may be realized when it is seen that
it is only the complementary response that is affected by the initial state (
0
u and
0
u ) of the system, in addition to the exponentially reducing term in equation
(5.5.53);
 The particular solution ( ( )
P
u t ): represents the steady state of the system which
persists as long as the harmonic force is applied, as again may be seen from
equation (5.5.53).
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 134
5.6.5 Important Formulae
SDOF Systems
Fundamental equation of motion
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) mu t cu t ku t F t + + =
Equation of motion for free vibration
2
( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 0 u t u t u t e e + + =
Relationship between frequency, circular
frequency, period, stiffness and mass:
Fundamental frequency for an SDOF system.
1 1
2 2
k
f
T m
e
t t
= = =
Coefficient of damping 2
c
m
e =
Circular frequency
2
k
m
e =
Damping ratio
cr
c
c
=
Critical value of damping
2 2
cr
c m km e = =
General solution for freeundamped vibration
( ) ( ) cos u t t e u =
2
2
0
0
;
u
u
e
 
= +

\ .
0
0
tan
u
u
u
e
=
Damped circular frequency, period and
frequency
2
1
d
e e =
2
;
d
d
T
t
e
=
2
d
d
f
e
t
=
General solution for freedamped vibrations
( ) ( ) cos
t
d
u t e t
e
e u
=
2
2
0 0
0
;
d
u u
u
e
e
  +
= +

\ .
0 0
0
tan
d
u u
u
e
u
e
+
=
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 135
Logarithmic decrement of damping
ln 2
n
n m d
u
m
u
e
o t
e
+
= =
Halfamplitude method
0.11
m
~ when 0.5
n m n
u u
+
=
Amplitude after pcycles
1
p
n
n p n
n
u
u u
u
+
+
 
=

\ .
Equation of motion for forced response
(sinusoidal)
0
( ) ( ) ( ) sin mu t cu t ku t F t + + = O
General solution for forceddamped vibration
response and frequency ratio
( ) ( ) sin
p
u t t u = O
( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2
0
1 2 ;
F
k
 
(
= +
2
2
tan
1

u

=

e
O
=
Dynamic amplification factor (DAF)
( ) ( )
1 2
2 2
2
DAF 1 2 D  
(
= +
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Dr. C. Caprani 136
MDOF Systems
Fundamental equation of
motion
Mu+Cu+Ku =F
Equation of motion for
undampedfree vibration
Mu+Ku = 0
General solution and derivates
for freeundamped vibration
( ) sin t e  + u = a
( )
2 2
sin t e e  e + = u = a u
Frequency equation
2
e (
K M a = 0
General solution for 2DOF
system
1 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
0 0
m u k k k u
m u k k u
+
( (
+ =
` ` `
( (
) ) )
Determinant of 2DOF system
from Cramers rule
( )
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2 2
0 k k m k m k e e e + = ( (
K M =
Composite matrix
2
e = (
E K M
Amplitude equation Ea = 0
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 137
Continuous Structures
Equation of motion
Assumed solution for free
undamped vibrations
General solution
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
3 4
sin cos
sinh cosh
x A x A x
A x A x
 o o
o o
= +
+ +
Boundary conditions for a simply
supported beam
( ) ( )
2
2
0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t EI t
x
c
= =
c
( ) ( )
2
2
, 0 and , 0
v
v L t EI L t
x
c
= =
c
Frequencies of a simply
supported beam
2
n
n EI
L m
t
e
 
=

\ .
Mode shape or mode n: (A
1
is
normally unity)
( )
1
sin
n
n x
x A
L
t

 
=

\ .
Cantilever beam boundary
conditions
( ) ( ) 0, 0 and 0, 0
v
v t t
x
c
= =
c
( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
, 0 and , 0
v v
EI L t EI L t
x x
c c
= =
c c
Frequency equation for a
cantilever
cos( )cosh( ) 1 0 L L o o + =
Cantilever mode shapes ( )
( )
1
sin( ) sinh( )
sin( ) sinh( )
cos( ) cosh( )
cosh( ) cos( )
n
x x
L L
x A
L L
x x
o o
o o

o o
o o
(
+
(
+
(
=
(
+
(
(
Bolton method general equation
1
2
E
E
K
f
M t
=
( ) ( )
( )
4 2
4 2
, ,
,
v x t v x t
EI m p x t
x t
c c
+ =
c c
( ) ( ) ( ) , v x t x Y t  =
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 138
Practical Design
Peak acceleration under footloading
( )
0
0.9 2
I
a f
M
t =
70 Ns I ~
40% mass per unit area M ~
Maximum dynamic deflection
max st
u u K =
Maximum vertical acceleration
2
max max
u u e =
BD37/01 requirement for vertical acceleration 0.5 f
Structural Analysis IV Chapter 5 Structural Dynamics
Dr. C. Caprani 139
5.6.6 Glossary
Structural dynamics introduces many new terms and concepts so its beneficial to
keep track of them in one place. Fill this out as you progress through the notes.
Symbol Name Units