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GLYCOLYSIS & TCA CYCLE-

SHUTTLES

GLUCOSE
ATP
ADP
Glucose-6-P

Fructose-6- P
ATP
ADP
Fructose-1,6-bis- P
Glycerone-3- P
(Di-OH-acetone- P)
2 3-P-Glyceraldehyde
2NAD
2 Pi
2 NADH+H+
2 1,3-bis-P-Glycerate 2 ADP
2 ATP
2 3-P-Glycerate

2 2-P-Glycerate
2H2O
2 P-enolpyruvate 2 ADP
2 ATP
2 PYRUVATE
NADH+H+

NAD+
PYRUVATE

-OOCCH(OH)CH COO- -OOCCH(OH)CH COO-


2 2
ACETYL-CoA Malate Malate
-OOCCOCH COO-
2
Oxaloacetate

MALATE-ASPARTATE
Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate
2-Oxoglutarate

SHUTTLE
Citrate 2-Oxoglutarate
Malate
Aspartate Aspartate
NADH+H++
Isocitrate 1H+ 1H+
Glutamate Glutamate
Fumarate NAD+

GLYCEROL PHOSPHATE
2-Oxoglutarate HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OP

SHUTTLE
FADH2 FAD FAD Glycerol-3-P
H H HOCH2COCH2OP
OOCCH-CHCOO- Di-OH-acetone-P
UQ Succinate Succinyl-CoA FADH2
UQH2 Pi
2H+
GDP UQH2 UQ
2e- GTP
2H+
~1.5 ATP
~1.5ATP
2e-

Malate-Aspartate Shuttle Operates when the NADH/NAD ratio is greater in the cytosol than in
the mitochondrial matrix. Electrons are transferred from cytosolic NADH via malate acoss the
the mitochondrial inner membrane and re-forms NADH in the matrix. This shuttle requires the
translocation of 1proton for each malate
Glycerol-phosphate Shuttle Operates if low ratio NADH/NAD in the cytosol - but at a cost.
Electrons are transferred (via FAD) to ubiquinone at the outer surface of the mitochondrial inner
membrane to give ubiquinol which remains in the membrane and feeds into the Electron
Transport Chain and forms ATP. This is a pathway similar to that in which succinate is aerobically
oxidised and they each result in the formation of approximately 1.5 mols of ATP