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Chapter 1 : AUTOMATION SYSTEM

1) CLASSIFICATION

Now a days a lot of control systems lead to Automation Control System . =Where wherever we go , we are surrounded by such systems in the home , on the street , in the vehicles and in buildings . =In the industrial sector , this Automation Control System very necessary because it can improve the quality and increase the productivity. =Arguably, this automation control system greatly influenced the way future life .

1.1 ) REQUIREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION CONTROL SYSTEM


=Automation Control System is a system that is capable of controlling a process with minimal human assistance or without manually. -=And have the ability to start , adjust , act show or measure the variables in the process and stop the process in order to get the desired output . =The main purpose of Automation Control System used in the industry is to increase productivity in terms of : Increase the quantity of the products . Improve the quality of the product . Controlling costs .

1.2) CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMATION CONTROL SYSTEM


Automation Control System can be classified into two (2) divisions:

a) Automation Equipment (Fixed Automation / Hard-Wire Control)

=The control system is designed to perform a specific task. circuit function control is
fixed and permanent. =Work will be complicated if we want to do other work besides the already existing work on control systems this kind.

b) Flexible Automation / Programmable Control System


=Flexible Automation / Programmable Control System is complex that can perform various tasks. =Function control circuit programmed by the user and can be modified. =When the task to be performed by the machine turns, changes should only done by making changes on the machine control program said.

1.3) COMPARISON BETWEEN FIXED WITH AUTOMATION AND AUTOMATION CAN PROGRAMME
AUTOMATION FIXED AUTOMATION CAN PROGRAMME

Use facilities changes / improvements maintenance ability Speed Efficiency in terms of economy

Specific Difficuit

Various Easy

Easy Depending on the design and manufacture Fast Suitable for the small systems

Difficuit So high Slow Suitable for all type of system

example 1.3.1 Permanent control

Programmable Control

example 1.3.2 Permanent control

Programmable Control

1.4) TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEM


There are THREE (3) types of control systems based on the source of supply. Systems are as follows: i. Pneumatic control system. ii. Hydraulic control system. iii. Electrical control system.

1.5) PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM


=Pneumatic control system is a system that uses air in compress to produce force / energy to do work. =System pneumatic many found in industrial systems such as the food industry, and petrochemical industries using robotics. =Generally pneumatic system require : i. Compressed air supply ii. control valve iii. connecting tube iv. Transducer Pneumatic control system can be controlled manually and automatically. Systems. This can be represented by a basic block diagram in Figure 1.5A and Figure 1.5B.

human

filter

compressor

valve control

tubes link

signal output

Figure 1.5a: basic block diagram of the pneumatic control system manually

Plc

filter

compressor

valve control

tubes link

signal output Figure 1.5B: basic block diagram of the pneumatic control system automatically using PLC

=Pneumatic control system can be controlled manually and automatically. =Hydraulic control system is a system that uses a fluid to a force / energy to do work. =Many hydraulic systems use in the automobile industry such as power systems, braking systems, cranes, car jack, satellite and so on. =Commonly used fluid is oil. Generally hydraulic system requires:

i. Supply Hydraulic Fluid ii. control valve iii. cylinder =Hydraulic control system can be controlled manually and automatically.

The hydraulic control system can be controlled manually and automatically. These systems can be represented by a basic block diagram in Figure 1.6a and Figure 1.6b.

Figure 1.6a: Block diagram of a hydraulic control system manually

Figure 1.6b: Block diagram of a hydraulic control system automatically using PLC

1.7 )ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM


Electrical control system is a control system that uses current electricity either direct current (DC) or alternating current (ac) as a source supply. Electrical Control System generally requires: i. Power supply (AT) or (AU) ii. Input elements (switches, sensors, transducers, valve, componentelectronic components, etc.) iii. Output elements (motors, lights, etc.) iv. extension cord

Electrical control system can be controlled manually and automatically. Electrical Control System can be controlled manually and automatically. The systems can be represented by a basic block diagram in Figure 1.7a and Figure 1.7b.

Figure 1.7a: circuit electrical control systems manually

Figure 1.7b: Block diagram of electrical control system automatically using PLC

1.8) COMPARISON BETWEEN PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM, SYSTEM

HYDRAULIC CONTROL AND ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Pneumatic control system easy installation system. Design simple systems. Using compressed air as a source of supply to do the job.

Hydraulic control system System installation is complicated. Using a fluid such as oil as a source of supply to do job. If the leak will cause impurities.

Electrical control system The system is easy. Using electricity as a source of supply to do the job. Extensive use. 2.0) TERMINOLOGY -The control system is one of the engineering disciplines . each engineering disciplines have terminology - terminology that own. -Such is the case with the control system . -Thus, in the unit you will be exposed to some of the key terminology used during the learning control system .

2.1) CONTROL SYSTEM -The control system is the components connected to the system or process to be controlled . Basic components of the control system can be divided into five parts: ( i ) the reference signal generator (input / point set ) / signal input / ( ii ) measuring element . ( iii ) Comparator . ( iv ) Controller. ( v) The Actuators . ( vi ) the controlled system ( control system )

2.2 INPUT REFERENCE -Reference input signal is provided at the input of a system such as temperature , pressure , level and so on . Its value is fixed .

2.3 CONTROLLED variable -Controlled variables are controlled signal or variable in products such as the temperature , pressure , level and so on . The value can be changed. 2.4 INTERFERENCE -Harassment is a disturbing element in a control signal control system. Interference can result either from within or outside the system itself. 2.5 ELEMENTS feedback -The feedback element is a function to send an output signal to compared with the input signal by Comparator elements / aggregator in a closed loop system.

2.6 CONTROL SYSTEM OPEN RING -Open loop control system is a type of control system where issue does not affect the action of the control functions of the system. This system can be represented by the block diagram in Figure 2.6 below. Signal reference guard driving

The output signal

The system to be controlled

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of open-loop control system 2.6.1 Examples of Open Loop Control System -The system is controlled by a timer (timer) usually is an open-loop system, eg street lighting. -This lamps will go on at a certain time (at night) and then will be erased the next day (daytime). -Period between time goes on and the time set by the timer (timer). The block diagram for the above example is shown in Figure 2.6.1. Signal reference ( Action set the timer ) guard ( Timer) driving (Relay )

The output signal (Lights ON @ OFF)

The system to be controlled

Figure 2.6.1: Block diagram of traffic lights (open-loop)

2.7 Closed-loop control system -Closed-loop control system is also known as a feedback control system. -The output of this will influence the actions of system control functions said. -Such a system can be represented by the block diagram in Figure 2.7 in bottom.

Checklists
Signal reference The system Elements mEASUREMENT guard driving

TO BE
controlled

The output signal

Figure 2.7: Block diagram of the control system

2.7.1 Sample Loop Control System Close -The system uses sensors (sensor) as the input element is normally closed-loop system. -Take the example of the same of street lighting. - This type of lamp goes on and off on its own when the light sensor detects the brightness, without taking into account the particular period.

If the dark situation happen on during the day, street lights will flash. This is not true open loop control system. Figure 2.7.1 below describe examples described.

Signal reference ( brightness light)

guard

driving (Relay )

The system to be controlled (lamp )

Elements mEASUREMENT ( The light sensor ) The output signal ( brightness light)

Figure 2.7.1: Block diagram of street lighting (closed loop)

2.8 COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM -Computerized control system is a control system that uses a computer as the controller. -The system can be represented by the block diagram as shown in Figure 2.8 below.

Computer Signal reference guard driving

The system to be controlle

Elements mEASUREMENT The output signal

Figure 2.8: Block diagram of a computerized control system

2.9 COMPARISON BETWEEN open loop SYSTEMS WITH close loop system Open Loop System The construction is simple. Accuracy depends on the calibration of the elements. Not so experienced instability problems. Not able to reduce the effects of nonlinearity.

Closed Loop System The construction is complicated. The system is very accurate. Having problems of instability. nonlinear effects can be minimized.