Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

(

Wol

fgang

Decker

SAK

die lVahrscheinvorf iegen' erhht natitrlich verschieclene Beweisstrnge r


' lichkeit unserer'These betrchtlich?

den vordergrndigen zu zeigen, da sich hinter loser Es karn uns darauf an, Anenophis' II" der in

fr sportlichen Sinngehalt der Sfninx-Stele zur Qualifikation ihres stifters als die Forrn mit al-lgerneinen ;tt;'"; sein schi-en' Elenente verbergen' dem Gedas Knigsant uetbu"d"" zu des der Knigskrnung (oder wesentliche Statlonen in Ritual Formen starren Die sind' verankert halte nach gleichen Sedfestes)
" sportr.

PERIOD} THE KHAT HEADDRESS TO THE END OF THE AMAP."'IA von

icher"

ni

unseuohnter "ritterrj aktualisiert ;::'.1: den Zeitgeist entsprechend Zug das Leben vernderte' Ritual der Krdas Lebensgefhls ist auch

t'''"r"l ai: o-":"tt: l'

i,l'li: :i:"il" ;"iff:":";11'lin'"

-i::r:i:l::t:.::l::i:i:r:Tl cher"

Marianne Eaton-Krau

uorden. In Zuge d"' "t""t erhielt' untr' Knig seine Legitimation nung, innerhalb dessen der worden' InwreKanons nodernisiert Bercksichtigung des berlieferten der KnigsVerlauf bei den in ueit die sportlichen Demonstrationen .wirklich durchgefhrt wurilen' 1t sich Bedeu: krnung vollzogenen Ritualen entscheiden' Von entscheidender Si'ctrertrei-t nit nicht Krvon natrlich Unfeld da Gedankengut aus dern Nach'eis' der jedoch zu ist tung sportlichen Gehalt der Sphinx-Ste1e nungsritual und Sedfest den
Grunde

excavations which carne to the Metropolitan Museum of Art fron Petrie's DepartEgyptian the el-Amarnal' Tell Aten, at the Great Ternple of the the Although Akhenaten2' of heads fragnentary acquired five ment also

Inadditiontothetwonasterfullycarvedfragrnentarylinestonetolsos

das sich in verdas sportliche Elernent, Mit dieser Feststerlung erhrt als wesentlich eragyptische Knigtun bereits schiedener Forrn fr dal Ritual der Akzentuierung. Denn das wiesen hatte, erne noch strkere Leben und Gedas voraussetzung fr Knigskrnung war die unabdingbare von den athund Natur' die nithin deihen der gyptrschen Gesellschaft abhngig waren' stark letischen Fhigkeiten Pharaos

liegt'

forns of the king's face in each case had been severely darnaged' the l''brn by the king royal headgeat are preserved' Two of the headdresses arefamiliarelenentSofroyaliconographyinEgyptianSculptule:the falling forlard nemes", a pteated (or striped) headcloth with lappets

the Lexikon der AgypAbbreviations used in this article are lhose adoPted for XxvII' VI 1972' l, I, Lieferung Bdsee tologie: r. staehelin, an6 M' Seidel for reading I would like to ttant n.. iis"i..' mny. suggestions for its improvement' offering and study of rhis drafts early rrr' l93o' 8l-

71

t::1,:::

[lil'5,lll.';'lii"il;"'i]"lliiiifii:ili'il:iiii.f;lil :Tffi; li:i;:,:ll;;l;:m:;;"*"'"-'".1-;lilttr:";Li':::':""*:?:'ll'".stele Thutnosis' Iv' hre


crs, cort-Knig-Reden
Stuttgart/Berlln/Koi Alten und Neuen Testdent 6) Seite kurz angesProchen ast' l""i"ai"-tn..tliche

'l i"'"'i'""a ;iqlntil t3:i:;i::":"irll"'illli'i'""'

in: MMS iltti"*t' 21.9.3 (Akhenaten) ." i.g'c i*tittiri)t Neu York 1973' 93' 106' Nefertiti' and eti"t"t"t Aldred, Cyril cf' 99; ia6' rot addiiional data see cat' No' 36'Mentioned by Hayes, t""pi"t-ii' order through Dynasty The appended catalogue comprises in chronological whose costume includes XVIII extant royal statues (or representations thereof) to include all published rhekhat headdress. eranotgh an eifort has been mde that sore pieces have been unintentionally examples' it is to l".tp"Iita from consideraomitted. (Anthropoid .or?it" and shawabty; have been excluded tion - see further below, note 59') nemesz Evers' staat The reader is referred a at'" "t"ti"td discussion of tlr.e
MMA

rr,s30-lol.

(
Marianne Eaton-Krau
SAK
5

197 7

The khat headdress

lil

i'
l

[,
lr t

and the chest with a queue behind' is over the shoulders and onto the headdress third o! "war helnet"' The khepresha, the "blue crown" Variousround' the in in sculpture in nuch less frequently encountereil which holds the hair loosely hoocl of *"'U as ""' to described ly " or a soft kerchief'e it seens a bag,"t, a bag wig, a wig cover'" in contrast to both his pretlecessors have been favored by Akhenaten and successorse ' granite is best seen in the fragnentary The forn of the headdressro general' of Khendjer' Saqqarail' In statuette frotn the pyranid precinct rectangular the nenea: both are essentially the headdres, t"'"tbi"' band rhich attached an by fast xnade at kerchiefs laicl across the forehead' together excess rnateriaL gathered passes behind the ears' with the disnornally both headdresses the nape of the ""tt' Rt the forehead' the royal regaliar2' The nenes' of part play the uraeus as an essential in front the two corners of the cloth howevet, always has lappets; donning ilhen to rest upon the chestlt' over fall forward over the shouldeTs back corners threw the forward the the bag-li'ke kerchief' the wearer of Because band' gp under the tied or the shoulders and tucked thet[ more a shows view of lhe nemea presence of the lappets' a profile sane line the ear to the shoulder; the 1e5s perpendicular line from
I

ffi
.iii

or dein representations of the bag-like kerchief is either rounded drawn cidedly skew, forming an acute angle with an irnaginary line between paral1e1 to the chin of the figure'{' Additional differences as sunmarized be the manner of representing the two headdresses nay bagthe follows: the nemes i's regularly shown pleated or stripedr5; bound like kerchief, never. The excess naterial of the nenes is kerbag-like the queue while tightly together at the back to form a indicated sonetines are chief has a broad flap. The folds of the flap by vertical or radiating lines' [h3'tf For nany years the bag-like kerchief has been designated khat ltas fcln't) afnet tern the Recently in Egyptological literaturel-' coneintouse,".ThelatterwordoccurssporadicallyfrontheOldKingby a dcterninatve redom through the graeco-rornan period, accompanied the oldest producing in varying foln the appearance of a kerchieft"' In uord the goddess: nother the by worn is textual references the cfnet thc reof part a as and cowle sn3'l the of occurs in the description appcar kings three the Westcar' Paptrus In snake2o. galia of |he Hut.t the New Kingat birth wearing the afnet made of lapis lazuli2r' During is perhaps dorn, the word occurs in the Book of the Dead where it besttranslated''headcovering''or''veiI''ratherthanspecifically "kerchief."22InatextatDeirel-Bahari,afnetisemployedinjxtin deaposition to the white crownt"' Lt late texts the word occurs signations of both Isis2u and Hathor2s'
by a repreThis basic difference betueen the tvo headdresses is illustrated etsentation in relief showing both wom simultaneously - Naville' Deir Bahari, pl. XxI - or is this a drauing error? by incised reproduced in relief repiesentations of the ranas rf.rairg'tot - tr' Bonnet' in: zs 54' 1918' 83' lines was presumably.."a.."-i"-ptitt (Bonnet and BorA1l authors cited above in notes i' O, a and lo used khat' T- Martin' The Geoffrey .t.rat r."a Fb.t). Cf., in more recent literature' Russmann' The Representanoy"f fo.u.i t-'e."tt I, London lg74' ]9 and E' 70' tion of the Kiog in tne xXVth Dynasty' Brussels-Brooklyn 1974' 27' in the Quaegebeur' i., Rgne du !"l.ii, ;:;.,-i.;;;.ak.i, lol,-gut.conpare change in terminology sa'prrrlicatio., ta8, "io-t""" "afnei (ot ktnl)'" The recent publications is to be traced to the usage of afnet by Aldred in his passin' In an concerning the Amarna p.riJd - e'g', Akhenaten and Nefertiti' Aldred had earlier study involving tt. t..aait"s (in: JEA 39' 1953' 48-9) for the substltutlon used khat. ('So also i.i Jse 47, 1961, 43)' No explanation following disof afnet for khat i" e'ti.t it"iti"a in the-recent publications' - The in and !3.t is based primarilv uPon mv research housed in the.AkaSprache' """"'rrr"ri"in"'rrtt; gyptischen der woit".Utlh tft" files of the slip l,,l' F' Reineke demie der wissenschaften, Berlin rast' i-would like to thank re during assisted who A' Burkhardt and files the consult re to pemitted sho lJbZ' ry tisits. References obtained from the slip files are desiganted

see Beckerath, Terrace,


6
a 9

ic,,irr,.'"r"1.1::',.".:l:.::'lt;:"I'::'ill",, in: Eduard ' r'


13 : "la perruque en doubr'e T:::.'il:::"?i?: JEA 39, l9s3' 48'

in: 2' Zuischenzeit' 67-8 an<t Mller'

ZS

80' 1955' 47-50'

rreasures or the cairo

bourse.''
!6

eii"a,-;",

HaYes, ScePter

il'31'ill; ltl"r$:ri':i"i::::*:?i{:;1,?ll. T?:"ill:';,::;"::,::i: as weII as in sculptur:'ii il"-I:1lo"ii tt statues.of

11,97'

10

klnt in relief ot-the-kh1l.1l,i";"^;:;;-in'mind that the nur relativelv frequent occurrence Nr' 7 - 20' rt rs werr p'a't'of Pra( ;;;;;;;;;; "" ti"e, cat' drii.g exceeds that ot "=.-."u'-ih't to tha. Amarna period extant *rrr..a" of ber hilltlY:"."itt'"""rt'.ther epoch of Egvptian LeipziB l9tl, 6-8; r'rinle Knrg.rn .^is, t"'i'o"or'J0""r""", i""'r-"t".'.n..at, oLt PortrrkoPf der ,"""' y::n"H'?.Ti,l%-T, lock, in: BMMA r |, rs'0,'ili'i": zAJ'"i..".ii;" rn: Bonnet' of the headdress' as ii"i.i, ll"t York 1916, 42-4): in detail.the.cons d,objets, 3-g, have oescribed upon its origin and "iglittlil"ives front' side and back ;.ii';" -;';;;8-=;;t' No' 'r"o*.tuant'-o' Hornenn' rvPes'
place of the views' . r - r:1,^ u--.hief o: the vulture in kerchief of For Ehe occurrence uPon the bag:like

17

12

t3

io tt'" :'I:i'::::,::::'il:'$^"1#il!l'r1' "' *::":;.";:;:'::'.:::;'3:i cardln the shoulders of the king: see
;;;r;i;g

(
?,4

(
SAK
5

Marianne Eaton

(rau

197 7

The khat headdress

z5

only during the Middle Kingraret word' being attested to Middl-e U3.t is a nuch give onry two references, both don.6. The l{b Beregsterren represenwith the word occuts in connection reKingcton coffins where headdress a of A third exarnple tations in the ftieze of objects2T' designation the by and acconpaniecl presented in the lrieze of objects headrr' "1tn lill-lhe h3.t occurs in the t"'O'"-"i "oi-cnht!'f!'"' discussion2e' under to that t"r, t"pr"sented is clearly analogous while afnet seems clearly specific' so is khat Because the reference here3o' fo.r"r designation is used to be a nuch nore general term, the
1S

The representational evidence indicates that the khat is the pendant of the nemes. In three of the five exanples known to ne of khats depic'

ted in the frieze of objects, the headdress apPears beside the nemes31. Two naoi of Anenenhet III support this contention3z. The cornplernentary relationship of the two heacldresses is evident in the tno statues of Tutankhamun l'hich stood before the entrance to his sarcophagus chanber33. The statues differ with respect to the headcovering: one wears the nenea, the other, the khats). The same situation obtains for the pair.of sinilar statues recovered frorn the tonb of Ranses I.33 Horenhab too possessed such a pair of wooden "sentinels"3". The better preserved statue originalJ'y wore the khat3a '

The

deteminative shows considerable ces, in the Pyranid'"*tt"i"""'i"ither'

amng the earliest'occurenvariation e8en wrtn below)' -fn't nay also occur conpare tbe coments of Mace - Winlock, Senebtisi, 43 note 4 with respect to the "gol<t" nenps. - The reddish color of thie klnt and kilt of cG 42197 does not rpresent the original.ly intended aPPearance of the statuette' These areas ,"." or." covered vit gold foil (see Legrain, Statues et statuertes IIl, 6), The alternation of red and yellow for-the kerchiefs (and skirts) wom..by four girls in the funerary pro.es"io. of Rc-msi (Lange and Hirer,--g5rpten*, P1'

19

20
21

348: Pepv , t. mst siqly sithout determinative' i"i 359-60;-l:pl tr 177-8; chptr' Hbz: Pvramid rexts chptr: ;il 42o: Pepv rr-8o2-3' xt-t:, chPtr' l"iitt""ol-tiII 1387-8' BerIin gJbZ: Pyranid Texts-chPLr- 453: Pepy Die l{rchen des Papyrus Westcar, Eman' Adorr 24-2i' ir'g:izl-ii-io. ..*ti

I8eo, 62 understood

fr:i'ijkx iitiji::iil"t**r-tri:::!.'il';Ki"'ij:,":: "afnet of laprs lazurr - rtarly instrucrive in Lhis of_lapis lazuli"' ";;;;"i;"-;;lair o. a rrasnen,ary il:'". ;:; p-tl*'l l:i..:*:.i,1:,;,':;3' .llf il;;i"a E' Newberrv''rhe connection is rhe conctu Howard c"titt-l Percv
ToBb

"t'*i"i"

"-g""'"r :::;::i:i::";"i"$'li

;l);t' ;j*;n: ::*"

r.]ir."i"-.'rsoa,.45 and.pl. of rhourmsis ru,'u'i xo"ig i"t "o"'"t'Jt "Nehnt [eure] nn"t au,=el"'-iti tf are the glorified aeaa *'J-a'e entitred lo-Y"1'
r

shasabtv of rhutrcsis

ii"i--

- "u. further bllc) proUatly exerylifies "dissioilation". ?or this conFiseher, in: JARCE 2, 1963, 20 note 28. - One of the rePresentations cept see of Neferriti wearing tt.te klnt is patterned like a wig (see coA III: 2, Pl. L)o(: t2). !,Jigs strowing such patterning are frequently painted ble during the Amama periotl. Schfer, in: zS 70' 1934, l8' bas discussed tbe inplications of sr.h patt"-itg in connection with the blre crom of Nefertiti and
IX1X xbe neres.

xrrr.

n""'

The wbz suggests:

(rhott-addressed

29

:',^;;l::;i:1;;":'i;;,*::'*,i:,1;';'3"1i:'::';'".*::-":?i:i .i. iiu r, 83 "rnbrlen,-5'lniiit-"i"' r:"."t"1:"1;: il'l;'* >r The deteminative is cardrner
24 23

H:T:li":|i"" "lT;l;.":: (il"'ronp""^bander");

iii."iu,'trt-3. see rurther' belos' ;::t":::3.:l?h "t the kerchier.vi" :i"-::i:;::..:l':i;"liil,"iti::;l:F,::t**;::::":: ::: i:1;3'i:" *;,'il;;; ;
her attributes or the l

""u

"!"..i".i"" The derivation


7a

vith the 'fitr:\::t:":l:i::".utcke, of the u

in:

z^s 80, ts55' 34,

i:11"i:i1;.4!,;'"'^zfi:;i;.:;i:::' "".".:i"::-"" "tg-a"t Berlin oit""t'!i"indorff' o"'


90, fig.
489.

nouve'I

Empire'':':?,1'?o'

sett-o' Berlin l9ol'

31

Haves' scePrer r''314-ls"rhis l;"tl;.1;;.lla - cf. PM rv, 2s6;.mentioned-bv M-ace. b1 l11i;:-1.:::lllli;'.ltgi""' khab i's illustrated i"-ri" l'""i'e i'jt,"r",-eiee ra' rer4, 8s described 'l:-l::::';;; 'i".'" o'"' the broul in""""'^'t'' 24o' and I?ii3l'.?3,:l;":';::l:"i: rr' l?16: l:ldd'"""
was painted

32 33 34

i:':ii';';; :?'."!i*.:: ,t'it". so'iil'"'i'ti':"'-el'.wi"r""t'iiil

6) would interpreE with l'lace, senebtisi, ;i;:"'"^i;;ier'(rrises,diobjets' the Prototype: linen' rne of mterial the of is misleading: the coloring t" itait"iiii painted ..f.""!n.".it"s occurrence of a yeltow ir'i"-ir...

nwe

In contrast, the one represqntation in the frieze of objects of a headdress accoupanied by the writing "1r. k.o* to m (outr coffin of Spi f.roa Bersheh, in the Louvre) shovs a kerchief-like head covering trith lappet-Libe tabs in froor. A second headdress of similar appearance is labelled nnS {ct. J6quier, Frises il'objets, 3 note l)! A second coffin from Bersheh (the outer coffin of Gu3, gu io3:g) also has a plain headdress with lappets labelled ms beside the red and white croms in the frieze of objects. A third Bersheh coffin (outer, belongi-tg to Sni, BM 30842) displays an unmistakable representation of a striped nenes vi-th appropriate label, in the sare series' This hypolhesis will be seen ro differ eith J6quier's suggestion .p'a. afnet have a specific reference to the kerchief worn by women (see further below) vhile klzat refer to the kerchief peculiar to the regalia of the king' His thesis is refuted by the use of afnet in Papyrus l|'eslcar and the inscription cited above, note 23. Cf. Goedicke, in: IIZKM 63' 4, 4 note 22' Berlin 45 and the coffin of S-H3dfy?).t: Riqqeh md Memphis MMA l2.l83.lla, Vf,24, pl. XXIII. The reuining rePresentations of khats in the frieze of objects - MMA 12.'182'132 and CG 28034 - occur alone' JE 43289 and Copenhagen AXIN 1482 - see below, and Cat. Nos' 2-3' JE 60707-8: Pl{ 12, 57o. For the statue wearing the khat see Cat' No' 37' The inscription upon the kilt panel of ttle khat-vearing statue apParently identifies the Osiris Neb-khepero-re with the royal ka of Harakhty' ?his designation is lacking in the analogous inscription upon the kilt of the statue vith nemes: see Desroches-Noblecourt, in: Toutankhamn et son terys' Paris 1967, Cat. No, 28. E.Staehelin drew my attention to this inscriptiou' Witll Watz BM 883; uitb neresz Bl'{ 854. These statues are over life-size'

(
L

Marianne

Eaton-Krau

SAK

197 7

The khat heacldress

27

dates of the !g.'t in royal iconography occurrence certaln earliest Kingdon' The relatively rare in the Old to the reign of Cheops3"' Althoughpreserved royal reliefs' "Die kleine the it is by no Ineans absent frorn t""1:. sun. r'o'-'t'e Fe stdars tel L" g" i rl'""u'::-i::::T"T:;r'.:;:: ':ular solennr these For tion cerenony sequence' partrt at least two episodes - in decror.nr(s) to don t're khat for foundation the at pots of two zLt for the kneeling presentation fragnentary a has been postulated for posit pi.t3e. A sirnirar context wearing the king the shows which rel-ief fron the ]arge llb-sd series
kha.c

G.,
*i

&
w'
w
'ir.

G:
#r' ..tl'

ofthestatuescataloguedherewhichpreserveadiStinctiveposture'13 sholrtherulerinattitudesofhurnilityappropriatetoaworshipPer: a ritual veshe nay present a table of offerings*t, kneel to proffer wete sel or vessels+*, or nay even lie prostrateas' If the khat its explain it night priest, as king the of role associated with the on and' hand conspicuousabsence fron the attire of gods on the one Howiconographyao' Anarna in appearance frequent its the other, for ever, a survey of Dynasty XVIII pre-Arnarna relief representations showing the king wearing tine khat does not suPport this explanation'
the folding Plate 4' Cf. Kaiser, in: Beitr. Rf. 12, 1971, 92 note 23 and of vessels and above. An iconographic relationship betseen the oresentation and Cat' Nos' I' ttre khat is also docurented in extant statues - see be1ow, t2 - r9, 31, 34-5. to rees, ii: ni"ting, Re-Eeiligtm rII, 45, pL' 27: 425' See Cat. No. I. 42 occurrence of dorestic theres and rePresetrv""ai"i, Manuel III, 3lo- For the ;;ftit"t" life" during the Anama-peri"1' ::' tatims of the royal r.tiry;' Akhenaten and Neiertiti' 68-e' Good "lT1:" ;il;;, i",'*-isis'-sali; ia';', are illustrated by Davres' showing Akbenaten wearing te klni in such 1.:"1t"*t unlikely that Akhenatenrs conteqro- and Anaroa III, Pls. IV t a fif. it is highly ;tot-ortiti"iii - ""u Aldred' Akhenaten raries considered these i";"i; ;t";;; the conspicuous absence Nefertiti, lo2, 134. - In ttris connection my be noted lI at his AtrEnhotep by asswed headgear royal of of tne klut from the tist closely very was thekint That ?7' 1953, 39' JEA accession: Gardiner, in: headdress' is shm by associated vith the king' perhaps more than any other Gardiner Signits regular appearance ii it't itooogtaphy of the deteminative t??8',!l..-t' EgyPt'London' Ancient in writile *i.i"r. lisr A 4l; see Davies, is admirably docwnI for a detailed "ofot r..,lt;'fe of ti" fom' The usage the iar and docwnt ted in the writing ot e*tt'ottp IIl's prenoren amons tiSt' IOO-Z' iigs' lo' JNES in: see.Hayes, ll"iqti"i r-t sealings recovered in: UDAIR westendorf see zri instriptions, er"-" ir A of use 3l-2. For the 202-tt. 25, t969, 43 cat. Nos. 3l-33. os cat. Nos. I, l2-19. {5 Cat. Nos. 2i'23- conpare the relief rePresentation of Akhenaten Proskynese Kunst-' .e"ritg tine khat: Munich AS 5338, Staatliche Samlung Agyptischer !'tunieh 1976 , 92. as 46 For the prevalence in Anarna iconography of che theme of Akhenaten actingAkhen70' An early relief showing priest, see Aldred,'Athenaren ana ieteriiti' the Aten is iconographicallv typical: Cyril aten wearing th" kh;;;;; ""."i.g 1968"?1:r1l'tn' Aldred, Akhenaten' ii"t""rt of Eglpt, A New Studv' Lndon of rhe offering ritual king in his role as priest night appear in the tourse the exhibition catalogue' vearing ottrer heaaarls"t", ttt th; b1ue.c!om: see Nofretete - Echnaton' Berlin 1976, No' l2/t3'

al'so of the khat in the round rnay reThe earliest extant representation As the appended catalogue 'locunents' date fTom the Old Kingdon"'' nunerous' not the round are

,40

39

presentations of the khat it t::tnt"::]n infrequent attributed the relatively but neither are they rare' Vandier refetence: royal statuary to its iconographic

depiction of the khat in 'd'intrieur' qu' ,,Il semble que le khat ait 6te plutdt une coiffure dans la stace qui expliquerait sa raret6 une coiffur" oftlti"ff"' d'An6nopis rgne jusqu'au au noins tuaire, les statues royales tant' dtun caractre officiel"'42 III, rev6tues, 1e pLus souvent'
of Tutankhmn' Contra Edwards, in: The Treasures j;";;;;"'"i.+og+a' -Y.
London 1972'

No' l '

The

i"'irlur"i'l["::'5'"t"::" statues in question "'" i"."o"i'-}La oI ':_"::.. 'l:'1":"';:::*,;:"1:'::i;':::'il"i;-iii.-"i'.. I such- large-scale of Tutankharun, Ramses
xbe

flemes.

cc

wooden

;;;".;';;;

statues

:ili:"i:i:t:l
la
3A

o""ll!'1"31'" t";:;';"-;;" tovtl f""t"ry.:i:ltT::.':i of the"ttullil""i"tli"'pt"tti"L-oi'i""i"ai"g frasmen.srot-rii" zvrr of-llatshePsut: teign iti. o; 1t"1 lqpr-(kv c' Haves'
245ga'

il;";-;;;.;p;"gi, irinceton atankhuanou, London 1912' of Hamhabi'49,I:X;;";l h.dd'"tt "" tt'' Ini Davis, et.al" rhe rombs rdenE ii-;-i;;: oi' r-xxrxl, Daressv incorrectlv rhe rlaP or the ;;;;.'; "t.t'".i" ""il,llli;t?'.o, *,"op", runerary rerple6a' I rr' ris' u" l il;'iyll3':::'::.";iti": ilrtir;-'li-;l;:"; ;]i";l ll ci" "ln;,1",:' rarcon. see Laur, in: ;'4;,";;;,Pt'3 "11.;;i"1"' m indebred to E.R. Russmann 'l' 9::"91' :*"'ll;i.i:#ri'iiiii';";tt'n"'u" Maccregor Ill'I 1:91"9::::'il"'1"'l;.",i.i;;;: of ,'iti.g .l^::"Y,:lt':'"'"' 8l-2' con154) sh
The

:T::

fiii' n:x,":;',::;:::":'i:J;; 1935' 20'

ao; uil I ian

:1w iilx: ili:i.i*:ii"::i:l,l:.tl;"';,'l;."lLll":::li:,kiixi bY Areneuhec Irr as i' ;r:";;;^'l


he

rs:o'.is:' fig' z^s 54' l9l8' kerchief vhich Bonner, in: oior"r also vears a kerking wears a sirnple-kercnrtt-:'l':'l^:";^;il*idoe.s not Per;";;;'"";;;.otvpic;1 l<hat' rl.'h:. "-: l'lliTii""i"ii"

'.ri'r

;i;;t:

AgvPtena, "oPl' Xrv' below'

(
28

(
SAK
5

197 7

Tt^e

khat headdress

Z9

Marianne Eaton-Krau

nunerous Deir eL-Bahari tenple provide nay The reliefs of Hatshepsut's Hatshepsut r'iearing tne khat' While the representations of the ruler the' god'u; she nay wear ""':u^"''inI wears ' don the khat to '"it'itp""-ti" Thutnosis different clrcumstances' sane context' In conpletely appears in daughteras' Thutnosis II his of coronation the for the khat by his son offering table and attended the khat, seated before an unclear' renains khat reference of the Thutnosis III4e' The specific the Tound of the khat irr sculpture in during Three of the representations Because gods' of as statues the (Cat. Nos. 2-4) have been described of nale divinities wearing another the period under discussion' exatnples and sculpture in the roundso' khat are lacking both in relief to the nust be sought' With respect identification for these figures that the king Evers tentatively suggested two groups of Anenemhet III' by his not by a deity' but rather (wearing nemes) is offered the ankh ka (which wears the';;"';:'' problematrc pl advocated here' The third first sugof Anenenhet III' WilCung No. 4), also dates to the reign light of the the In atpictea the deified Sneferu' gested that the likelier: the "ut'" explanati'on seems preceding discussion, his alternative

l::-:::":]ll","illlil,:l 1;:::::;.;,l'..

between the statue depicts Anenernhet III in the role of interrnediary and Hathor e1-Khadin' the petitioner and the divinities of Serabit the cleified Sneferus3. Pyrarnid Texts The juxtaposition of the afnet and a goddess in the epithet "Mistress the bear may Isis has alreaily been nentioned abovesa' are quite often Nephthys sister hel of the afnet"'3. This goddess and appearance is whose a kerchief wearing depicted in a funerary context is obscute5T' usage this of origin The iclentical with the toya1 khats'' of Nut figure the sarcophagi, royal Kingdon In the decoration of New Isis' goddesses tutelary the When headdress' the nay be shown wearing shrine canopic the of corners the at appear Selket Nephthys, Neith and the to alternative an as kerchief the don nay they or sarcophagus, has a tripartite rigt"'When worn by these goddesses' the headdress specificfuneraryreference'aconnotationlackingihroyaliconography. goddesses among diThe wearing of the khat was restricted to these was broken vinities and to the king anong tnortalst"' This convention worn by was onl-y during late Dynasty XVIII uhen the khat kerchief queens Tiye and Nefertiti.

53 54

55

4a Naville, Deir el-Bahari' pls' rx' xI' xxlv' etc' 48 tbid. pl. LXr' ce rbid' pr' cH{: god is associated has observed that a L to-re'22' ate 22- h -- -^,,, ts72' 4 50 ;;;;i.i.' 63164' ,drt in: l'tzKM

56 37

inr;l;i; i6ssi *urr' ?:u: l::"l"lltl.H:: iii":l.t?li::' sons-and ke' r"t a kerchief: "'1:?:'i";'";;"itt i.-it" .ooitt belonging to three nude but for tta"ruotra-is^deoicted supplied thrs refiq.ure of " gt"taiut"t-ittt kindlv stalhelin n' see Bruvre, it: cai Ii"iss'?l-ii-02' Rosellini r' 1949' ference' o-^-i rr 6 95: scharff in: studigroup staat,ll;."u"ltt'31,* 5r see cat. Nos. 2-3. Evers, oePicts co5r) thar rhe ig-io. Roeder's ""1':il;:1,::l: i^i.l'i,ri;:"::;i':*.;x;.fl::_;::"?:::'..." 1eeen91.h1sas l":"1^:-0" o".,,"" v"nai"r (Manuer nr, iro-r)-."i-|]:::'i;ffi:"iu, I a god identified evpti"""'' copenhagen re50' (catalogue o'" """11 :;":;";;;;;; Holdins '"0,o""'"lii :iL 'f"\!,*,'^ zAJ rn li:':o'i]r' he orrers rhe siBn or r;i"' Journal 5' 1972' l2-14 and Fischer' it' ll"t'opoili"t Mtsett 23-4, 52 Rolle g. Knige l, 135 note J'
with the afnet
I

Ibid. 135 note 8. i"-ii. Cofti" Texts (CT v' 32i), Neith Possesses, at afnet' .. accoryanylng !tbZ, D. Morgan' Cat. des Mon. 1I, 21, fig' 16' The representatlon cow horns and plus headdress wlture the text dePicts the goddess tttiing the sudisk. senebtisi, 44. la i"""a since the Middle Kingdon: Mace - I.Iinlock, goddesses in their Borchardt, Teje 6' would assoliate the headdress with the senebtisi' 43' and role as ooumers for the l""a "iti"' Mace and t'Iinlock' d'objets, 5, have pointed out the resemblance betreen the iq"i".,-f.i*s deceased tom-sinie it'e ota'xitgaom by female retainers of thesee e'g' "ii.-t"..r,i"f in occupations associated with grain' especially winnowing and.Slm'L1:' ""grg.a .Prothe winnowing ,."t" tto.-tt'" Dynasty v ionb of -IVfrs{n-Pth pl' XXI' In the tonb of I'hni ovlen Kunstgeschichte fSt''AgyPtt",'nerlin 1975' are accorspanied bv tvo lagiii" tttti"g a kerchief iit ;i ;;;-;;"-"ii"."i"g in the sinilar scene in the tomb of so borers uho also oear t"tlt'i"f"; "1sJ of the occupations of hunble representations other i" ;. h:"-a"l"t-it is apparently restricted to femles - see Davies' i;tnl ;.lti"*-tt"-t...itl.r pl' XXxvII' - Threshing in Nakht,62 p1. Xx; ideo, iwo nau;ssiae Tonbs' 60' god; vinnowing,^vith-his traosof the murder att. ri.h equated was w'atr "1.i" 1948' 186-7' The Chicago Gods' the and Kingship Frankfort' Henry forutioo winnowing vith the of association and the ttt"t-"itt"ilng . t...ti.t ot ;;;;i"; by Isis and Nephcult of Osiris may "".otta for the doption of the headdress of Isis and Nephthys itys, en additionl parallel between representations girls is that both may wear a simple.kilt or r.ti"e the khat ".a-ti.iotitg bosom, leaving the breasts exposed' Sore of gament ti"a't.a"i"tt (to be,discussed by "r.ita-iit" the earliest ..p.""..a"aiots of rsis an Nephthys as Q:'tg or fillet,binding Il.G. Fischer i. " fottf,"ong article) show a simple iibbon and bakrnS bread (e'g'' iii rttit, the sare as is wom by yoren grinding^erain Jinker' iza rv' p1' vlrr)' The siople represented in the toub ot-ilit#oi|t

--:_1n

(
Marianne Eaton-Krau
SAK
5

(
197 7

The khat headdress

)l

wearing th.e khat are The representations in rel'ief of Nefertiti (with reference to another headilress' nunerous"o. Al.dred has suggested double plunes) that the representhe flat-topped crown with horns and headgear as her husband inplies tation of Nefertitj. uearing the sane are often considered equal' even if they ".,. that the two are to be the sane author has drarv.n depicted on differing scales"61 ' Elsewhere Egyptian goddesses in the atteirtion to the "u'it't" of the traditional the r*onen of the royaL Anarna theology, suggesting that perhapstt"' for such deities"62' were t"rutd"d as natural substitutes fanily.'. for Ne.fertitirs accoull fonn The latter explanation in a noilifieci {raf of a goddess rather than assunption of the khat. rt is in the.rp".{ Nefertiti wears the khat' as queen and "equal" of her husband that beyond that nornally rendered The veneration of Nefertiti went well of the queen has been the royal consort. Evidence for the worship policy is reflected by Wilson63 and Tawfik6a' The official assenbled
fillet 38 5e
The

I
t

aPPears

id depictions of the often later in conbination'with the khat

l
D

goddes ses .

I
* F
lj

r
ir

60

tfi

tI
t1

il
Ir
L

tfl

61 62 63 64

ii

{[

assuPtion of ttrekhatbyNut,selketandNeithissecondary'resulting goddesses with rsis and in all likelihood from their association """;;t;;t NephthYs. or shawabtys cqnsideration aothropoid coffins This stale'ent does Dot take into in into the category of these t"ttt'i"t iit persons' private of ";;;*;;-;;1i" note 22)' - Royal shasabtys above' attributes or trt" grl;iri" a""a (see rv: MFA 03'lloo' oi rntt*"i" th" ;;i; frm lta"t khat t,"e showing 96' below' and 88 notes lee "t;";;;;-"; and Tutankhamrrn' For the shaeabtys t; il;;;t;;" MMS lrr' in willians' by tr"o-toi"a First remrked uy u"t"i"tt' Teje' 7; both authors' rhe balustrade frasnent ;i'i"a.iv l93o' 90 note 54' d;t;;t other dePictions of cairo 3ollol?6112, is from Tell el-AMma-' "t" "il "" of the queen' iconography Theban Tle re' to Nefertiti rearing ';; k;; tto* published talatat' does not include the' according.o tn" "tiitt-t;';;; a khattearrts i;; ?ttg*tt thereof) depicting kerchief. - loo .*."ii=i;;t; Lhe queen (but see reDresenting as tith'"ttt"itty figure can u. ia"ttliiti to-atty the possibility cat. No. 30). There is, however' to tpp"t"tt-"t"tot and Nefertiti' 90)' lfat"i'-ettt""aten that such a statue t"tl ""ittta'(tottra l16' to have Aldred, Akhenaten md Nefertiti' and Nefertiti do not ever seeo rbid. l3l. tt," arrgti.rl^li'eui""..n as their Tavfik' in: MDAIK 29' tothet: enjoyeil the same "t""iita;-*"tus I973,86. rn: JNES i2, 1973, 236-41' In: MDAIK 29, 1973, 82-6.

protective figures of in the iconography of Akhenatenrs sarcophagus: the sarcophagus reNefertiti occupy the position at the corners of served for the tutelary godtlesses6s' Nefertiti's divine aspect The khat headdress was chosen to express funerary goddesses' not because of its specific relationship to the divinity whose but rather because it l'tas the one attTibute of fenale reference was at once distinctive and unnistakable' represented wearing the k'14 The nother of Akhenaten, Queen Tiye, was acconpanies Anenhotep at least twice. In the tonb of Ht'u'f' the queen The regalia of the III for an episode of the kingrs first hb-sd'g"' worn beneath the feathers projecting apron of fatcn iirrg-it.tra"''t the visible signs of one is traditional sed-fest mant1e67' This garment to the of the king's divinlty and expresses his close relationship khatct' the uears who Tiye by god Horusu". Arnenhotep III is folloued l{est statue (Berlin The first version of the head fron a conposite the kerchief' wearing Tiye 21834 = Cat. No. 27) also depicted Queen Nefertitirs for explanation an as If the suggestion proposed above then the well' as case Tiye's in donning of the khat is applicable the queen in the Berlin head in its original version represented guise of a goddess.

66 67 6e 69

tl

The motif is first docuMartin, Royal Tonb l, 15' 27' lO4; p1s' 6-7'.20' 1r and may have AmnhoteD of box .".opic mented in the decoration'oi-it. box of AmenhoteP sat"oohaeus lost the of enbellistment the been adopted for the goddesses cntext' this In4 note,l)' iSl8, zes i:' lo, III(see schfer, Tut-ankhCarter' Tutekheun: of tt'g.'""ttopt'"gus mav wear the kerchief (e'e' sarcophagus of Horenhab: wig ittt-t"ioltirt" Lxv):; pls. LXIV, turen lr, l97l' pi!' c-il' "I do"" Nefertiti Erik Homung, Das Grab a.i ntt"tt'tu, I Bem bearing the Protecting fiSure ftag*tt A n"t-tt""it"a' of on the sarcophagus ro the "ttcoph"9l" of tsii'-[' loa"zs' bv'r;;i;;-i"t ascribed of Nefertiti Royal Tomb l' l5-16' sarcophagus: Akhenarent; to belongs Maketaren "..'il.iit' (5) r 298 PU r2, 48: Torgny Sve-Sderbergh' Four Cf. the gaments wom by the king in TT38;^pr' /'rJr' 1.957' oxford Tonbi, Dynastv rigni"""lr' 97-9' rr' LA in: wira""",-"Falienk1eid", ii] . ^ r^;^il ^r the dr for studv a copv of ^ 9"t9-t'1.:f-:T^1:t""* c.F. Nins senerouslv *a! ittirture p'ulicttion (l'Jith resPect to of-ihe tonb' which is to appear "" pr:;;-i;-;it 42' 1943' AsAx in: the queen's headdress, ait lt"ti"g pttti"t'td-by-rakhry' pf. if, ls to be corrected: cf' Uni-Dia No' 39065)' See

(
32

Marianne Eaton

Krau

SAK

197 7

The khat headdress

JJ

73

leads to a plausible suggestion Acceptance of this interpretation of the coiffure ftoar khat to account for the subsequent alteration to orthodoxy" at the end of the to blue-beadecl wigTo' The "return to pre-Amarna iconographic conventionsTl' Amarna period meant a return appropriate attire for a queen' Because the kh/.t was not considered to a nore suitable regal wig7z' the headgear of the statue was altered
in antrcoiffure of the statre sas altered

CATALOGUE

Pepy II (?)74

DescriPtion: The Material: Gold

ht' ca' 1'5 Location unknown pots' king kneels to present tr4o nD

cn

70

As has long been recognizetl' che lir 11 :i : I

li, iiir; ;; #i,;i*:ii.*i::,;*i I ":"::;;' ::i, :'!{i:li::l:'* to :;':i:'"fi:":::":':;'i;:":"::"il";:il;;-;ffi:::'1:o:::'::"::';:i:: in anv case' belongs :' in: zs oa' rslzl-i-i' The double-uraeus' descrrptron
schfer, of the siatue' Aldred's lo5) should the first, and not to tnt"iittta version t'tefertiti' (artto"t"t"Li ttt"a of the origi.nal "ppttttott-li-t" relier anil statury - see n ;:fi':: il"li3'."""tJ"tonal Ethods or producing

71

+i:;:rl*:::';:,'i:J'i::i'll;.ll; activity of his court tt'i!r"ti""t"i


...
"

9"Ti."e-'l:. ::'n."1.*'?lul";""1i t'ead is said to come) (rtt"t'iti-li" tttt conscious policv i"t" ttti" to is docwnted (cf . PM 'u,'\i-ial" it "t"t"relationship to his imediate Preof the reign to deenpnasi'ze'i"i"itr"n"*i'"

In ravor "o," exenplified""lli''i" bv vork on the Luxor'"' :?i':";f,-iy-w"".., i"' wente' ln' ;;;;;-rii' L"ohottp rrr corpiled bv mnuat evidence of rutankhmn: i]t;;"-;; only the thal Le-accialntal JNES 28, 1969, 278-9' tt"ly'i"ii'""i funerary teryle belongs to-an docrmnting the existenceTi ;;;;"i;i;"rs.. of Amenhotep'lrr the-nliesthood in active

"

iil-'"""i': t:Ill.S;.::"S:':*:''**s""pttt.ril-ile' rgr' (Evaluation-of

Bibliography: Russmann' Representation of the King' 7O-l ' ht. 2.2 n Cairo JE 43289 2 - 3 Anenernhet III75 2.6 n Copenhagen AE IN 1482 slightly leg left with both Description: Two standing. figures,surrounding naos;-to the right' ;;;;;;; iarved in one i;.ttt"th" the left' the toval ka r'rearing the *""ti"g tn."n"i)"; to ;;;-i;i;;: ih" roop in his left hand' and of ferins t;e"frhaing ofi" ont<h-byhis right' r-s.o"a to tf,e king rrith Material: Rose granite Provenance: LabYrinth, Hawara Gerzeh and llazghuneh' Bibliography: Petrie et' a1', The Labyrinth' fig' 27 atd' Staat II' l7; VanLondon lgl2, ?g-31; Evers, Staat I, Hornemann' Tvpes No' lloo' li.i, u""""i rrr' 196-7. pl' Lxrv; ht. 51 cn Edinburgh 1gO5 -284.24' Anenernhet I I I is detailed flap whose a wearing figure Seated Description: -khat to reproduce the appearanlines; iniended ;;;;';:;ii;"riv-i'.ii" !-r-roras in'tne cioirr. The flap rests upon the top of the back pillar. i"laterial: Red sandstone Provenance: Serabit e1-Xhadim' Sinai Wildung' Rolle g' Bibl iography: vandier, Manue I 1II,2lf.2l6; Knige I, | 35 - Pl . IX' I '
73

Provenance: "Found at Dendara"'

official vho sas "i*rt"itlt"iy Helck, Materialien, l02' $ t8

-=

Hayes'

this text must await tnt o"iiit"tii-r y:'.ft:i"T.lllffi:""1?llr'l:-?:l' in Kn er-rrita.; ".".ni.r!l'i",-I'ir"".i been' carei" ii"-"-"rii .ttis pori"y' a statue of the king's ai"ttala' uut could have appropriate headdress "t'i ""i'il"I-u""i does not exclude'tne suggestion --This fully altereat tta"t toyti-ltlpit""' a1::r:-"t ti*r'^"eouslv adapted possibilitv that tbe "t"i"I-tlv-ttttg-been ult"io"' as reconstructed by (The second ray' lor the use of another t"vtr i:::t-t: j":..'illilliln":t "l?:'.:;::tJ:t schrer, in: z^s,68, ,r3;i';:-:
" ;"';".::":r:i.':fi .::T':lJ":il;i;'Jlo'-r""'tn'"'' rgOr, 3t. llt-o)' ::i.:::::.:*:"o:fi a rededichrisriao" o""ro"ilil*.ii.."".i, r.ta.tt,"rinl"i""""
The unaltered

tr'L sviss Instituters excavattons

under the heading Only a minimu of iconographic infonation is included reader is referred

to such r""iotts votld have been to-iitatttt" are koom from the a" headgear of "r,i.t-il."tity cation. other instance" "rt"red p".loa: R. Hanke, in: SAK 2' 1975' 8o-3' "-. t"ti"r

ro;b;

;il".tipii"";. ror detaite description of each piece' the 'individual bibliographies. in turn' the bibliography accorpanying each to the the more recent' basic and/or entry is by no *to" .orltt but conprises only Cat' Nos' 5 and 29' all itens - with th" exceptions of iublicationspubLished and ""."i"iif. listed have been at least mentioned in print' shen not thoroughly rerorks are reil.Iustrated, - The uraeus is Present in every case; specific o.ly for those instancls in vhich it displays unusual features' - The "tit.a of an al.abaster statuette representing AmenhoteP I (?) MMA- lo'l30'2593 head the catalogue' as evidence for the i;;;."; i".pi.t rr,49) is not included in the same reasoo' BM 13366 has also of'the khat is inconclusive' For i..".... (see Page, Egyptian been omitted. The wood statuette Univ. College London 8828 78) Sculpture, Archaic to Saite from the Petrie Collection' Warminster 1976' does not elong to the period covered by the catalogue' ir tni" pi".. tt the besinnins of the catalos:: as ii.-pit."t"". i: flJr(J-tr :*t:::d"t based upon very tenuous evidence: the reading of the prenoren and the reported Provenance. For the attribution of these anepigraphic rcnuments to Anenenhet III' see Petrie, Labyrinth' 31. Described bv vandier' Manuel lII, 196-7, as ""'une curieuse Perrul@' s'arronfront de ai""t"a-1.-'.,ttrq"" .ia au-dessus des 6paules' et orn6e au milieu du l'uraeus". The wig tyPe to which Van<tier refers is indeed sinilar in appearance

(
Marianne Eaton-(rau
SAK
5

The khat headdress

35

Late Middle

Abvdos' T"tll: :l' Kingdon " setY I, second court ii;;';^---tln!'i,ilnni."!3'lli"il:;: Descript ion i l:31:: Iti:l; i:ll;:. is envloped withrn " lolg^*:i::'-i' *""rr-ii ttte nanner of contempode sc r i^bed :::"i:it, ll':ti't:l:::.'H"'l: ::a':l!n' l'^';;"'i "'

ht' ca' 'l'9 n

1 Hatshepsut

Luxor Magazine (?)

average width of
8O cn

face plus

fttra

above, Cat. Nos' l-5

Material: Limestone
Provenance: Abydos

Description: Fragnentary sphinx heads of type Cat. No. 7. Material: Sandstone Provenance: Deir e1-Bahari, "Senrnut quarry". Bibliography: As Cat. No. 7. ht. 86 ctl MMA 23.3.1 19 Hatshepsut
z5.J.L

BibliograPhY:

None'

KhencljerTe half of -" :""1:1,.(:]'?:?:":; :::"li:'":llli"t Description: upperon top of the bacK-Prlral;";;";-;;aing ribbon binding rro lrilt-"L;'.n restd horiiontal singr iir t'oii""i the both folds of naPe of the neck' "i-itt" Granite. Material: Khendjer' Saqqara' Provenance: Pyranld precinct of p1' Vb-c; Vandier'733' Deux pyramidt";-Lt-t9' Tvpes No' Bibliography:'l6quier' 3o2' t'oi;;;":;u""' pl' Lxxr ' Manuel rlr' 2 t6' 25r' cairo JE 56263 Hatshepsutso iitlnoiirtt".' a colossal :plll*.::o*':;"li:"^lllrf ii Description: Head of o'i^o?'.i"un"'.'o" tt'" rhe flap lies uPon tne ;;;;'if,;^k;at' bottom of the band across uraeus sprlngs "",n'iittt'u"'l-rt" khat. preserving white paint ot the filiiliSi; sandstone' quarry"' Provenance: Deir "r-sh"ii March 1932' IJinlock' in: Bt'tltA paEt 2, PM rrz, 37Oi"'S6nnut Bibliography:
fig. ;; 5 (below)' *"t IrI' from the front- (cf '-Manuel

Cairo JE 53668

ht' 11 cn

31.3.160 31.3.161

69 cn 87 cn

Cairo JE

31.3.16?.
47702 47703

86.5 88.5
80

cnr

78 cn
crn

cn

9O cn : Berlin East 22883 Description: The queen-kneels to proffer a lustration vase ornanented with a djed pilLar"t. The flap of the khat tests upon the top of back pil1ar; it is detailed in the two Cairo statues and MMA

.""-

Material: Granite Provenance: Ileir eL-Bahari, "found in a hole, llonthuhotep causeway"' Bibliography: PM Il2, 374; Hayes, Scepter IT, 97 ' Ht. 1.5 m MMA 30.5.3 Hatshepsut Tests upon the of the khat flap queen The seated. The Description: top of the back pillar. Material: Black diorite Provenance: Deir el-Bahari' Bibliography: PM II2 374; Hayes, ScePter rr, loo.
C. Lilyquist generously pemitted me to use the Winlock notebooks in che preparation of this and the following twelve catalogue entries- - In the notebooks, Winlock estinated that there were originally lO2 - lO8 sphinges in this series, wearing ttle khat and the nemes (those wearing t}jle nemes being generally snaller). Placed l2 - 14 feet apart, they forred an avenue from the front gate of the precinct to the foot of the first rarp - cf. iden, in: BMMA Part 2' March 1932, lO. - The klnt-wearing sphinx occurs in another mediun at least as early as the beginninB of the Nev Kingdom: CG 52645, vernier,Bijoq et orfvreries, Cai.ro 1927, 205-7' pl' )G,III. Ilayes, scepter lI,97t "There were at least a dozen of these small statues' and they seem to have stood around the upper court of the temple, perhaps in the spaces between the col|ms of its peristyle" '

31.3.162.

""." "i'eved ;; tn" khot "rt"y" views are quire distincti;; :t::.::":'?;::t"rt'.u,3t";.tllil'l; or cG 4zo4I = Homemanl:'iri"""n""'ili i"."ili. t..tt"" the figures of the Amenemn"t-'i'" 'iiJttiit.-i" detemine vith

251)' but side and back tcontrast the back itt-"'rlap

l#"

round, but

that dne khat is-representec;";';;'.";;;;; "i""ii..-""t.aintv are. khat are.knom:.see^l"l;Jl' une khat iii't.".f"g lII wearing tt,e 1'.1".o..r of

in

one

with

ti'^i"n-"i.the naos'-it,t'"lg:';::l:"1!"uii"illl!*n"
No Queen l'lerereE'

Petrie, Labv-

rinth, pl. xxrx. upper "!'iil""'""-t" .'1*t'":"f*l;ll i:.S":: :::";:';"::"' I'r a king-vearingr:":iiri:::,::'lr'ln!"rl"."^. iloi ts.'"t Ir, r7) is

",'i" therefore'
iltll;a

that Evers's

generouslv furnisbed Photosraphs

of

the statue used

in the Pre-

7g

B:';:i::":tt::ll.i"lfl;

the naos frame :.:lili.::.i:li:k':ti;"0j,':il"l:-::. l:::l:,;":i":'


trace of faced.

Bothmer furnished statue to nv attention' and B'v' Abydos was able to

conf iming,ll,'lt'lnlniiil':;""i"::'";"1;:':l:i::"1;.^::A+1 arhereby uraeus was obliterateo r, :?. B:"k:I-::h ;,3; ixl"ilil"ill;"i31 For the Position and dating of Khendje

Khendjer derrve 51, The attribution of the statue to of excavation.

JO

Marianne Eaton-Krau

SAK

ht' 52 cn Warsaw 141267a2 2.1 Thutnosis III flap of the^forn of a sphlnx; undetailed Description: The king in the aninal' the khat lies u"i-tfi" back of Material: Sandstone Provenance: Edfu' S!arozytna' 1'larsaw 1955' 134' Bibliography: Michalowski' Sytuka fie. 80. ht.B" situ In II1 workZZ Thutnosis the products-of the ternple Descriptron: A scene depicting ?' :'Yi I i "li'l * l;T ":lt,.' :;;iil ;' illi ::! l!; ffi ;'i:: i:"i " :l :l ; l^ ; ": " the khat H"-*""it " repropainted blue-green ' perhaps rl:.,::p:?'"rtii:"gB i'ittiur, .is ducing tn"'ii:;"i""ro-i0. rr11 376' rie' r5' ," ,", 20ei Vandiet' Manuel :::;:::::inr,

23

rhr.rtnosis

No' ZZ' the king's hands being Cat' of Variation Description:

III '

In situ

ll: ii'

cat '

emp-

cat' No.', 22 LL i";'i;i ' As No ' " ' ' Provenance r As Cat '
BibliograPhY I As
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downward'

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No

24

Thutrnoside

kingE6

' 22 ' Naples

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Description:Headandtorsoofaseated(?)statueofakingwearinq the khat ' t'ta?eriar: Basalt

"'o"' :::::*,0,1,,, Cava oe:t,,tllli,' i,,il",): "l:irii:l, t""u*-of NaPles"


s2
63
84

Archae' 1' g i ca1

5
86

::-::: :T::::"i:.::.tlrezi;fi ;lt.:|.:iil;f -' ;'::*"toil"i!,1'-pr'bablv "';"lill}";,ii":iliJ: ?i:i!:"i::::: i? (?)"' ??l' l;"' tonaa'cion u ::.::iil; ":' :' ;iii'ii,:! ":l:i: i iiii;i:ii" i:*:li:t;:"l,"Tiii i;;:':l;'::?','"1'1il"^;;i;; of
B.V. Bochner advised.me
v

'

the DePartmenr ;;;i;;, Rekh-mi-R', 37' illustrated in.. no rs I! rhe piece cane Eo * j";;;,-iie Brooklyn !.Iuseum. descrroeo t'niformlY ulasutLil;'N;ri;;a1e is and and-classic, ghere phere rE it isvptian Egyptian N--i^nala cat.alogues ctrogues

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.r"tions NaPle-s 14 -^^ as of Saite manufaccure'

1977

The khat headdress

J/

z5
I

Anenhotep

) of
t,
z6

ht. 57 crn Cairo CG 4207 7 II, Description: Striding statue of the king, The undetailed flap of the khat rests atop the back pillar. Material: Basalt
Provenance: Karnak, cachette.

Bibliography: PM II2, l39i Terrace, in: Terrace and Fischer, Treasures of the Cairo Museum, London 1970, 109 - I l2 and accompanying p1-ates.
Amenhotep

[one
gL ^-+84 u

z7

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aval we

ar-

ogical

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robably

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in cribed
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ht. 11 cm Edinburgh 1951.346 II (?) Description: Head of a statue of a king wearing the.khat. The uraeus springs fron slightly above the botton of the band across the foreheadEt. The ffa[ is Iost. Material: Basalt Provenance: Not known Bibliography: Aldred, in: JEA 39,1953,48-9, p1. III; Vandier' Manuel III, 307. 310. ht. 9.5 cn Ber1in West 2'l 834 Queen Ti.ye Description: The head (from a composite statue) in its fj-rst versj.on wore a khat with double uraeus. The flap was broken off in preparation for the alterations of the second version. Material: Boxwood (?) with accessories in other rnaterials. Provenance : Sai.d to cone fron Medinet Ghurab. Bibliography: Aldred, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, lO5. AkhenatensB Cairo JE 49528 original ht. ca. 4 n Description: Colossal statue of the king wearing the khat surmounted by the double crownse. Material: Sandstone Provenance : Karnak. Bi.b I iography: PM II2 , 253. ca. life-slze Akhe na ten Karnak, in karakole Descripti.on: A much damaged head of Akhenaten wearing the khat. The inscrlption on the back pi11ar preserves the earlier form of the name of the Aten. The plece is particularly interesting as the relation of the flap to the back pillar is unusual. The back pillar reaches alrnost to the height of the headcovering; in section, it has the form glven in the adjacent drawing. The flap is "sp1it." and represented on either side of the negative space between the figure and the back pillar oroer"o. Material: Sandstone (?) . Provenance : Karnak. Bibliography r None.
for the series of statues assignable to Amenhotep II; cf. Terrace, in Terrace-Fischer, Treasures, I 12. For the royal shawabtys depicting Akhenaten wearing the khat, see I'tartin,
Unusual Royal Tonb l, 39. The combination of

khat and double crown is known in relief at l-east as early as the reign of Hatshepsutr MFA 75.12, the fragment. of one of the queents Karnak obelisks, cf. Smith, Ancient Egypt, Boston 1961, fi.g,61.

38

Marianne Eaton-Krau'

5AI\

50

damaged head in the earlY "exPressionist stYle. The khat originallY displayed a double uraeus-'' Material: Linestone Frou"tt"tt.", Presurnably Te11 e1-Amarna' Bibliography: Museum fr Kunst und Gewerbe' Hamburg Bildfhrer 3, Hamburg 1972, Cat. No' 2' ht. 55.1 cln BrooklYn 58.2 Akhenaten JI unthe broad t31:: ::il1 t:::"ly:t Description: The- headlet: which r tne +ha heck DacK ot top the pon rests "-in"t ;;;ii5^;i;p';r king he the Presentrepresented stattle the oillar. When complete, altar'offering table or ' ine "n Indurated limestone Maierial: pto"n"n.e : Te11 e1-Amarna, Great Temple ' Bibliography: Aldred' Akhenaten and Nefeltiti 92 of slab ht. l''tFA 63.961 )) 1 cm 32 - 33 Akhenaten are reDreserlted flanking the Description: Two statues of Akhenaten Tem'p1e of the Aten. The Great the of sanctuary ;;i; uitut in the wering t\e khat, holds king' the identical: -;;;;";; -picted are chest' his against table -i'"it ofiering Material (of the slab) : Lines-tone P;;;;;;n.e: Telt t-lm"rna, found at Hernopolis' Bibliography: Atdred, Akhenaten and Nefertiti' 155

Akhenaten Amarna

Hanburg 1 966 .96e

ht. 27 cm

Descrj.ption: Severely

90

9't

the nemes qveue ln s!aA similar "splitcing" is found in representations of other represenlation any from me known-lo not is tuary, but the arrangement The headts existence disproves rhe of the khat '.n.",.,fpfuru in the round. flap always rests on ,a"r"*"rra of Williams, inl MMS III' 193O, 90, that Ehe top of uhe back Pil1ar.

H.Altenmllerprov!dedbibliographicalinformationforthepreparationof chis catalogue entry. Persons ("*:tt-1::l:1:]^With the exception oi.h" Dynasty XXV kings' those (see Russmann, Represenfa!lon queens lrere uraeus double the entitled uo,""r che person.represented identify may double.,'."', of the King 37-40). Thus the Relief represenAkhenaten' tiran rather Nefertiti as head fragmentary this in regularly been have uraeus doub1e rhe weari.g fi;;;" larions of a royal distorted -facial characteristics identified as Akhenatn because the CyplcaLly Nefertiti, 109' lll' lrere assumed to refer to the king. Aldred, Alhenaten and now know tha. NeWe criterior. this of has dernonstrated the uniuii^Ui.fiiy Aren (Redford, in: rhe tooffer ferriti, unaccompri";--;;-;;;-rpo,rr", mighrfor attributing to Akhenaten the ql. criterin ihus'anorhe; JARSE 12,1975, Aten (e'g" Nofthe to offering an figure with double uraeus which elevates be discarded. If the double uraeus rerere_Echn"aon, u"rii"-igto, No. lg) musr beacceptedaSthe"*"lu"i.,"prerogativeoffernaleroyalty,notonlytheHansratue from the caburg head, buE also cG 42ogg, the iragmenE of a colossal by chevrier excavated colossi Akhenaten the vtith associated chetEe usually (rhrough Nererciti' or a lepresen;ation as ;"i;";";;:ll"'i;ilu" ia"ntiried

that' following the Museum fr Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, I irave been advised 1966'96 may Hamburg that opinion te of is Harris J. R. rhe same reasoning, indeed depJ.cu Neferciti).

197

The khat headdress

JY

34-35

ht.of slab51 crn MFA64.1944 58.5 cm Collection Koutoulakis Description: The king as a hunan-handed sphinx proffers a vessel. The flap of the khat is represented as lying flat on tlre back of the animal. Material: Limestone Provenance : Presunably Tel1 e1-Amarna. Bibliography: Aldred, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, 99. ht. 26.5 crn MMA 21.9.2 Akhenateneu (the face is almost enDescription: The severely danaged head tirely obliterated) preserves the rounded forn of the khat with the beginning of the flap. Material: Limestone Akhenatenea
Provenance: Te11 e1-Amarna, Great Tenple. Bibliographyr Hayes, Scepter lIr 28:.

37

re

ht' 1 '73 n cairo JE 60707 Tutankhamunes Description: "Ka" statue of the kitg, wearing the khat' Materi1: Wood, gilded and Painted Provenance: Tornb"of Tutankhmun, KV 62, Thebes' Toutankhamon Bibiiography: PM I2, 570 i Desroches-Nobleeourt ' in et son tenps, Cat' No' 28'
Aft.er John D' cooney'
Amarna

in Reliefs from llermopolla

Amer:

94

u"' Brooklyn 1965',102';., in boLh teliefs indicates..::?ilr::"::"J;'1!i* u,',i,:f:'_1"*lxl| ,: i' :.:1' ii:':l'": . :' :,' .p

95 96

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