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The Art of Distillation

By John French

R. A. M. S.
Restorers of Alchemical Manuscripts

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John French (circa 1616-1657) was an English physician who also served as an army doctor. he !rt o" #istillation$ is tho%ght to &e representative o" the English chemistry o" this period. John French was "ollower o" 'aracels%s( school o" alchemy)chemistry* which was s+eptical o" certain alchemical traditions yet dedicated to see+ing medical %ses "or vario%s chemicals and compo%nds. ,ote the "re-%ent re"erences to 'aracels%s in this wor+.

The Epistle Dedicatory


To My Much Honored Friend, Tobias Garbrand, Doctor of Physick and Principal of Gloucester Hall in Oxford .ir/ 0t is my am&ition to let the world +now %pon what score it is that 0 do especially honor men. 0t is not* .ir/* as they are high&orn heirs o" the great potentates* "or which most honor them (and %pon which acco%nt 0 also shall not deny them their d%e) &%t as they e1cell in honesty and are "riends to art. hat poor philosophers sho%ld ta+e no delight in riches* and rich men sho%ld ta+e delight in philosophy* is to me an arg%ment* that there is more delight* honor* and satis"action in the one than in the en2oyment o" the other. 0 once read o" a no&leman3s porter who let in all that were richly apparelled* &%t e1cl%ded a poor philosopher. 4%t 0 sho%ld* i" 0 had &een in his place* have rather let in the philosopher* witho%t the gay clothes* than the gay clothes witho%t the philosopher. !s long as 0 have sense or reason* 0 shall improve them to the honor o" the art* especially that o" alchemy. 0n the per"ection thereo" there are riches* honor* health and length o" days. 4y it* !rte"i%s lived 1555 years* Flamel &%ilt 67 hospitals with large reven%es to them* &esides ch%rches "or it* &oth they and diverse more were acco%nted philosophers* and wise men* which so%nds with more honor in my ears than all the rattling and empty titles o" honor whatsoever &esides. 0n the per"ection o" this art* 0 mean the accomplishing o" the Eli1ir* is the s%lph%r o" philosophers set at li&erty* which grati"ies the releasers thereo" with three +ingdoms* vi8. 9egeta&le* !nimal* and :ineral. !nd what cannot they do* and how honora&le are they* that have the command o" these; hey may commend lead into gold* dying plants into "r%it"%lness* the sic+ into health* old age into yo%th* dar+ness into light* and what not; ! month wo%ld "ail to give yo% an acco%nt o" their power and dominations. ,ow "or the e""ecting o" this 0 shall &esides what 0 have advised in the Epistle to the <eader* say only this= co%rt the mother* and yo% win the da%ghter. 'revail with nat%re* and the "air #iana o" the philosophers is at yo%r service. ,ow* i" yo% cannot prevail with nat%re "or the "airest o" her da%ghters* vi8. the merc%ry o" philosophers* yet she has other da%ghters o" wonder"%l &ea%ty also* as are the essences and magisteries o" philosophers which also are endowed with riches* honor* and health* and any o" these yo% may more easily prevail with their mother nat%re "or. his art o" alchemy is that solary art which is more no&le than all the other si1 arts and sciences* and i" it did once thoro%ghly shine "orth o%t o" the clo%ds where&y it is eclipsed* wo%ld dar+en all the rest (as the s%n does the other si1 planets) or at least swallow %p their light. his is that tr%e nat%ral philosophy which most acc%rately anatomi8es

nat%re and nat%ral things* and principles and operations o" them.

vis%ally

demonstrates

the

hat empty nat%ral philosophy which is read in the %niversities* is scarce the meanest hand-maid to this >%een o" !rts. 0t is a pity that there is s%ch great enco%ragement "or many empty end %npro"ita&le arts* and none "or this* and s%ch similar ingen%ities which* i" promoted* wo%ld render a %niversity "ar more "lo%rishing than the "ormer. 0 once read or heard o" a "amo%s %niversity &eyond the sea that was "allen into decay thro%gh what ca%se 0 +now not. 4%t there was a general co%ncil held &y the learned to determine how to restore it to its primitive glory. he medi%m at last agreed %pon was the promotion o" alchemy* and enco%raging the artists* themselves. 4%t 0 never e1pect to see s%ch rational action in this nation* %ntil shadows vanish* s%&stances "lo%rish* and tr%th prevails* which time 0 hope is at hand and desired &y all tr%e artists and* to my +nowledge* especially &y yo%rsel"* %pon which acco%nt 0 tr%ly honor yo%. ,ow* to yo%rsel" there"ore 0 crave to ad%m&rate something o" that art which 0 +now yo% will &e willing* "or the p%&lic good* to promote. 0 dedicate this treatise to yo%* not that it is worthy o" yo%r acceptance* &%t that it may receive worth &y yo%r acceptance o" it. 0 present it to yo% (as men &ring lead to philosophers to &e tinged into gold) to receive the stamp o" yo%r "avor and appro&ation that it may pass c%rrent* with acceptance among the sons o" art* where&y yo% will contin%e to o&lige him who is .ir* ?o%r most o&liged servant* John French. @ondon* ,ovem&er 65* 1655

Preface
here is a gl%t o" chemical &oo+s* &%t a scarcity o" chemical tr%ths. ,at%re and art a""ord a variety o" spagyrical preparations* &%t they are as yet partially %ndiscovered* partially dispersed in many &oo+s* and those o" diverse lang%ages* and partially reserved in private men3s hands. Ahen there"ore 0 considered what need there is o"* and how accepta&le a general treatise on distillation might &e* especially to o%r English nation (and the rather since 4a+er %pon distillations is &y reason o" the description o" a "ew "%rnaces and vessels therein* &esides which there is small variety either o" preparations or c%riosities sold at s%ch a high rate) 0 tho%ght 0 co%ld do them no &etter service than to present them with s%ch a treatise o" that s%&2ect which sho%ld contain in it the choicest preparations o" the most select a%thors* &oth ancient and modern* and those o" several lang%ages* and which 0 have attained &y my own long and man%al e1perience* together with s%ch as 0 have &y way o" e1change p%rchased o%t o" the hands o" private men which they had monopoli8ed as great secrets. 4%t on the other hand* when 0 considered what a m%ltit%de o" artists there is in this nation* "rom many o" which more and &etter things might &e e1pected than "rom mysel"* 0 was at a nonpl%s in my resol%tions* "earing it might &e acco%nted an %npardona&le pres%mption in me to %nderta+e that which might &e &etter per"ormed &y others. 4%t "or the avoiding o" this aspersion* &e pleased to %nderstand that 0 present not this to the world %nder any other notion than o" a ro%gh dra"t (which indeed is the wor+ o" the more %ns+ill"%l and* there"ore* o" mysel" witho%t e1ception) to &e polished &y the more e1pert artist. 0 re2oice as at the &rea+ o" day a"ter a long and tedio%s night to see how this solary art o" alchemy &egins to shine "orth o%t o" the clo%ds o" reproach which it has "or a long time %ndeservedly laid %nder. here are two things which have eclipsed it "or a long time* vi8.* the mists o" ignorance and the specio%s l%nary &ody o" deceit. !rise* B .%n o" tr%th* and dispel these interposed "ogs* that the >%een o" arts may tri%mph in splendor/ 0" men did &elieve what the art co%ld e""ect* and what variety there is in it* they wo%ld &e no longer straightened &y* nor &o%nd %p to or l%rare in ver&a Caleni* vel !ristotelis* &%t wo%ld now s%&scri&e a new engagement to &e tr%e and "aith"%l to the principles o" Dermes and 'aracels%s* as they stand esta&lished witho%t !ristotle* their prince* and Calen and Dippocrates* their lords and masters. hey wo%ld no longer stand dreaming "orth* .ic dicit Calen%s* &%t 0pse di1it Dermes. 0 desire not to &e mista+en as i" 0 did deny Calen his d%e* or Dippocrates what is his right "or* indeed* they wrote e1cellently in many things* and deserve well there&y. hat which 0 cannot allow o" in them is their strict o&servation o" the

-%adr%plicity o" h%mo%rs (which in the school o" 'aracels%s and writings o" Delmont* where the anatomy o" h%mo%rs has &een most rationally and "%lly disc%ssed* has &een s%""iciently con"%ted) and their con"ining themselves to s%ch cr%de medicines which are more "it to &e p%t into spagyrical vessels "or a "%rther digestion than into men3s &odies to &e "ermented therein. Eertainly* i" men were less ignorant* they wo%ld pre"er cordial essences &e"ore cr%de 2%ices* &alsamical eli1irs &e"ore phlegmatic waters* and merc%ry o" philosophers &e"ore common -%ic+silver. 4%t many men have so little insight in this art that they scarce &elieve anything &eyond the distilling o" waters and oil* and e1tracting o" saltsF nay* many that pretend to philosophy* and wo%ld &e acco%nted philosophers* are so %n&elieving that* as says .endivogi%s* altho%gh he wo%ld have intimated the tr%e art to them word &y word* yet they wo%ld &y no means %nderstand or &elieve that there was any water in the philosophers sea. !nd* as he in this case* so 0 in another +now diverse that will not &elieve that common -%ic+silver can o" itsel" &e t%rned wholly into a transparent water* or that glass can &e red%ced into sand and salt o" which it was made* saying G"%sio vitri"icatoria est %ltima "%sioG* or that an her& may &e made to grow in two ho%rs* and the idea o" a plant to appear in a glass* as i" the very plant itsel" were there* and this "rom the essence thereo"* and s%ch li+e preparations as these= the two "ormer whereo" may &e done in hal" an ho%r* &%t the latter re-%iring a longer time* &%t yet possi&le. !nd "or the possi&ility o" the eli1ir* yo% shall as soon pers%ade them to &elieve they +now nothing (which is very hard* i" not an impossi&le thing to do ) than to &elieve the possi&ility thereo". 0" there &e any s%ch thing (they say) why are not the possessors thereo" in"initely rich* "amo%s* doing miracles and c%res and living long; hese o&2ections* especially some o" them* scarce deserve an answerF yet 0 shall show the vanity o" them and ma+e some reply there%nto. #id not !rte"i%s &y the help o" this medicine live to 1555 years; #id not Flamel &%ild "o%rteen hospitals in 'aris* &esides as many in 4oleigne* &esides ch%rches and chapels with large reven%es to them all; #id not 4acon do many miracles; !nd 'aracels%s many mirac%lo%s c%res; 4esides* what says .endivogi%s; 0 have* he says* inc%rred more dangers and di""ic%lties &y discovering mysel" to have this secret than ever 0 had pro"it &y it* and when 0 wo%ld discover mysel" to the great ones* it always redo%nded to my pre2%dice and danger. Ean a man that carries always a&o%t him 15*555 po%nds worth o" 2ewels and gold travel everywhere %p and down* sa"e* and not &e ro&&ed; Dave not many rich money mongers &een tort%red into a con"ession where their money was concealed; #id yo% never hear o" a vapo%ring "ellow in @ondon that* pretending to the +nowledge o" this mystery* was on a s%dden ca%ght aside &y money-thirsters and &y them tormented with tort%res little less than those o" hell* &eing "orced there&y (i" he had +nown it) into a discovery o" it; o say nothing o" &eing in danger o" &eing s%&2ected and enslaved to the pleas%re o" princes and o" &ecoming instr%mental to their to their l%1%ry and tyranny* as also &eing deprived o" all li&erty* as was

once <aim%nd%s @%lli%s. he tr%th is* the greatest matter that philosophers aim at is the en2oyment o" themselves* "or which ca%se they have se-%estered themselves "rom the world and &ecome hermits. Aell* there"ore* and li+e a philosopher spo+e .endivogi%s when he said* G4elieve me* i" 0 were not a man o" that state and condition that 0 am o"* nothing wo%ld &e more pleasant to me than a solitary li"e* or with #iogenes to live hid %nder a t%&. For 0 see all things in this world to &e &%t vanity and that deceit and coveto%sness prevails m%ch* that all things are vendi&le* and that vice does e1cell virt%e. 0 see the &etter things o" the li"e to come &e"ore mine eyes and 0 re2oice in these. ,ow 0 do not wonder* as 0 did &e"ore* why philosophers* when they have attained this medicine* have not cared to have their days shortened (altho%gh &y the virt%e o" their medicine they co%ld have prolonged them) "or every philosopher has the li"e to come so clearly set &e"ore his eyes* as yo%r "ace is seen in a glass. h%s m%ch &y way o" reply to the "rivolo%s o&2ections o" those that &elieve not the verity o" this art* and not only so* &%t will not &elieve it. 0" yo% sho%ld discover to them the process o" the 'hilosopher3s .tone* they wo%ld la%gh at yo%r simplicity* and 0 will warrant yo% never ma+e %se o" it. ,ay* i" yo% sho%ld ma+e pro2ection &e"ore them* they wo%ld thin+ that even in that there was a "allacy* so %n&elieving are they. .o 0 "ind them* and so 0 leave them* and shall "orever "ind them the same. here is another sort o" man &y whom this art has &een m%ch scandali8ed* and they indeed have &ro%ght a great odi%m %pon it &y carrying a&o%t* and vending their whites and reds* their sophisticated oils and salts* their dangero%s and ill-prepared t%r&ithes and a%r%m vitaes. !nd indeed it were worthwhile* and 0 might do good service "or the nation* to discover their cheats* as their sophisticating o" chemical oils with spirit o" t%rpentine* and salts with salt e1tracted o%t o" any wood-ashes and s%ch li+e* &%t here is not place "or so large a disco%rse as this wo%ld amo%nt to. 0 shall only at this time relate to how 'enot%s was cheated with a sophisticated oil o" gold* "or he said he gave 6H d%cats "or the process o" an a%r%m pota&ile which was m%ch cried %p and magni"ied at 'rag%e* &%t at last it proved to &e nothing &%t a mi1t%re o" oil o" camphor* cloves* "ennel-seed and o" vitriol tinged with the leaves o" gold. 0 +now 0 shall inc%r the displeas%re o" some* &%t they are sophisticating* cheating mo%nte&an+s who indeed deserve to &e &o%nd to the peace* &eca%se many men* 0 dare swear* thro%gh their means go in danger o" their lives. 4etter it is that their +navery sho%ld &e detected* than a no&le art thro%gh their villany &e clo%ded and aspersed. ,ow we m%st consider that there are degrees in this art* "or there is the accomplishment o" the eli1ir* itsel"* and there is the discovery o" many e1cellent essences* magisteries* and spirits* etc.* which a&%ndantly recompence the discoverers thereo" with pro"it* health* and delight. 0s not 'aracels%s* his @%d%s that dissolves the stone and all tartaro%s matter in the &ody into a li-%or* worth "inding o%t; 0s not his inea .cat%ra a most no&le

"

medicine* that e1ting%ishes all preternat%ral heat in the &ody in a moment; 0s not his al+ahest a "amo%s dissolvement that can in an instant dissolve all things into their "irst principles* and withall is a speci"ic%m against all distempers o" the liver; Aho wo%ld not ta+e pains to ma+e the -%intessence o" honey and the philosophical spirit o" wine which are cordial and &alsamical even to admiration; ! whole day wo%ld "ail to rec+on %p all the e1cellent* admira&le rarities that &y this spagyrical art might &e &ro%ght to light* in the searching o%t o" which* why may not the eli1ir* itsel"* at last &e attained %nto; 0s it not possi&le "or them that pass thro%gh many philosophical preparations to %n"old at last the riddles and hieroglyphics o" the philosophers; Br were they all mere phantoms; 0s there no "%ndament%m in re "or this secret; 0s there no sperm in gold; 0s it not possi&le to e1alt it "or m%ltiplication; 0s there no %niversal spirit in the world; 0s it not possi&le to "ind that collected in one thing which is dispersed in all things; Ahat is that which ma+es gold incorr%pti&le; Ahat ind%ced the philosophers to e1amine gold "or the matter o" their medicine; Aas not all gold once living; 0s there none o" this living gold* the matter o" philosophers* to &e had; #id .endivogi%s* the last o" +nown philosophers* spend it all; .%rely* there is matter eno%gh "or philosophers* and also some philosophers at this day "or the matter* altho%gh they are %n+nown to %s. here are* says .endivogi%s* witho%t do%&t many men o" a good conscience &oth o" high and low degree (0 spea+ +nowingly) that have this medicine and +eep it secretly. i" so* let no man &e disco%raged in the prosec%tion o" it* especially i" he ta+es along with him the "ive +eys which ,olli%s sets down which indeed all philosophers with one consent en2oin the %se and o&servation o". 1. .eeing it is a divine and celestial thing* it m%st &e so%ght "or "rom a&ove* and that not witho%t a "%ll resol%tion "or a pio%s and charita&le improvement o" it. 6. 4e"ore yo% ta+e yo%rsel" to the wor+* propo%nd to yo%rsel" what yo% see+* and enter not %pon the practice %ntil yo% are "irst well versed in the theory. For it is m%ch &etter to learn with yo%r &rain and imagination than with yo%r hands and costs* and especially st%dy nat%re well* and see i" yo%r proposals are agreea&le to the possi&ility thereo". I. #iligently read the sayings o" tr%e philosophers* read them over again and again and meditate on them* and ta+e heed that yo% do not read the writings o" imposters instead o" the &oo+s o" the tr%e philosophers. Eompare their sayings with the possi&ility o" nat%re* and o&sc%re places clear ones* and where philosophers say they have erred* do &eware* and consider well the general a1ioms o" philosophers* and read so long %ntil yo% see a sweet harmony* and consent in the sayings o" them. H. 0magine not high things* &%t in all things imitate nat%re* vi8. in matter* in removing what is heterogeneo%s* in weight* in color*

in "ire* in wor+ing* in slowness o" wor+ing* and let the operations not &e v%lgar* nor yo%r vessels. Aor+ diligently and constantly. 5. 0" it is possi&le* ac-%aint yo%r sel" thoro%ghly with some tr%e philosophers. !ltho%gh they will not directly discover themselves that they have this secret* yet &y one circ%mstance or another it may &e concl%ded how near they are to it. Ao%ld not any rational man that had &een conversant with 4acon* and seeing him do s%ch mirac%lo%s things* or with .endivogi%s who did intimate the art to some word &y word* have concl%ded that they were not ignorant o" it; here have &een philosophers* and perhaps still are* that altho%gh they will not discover how it is made* yet may certi"y yo%* to the saving o" a great deal o" costs* pains* and time* how it is made. !nd to &e convinced o" an error is a great step to the tr%th. 0" <ipley had &een &y any t%tor convinced o" those many errors &e"ore he had &o%ght his +nowledge at so dear a rate* he had long &e"ore* with less charges attained to his &lessed desire. !nd as a "riendly t%tor in this* so in all spagyrical preparations whatsoever* is o" all things most necessary. ! "aith"%l well e1perienced master will teach yo% more in the mysteries o" alchemy in a -%arter o" a year than &y yo%r own st%dies and chargea&le operations yo% will learn in seven years. 0n the "irst place* there"ore* and a&ove all things apply yo%rsel" to an e1pert* "aith"%l* and comm%nicative artist* and acco%nt it a great gain i" yo% can p%rchase his "avor* tho%gh with a good grat%ity* to lead yo% thro%gh the man%al practice o" the chie"est and choicest preparations. 0 said apply yo%rsel" to an artist* "or there is scarce any process in all o" chemistry so easy that he who never saw it done will &e to see+* and commit some errors in the doing o" it. 0 said e1pert that he may &e a&le to instr%ct yo% arightF "aith"%l* that as he is a&le* so may "aith"%lly per"orm what he promisesF and comm%nicative* that he may &e "ree in discovering himsel" and his art to yo%. he tr%th is* most artists reserve that to themselves* which they +now* either o%t o" a desire to &e admired the more "or their %ndiscovered secrets or o%t o" envy to others3 +nowledge. 4%t how "ar this h%mor is approva&le in them* 0 leave it to others to 2%dgeF and as "or my part* 0 have here comm%nicated %pon the acco%nt o" a &are acceptance only what 0 have with many years o" pains* m%ch reading* and great costs +nown. here is &%t one thing which 0 desire to &e silent in* as to%ching the process thereo". !s "or the thing itsel" to &e prepared* what it is 0 have elsewhere in this treatise e1pressed. !nd the preparing o" that is indeed a thing worth o" anyone3s +nowing* and which perhaps herea"ter 0 may ma+e +nown to some. 0 am o" the same mind with .endivogi%s that the "o%rth monarchy which is northern is dawning* in which (as the ancient philosophers did divine) all arts and sciences shall "lo%rish* and greater and more things shall &e discovered than in the three "ormer. hese monarchies the philosophers rec+on not according to the more potent* &%t according to the corners o" the world* whereo" the northern is the last and* indeed* is no other than the

1$

Colden !ge in which all tyranny* oppression* envy* and coveto%sness shall cease* when there shall &e one prince and one people a&o%nding with love and mercy* and "lo%rishing in peace* which day 0 earnestly e1pect. 0n the meantime* i" what 0 +now may add to yo%r e1perience* yo% may have it "reely. !nd i" 0 shall see that this treatise o" distillation passes with acceptance among the artists o" this nation* 0 shall herea"ter grati"y them "or their good will with two other parts o" chemistry* vi8. s%&limation and calcination. !nd 0 hope this will &e occasion to set the more e1pert artist on wor+* "or the comm%nicating their e1periences to the world. Bne thing (co%rteo%s reader) let me desire yo% to ta+e notice o"* vi8. whereas every process is set down plain* yet all o" them m%st &e proceeded in sec%nd%m artem alchymistae (which art indeed is o&tained &y e1perience) and there"ore many that wor+ according to the &are process e""ect not what they intend* and the reason is this* &eca%se there was some art o" the alchemist wanting. o concl%de* i" yo% +now more or &etter things than these* &e candid and impart them (considering that 0 wrote these "or them that +now them not)F i" not* accept the endeavors o" yo%r "riend* John French.

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!OO" #
$HAT D#%T#&&AT#O' #% A'D THE "#'D% THE(EOF 0 shall not stand here to show its origin* as &eing a thing +nown* yet little cond%cing to %nderstand what distillation principal and chie" de"initions where the art o" distillation had not easily to &e proved and* i" o%r ens%ing disco%rse. 4%t let %s is* o" which there are three or descriptions=

1. #istillation is a certain art o" e1tracting the li-%or* or the h%mid part o" things &y virt%e o" heat (as the matter shall re-%ire) &eing "irst resolved into a vapor and then condensed again &y cold. 6. #istillation is the art o" e1tracting the spirit%al and essential h%midity "rom the phlegmatic* or o" the phlegmatic "rom the spirit%al. I. #istillation is the changing o" gross thic+ &odies into a thinner and li-%id s%&stance* or separation o" the p%re li-%or "rom the imp%re "eces. 0 shall treat o" distillation according to all these three acceptions* and no otherwise* hence 0 shall e1cl%de s%&limation and degrees o" heat there are* and which are convenient "or every operation* and they are principally "o%r. he "irst in only a warmth* as is that o" horse d%ng* o" the s%n* o" warm water* and the vapor thereo"* which +ind o" heat serves "or p%tre"action and digestion. he second is o" seething water and the vapor thereo"* as also o" ashes* and serves to distill those things which are s%&tle and moist* as also "or the recti"ying o" any spirit or oil. he third is o" sand and "ilings o" iron which serves to distill things s%&tle and dry* or gross and moist. he "o%rth is o" a na+ed "ire - close* open or with a &last which serves to distill metals and minerals and hard g%mmy things* s%ch as am&er* etc. 0 do not say serves only to distill these* "or many "ormer distillations are per"ormed &y this heat* as the distilling o" spirits and oils* etc.* in a copper still over a na+ed "ireF &%t these may &e distilled &y the two "ormer degrees o" heat. 4%t minerals and s%ch li+e cannot &%t &y this "o%rth degree alone. OF THE MATTER AND FORM OF FURNACES he matter o" "%rnaces is vario%s* "or they may &e made either o" &ric+ and clay* or clay alone with whites o" eggs* hair and "ilings or iron (and o" these i" the clay &e "at are made the &est

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and most d%ra&le "%rnaces) or o" iron or copper* cast or "orged. he "orms also o" "%rnaces are vario%s. he "ittest "orm "or distillation is ro%ndF "or so the heat o" the "ire &eing carried %p e-%ally di""%ses itsel" every way* which happens not in a "%rnace o" another "ig%re* as "o%r s-%are or triang%lar* "or the corners disperse and separate the "orce o" the "ire. heir magnit%de m%st &e s%ch as shall &e "it "or the receiving o" the vesselF their thic+ness so great as necessity shall seem to re-%ireF only th%s m%ch o&serve* that i" they &e o" "orged iron or copper* they m%st &e coated inside* especially i" yo% intend to %se them "or a strong "ire. hey m%st &e made with two &ottoms disting%ished* as it were* into two "orges* the one &elow which may receive the ashes* the other a&ove to contain the "ire. he &ottom o" this %pper m%st either &e an iron grate or else an iron plate per"orated with many holes so that the ashes may the more easily "all down into the &ottom* which otherwise wo%ld p%t o%t the "ire. ?et some "%rnaces have three partitions* as the "%rnace "or rever&eration* and the register "%rnace. 0n the "irst and lowest the ashes are received. 0n the second the "ire is p%t* and in the third o" the "%rnace "or rever&eration* the matter which is to &e rever&erated. his third o%ght to have a semicirc%lar cover so that the heat may &e re"lected %pon the contained matter. he &ottom o" the third and %ppermost partition o" the register "%rnace m%st &e either a plate o" iron or a smooth stone per"orated with holes* having stopples o" stone "itted there%nto which yo% may ta+e o%t or p%t in* as yo% wo%ld have the heat increased or decreased. 0n the top or %pper part o" all these "%rnaces where it shall seem most "it* there m%st &e two or three holes made* that &y them the smo+e may more "reely pass o%t and the air let in to ma+e the "ire &%rn stronger i" need re-%ires* or else which are to &e sh%t with stopples made "it to them. he mo%ths o" the "ore-mentioned partitions m%st have sh%tters* 2%st li+e an oven3s mo%th* with which yo% may sh%t them closed or leave them open i" yo% wo%ld have the "ire &%rn stronger. 4%t in de"ect o" a "%rnace or "it matter to ma+e one* we may %se a +ettle or a pot set %pon a trivet* as we shall show when we come to give yo% a description o" the "%rnace and vessels. he tr%th o" the matter is* a good artist will ma+e any still* yea and in hal" a day3s time ma+e a "%rnace or something e-%ivalent to it "or any operations. OF VESSELS FIT FOR DISTILLATION 9essels "or distillation are o" vario%s matter and "orm. For they may &e either o" lead* which 0 altogether disapprove o" "or that they t%rn the li-%ors into a white and mil+y s%&stance &esides the malignity they give to them* or they may &e o" copper* iron* or tin which are &etter than the "ormer. hey may &e o" 2%g-metal* or potter3s metal gla8ed* or glass which are the &est o" all* where they may &e %sed witho%t "ear o" &rea+ing or melting. .ome ma+e them o" silver* &%t they are very changea&le. hey that are a&le and willing may have the &ene"it o" them.

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OF LUTES FOR COATING OF GLASSES AND FOR CLOSURES AS ALSO SEVERAL WAYS OF STOPPING GLASSES he &est l%te is made th%s. a+e o" loam and sand tempered with salt water (which +eeps it "rom cleaving). o these add the cap%t mort%ary o" vitriol or a-%a "ortis* and scalings o" iron* and temper them well together. his serves to coat retorts or any glass vessels that m%st end%re a most strong "ire* and will never "ail i" well made. .ome add "la1* &eaten glass* and pots and "lints* etc. a+e %nsla+ed lime and linseed oil. :i1 them well together and ma+e thereo" a l%te which will &e so hard that no spirit will pierce it* and this serves "or the clos%re o" glasses. Br* moisten an o1 &ladder in the white o" an egg &eaten to water* or in de"ect o" a &ladder* %se paper and &ind them ro%nd where the vessels are 2oined together* one over another two or three times. Br* i" the spirits in the glass &e e1ceedingly corrosive* then %se the cap%t mort%ary o" a-%a "ortis* linseed oil* and chal+ mi1ed together. 0" a glass &e crac+ed* then wet a linen cloth in the white o" an egg &eaten to water* and lay %pon it* an %pon that presently while it is wet* si"t some %nsla+ed lime and press it close with yo%r hand. Ahen that is dry* lay on another cloth th%s wet as &e"ore and on it si"t more lime. ! vessel may &e stopped so close with -%ic+silver that no spirit can &reathe "orth* &y which means the glass will &e preserved "rom &rea+ing &y the enclosed spirits ("or the head will "irst yield &e"ore the glass &rea+s). he vessel m%st &e made as the "ig%re here%nder shows. his also is a good way to preserve spirits already distilled "rom the air.

14

!. .igni"ies the head or cover. 4. he &ody or vessel itsel".

E. he little glass to ta+e o%t the li-%or that is in the vessel &eca%se it cannot well &e po%red o%t* as &y reason o" the -%ic+silver which will &e apt to &e lost* so &y reason o" the "orm o" the vessel itsel". #. ! "alse &ottom where the -%ic+silver m%st lie* into which the head m%st &e set %pon the -%ic+silver so that the -%ic+silver may come a&ove the &ottom o" the head. !lso* yo% may ma+e stopples o" glasses gro%nd so smooth that no vapor can get "orth &y them* as yo% may see &y this pattern.

15

!. .igni"ies the stopple o" glass gro%nd very smooth and "it to the mo%th o" the vessel. 4. he glass &ody.

4%t the &est way is to have a croo+ed pipe which may have -%ic+silver in it* and &e well l%ted to the &ody that no spirit can get "orth. 4y this means the glass will never &rea+* "or the -%ic+silver will "irst yield.

!. 4.

he croo+ed pipe. he glass &ody.

Br %pon the top o" a glass stopple there may &e "astened some lead* that i" the spirit &e too strong* it will only heave %p the stopple and let it "all down again. E. #. he glass stopple with lead on the top. he mo%th o" the vessel itsel".

,ow the way to nip %p a glass* or seal it %p hermetically is a"ter this manner. '%t what matter yo% please into a &olt head with a long nec+ or pipe* p%t this pipe thro%gh a pan that has a little hole made in the &ottom* that the top o" it may &e three or "o%r inches a&ove the pan. Elose %p the hole ro%nd a&o%t the pipe with clay. hen p%t coals in the pan and +indle "irst those that are "%rtherest o"" "rom the pipe that the heat may come &y degrees to the pipe ("or otherwise a s%dden heat will &rea+ it). Ahen the pipe is hot* &low the coals a&o%t it %ntil it melts. hen with a pair o" shears* c%t it o"" where it is melted* and then with a pair o" tongs close it together. ,ote that a"ter yo% have closed it yo% m%st p%t the &%rning coals %pon the top thereo"* and let it th%s stand %ntil all &e cold which m%st &e done &y degrees* "or otherwise the glass will certainly crac+ in the place where it is nipped. ,ote that the pan m%st stand %pon some "rame or some hollow place that there may &e a passage "or the pipe to come thro%gh it. !lso the &olt head m%st stand %pon a trivet or some other "irm place according to this "ig%re.

1!

AN EXPLANATION OF SUCH HARD WORDS AND TERMS OF ART WHICH ARE USED IN THIS ENSUING TREATISE A. AMALGAMATION is a calcining or corroding o" metals with -%ic+silver* and it is done th%s. a+e any metal e1cept iron* &eaten into thin leaves or very small powder. :i1 it with a&o%t eight parts o" -%ic+silver (which may the &etter &e done i" &oth &e heated "irst) that they may &ecome one %ni"orm mass. Evaporate the -%ic+silver over the "ire* and the metal will &e le"t in the &ottom as a thin cal1. C. CALCINATION is the red%cing o" anything into a cal1* and ma+ing it "ria&le* and it may &e done two ways - &y "iring* either &y red%cing into ashes or &y rever&eratingF or &y corrosion* either &y amalgamation* precipitation* "%migation or vaporation* cementation or strati"ication. CIRCULATION is when any li-%or is so placed in digestion that it shall rise %p and "all down* rise %p and "all down* and so do contin%ally* and there&y &ecome more digested and mat%re* "or which %se "or the most part we %se a pelican. CLARIFICATION is the separation o" the gross "eces "rom any decoction or 2%ice* and it is done three ways - &y the white o" an egg* &y digestion* or &y "iltration. COAGULATION is the red%cing o" any li-%id s%&stance &y evaporating the h%midity. thing to a thic+er

COHOBATION is the "re-%ent a&straction o" any li-%or* po%red o"ten on the "eces "rom whence it was distilled* &y distillation. CONGELATION is when any li-%or &eing decocted to the heights is a"terwards* &y settling into any cold place* t%rned into a transparent s%&stance li+e %nto ice. CORROSION is the calcining o" &odies &y corrosive things. D. DECANTATION is the po%ring o"" o" any li-%or which has a settling &y inclination. DELIQUIUM is the dissolving o" a hard &ody into a li-%or* as salt* or the powder o" any calcined matter* etc.* in a moist place.

1"

DESCENSION is when the essential 2%ice dissolved "rom the matter to &e distilled does descend or "all downward. DESTUMATION is the ta+ing o"" the "roth that "loats on the top with a spoon or "eather* or &y percolation. DISTILLATION is the e1tracting o" the h%mid part o" things &y virt%e o" heat* &eing "irst resolved into a vapor* and then condensed again &y cold. h%s it is generally ta+en* &%t how more partic%larly* 0 shall a"terward show. DIGESTION is a concocting or mat%ration o" cr%de things &y an easy and gentle heat. DISSOLUTION is the t%rning o" &odies into a li-%or &y the addition o" some h%midity. DULCORATION or c%lci"ication is either the washing o"" o" the salt "rom any matter that was calcined therewith* with warm water* in which the salt is dissolved and the matter d%lci"ied. Br it is the sweetening o" things with s%gar* or honey* or syr%p. E. ELEVATION is the rising o" any matter in matter o" "%me or vapor &y virt%e o" heat. EVAPORATION or EJD!@! 0B, is the vaporing away o" any moist%re. EXALTATION is when greater p%rity. any matter does &y digestion attain to a

EXPRESSION is the e1tracting o" any li-%or &y the hand or &y a press. EXTRACTION is the drawing "orth o" an essence "rom a corporeal matter &y some "it li-%or as spirit o" wine* the "eces remaining in the &ottom. F. FERMENTATION is when anything is resolved into itsel"* and is rari"ied and ripened* whether it &e done &y any "erment added to it or &y digestion only. FILTRATION is the separation o" any li-%id matter "rom its "eces &y ma+ing it r%n thro%gh a &rown paper made li+e a t%nnel* or a little &ag o" woolen cloth* or thro%gh shreds. FIXATION is the ma+ing o" any volatile spirit%al &ody end%re the "ire and not "ly away* whether it &e done &y o"ten reiterated distillations* or s%&limations* or &y the adding o" some "i1ing thing to it.

1#

FUMIGATION is the calcining o" &odies &y the "%me o" sharp spirits* whether vegeta&le or mineral* the &odies &eing laid over the mo%th o" the vessel wherein the sharp spirits are. H. HUMECTATION anything. or irrigation is a I. IMBIBITION is when any dry &ody drin+s in any moist%re that is p%t %pon it. IMPREGNATION is when any dry &ody has dr%n+ in so m%ch moist%re that it will admit o" no more. INCORPORATION is a mi1ing o" a dry and moist &ody together so as to ma+e a %ni"orm mass o" them. INFUSION is the p%tting o" any hard matter into li-%or* "or the virt%e thereo" to &e e1tracted. INSOLATION is digestion o" things in the s%n. L. LEVIGATION is the red%cing o" any hard matter into a most "ine powder. LIQUATION is a melting or ma+ing anything "l%id. LUTATION is either the stoppings o" the ori"ices o" vessels so that no vapor passes o%t* or the coating o" any vessel to preserve it "rom &rea+ing in the "ire. M. MACERATION is the same as digestion. MATURATION is the e1alting o" a s%&stance that is immat%re* and cr%de to &e ripened and concocted. MENSTRUUM is any li-%or that serves "or the e1tracting o" the essence o" anything. P. PRECIPITATION is when &odies corroded &y corrosive spirits either &y the evaporating o" the spirits remain in the &ottom* or &y po%ring something %pon the spirit* as oil o" tartar* or a good -%antity o" water* do "all to the &ottom. sprin+ling o" moist%re %pon

2$

PURIFICATION is a separation o" any li-%or "rom its "eces whether it &e done &y clari"ication* "iltration* or digestion. PUTREFACTION is the resol%tion o" a mi1ed &ody into itsel" &y nat%ral gentle heat. Q. QUINTESSENCE is an a&sol%te* p%re* and well digested medicine drawn "rom any s%&stance* either animal* vegeta&le* or mineral. R. RECTIFICATION is either the drawing o" the phlegm "rom the spirit or o" the spirit "rom the phlegm* or the e1altation o" any li-%or &y a reiterated distillation. REVERBERATION is re"lecting "lame. the red%cing o" S. SOLUTION is a dissolving or atten%ating o" &odies. STRATIFICATION is a strewing o" corroding powder on plates o" metal &y co%rse. SUBLIMATION is an elevating or raising o" the matter to the %pper part o" the vessel &y way o" a s%&tle powder. SUBTILIATION is the t%rning o" a &ody into a li-%or or into a "ine powder. T. TRANSMUTATION is the changing o" a thing in s%&stance* color* and -%ality. V. VOLATILE is that which "lyeth the "ire. RULES TO BE CONSIDERED IN DISTILLATION 1. :a+e choice o" a "it place in yo%r ho%se "or the "%rnace* so that it may neither hinder anything* nor &e in danger o" the "alling o" anything into it that shall lie over it. For a "orcing "%rnace* it will &e &est to set it in a chimney* &eca%se a strong heat is %sed to it* and many times there are %sed &rands which will smo+e* and the "ire &eing great* the danger thereo" may &e prevented and o" &odies into a cal1 &y a

21

things o" a malign and venerate -%ality &eing distilled in s%ch a "%rnace* the "%me or vapor* i" the glass sho%ld &rea+ may &e carried %p into the chimney which otherwise will "ly a&o%t the room to thy pre2%dice. 2. 0n all +inds o" distillation the vessels are not to &e "illed too "%ll* "or i" yo% distill li-%ors they will r%n over* and i" other more solid things the one part will &e &%rned &e"ore the other part &e at all wor+ed %pon. 4%t "ill the "o%rth part o" go%rds* the hal" o" retorts* the third part o" copper vessels* and in recti"ying o" spirits "ill the vessel hal" "%ll. 3. @et those things which are "lat%lent* as wa1* resin* and s%ch li+e* as also those things which do easily &oil %p* as honey* &e p%t in a lesser -%antity and &e distilled in greater vessels with the addition o" salt* sand* or s%ch li+e. 4. here &e some things which re-%ire a strong "ire* yet yo% m%st have a care that the "ire not &e too vehement* "or "ear their nat%re sho%ld &e destroyed. 5. ?o% m%st have a care that the l%te with which vessels are closed do not give vent and alter the nat%re o" the li-%or* especially when a strong "ire is to &e %sed. 6. !cid li-%ors have this pec%liar property* that the wea+er part goes "orth "irst and the stronger last. 4%t in "ermented and li-%ors the spirit goes "irst* then the phlegm. . 0" the li-%or retains a certain empyre%ma or smatch o" the "ire* yo% shall help it &y p%tting it into a glass close stopped and so e1posing it to the heat o" the s%n* and now and then opening the glass that the "iery impression may e1hale. Br else let the glass stand in a cold moist place. !. Ahen yo% p%t water into a seething 4alne%m wherein there are glasses* let it &e hot or else yo% will endanger &rea+ing the glasses. ". Ahen yo% ta+e any earthen or glass vessel "rom the "ire* e1pose it not to the cold air too s%ddenly* "or "ear it sho%ld &rea+. 1#.

22

0" yo% wo%ld have a 4alne%m as hot as ashes* p%t sand or sawd%st into it* that the heat o" the water may &e therewith +ept in and made more intense. 11. 0" yo% wo%ld ma+e a heat with horse d%ng* the manner is this* vi8.* ma+e a hole in the gro%nd. hen lay one co%rse o" horse d%ng a "oot thic+* then a co%rse o" %nsla+ed lime a "oot thic+* and then another o" d%ng* as &e"ore. hen set in yo%r vessel* and lay aro%nd it lime and horse d%ng mi1ed together. 'ress it down very hard. ?o% m%st sprin+le it every other day with water. Ahen it ceases to &e hot* then ta+e it o%t and p%t in more. 12. ,ote that always sand or ashes m%st &e well si"ted* "or otherwise a coal or stone therein may &rea+ yo%r glass. 13. he time "or p%tre"action o" things is vario%s* "or i" the thing to &e p%tre"ied is vegeta&le and green* less time is re-%iredF i" dry* a longer time is re-%ired. :inerals re-%ire the longest o" all. h%s m%ch note* that things are sooner p%tre"ied in clo%dy weather than in "air. 14. 0" yo% wo%ld +eep vegeta&les "resh and green all year* gather them on a dry day and p%t them into an earthen vessel which yo% m%st stop close and set in a cold place and* as Cla%&er%s says* they will +eep "resh a whole year. 15. #o not e1pect to e1tract the essence o" any vegeta&le %nless &y ma+ing %se o" the "eces* le"t a"ter distillationF "or i" yo% ta+e those "eces* as "or e1ample o" a nettle* and ma+e a decoction thereo" and strain it and set it in the "rost* it will &e congealed and in it will appear a tho%sand leaves o" nettles with their pric+les which when the decoction is again resolved &y heat* vanish away* which shows that the essence o" the vegeta&les lies in the salt thereo". 16. 0n all yo%r operations* diligently o&serve the processes which yo% read and vary not a little "rom them* "or sometimes a small mista+e or neglect spoils the whole operation and "r%strates yo%r e1pectations. 1 . ry not at "irst e1periments o" great cost or great di""ic%lty* "or it will &e a great disco%ragement to yo%* and yo% will &e very apt to mista+e. 1!.

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0" any wo%ld enter %pon the practice o" chemistry* let him apply himsel" to some e1pert artist "or to &e instr%cted in the man%al operation o" things* "or &y this means he will learn more in two months than he can &y his practice and st%dy in 7 years* as also avoid m%ch pains and cost and redeem m%ch time which else o" necessity he will lose. 1". Enter not %pon any operation %nless it &e consistent with the possi&ility o" nat%re which* there"ore* yo% m%st endeavor as m%ch as possi&le to %nderstand well. 2#. #o not interpret all things yo% read according to the literal sense* "or philosophers when they wrote anything too e1cellent "or the v%lgar to +now* e1pressed it enigmatically that the sons o" !rt only might %nderstand it 21. 0n all yo%r operations propose a good end to yo%rsel"* as not to %se any e1cellent e1periment that yo% shall discover to any ill end* &%t "or the p%&lic good. 22. 0t will &e necessary that yo% +now all s%ch instr%ments that yo% shall %se a&o%t yo%r "%rnace and glasses* whereo" some are already e1pressed and some more are shown in the "ollowing pages.

!. .igni"ies an iron rod with two rings at the ends thereo"* which m%st &e heated red hot and applied to that part o" the glass which yo% wo%ld &rea+ o"". Ahen yo% have held it there so long %ntil the glass &ecomes very hot* then ta+e it o"" and drop some cold water where yo% wo%ld have it &rea+ o""* and it will presently crac+ in

24

s%nder. hese rings are "or s%ch glasses as will go into them. ?o% m%st have diverse o" this sort* even o" all si8es. 4. !n iron hoo+ which m%st &e heated hot and applied to any great glass that will not go into a ring. his hoo+ has a wooden handle. E. ! pair o" tongs which are "or diverse %ses. #. ! croo+ed iron to ra+e &etween the grates to clear them. E. !n iron ra+e to ra+e the ashes o%t o" the ash-hole. ! thread dipped in melted &rimstone and tied a&o%t a glass and then "ired may serve instead o" the iron rings and the hoo+. COMMON DISTILLED SIMPLE WATERS ARE MADE THUS a+e what her&s or "lowers yo% please and p%t them into a common cold still and let them distill gently. his is the "orm o" a common cold still.

4%t note that this +ind o" water is &%t the phlegm o" the vegeta&le which yo% distill and has very little virt%e or odor in it. Bnly roses and mints and two or three more have an odor* &%t all &esides have as little virt%e as common distilled water. 0 do not deny &%t that it may &e so ordered that these +inds o" waters may parta+e &oth o" the smell and strength o" their vegeta&les in a good meas%re* and it is th%s. TO MA$E WATERS IN A COLD STILL THAT SHALL HAVE THE FULL SMELL AND VIRTUE OF THE VEGETABLE a+e what her&s* "lowers* or roots yo% please (so that they &e green). 4r%ise them and mi1 with them some leaven* and let them stand close covered "or "o%r or "ive days. hen distill them a"ter the manner a"oresaid.

25

ANOTHER WAY TO MA$E WATER TASTE AND SMELL STRONGLY OF ITS VEGETABLE Ahen yo% have distilled any vegeta&le in a cold still a"ter the %s%al manner (so that yo% ta+e heed yo% dry not the her& too m%ch* which yo% may prevent &y p%tting a &rown paper in the &ottom o" the still* giving it a gentle "ire and t%rning the ca+e &e"ore it is -%ite dried) ta+e the ca+es that remain in the &ottom o" the still and the water that is distilled "rom thence (having a good -%antity thereo") and p%t them into a hot still and let them stand warm "or the space o" 6H ho%rs* and then distill them. hen i" yo% wo%ld have the water strong* p%t the said water into more "resh ca+es* casting away the other and do as &e"ore. his is the tr%est and &est way to have the water o" any vegeta&le. !lso* yo% shall &y this way p%rchase some oil which is to &e separated and to &e +ept &y itsel". TO MA$E WATER AT ANY TIME OF THE YEAR IN A COLD STILL WITHOUT GREEN HERBS% SO THAT THE WATER SHALL SMELL STRONG OF THE HERB '%t "air water into the &ody o" the cold still. hen hang a &ag "%ll o" that her& that yo% wo%ld have the water o"* &eing "irst dried* or seed or root thereo" "irst &r%ised* and then ma+e a strong "ire %nder the still. ,ote that those vegeta&les o" which the water is made a"ter this and the "ormer manner m%st &e o" a "ragrant smell* "or s%ch as have &%t little or no smell cannot yield a water o" any considera&le odor. ANOTHER WAY TO MA$E A WATER TASTE AND SMELL STRONG OF ITS VEGETABLES a+e o" the dry her&* or seed or root &r%ised* to a po%nd o" each p%t 16 pints o" spring water. #istill them in a hot still or alem&ic+* and the water that is distilled o"" p%t %pon more o" the "resh her&s* seeds* or roots. #o this three or "o%r times and yo% shall have a water "%ll o" the virt%e o" the vegeta&le* &eing almost as strong as a spirit. TO MA$E THE WATER OF THE FLOWERS OF &ASMINE% HONEYSUC$LES OR WOODBINE% VIOLETS% LILIES% ETC. RETAIN THE SMELL OF THEIR FLOWERS he reason why these "lowers in the common way o" distillation yield a water o" no "ragrancy at all* altho%gh they themselves are very odori"ero%s* are either &eca%se i" a stronger "ire &e made in the distilling o" them the grosser and more earthy spirit comes o%t with the "iner* and tro%&les it* as it is in case the "lowers &e cr%shed or &r%ised (where the odor %pon the same acco%nt is lost) or &eca%se the odori"ero%s spirit thereo" &eing thin and very s%&tle rises with a gentle heat* &%t "or lac+ o" &ody vapors away. he art there"ore that is here re-%ired is to prevent the

mi1ing o" the grosser spirit with the "iner and to give s%ch a &ody to the "iner that shall not em&ase it* and it is th%s= a+e either o" the a"oresaid "lowers gathered "resh* and at noon in a "air day* and let them not at all &e &r%ised. 0n"%se a hand"%l o" them in two -%arts o" white wine (which m%st &e very good or else yo% la&or in vain) "or the space o" hal" an ho%r. hen ta+e them "orth and in"%se in the same wine the same -%antity o" "resh "lowers. his do eight or ten times* &%t still remem&er that they &e not in"%sed a&ove hal" an ho%r. For according to the r%le o" in"%sion* a short stay o" the &ody that has a "ine spirit* in the li-%or receives the spiritF &%t a longer stay con"o%nds it* &eca%se it draws "orth the earthy part withall which destroys the "iner. hen distill this li-%or (all the "lowers &eing "irst ta+en o%t) in a glass go%rd in a very gentle 4alne%m* or over a vapor o" hot water* the 2oints o" the glass &eing very well closed* and yo% shall have a water o" a most "ragrant odor. 4y this means the spirit o" the wine which serves to &ody the "ine odori"ero%s spirit o" the "lowers arises as soon as the "ine spirit* itsel"* witho%t any earthiness mi1ed with it. ,ote that in de"ect o" wine* a-%a vitae will serveF also strong &eer* &%t not altogether so well* &eca%se there is more gross earthiness in it than in wine. he water o" either o" these "lowers is a most "ragrant per"%me and may &e %sed as a very delicate sweet water* and is no small secret.

!. .hows the head o" the alem&ic.

2!

4. he &ody p%rpose.

thereo"

placed

in

&rass

vessel

made

"or

that

E. ! &rass vessel per"orated in many places to o" the water. his vessel shall contain the a&o%t with sawd%st* not only that it may &etter the heat o" the vapor* &%t also lest it sho%ld hard to%ch o" the &rass vessel.

receive the vapor alem&ic compassed and longer retain &e &ro+en &y the

#. .hows the &rass vessel containing the water as it is placed in the "%rnace. E. he "%rnace containing the vessel.

F. ! "%nnel &y which yo% may now and then po%r in water to replace what is vanished and dissipated &y the heat o" the "ire. C. he receiver.

he delineation o" a 4alne%m :ariae may also serve to distill with ashes.

!. .hows the "%rnace with the hole to ta+e "orthe the ashes. 4. .hows another "%rnace* as it were set in the other. ,ow it is o" &rass and r%ns thro%gh the middle o" the +ettle made also o" &rass* so that the contained water or ashes may &e the more easily heated. E. he +ettle wherein the water* ashes* or sand are contained.

2"

#. he alem&ic set in the water* ashes* or sand with the mo%ths o" the receivers. E. he &ottom o" the second &rass "%rnace* whose top is mar+ed with G4G* which contains the "ire. A WATER OUT OF BERRIES IS MADE THUS a+e o" what &erries yo% please* &eing "%ll ripe. '%t them into a go%rd glass* strewing %pon them a good -%antity o" powdered s%gar. Eover them close and let them stand three wee+s or a month. hen distill them in 4alne%m . !"ter this manner straw&erries* rasp&erries* elder&erries* and &lac+ cherries may &e distilled. 4%t note that s%ch as have stones m%st "irst &e &r%ised together with their stones. A SWEATING WATER MADE OF ELDERBERRIES a+e o" elder&erries as many as yo% please. 'ress o%t the 2%ice thereo"* and to every gallon p%t a pint o" white wine vinegar* o" the lees o" white wine a pint. @et them stand in a wooden vessel which yo% m%st then set in some warm place near the "ireside "or the space o" a wee+. hen distill them in a hot still or alem&ic. he "%rnace "or a 4alne%m :ariae with the alem&ics and their receivers.

!. .hows the &rass +ettle "%ll o" water.

2#

4. he cover o" the +ettle per"orated in two places* to give passage "orth to the ve s s els . ! pipe or chimney added to contained to heat the water. #. E. the +ettle* wherein the "ire is

he alem&ic consisting o" its &ody and head. he receiver whereinto the distilled li-%or r%ns.

he e""igies o" another 4alne%m :ariae not so easy to &e removed as the "ormer.

!. .hows the vessel or copper that contains the water. 4. he alem&ic set in water.

4%t lest the &ottom o" the alem&ic &eing hal" "%ll sho%ld "loat %p and down in the water* and so stri+e against the sides o" the +ettle* 0 have tho%ght good to show yo% the way and means to prevent that danger.

3$

!. .hows the vessel or glass alem&ic. 4. ! plate o" lead whereon it stands. E. .trings that &ind the alem&ic to the plate. #. <ings thro%gh which the strings are p%t to "asten the alem&ic. 0n de"ect o" a "%rnace "or a 4alne%m* yo% may ma+e %se o" a pot set %pon a trivet a"ter this manner.

!n o%nce or two o" this water o" elder&erries is a very e1cellent s%dori"ic* and is very good in all diseases that re-%ire sweat* as also in hydropical diseases.

WATER OUT OF ROTTEN APPLES IS MADE THUS a+e as many rotten apples as yo% please. 4r%ise and distill them either in a common cold still or go%rd glasses in 4alne%m. his water is o" greater %se in "evers and hot distempers than the common distilled waters o" any cold vegeta&les.

31

0t is very good in any hot distemper o" the veins and sharpness o" the %rine. 0t is very good in the in"lammations o" the eyes. HOW TO MA$E AQUA VITAE AND SPIRIT OF WINE OUT OF WINE a+e o" what wine yo% please. '%t it into a copper still* two parts o" three &eing empty. #istill it with a worm %ntil no more spirit comes o"". hen this spirit will serve "or the ma+ing o" any spirits o%t o" vegeta&les* &%t i" yo% wo%ld have it stronger* distill it again and hal" will remain &ehind as an insipid phlegm. !nd i" yo% wo%ld have it yet stronger* distill it again* "or every distillation will leave &ehind one moity o" phlegm or therea&o%ts. .o shall yo% have a most p%re and strong spirit o" wine. ! Dot .till

!. .hows the &ottom which o%ght to &e o" copper. 4. he head.

E. he &arrel "illed with cold water to re"rigerate and condense the water and oil that r%n thro%gh the pipe or worm that is p%t thro%gh it. #. ! pipe o" &rass or pewter* or rather a worm o" tin r%nning thro%gh the &arrel. E. he alem&ic set in the "%rnace with the "ire %nder it. HOW TO MA$E AQUA VITAE OUT OF BEER

32

a+e the stale strong &eer or rather the gro%nds thereo" and p%t it into a copper still with a worm. #istill it gently (or otherwise it will ma+e the head o" the still "ly %p) and there will come "orth a wea+ spirit* which is called low wine* o" which when yo% have a good -%antity yo% may distill it again o" itsel"* and there will come "orth a good a-%a vitae. !nd i" yo% distill it two or three times more* yo% shall have as strong a spirit as o%t o" wine and* indeed* &etween which and the spirit o" wine yo% shall perceive none or very little di""erence. HOW TO RECTIFY SPIRIT OF WINE OR AQUA VITAE #istill it in 4alne%m %ntil the last drop that comes o"" &e hot and "%ll o" spirit. ,ote that every time there will remain in the &ottom a -%antity as wea+ as water. ,ote also that every time yo% distill it* when yo% perceive that a very wea+ water comes over* yo% shall then end that distillation. TO MA$E THE MAGISTERY OF WINE WHICH WILL BE ONE OF THE GREATEST CORDIALS AND MOST ODORIFEROUS LIQUOR IN THE WORLD a+e good old rich canary wine* p%t it into a glass vessel that it may "ill the third part thereo"* and nip it %p and set it in a contin%al heat o" horse d%ng "or the space o" "o%r months. hen in "rosty weather set it "orth into the coldest place o" the air yo% can "or the space o" a month that it may &e congealed. !nd so the cold will drive in the tr%e spirit o" the wine into the center thereo" and separate it per"ectly "rom its phlegm. hat which is congealed cast away. 4%t that which is not congealed esteem as the tr%e spirit o" wine. Eirc%late this in a pelican with a moderate heat "or the space o" a month* and yo% will have the tr%e magistery or spirit o" wine which* as it is most cordial* so also most &alsamical* e1ceeding all &alsams "or the c%re o" wo%nds. he "orm o" a 'elican.

33

he matter m%st &e p%t in at the top which a"terwards m%st &e closed %p. TO MA$E ANOTHER MAGISTERY OF WINE THAT A FEW DROPS THEREOF SHALL TURN WATER INTO PERFECT WINE a+e the &est canary wine as m%ch as yo% please* let is stand in p%tre"action "orty days* then distill it in 4alne%m and there will come "orth a spirit* and at last an oil. .eparate the one "rom the other and recti"y the spirit. .et the oil again in p%tre"action "orty days and then distill it. he "eces that are le"t a"ter the "irst distillation will yield a volatile salt which m%st &e e1tracted witho%t calcination* with the phlegm o" the spirit. p%ri"y it well* then impregnate the salt with its spirit* and digest them. hen add the oil and digest them together %ntil they &ecome a red powder* which yo% may %se as it is* or else set it in a cellar %ntil it &e dissolved into a li-%or* and a "ew drops thereo" will do as a&ovesaid.

TO MA$E AN OIL OF WINE a+e wea+ spirit o" wine and distill it in a vessel o" a long nec+. hen po%r on this spirit again %pon the phlegm* and distill it again. #o this several times and yo% shall see the oil o" the wine swim on the phlegm* which phlegm yo% m%st separate "rom the oil &y a t%nnel. 0" this oil &e a"terward circ%lated "or a month* it will there&y &ecome most odori"ero%s* and o" a sing%lar virt%e* and good &eing &oth very cordial and &alsamical.

TO EXTRACT THE SPIRIT OUT OF WINE BY THE SPIRIT OF WINE '%t spirit o" wine well recti"ied %pon Eanary or <henish wine* so ca%tio%sly that it may not mi1 with* &%t swim %pon the wine. @et them stand witho%t stirring "or the space o" H7 ho%rs. hen will the spirit that is in the wine rise %p and 2oin itsel" to the spirit that swims on the top* which yo% shall perceive &y the wea+ness o" the phlegm* and which yo% m%st let r%n o%t at a tap. his m%st &e made in the &ottom o" the vessel "or that p%rpose* and so &e separated "rom the spirit. TO MA$E A VERY SUBTLE SPIRIT OF WINE AT THE FIRST DISTILLING a+e white or wheaten &read as soon as it comes "orth "rom the oven* &rea+ it in the middle* the %pper side "rom the lower side* and hang it hot in a glass vessel over canary wine* &%t so that it to%ches not the wine. hen cover the vessel and let it so stand %ntil the &read swells and is s%""iciently impregnated with the

34

spirit o" wine which it will attract "rom the wine. hen ta+e o%t that &read and p%t in more %ntil yo% have a considera&le -%antity o" &read th%s moistened. hen p%t this &read into a glass &ody* distill it in 4alne%m* and yo% shall have a very s%&tle spirit which yo% may yet recti"y &y circ%lation. 4y "%rnaces and vessels made a"ter this ins%ing "ig%re may &e made "o%r recti"ications o" any spirit at once.

hese vessels may either stand in ashes or in 4alne%m. he manner o" distilling in wooden vessels.

!. .igni"ies the vessel wherein the copper vessel lies. 4. he copper vessel* part o" which is in the "%rnace and part is in the vessel o" wood. E. he vessel distilled. # E. F. o" wood wherein the matter m%st &e that is

he cooling vessel with the worm. he receiver. he trivet whereon the vessel stands.

,ote that the greater the copper vessel is* and the less the wooden one is* the sooner will the li-%or &oil. his "%rnace shows how to draw "orth spirits and waters o%t o" vegeta&les and animals with little cost and short time.

35

! &alne%m and a &oiling vessel made o" wood.

,ote that on the right hand these vessels have a copper vessel hanging "orth which m%st &e set into a "%rnace as is a&ove shown. !nd on the le"t hand is a coc+ or tap to let o%t the water. he vessel on the le"t hand is "or a &alne%m. he holes in the cover thereo" are either to set in vessels over the "%me o" the water or "or the nec+s o" the glasses set in the &alne%m to pass thro%gh. he vessel on yo%r right hand is to &oil water in "or any %se* also to &rew in. THE SPIRIT OF ANY VEGETABLE IS MADE THUS a+e o" gallons ho%rs. p%tting s%gar. what vegeta&le yo% please* two po%nds* macerate it in si1 o" a-%a vitae or low wines* or sac+* "or the space o" 6H hen let them &e distilled &y an alem&ic* or hot still* to every po%nd o" the spirit two o%nces o" most p%re

,ote that the two "irst pints may &e called the stronger spirit* and the rest the wea+er spirit or* indeed* the water. 4%t i" they &e &oth mi1ed together* they will ma+e an e1cellent middling spirit* "or the "ormer has more o" the spirit o" wine* and the latter more o" the virt%e and odor o" the vegeta&le. !"ter this manner may &e made the spirit o" her&s* "lowers* roots o" vegeta&les* the seeds o" vegeta&les* &erries* &ar+s* rinds* and spices. ,ote that the her&s and "lowers m%st &e c%t small* and &r%ised. 0" yo% wo%ld ma+e it stronger* then ta+e all the "oresaid spirit and as m%ch more sac+ or low wines and p%t them %pon the same -%antity o" "resh vegeta&les and distill them. <epeat this three or "o%r times i" yo% please ,ote also that the vegeta&le m%st &e dried* &eca%se else the spirit will not &e so good* as i" otherwise.

he "orm o" an alem&ic.

!. .igni"ies the vessel which m%st &e o" copper* in which the matter is contained* and which m%st &e set over a na+ed "ire. 4. .igni"ies the &elly that is "astened to the may the more commodio%sly &e applied to the vessel. 4%t it may &e so ordered that the vessel and lower vessel may &e so "itted that this &elly. nec+* that the nec+ large mo%th o" the mo%th o" the %pper they shall not need

E. he long nec+ o" the %pper vessel where &y the spirit or water is somewhat cooled. #. he head.

E. he vessel that compasses the head into which cold water is contin%ally po%red a"ter the heating. F. C. he long receiver. he top or coc+ letting o%t the water when it is hot.

THE SPIRIT OF ANY VEGETABLE MAY SUDDENLY AT ANY TIME OF THE YEAR BE MADE THUS a+e o" what her&* "lower* seeds* or roots yo% please. Fill the head o" the still therewith and then cover the mo%th thereo" with a coarse canvas and set it on the still* having "irst p%t into it sac+ or low wines. hen give it "ire. 0" at any time yo% wo%ld have the spirit &e o" the color o" its vegeta&le* then p%t o" the "lowers thereo" dried a good -%antity in the nose o" the still.

3!

TO MA$E ANY VEGETABLE YIELD ITS SPIRIT QUIC$LY a+e o" what vegeta&les yo% please* whether it &e the seed* "lower* root* "r%it* or leaves thereo". E%t or &r%ise them small and then p%t them into warm water. '%t yeast or &erm to them* and cover them warm and let them wor+ three days* as does &eer. hen distill them and they will yield their spirit easily. TO REDUCE THE WHOLE HERB INTO A LIQUOR WHICH MAY WELL BE CALLED THE ESSENCE THEREOF a+e the whole her& with "lowers and roots and ma+e it very clean. hen &r%ise it in a stone mortar and p%t it into a large glass vessel so two parts o" three may &e empty. Eover it e1ceeding close and let it stand in p%tre"action in a moderate heat the space o" hal" a year* and it will all &e t%rned into a water. TO MA$E AN ESSENCE OF ANY HERB% WHICH BEING PUT INTO A GLASS AND HELD OVER A GENTLE FIRE% THE LIVELY FORM AND IDEA OF THE HERB WILL APPEAR IN THE GLASS a+e the "oregoing water and distill it in a go%rd glass (the 2oints &eing well closed) in ashes* and there will come "orth a water and an oil and in the %pper part o" the vessel will hang a volatile salt. .eparate the oil "rom the water and +eep it &y itsel". Aith the water p%ri"y the volatile salt &y dissolving* "iltering* and coag%lating. he salt &eing th%s p%ri"ied* im&i&e with the said oil %ntil it will im&i&e no more. #igest them well together "or a month in a vessel hermetically sealed. !nd &y this means yo% shall have a most s%&tle essence* which &eing held over a gentle heat will "ly %p into the glass and represent the per"ect idea o" that vegeta&le whereo" it is the essence. THE TRUE ESSENCE OR RATHER QUINTESSENCE OF ANY HERB IS MADE THUS Ahen yo% have made the water and oil o" any vegeta&le "irst calcine or &%rn to ashes the remainder o" the her&. Aith the ashes ma+e a lye &y po%ring its own water thereon. Ahen yo% have drawn o%t all the strength o" the ashes* then ta+e all the lye* &eing "irst "iltered* and vapor it away and at the &ottom yo% shall "ind a &lac+ salt which yo% m%st ta+e and p%t into a cr%ci&le and melt it in a strong "ire (covering the cr%ci&le all the time it is melting). !"ter it is melted let it &oil hal" an ho%r or more. hen ta+e it o%t and &eat it small and set it in a cellar on a mar&le stone or in a &road glass and it will all &e resolved into a li-%or. his li-%or "ilter and vapor away the h%midity %ntil it &e very dry and as white as snow. hen let this salt im&i&e as m%ch o" the oil o" the same vegeta&le as it can* &%t no more* lest yo% la&or in vain. hen digest them together %ntil the oil will not rise "rom the salt* &%t &oth &ecome a "i1ed powder melting with an easy heat.

3"

TO EXTRACT THE QUINTESSENCE OF ALL VEGETABLES a+e o" what spices* "lowers* seeds* her&s* woods yo% please and p%t them into recti"ied spirit o" wine. @et the spirit e1tract in digestion %ntil no more "eces "all to the &ottom &%t all their essence is gone into the spirit o" wine. Kpon &eing th%s impregnated* po%r a strong spirit o" salt and digest it in 4alne%m %ntil an oil swims a&ove which separate with a t%nnel or draw o" the spirit o" wine in &alne%m. he oil will remain clear at the &ottom* &%t &e"ore the spirit o" wine is a&stracted* the oil is &lood red and a tr%e -%intessence. AN EXCELLENT ESSENCE OF ANY VEGETABLE MAY BE MADE THUS a+e o" the distilled oil o" any vegeta&le and im&i&e with it the &est manna* &eing very well dep%rated* %ntil it will im&i&e no more. hen digest them a month* and yo% shall have the tr%e &alsam and e1cellent essence o" any vegeta&le. his has the virt%es o" the vegeta&le whereo" it was made &%t in a more eminent manner. he dep%ration o" manna "or this %se is a great secret. WATER OR SPIRIT OF MANNA IS MADE THUS a+e o" the &est manna one part* o" nitre two parts. '%t them into an o1 &ladder and* tying it close* p%t it into warm water to &e dissolved. #istill this water in an alem&ic* and there will come "orth an insipid water* s%dori"ic and la1ative. THE CHEMICAL OIL OF THE HERB OR FLOWER OF ANY VEGETABLE IS MADE THUS a+e o" the her& or "lower dried one po%nd* o" spring water twenty "o%r pints* and distill them in a great alem&ic with its cooler or copper still with a worm passing thro%gh a vessel o" cold water. @et the oil that is drawn with the water &e separated with a t%nnel or separating glass* and let the water that is separated &e +ept "or a new distillation. ,ote that i" this water &e %sed two or three times in the drawing o" the oil* it will &e an e1cellent water o" that vegeta&le "rom which it is distilled* and as good as most that shall &e drawn any other way. !"ter the same manner are made oil o" the dry rinds o" oranges* citrons* and lemons. 4%t note that these rinds m%st &e "resh and (the inward whiteness &eing separated) &e &r%ised. THE OIL COMMONLY CALLED THE SPIRIT OF ROSES

3#

a+e o" damas+ or red roses* &eing "resh* as many as yo% please. 0n"%se them in as m%ch warm water as is s%""icient "or the space o" 6H ho%rs. hen strain and press them and repeat the in"%sion several times with pressing %ntil the li-%or &ecomes "%lly impregnated* which then m%st &e distilled in an alem&ic with a re"rigeratory or copper still with a worm. @et the spirit which swims on the water &e separated* and the water +ept "or a new in"%sion. his +ind o" spirit may &e made &y &r%ising the roses with salt* or laying a lane o" roses and another o" salt* and so +eeping them hal" a year or more* which then m%st &e distilled in as m%ch common water or rose water as is s%""icient. OILS ARE MADE OUT OF SEEDS THUS a+e o" what seeds yo% please* &r%ised* two po%nds. B" spring water ta+e twenty pints* let them &e macerated "or the space o" 6H ho%rs* and then &e distilled in a copper still with a worm or alem&ic with its re"rigerating. he oil e1tracted with the water* &eing separated with a t%nnel* +eep the water "or a new distillation. his water a"ter three or "o%r distillations is a very e1cellent water and &etter than is drawn any way o%t o" that vegeta&le whereo" these are seedsF 0 mean "or virt%e tho%gh not always "or smell. !"ter the woods. same manner are made oils o" spices and aromatical

OILS ARE MADE OUT OF BERRIES THUS a+e o" what &erries yo% please* &eing "resh* 65 po%nds. 4r%ise them and p%t them into a wooden vessel with 16 pinte o" spring water and and a po%nd o" the strongest leaven. @et them &e p%t in a cellar (the vessel &eing close stopped) "or the space o" three months. hen let them &e distilled in an alem&ic or copper still with their re"rigeratory with as m%ch spring water as is s%""icient. !"ter the separation o" the oil* let the water &e +ept "or a new distillation. ,ote that the water &eing %sed in two or three distillations is a very e1cellent water and "%ll o" the virt%e o" the &erries. OIL IS MADE OUT OF ANY SOLID WOOD THUS a+e o" what wood yo% please* made into gross powder* as m%ch as yo% will. @et it &e p%t into a retort and distilled in sand. he oil which "irst distills* as &eing the thinner and sweeter* m%st &e +ept apart which* with recti"ying with m%ch water* may yet &e made more pleasant. he acid water or spirit which in distilling comes "irst "orth* &eing separated* which also (&eing recti"ied

4$

"rom the phlegm with the heat o" a &alne%m) may &e +ept "or %se* &eing "%ll o" the virt%e o" the wood. !"ter the same manner are made the oil and spirit o" tartar* &%t th%s m%ch note* that &oth are more p%re and pleasant &eing made o%t o" the crystals than o%t o" the cr%de tartar. TO MA$E A MOST EXCELLENT OIL OUT OF ANY WOOD OR GUMS IN A SHORT TIME WITHOUT MUCH COST a+e o" what wood yo% please or g%m &r%ised small. '%t it into a vessel "it "or it. hen po%r on so m%ch o" spirit o" salt as will cover yo%r matter. hen set it in sand with an alem&ic. :a+e the spirit &oil so all the oil "lies over with a little phlegm* "or the spirit o" salt &y its sharpness "rees the oil so that it "lies over very easily. he spirit o" salt &eing recti"ied may serve again. TO MA$E VEGETABLES YIELD THEIR OIL EASILY #istill them* &eing "irst &r%ised* in salt water* "or salt "rees the oil "rom its &ody. @et them "irst &e macerated three or "o%r days in the said water. OIL OR SPIRIT OF TURPENTINE IS MADE THUS a+e o" 9enice t%rpentine as m%ch as yo% please* and o" spring water "o%r times as m%ch. @et them &e p%t into an alem&ic or copper still with its re"rigeratory. hen p%t "ire %nder it. .o there will distill a thin white oil li+e water* and in the &ottom o" the vessel will remain a hard g%m called Eolophonia* which is called &oiled t%rpentine. hat white oil may &e &etter and "reer "rom the smell o" the "ire i" it &e drawn in &alne%m with a go%rd and glass-head. Eommon oil o" olive may &e distilled a"ter this manner and &e made very pleasant and sweet* also most %nctio%s things* as spermaceti* stora1 li-%id* and also many g%ms. OIL OF GUMS% RESINS% FAT AND OILY THINGS MAY BE DRAWN THUS a+e o" either o" these which yo% please* &eing melted* a po%nd* and and mi1 it with three po%nds o" the powder o" tiles or %nsla+ed lime. '%t them into a retort and e1tract an oil which with plenty o" water may &e recti"ied. ,ote that the water "rom whence the oil is e1cellent virt%e* according to the nat%re o" whence it is drawn. OIL OF CAMPHOR IS MADE THUS separated is o" the matter "rom

41

a+e o" camphor sliced thin as m%ch as yo% please and p%t it into a do%&le -%antity o" a-%a "ortis or spirit o" wine. @et the glass* having a narrow nec+* &e set &y the "ire or on sand or ashes the space o" "ive or si1 ho%rs* sha+ing the glass every hal" ho%r* and the camphor will all &e dissolved and swim on the a-%a "ortis or spirit o" wine li+e an oil. ,ote that i" yo% separate it* it will all &e hard again presently* &%t not otherwise. ANOTHER WAY TO MA$E OIL OF CAMPHOR THAT IT SHALL NOT BE REDUCED AGAIN a+e o" camphor powdered as m%ch as yo% please and p%t it into a glass li+e a %rinal. '%t %pon it another %rinal-glass inverted* the 2oints &eing close sh%t. .%&lime it in ashes* inverting those %rinals so o"ten %ntil the camphor &e t%rned into an oil. hen circ%late it "or the space o" a month* and it will &e so s%&tle that it will all presently vapor away in the air* i" the glass &e open. ANOTHER WAY TO MA$E OIL OF CAMPHOR a+e two o%nces o" camphor and dissolve it in "o%r o%nces o" p%re oil o" olive. hen p%t them into "o%r pints o" "air water and distill them all together in a glass go%rd* either in ashes or &alne%m* and there will distill &oth water and oil* which separate and +eep &y itsel". !ll these +inds o" oil o" camphor are very good against p%tre"action* "its o" the mother* passions o" the heart* etc. ! "ew drops thereo" may &e ta+en in any li-%or* or the &reast &e annointed therewith. !lso* the "%me thereo" may &e ta+en in at the mo%th A TRUE OIL OF SUGAR a+e o" the &est white s%gar candy and im&i&e it with the &est spirit o" wine ten times* a"ter every time drying it again. hen hang it in a white sil+en &ag in a moist cellar over a glass vessel that it may dissolve and drop into it. Evaporate the water in &alne%m* and in the &ottom will the oil remain. his is very e1cellent in all distempers o" the l%ngs. OIL OF AMBER IS MADE THUS a+e o" yellow am&er one part* o" the powder o" "lints calcined* or the powder o" tiles two parts. :ingle them* p%t them into a retort* and distill them in sand. he oil which is white and clear that "irst distilled o""* +eep &y itsel"* contin%ing the distillation as long as any oil distills o"". hen let &oth oils &e recti"ied apart in a good -%antity o" water.

42

he salt o" am&er* which adheres to the nec+ o" the retort withinside* &eing gathered* let &e p%ri"ied &y sol%tion* "iltration* and coag%lation according to art* and +ept "or %se. !"ter this manner may &e made oils o%t o" any g%ms which may &e powdered. OIL OF MYRRH IS MADE THUS a+e o" myrrh &r%ised or &ay-salt* o" each si1 po%nds. @et them &e dissolved in si1ty pints o" spring water and &e distilled in an alem&ic or copper still according to art. OIL OF MYRRH PER DELIQUIUM OR BY DISSOLUTION IS MADE THUS a+e hen eggs hard &oiled and c%t in the middle lengthways. a+e o%t the yol+s* then "ill %p the hollow hal" way with powder o" myrrh* and 2oin the parts together again* &inding them with a thread. .et them %pon a grate &etween two platters in a cold moist place* so the li-%or o" the myrrh dissolved will distill into the lower platter. OIL OF TARTAR PER DELIQUIUM% BY DISSOLUTION a+e o" the &est tartar calcined white according to art. '%t it into a cotton &ag* and hang it in the cellar or some moist place* p%tting %nder it a receiver. OILS OF EXPRESSION ARE MADE THUS a+e o" what things yo% please* s%ch as will a""ord an oil &y e1pression. 4r%ise them* then p%t them into a &ag* and press them strongly* p%tting a vessel %nder to receive the oil. ,ote that they m%st stand in the press some ho%rs* &eca%se the oil drops &y little and little. ,ote also that i" yo% warm them &e"ore yo% p%t them into the press* they will yield more oil* &%t then it will not +eep so long as otherwise. !"ter this manner are linseed* and s%ch li+e. made oils o" n%tmegs* mace* almonds*

A VOMITING ' PURGING OIL MADE BY EXPRESSION a+e o" the &erries o" e&%l%s or dwar" elder* as many as yo% please. @et them &e dried &%t not over m%ch. hen &r%ise them* and in &r%ising them* moisten them with the &est spirit o" wine %ntil they &egin to &e oily. hen warm them &y the "ire* and press "orth the oil* and set it in the s%n p%tre"ied.

43

en drops o" this oil ta+en inwardly wor+s %pward and downward* and is very good against the dropsy and all waterish diseases. he &elly &eing therewith anointed is made there&y sol%&le. !ny part that is m%ch pained with the go%t or any s%ch grie" is presently eased &y &eing anointed with this oil. OIL OF &ASMINE IS MADE THUS a+e o" "lowers o" 2asmine as many as yo% please* and p%t them into as m%ch sweet mat%re oil as yo% please. '%t them into a glass close stopped* and set them into the s%n to &e in"%sed "or the space o" 65 days. hen ta+e them o%t and strain the oil "rom the "lowers and* i" yo% wo%ld have the oil yet stronger* p%t in new "lowers and do as &e"ore. his is a pleasant per"%me and &eing mi1ed with oils and ointments gives them a grate"%l smell. 0t is also %sed in the per"%ming o" leather. !"ter this manner may &e made oil o" any "lowers. 4%t &eca%se 0 shall +eep mysel" to the art o" distillation only* 0 shall not so "ar digress as to spea+ o" these +inds o" oils* only 0 tho%ght it good to set down the oil o" 2asmine &eca%se &y reason o" its "ragrancy it has some analogy with chemical oils that are made &y distillation. TO MA$E ANY OIL OR WATER PER DESCENSUM a+e an earthen go%rd and "ill it "%ll with wood or her&s* or what yo% please* &eing c%t small. hen invert it* set it in a "%rnace* and l%te it well Ghere%nto. hen set another go%rd o" earth %nder it with a wider mo%th that the %ppermost may go into it. 4e"ore yo% p%t the one into the other* yo% m%st have a little vessel or instr%ment o" tin with &rims aro%nd a&o%t on the top* &y which it m%st hang into the lower go%rd* the &ody thereo" &eing two or three inches deep and "%ll o" holes* so that the oil or water may drop thro%gh and not the vegeta&le itsel". 0nto this instr%ment* &eing "irst set into the lower go%rd* p%t the mo%th o" the %pper go%rd. hen ma+e yo%r "ire on the top and +eep it &%rning as long as any li-%or will drop. he "ig%re o" the "%rnace is th%s.

44

!. .igni"ies the go%rd containing the matter to &e distilled. 4. he "%rnace containing the coals* so that they s%rro%nd the %pper go%rd. E. he lower go%rd or recipient set %pon straw rings.

#. he vessel o" tin with holes and &rims which m%st &e set in the recipient. HOW TO MA$E AN OIL AND WATER OUT OF SOOT his may &e distilled per descens%m or &y retort ta+e o" the &est soot (which shines li+e 2et) and glass retort coated or earthen retort to the nec+. a strong "ire &y degrees into a large receiver* come "orth a yellowish spirit with a &lac+ oil separate and digest. HOW TO RECTIFY SPIRITS ?o% m%st set them in the s%n in glasses well stopped* and hal" "illed* &eing set in sand to the third part o" their height that the water wa1ing hot &y the heat o" the s%n may separate itsel" "rom the phlegm mi1ed therewith which will &e per"ormed in 16 or 15 days. here is another &etter way to do this which is to distill them again in &alne%m with a gentle "ire* or i" yo% will p%t them into a retort "%rnished with its receiver and set them %pon crystal or iron &owls* or in an iron mortar directly opposite the &eams o" the s%n* as yo% may learn &y these ens%ing signs. ! retort with its receiver standing %pon crystal &owls 2%st opposite to the s%n &eams. as th%s* vi8.* "ill with it a #istill it with and there will which yo% may

45

!. .hows the retort. 4. .hows the receiver. E. he crystal &owls.

!nother retort with its receiver standing in a mar&le or iron mortar directly opposite the s%n. !. .hows the retort. 4. E. he mar&le or iron mortar he receiver.

HOW TO RECTIFY ALL STIN$ING THIC$ BLAC$ OILS THAT ARE MADE BY A RETORT AND TO TA$E AWAY THEIR STIN$ a+e oil o" am&er* or any s%ch stin+ing oil* p%t it into a glass retort* the "o%rth part only &eing "%ll* po%r on it drop &y drop the spirit o" salt (or any other acid spirit) and they will &oil together. Ahen so m%ch o" the spirit is po%red on that it &oils no more* then cease and distill it. First comes over a stin+ing water* then a clear white* well smelling oil* and a"ter that a yellow oil which is indi""erent good. 4%t the spirit o" salt has lost its sharpness. he volatile salt o" the oil remains coag%lated with the spirit o" salt and is &lac+ and tastes li+e sal ammoniac* and has no smell &eing s%&limed "rom it. ,ow the reason o" all this is* &eca%se the volatile salt o" the oil* which is the ca%se o" the stin+ thereo"* is "i1ed &y the acid spirit o" the saltF "or acid spirits and volatile salts are contrary the one to the other* and spirit o" %rine or any volatile salt will precipitate any metal as well as salt o" tartar. hese oils will remain clear and have "ar more virt%e than the ordinary sort o" oils have.

!s "or common ordinary distilled oils* they need not* i" they &e well separated "rom the water with which they were distilled* any recti"ying at all. 0" yo% go a&o%t to recti"y them* yo% will lose a good part o" them and ma+e that which remains not at all the &etter. 4%t i" there &e any &etter than another "or recti"ying o" them it is &y digestion* &y which yo% may separate a"terwards* and &y this means yo% shall lose none o" the oils.

4!

!OO" ##
OF )OMPO*'D $ATE(% A'D %P#(#T% A D#%%O&+#'G ME'%T(**M a+e cypr%s* t%rpentine* and the &est spirit o" wine* o" each two po%nds. #istill them in a glass go%rd either in &alne%m or ashes. .eparate the oil "rom the spirit with a t%nnel or separating glass. #istill the spirit again and so o"ten %ntil it "avors no more o" the oil o" t%rpentine* and then it is s%""iciently prepared. his menstr%%m dissolves any hard stones presently* and e1tracts the tinct%re o" coral. ! glass go%rd with its head.

ANOTHER DISSOLVING MENSTRUUM OR ACETUM PHILOSOPHICUM a+e honey* salt melted* o" each one po%nd* and o" the strongest spirit o" vinegar two po%nds. #igest them "or the space o" a "ortnight or more. hen distill them in ashes* coho&ate the li-%or %pon the "eces three or "o%r times* and then recti"y the spirit. ,ote that they m%st &e done in a large glass go%rd. his is o" the same virt%e as the "ormer* i" not more power"%l. ANOTHER DISSOLVING MENSTRUUM a+e o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine with which im&i&e the strongest %nsla+ed lime %ntil they &e made into a paste. hen p%t them into a glass go%rd and distill o"" the spirit in ashes. his spirit po%r on more "resh lime* and do as &e"ore. #o this three or "o%r times and yo% will have a very s%&tle spirit a&le to dissolve most things and to e1tract the virt%e o%t o" them. PARACELSUS HIS ELIXIR SUBTILITATIS a+e oil o" olive* honey* recti"ied spirit o" wine* o" each a pint. #istill them all together in ashes. hen separate all the phlegm "rom the oils which will &e disting%ished &y many colors.

4"

'%t all these colors into a pelican* and add to them the third part o" the essence o" &alm and sallendine* and digest them "or the space o" a month. hen +eep it "or %se. he li-%or is so s%&tle that it penetrates everything. USQUE ( BATH OR IRISH AQUA VITAE IS MADE THUS a+e a gallon o" small a-%a vitae and p%t it into a glass vessel. '%t thereto a -%art o" canary sac+* two po%nds o" raisins o" the s%n stoned* &%t not washed* two o%nces o" dates stoned* and the white s+ins thereo" p%lled o%t* two o%nces o" cinnamon grossly &r%ised* "o%r good n%tmegs &r%ised* an o%nce o" the &est english licorice sliced and &r%ised. .top the vessels very close and let them in"%se in a cold place si1 or eight days. hen let the li-%or r%n thro%gh a &ag called :anica Dippocratis made o" white cotton. his li-%or is commonly %sed in s%r"eits* &eing a good stomach water. AQUA CELESTIS IS MADE THUS a+e o" cinnamon* cloves* ginger* n%tmegs* 8edoary* galangal* long pepper* citron pill* spi+enard* lign%m aloes* c%&%&s* cardam%m* calam%s aromatic%s* germander* gro%nd pine* mace* white "ran+incense* tormentil* hermodactyls* the pith o" dwar" elder* 2%niper &erries* &ay &erries* the seeds and "lowers o" motherwort* the seeds o" smallage* the seeds o" "ennel* seeds o" anise* the leaves o" sorrel* the leaves o" sage* the leaves o" "elwort* rosemary* marJoram* mints* pennyroyal* stechados* the "lowers o" elder* the "lowers o" red roses* the "lowers o" white roses* o" the leaves o" sca&io%s* r%e* the lesser moonwort* agrimony* centory* "%mitory* pimpernel* sow thistle* eye&right* maidenhair* endive* red la%nders* aloes - o" each two o%nces* p%re am&er* the &est rh%&ar& - o" each two drams* dried "igs* raisins o" the s%n* stoned dates* sweet almonds* grains o" the pine - o" each an o%nce. B" the &est a-%a vitae to the -%antity o" them all* o" the &est hard s%gar a po%nd* o" white honey hal" a po%nd. hen add the root o" gentian* "lowers o" rosemary* pepperwort* the root o" &riony* sow &read* wormwood - o" each hal" an o%nce. ,ow &e"ore these are distilled* -%ench gold &eing made red hot* o"tentimes in the a"oresaid water* p%t therein oriental pearls &eaten small an o%nce* and then distill it a"ter 6H ho%rs in"%sion. his is a in"ection. very cordial water* good against "aintings and

AQUA IMPERIALIS IS MADE THUS

4#

a+e o" the rind o" citrons dried* oranges* n%tmeg* cloves* cinnamon - o" each two o%ncesF o" each hal" a po%nd o" the roots o" "lowers-de-l%ce* the roots o" cypr%s* the roots o" calam%s aromatic%s* the roots o" 8edoary* the roots o" galangal* the roots o" gingerF two hands"%l each o" the tops o" lavender* the tops o" rosemaryF o" the leaves o" the &ay tree* o" the leaves o" mar2oram* o" the leaves o" &alm* o" the leaves o" mint* o" the leaves o" sage* o" the leaves o" thyme* "lowers o" white roses* "lowers o" damas+ roses* o" each hal" a hand"%lF rose water* "o%r pintsF the &est white wine* a gallon. 4r%ise what m%st &e &r%ised. which distill them. hen in"%se them all 6H ho%rs* a"ter

his is o" the same virt%e as the "ormer. AQUA MIRABILIS IS MADE THUS a+e a dram each o" cloves* galangal* c%&%&s* mace* cardam%m* n%tmeg* and gingerF hal" a pint o" the 2%ice o" sallendineF a pint o" the spirit o" wineF three pints o" white wine. 0n"%se all these 6H ho%rs* and then distill o"" two pints &y alem&ic. his water is very good against wind in the stomach and head. DR. STEPHEN)S WATER IS MADE THUS a+e a gallon o" gascoigne wineF a dram each o" ginger* galganal* cinnamon* n%tmeg* grains* aniseed* "ennel seeds* carroway seedsF a hand"%l each o" sage* red mints* red roses* thyme* pellitory* rosemary* wild thyme* chamomile* and lavender. 4eat the spices small and &r%ise the her&s* letting them macerate 16 ho%rs* stirring them now and then. #istill them &y an alem&ic or copper still with its re"rigeratory. Leep the "irst pint &y itsel"* and the second &y itsel". ,ote that the "irst pint will stronger o" the ingredients. &e hotter* &%t the second the

his water is well +nown to com"ort all the principal parts. A FAMOUS SURFEIT WATER a+e o" red poppy ca+es (a"ter the water has &een distilled "rom them in a cold still) not over dried two po%nds. 'o%r %pon them o" the water o" red poppy a gallon and a hal"* canary wine three pints. !dd to them o" coriander seeds &r%ised "o%r o%nces* o" dill seed &r%ised two o%nces* o" cloves &r%ised hal" an o%nce* o" n%tmeg sliced an o%nce* o" rosemary a hand"%l* three oranges c%t in the middle. #istill them in a hot still. o the water p%t the 2%ice o" si1 oranges and hang in it hal" an o%nce o" n%tmeg sliced and as m%ch cinnamon &r%ised* two drams o" cloves* a hand"%l o" rosemary c%t small* sweet "ennel seeds &r%ised an o%nce* o"

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raisins o" the s%n stoned hal" a po%nd* &eing all p%t into a &ag* which may &e h%ng in the water (the vessel &eing close stopped) the space o" a month* and then &e ta+en o%t and cast away* the li-%or thereo" &eing "irst pressed o%t into the "oresaid water. his water is o" wonder"%l virt%e in s%r"eits and ple%risies* composes the spirits* ca%ses rest* helps digestion i" two or three or "o%r o%nces thereo" &e dr%n+* and the patient composes himsel" to rest.

A PECTORAL WATER #istill green hysop in a cold still %ntil yo% have a gallon and a hal" o" the water. o this p%t "o%r hand"%ls o" dried hysop* a hand"%l o" r%e* as m%ch o" rosemary* and horeho%nd* elecampane root* &r%ised* and o" horse-radish root* &r%ised* o" each "o%r o%nces* o" to&acco in the lea" three o%nces* aniseed &r%ised two o%nces* two -%arts o" canary wine. @et them all stand in digestion two days and then distill them. 0n the water that is distilled p%t hal" a po%nd o" raisins o" the s%n stoned* o" licorice two o%nces* sweet "ennel seeds &r%ised two o%nces and a hal"* ginger sliced an o%nce and a hal". @et them &e in"%sed in "rigido the space o" ten days. hen ta+e them o%t. his water sweetened with s%gar candy and dr%n+ to the -%antity o" three or "o%r o%nces twice in a day is very good "or those that are ptisical. 0t strengthens the l%ngs* atten%ates thic+ phlegm* opens o&str%ctions* and is very good to com"ort the stomach. A VERY EXCELLENT WATER AGAINST THE WORMS a+e o" worm seed eight o%nces* the shavings o" harts-horn two o%nces* o" peach "lowers dried an o%nce* o" aloes &r%ised hal" an o%nce. 'o%r on these the water o" tansy* r%e* peach "lowers* and o" wormwood* o" each a pint and a hal". @et them* &eing p%t into a glass vessel &e digested the space o" three days. hen distill them. Eoho&ate this water three times. his water is very e1cellent against the worms. 0t may &e given "rom hal" an o%nce to I o%nces* according to the age o" the patient. A WATER AGAINST THE CONVULSIONS a+e o" ros vitriol (which is that water that is distilled "rom vitriol in the calcining thereo") two -%arts. 0n this p%t o" r%e a hand"%l* 2%niper &erries &r%ised an o%nce* o" &ay &erries &r%ised hal" an o%nce* piony &erries &r%ised si1 drams* camphor two drams* rh%&ar& sliced an o%nce. #igest these "o%r days in a temperate

51

&alne%m. hen distill them in a glass vessel in ashes* and there will come over a water o" no small virt%e. 0t c%res conv%lsions in children* especially. 0t helps also the vertigo* the hysterical passion* and epilepsy. 0t is very e1cellent against all o""ensive vapors and wind that annoys the head and stomach. 0t may &e ta+en "rom two drams to two o%nces. A HYDROPICAL WATER a+e o" wormwood* &room &lossoms* o" each a li+e -%antity. 4r%ise them and mi1 with them some leaven and let them stand in "ermentation in a cold place the space o" a wee+. hen distill them in a cold still %ntil they &e very dry. a+e a gallon o" this water and hal" a gallon o" the spirit o" %rine. 'o%r them %pon two po%nds o" dried &room &lossoms* hal" a po%nd o" horse-radish roots dried* three o%nces o" the &est rh%&ar& sliced* two o%nces o" sweet "ennel seed &r%ised* and an o%nce and a hal" o" n%tmeg. @et them digest a wee+* &eing p%t into a glass vessel in a temperate &alne%m. hen press the li-%or hard "rom the "eces. '%t this li-%or in the said vessel again and to it p%t three o%nces o" sweet "ennel seeds &r%ised* licorice sliced two o%nces. #igest them in a gentle heat "or the space o" a wee+. hen po%r it o"" "rom the "eces and +eep it close stopped. his water &eing dr%n+ "rom the -%antity o" an o%nce to "o%r o%nces every morning* and at "o%r o" the cloc+ in the a"ternoon* does seldom "ail in c%ring the dropsie. 0t strengthens also the liver* is very good against gravel in the &ac+* stone* c%res the sc%rvy* go%t* and s%ch diseases as proceed "rom the wea+ness and o&str%ctions o" the liver. A WATER AGAINST THE COLIC a+e o" aniseed I o%nces* c%min seed I drams* cinnamon hal" an o%nce* mace* cloves* n%tmeg* o" each a dram* galangal* I drams* calam%s aromatic%s* dried* hal" an o%nce* the dried rind o" oranges* 6 o%nces* &ay&erries* hal" an o%nce. @et all these* &eing &r%ised* &e macerated in si1 pints o" mallago wine* and then &e distilled in &alne%m %ntil all &e dry. his water &eing dr%n+ to the -%antity o" an o%nce or two at a time does ease the gripings o" the &elly and stomach very m%ch. A WATER AGAINST THE VERTIGO AND CONVULSIONS a+e o" &lac+ cherries &r%ised with their +ernels* a gallonF o" the "lowers o" lavender* I hand"%lsF hal" an o%nce o" white m%stard seed &r%ised. :i1 these together and then p%t some "erment

52

to them and let them stand close covered the space o" a wee+. distill them in &alne%m %ntil all &e dry.

hen

he water &eing dr%n+ to the -%antity o" an o%nce or two or three does m%ch relieve the wea+ness o" the head and helps the vertigo thereo"* as also strengthens the sinews* and e1pels windiness o%t o" the head and stomach. A COMPOUND WATER OF BURRE ROOT CAUSING SWEAT a+e the root o" the great &%rre "resh* the root o" the swallow wort "resh* and the middle rind o" the root o" the ash treeF o" each two po%nds. E%t them small and in"%se them 6H ho%rs in the &est white wine and r%e vinegar* o" each "ive pints. hen distill them in &alne%m %ntil all &e dry. '%t to the water as m%ch o" the spirit o" s%lph%r per campanam as will give it a pleasant acidity* and to every pint o" the water p%t a scr%ple and a hal" o" camphor c%t small and tied %p in a &ag which may contin%ally hang in the water. his was a "amo%s water in Cermany against the plag%e* pestilential and epidemical diseases. 0t ca%ses sweat wonder"%l i" two or three o%nces thereo" &e dr%n+ and the patient composes himsel" to sweat. ANOTHER EXCELLENT SUDORIFIC AND PLAGUE WATER a+e o" the &est spirit o" wine* a gallonF andromach%s-trea+le* si1 o%ncesF myrrh* two o%ncesF the roots o" colts "oot* three o%ncesF spermaceti* terra sigillata* o" each hal" an o%nceF the root o" swallow wort* an o%nceF dittany* pimpernell* valerian root* o" each two dramsF camphor a dram. :i1 all these together in a glass vessel* and let them stand close stopped the space o" 7 days in the s%n. @et the patient drin+ o" this a spoon"%l or two and compose himsel" to sweat. DR. BURGES% HIS PLAGUE WATER a+e three pints o" m%scadine and &oil in it sage and r%e* o" each a hand"%l* %ntil a pint &e wasted. hen strain it and set it over the "ire again. '%t thereto a dram o" long pepper* ginger* and n%tmeg* o" each hal" an o%nce* &eing all &r%ised together. hen &oil them a little and p%t thereto hal" an o%nce o" andromach%strea+le* and three drams o" mithridate* and a -%arter o" a pint o" the &est angelica water. his water (which* as says the a%thor* m%st &e +ept as yo%r li"e* and a&ove all earthly treas%re) m%st &e ta+en to the -%antity o" a spoon"%l or two morning and evening* i" yo% &e already in"ected*

53

and sweat s%""icient* time %nder never man* ta+ing it. plag%e* &%t

there%pon. 0" yo% &e not in"ected* a spoon"%l is hal" in the morning and hal" at night. !ll the plag%e Cod (says the a%thor) tr%st to this* "or there was woman* or child that "ailed o" their e1pectation in his is also o" the same e""icacy* not only against the po1* measles* s%r"eits* etc. CROLLIUS% HIS TREA$LE WATER CAMPHORATED

a+e o" andromach%s* his trea+le* "ive o%ncesF the &est myrrh* two o%nces and a hal"F the &est sa""ron* hal" an o%nceF camphor* two drams. :i1 them together. hen po%r %pon them ten o%nces o" the &est spirit o" wine* and let them stand 6H ho%rs in a warm place. hen distill them in &alne%m with a grad%al "ire. Eoho&ate the spirit three times. his spirit ca%ses sweat wonder"%lly and resists all manner o" in"ection. 0t may &e ta+en "rom a dram to an o%nce in some appropriate li-%or. A DISTILLED TREA$LE VINEGAR a+e o" the roots o" &istort* gentian* angelica* tormentil* pimpernel* o" each 15 dramsF &ay &erries* 2%niper &erries* o" each an o%nceF n%tmeg* "ive dramsF the shavings o" sassa"ras* two o%ncesF 8edoary* hal" a dramF white sanders* three dramsF the leaves o" r%e* wormwood* scordi%m* o" each hal" a hand"%lF the "lowers o" wall "lower* &%gloss* o" each a hand"%l and a hal"F andromach%s trea+le* mithridate* o" each si1 drams. 0n"%se them all in three pints o" the &est white wine vinegar "or the space o" 7 days in "rigido in glass vessels. hen distill them in &alne%m. he spirit is very good to prevent them that are "ree "rom in"ection* and those that are already in"ected* "rom the danger thereo"* i" two or three spoon"%ls thereo" &e ta+en once a day* with sweating a"ter* "or those that are in"ected* &%t witho%t sweating "or others. AN EXCELLENT WATER AGAINST THE STONE IN THE $IDNEYS a+e o" the middle rind o" the root o" ash* &r%ised* 6 po%ndsF 2%niper &erries* &r%ised* I po%ndsF venice t%rpentine that is very p%re* 6 po%nds and a hal". '%t these into 16 pints o" spring water in a glass vessel well closed* and there let them p%tri"y in horse d%ng "or the space o"

54

three months. hen distill them in ashes and there will come "orth an oil and a water. .eparate the one "rom the other. en or twelve drops o" this oil &eing ta+en every morning in "o%r or si1 spoon"%ls o" the said water dissolves the gravel and stone in the +idneys most wonder"%lly. ANOTHER WATER FOR THE SAME USE a+e the 2%ice o" radishes and lemons* o" each a po%nd and a hal"F waters o" &etony* tansy* sa1i"rage* and vervain* o" each a pintF hydromel and malme"ey* o" each two po%nds. 0n these li-%ors mi1ed together* in"%se "or the space o" H or 5 days in a gentle &alne%m* 2%niper &erries* ripe and newly gathered* &eing &r%ised* I o%ncesF the seed o" gromwell* &%rdoc+* radish* sa1i"rage* nettles* onions* anise* and "ennel* o" each an o%nce and a hal"F the "o%r cold seeds* the seed o" great mallows* o" each si1 dramsF the cal1 o" egg shells* cinnamon* o" each three dramsF o" camphor two drams. @et all &e well strained and distilled in ashes. wo o%nces o" this water ta+en every morning does wonder"%lly cleanse the +idneys* provo+e %rine* and e1pel the stone* especially i" yo% calcine the "eces and e1tract the salt thereo" with the said water. TO MA$E AN EXCELLENT WOUND WATER a+e plantain* ri& wort* &one wort* wild angelica* red mints* &etony* agrimony* sanicle* &l%e &ottles* white &ottles* sca&io%s* dandelion* evens* honeys%c+le leaves* &ram&le &%ds* hawthorne &%ds and leaves* m%gwort* daisy roots* leaves and "lowers* wormwood* so%thern wood* o" each one hand"%l. 4oil all these in a &ottle o" white wine and as m%ch spring water* %ntil one hal" &e wasted. Ahen it is th%s &oiled* strain it "rom the her&s and p%t to it hal" a po%nd o" honey and let it &oil a little a"ter. hen p%t into &ottles and +eep it "or yo%r %se. ,ote that these her&s m%st &e gathered in :ay only* &%t yo% may +eep them dry and ma+e yo%r water at any time. his water is very "amo%s in many co%ntries* and it has done s%ch c%res in c%ring o%tward and inward wo%nds* impost%mes* and %lcers that yo% wo%ld scarce &elieve it i" 0 sho%ld recite them to yo%. !lso it is very good to heal a sore mo%th. he patient m%st ta+e three or "o%r spoon"%ls thereo" morning and evening* and in a short time he shall "ind ease and indeed a c%re* %nless he &e so "ar declined as nothing almost can recover him. 0" the wo%nd &e o%tward* it m%st &e washed therewith* and the linen clothes wet in the same &e applied thereto. DR. MATHIAS% HIS PALSY WATER IS MADE THUS

55

a+e o" lavender "lowers a gallon and po%r %pon them o" the &est spirit o" wine* three gallons. he vessel &eing close stopped* let them &e macerated together in the s%n "or the space o" se1 days. hen distill them in alem&ic with its re"rigeratory. hen ta+e the "lowers o" sage* rosemary* &etony* o" each a hand"%lF &orage* &%gloss* lillies o" the valley* cowslips* o" each two hand"%ls. @et the "lowers &e "resh* and seasona&ly gathered* and macerated in a gallon o" the &eat spirits o" wine and mi1ed with the a"oresaid spirit o" lavender. hen add the leaves o" &alm* motherwort* orange tree newly gathered* the "lowers o" stechados* oranges* &ay&erries* o" each an o%nce. !"ter a convenient digestion let them &e distilled again. hen add the o%tward rinds o" citrons* the seed o" peony h%s+ed* o" each si1 dramsF cinnamon* n%tmeg* mace* cardam%m* c%&%&s* o" yellow sanders* o" each hal" an o%nceF lign%m aloes* one dramF the &est 2%2%&e* the +ernels ta+en o%t* hal" a po%nd. @et them &e digested "or the space o" si1 wee+s. hen strain and "ilter the li-%or to which add o" prepared pearl two dramsF prepared emerald* a scr%pleF am&ergris* m%s+* sa""ron* red roses* la%nders* o" each an o%nceF yellow sanders* rinds o" citrons dried* o" each a dram. @et all these species &e tied in a sil+en &ag and h%ng in the "oresaid spirit. A SCORBUTICAL WATER OR A COMPOUND WATER OF HORSERADISH IS MADE THUS a+e the leaves o" &oth sc%rvy grass* &eing made very clean* o" each si1 po%nds. @et these &e &r%ised and the 2%ice pressed "orth* to which add the 2%ice o" &roo+ lime* watercress* o" each hal" a po%ndF o" the &est white wine* eight pintsF twelve whole lemons c%tF o" the "resh roots o" &riony* "o%r po%ndsF horseradish* two po%ndsF o" n%tmeg* "o%r o%nces. @et them &e macerated three days and distilled. hree or "o%r spoon"%ls o" this water ta+en twice in a day c%res the sc%rvy presently. SPIRIT OF CASTOR IS MADE THUS a+e o" "resh castore%m* two o%ncesF "lowers o" lavender* "resh* hal" an o%nceF sage* rosemary* o" each two dramsF cinnamon* three dramsF mace* cloves* o" each a dramF the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine* three pints. @et them &e digested in a glass (two parts o" three &eing empty) stopped close with a &ladder* and cor+ two days in warm ashes. hen distill the spirit in &alne%m* and +eep it in a glass close stopped. 0" yo% wo%ld ma+e it stronger* ta+e a pint o" this spirit and an o%nce o" the powder o" castore%m. '%t them into a glass and

digest them into a cold place "or space o" ten days* and then strain o%t the spirit. his spirit is very good against "its o" the mother* passions o" the heart which arise "rom vapors* etc. BE*EARD WATER IS MADE THUS a+e o" the leaves o" the greater sallandine together with the roots thereo"* three hand"%ls and a hal"F o" r%e* two hand"%lsF scordi%m* "o%r hand"%lsF dittany o" Erete* Eard%%s* o" each a hand"%l and a hal"F root o" 8edoary* angelica* o" each three dramsF the o%tward rind o" citrons* lemons* o" each si1 dramsF the "lower o" wall gilly "lower* an o%nce and a hal"F red roses* the lesser centory* o" each two dramsF cinnamon* cloves* o" each three dramsF andromach%s* his trea+le* three o%ncesF mithridate* an o%nce and a hal"F camphor* two scr%plesF trochisces o" vipers* two o%ncesF mace* two dramsF lign%m aloes* hal" an o%nceF yellow sanders* a dram and a hal"F the seeds o" card%%s* an o%nceF citron* si1 drams. E%t those things that are to &e c%t* and let them &e macerated three days in the &est spirit o" wine and m%scadine* o" each three pints and a hal"F vinegar o" wall gilly "lowers and the 2%ice o" lemons* o" each a pint. @et them &e distilled in a gla8ed vessel in &alne%m. !"ter hal" the li-%or is distilled o""* let that which remains in the vessel &e strained thro%gh a linen cloth and vapored away to the thic+ness o" honey which may &e called a 4e8eard e1tract. his water is a great cordial and good against any in"ection. TO MA$E A SPECIFICAL SUDORIFIC a+e o" ginger a po%ndF long pepper and &lac+ pepper* o" each hal" an o%nceF o" cardam%ms* three dramsF o" grains* an o%nce. 'owder them and p%t them into a glass with hal" an o%nce o" the &est camphorF distilled vinegar* two po%ndsF digest them a month and then separate the vinegar &y e1pression which m%st p%tre"y a month and then &e circ%lated "or the space o" a wee+. hen "ilter it and yo% have as power"%l a s%dori"ic as ever was or can &e made. he dose is "rom a dram to hal" an o%nce* and to &e dr%n+ in a dra%ght o" posset drin+. TREA$LE WATER IS MADE THUS a+e the 2%ice o" the green shells o" waln%ts "o%r po%nds* the 2%ice o" r%e three pints* card%%s* marigold* &alm* o" each two pints. he root o" &%tter &%rr "resh* a po%nd and a hal"* &%rr* angelica* master wort "resh* o" each hal" a po%nd. he leaves o" scordi%m* "o%r hand"%ls. Bld andromach%s trea+le* mithridate* o"

5!

each eight o%nces* the &est canarie* twelve pints* the sharpest vinegar* si1 pints. he 2%ice o" lemons* two pints. #igest them stopped. two days in horse d%ng* the vessel &eing close

hen distill them in sand. AQUA MARIAE IS MADE THUS a+e o" s%gar candid* one po%ndF canarie wine* si1 o%ncesF rose water* "o%r o%nces. :a+e o" these a syr%p and &oil it well* to which add o" a-%a imperialis* two pintsF am&ergris* m%s+* o" each eighteen grainsF yellow sanders* in"%sed in a-%a imperialis* two drams. THE MOTHER WATER COMMONLY CALLED HYSTERICAL WATER IS MADE THUS a+e o" the 2%ice o" the root o" &riony "o%r po%nds. @eaves o" r%e* m%gwort* o" each two po%nds. savin dried* three hand"%ls. motherwort* nippe* pennyroyal* o" each two hand"%ls. garden &asil* dittany o" Erete* o" each a hand"%l and a hal". he rind o" yellow oranges* "resh* "o%r o%nces. myrrh* two o%nces. castore%m* an o%nce. &est canarie wine* twelve pints. @et them &e distilled "o%r days in a "it vessel. in &alne%m. A VOMITING WATER IS MADE THUS a+e o" the &est to&acco in leaves* c%t small* "o%r o%ncesF s-%ils* two o%ncesF n%tmeg sliced* hal" an o%nce. '%t these into three pints o" spring water* a pint o" white wine vinegar. #istill them in a hot still or alem&ic. 0" yo% wo%ld have it stronger* yo% m%st p%t this water on "resh ingredients and distill it again. ! little -%antity o" this water is a most sa"e and e""ect%al vomit* and may &e ta+en "rom the eldest to the yo%ngest* i" so &e yo% proportion the -%antity to the strength o" the patient. ?o% may d%lci"y it with s%gar or syr%p i" yo% please. A VOMITING WATER MADE BY PLATEAUS a+e o" green waln%ts gathered a&o%t mids%mmer* radish root* o" each &r%ised* two partsF o" distilled wine vinegar* "o%r parts. #igest them "ive days* then distill them in &alne%m. his &eing ta+en to ca%ses easy vomiting. the -%antity o" two spoon"%ls* or three* hen distill them

A DISTILLED WATER THAT PURGES WITHOUT ANY PAIN OR GRIPING

5"

a+e o" scammony an o%nceF hermodactyles* two o%ncesF the seeds o" &room* o" the lesser sp%rge* o" dwar" elder* o" each hal" an o%nceF the 2%ice o" dwar" elder* o" wild asses c%c%m&er* o" &lac+ helle&ore* the "resh "lower o" elder* o" each an o%nce and a hal"F polypodi%m* si1 o%ncesF o" sene* three o%ncesF red s%gar* eight o%ncesF common distilled water* si1 pints. @et all these &e &r%ised and in"%sed in the water 6H ho%rs* then &e distilled in &alne%m. his water may &e given "rom two drams to three o%nces* and it p%rges all manner o" h%mors* opens all o&str%ctions* and is pleasant to &e ta+en. hose whose stomachs loathe all other physics may ta+e this witho%t any o""ence. !"ter it is distilled there may &e a little &ag o" spices in it* as also it may &e sweetened with s%gar or any opening syr%p. A SPECIFIC LIQUOR AGAINST THE TOOTHACHE a+e o" oil o" cloves well recti"ied hal" an o%nce. 0n it dissolve hal" a dram o" camphor. !dd to them o" the spirit o" t%rpentine* "o%r times recti"ied in which hal" a dram o" opi%m has &een in"%sed* hal" an o%nce. ! drop or two o" this li-%or p%t into a hollow tooth with some lint eases the toothache presently.

5#

!OO" ###
OF M#'E(A&% %P#(#T OF %A&T #% MADE TH*% a+e o" the &est &ay salt as m%ch as yo% please. @et it &e dissolved in spring water and "iltered. :i1 this with &rine in a copper vessel* o" the powder o" &ric+s or tiles* twice or thrice as m%ch as the salt &e"ore its dissol%tion was in weightF let the water vapor away over the "ire (contin%ally stirring o" it) %ntil it &e dry. hen p%t this powder into a glass retort well l%ted* or an earthen retort* and p%t it into a "%rnace (a large receiver 2oined to it according to art). hen give "ire to it &y degrees %ntil it will &ear an open "ire* "or the space o" 16 ho%rs. ?o% shall have a very acid oil or spirit in the receiver. hat li-%or* &eing p%t into a little retort in sand* may &e recti"ied &y the vaporing away o" the phlegm. hen +eep it "or %se in a glass very well stopped that no air goes in. .pirit o" salt is very good in "evers p%trid* as in hydropical diseases. ! retort and its receiver &e"ore they &e set on wor+.

! retort with its receiver set on wor+.

OIL OR SPIRIT OF SALT MAY ALSO BE MADE AFTER THIS MANNER a+e one part o" salt and three parts o" powder o" &ric+s or tiles* mi1 them together* and p%t them into a retort either o" glass or earth* to which p%t "ire as &e"ore. !"ter this manner yo% may ma+e oil or spirit o" nitre* salt gem* al%m. ,ote that these salts m%st "irst &e calcined which is done &y e1haling their phlegm. TO TURN SALTPETRE INTO A WATER BY A MERE DIGESTION a+e o" saltpetre powdered very small and with it "ill the "o%rth part o" a &olt head. Elose it well and let it stand in the heat o" ashes or sand the space o" si1 wee+s* and yo% shall see a good part o" it t%rned into water. Eontin%e it in the said heat %ntil it &e all dissolved. his is o" incompara&le %se in "evers and against worms or any p%tre"action in the &ody* and is indeed a most rare secret. SPIRIT OF SALT ARMONIAC #issolve sal ammoniac in distilled spirit o" %rine over a moderate heat. 0n this spirit let &ric+s &eaten into small pieces and made red hot &e -%enched %ntil they have im&i&ed all the water. hen ma+e distillation in a retort in sand or in a na+ed "ire. his spirit is o" greater strength than that o" other salts. OIL OR SPIRIT OF VITRIOL IS MADE THUS a+e o" h%ngarian* or the &est english vitriol* as m%ch as yo% please. @et it &e melted in an earthen vessel gla8ed* with a so"t "ire* that all the moist%re may e1hale* contin%ally stirring o" it* %ntil it &e &ro%ght into a yellow powder which m%st &e p%t into a glass retort well l%ted or an earthen retort that will end%re the "ire. Fit a large receiver to the retort and close the

2oints well together. hen give it "ire &y degrees %ntil the second day. hen ma+e the strongest heat yo% can %ntil the receiver which &e"ore was dar+ with "%mes &e clear again. @et the li-%or that is distilled o"" &e p%t into a little retort* and the phlegm &e drawn o"" in sand. .o will the oil &e recti"ied which is most strong and pondero%s* and m%st &e +ept &y itsel". :any call that phlegm which is drawn o"" in recti"ying* the spirit o" vitriol. his oil or spirit is very e1cellent in p%trid "evers* resisting p%tre"action. !lso* it opens all o&str%ctions and is very di%retical. A RED AND HEAVY OIL OF VITRIOL a+e o" calcined vitriol one part* "lints grossly powdered* two parts. B" these with spirit o" wine ma+e a paste. #istill it in a retort and there will come "orth a red heavy oil. his is to &e %sed rather a&o%t metals than in the &ody. Bnly i" the sc%r"e on the head &e anointed therewith two or three times in a wee+* it will "all o"" and the head &e c%red. TO DULCIFY THE SPIRIT OF VITRIOL AND OF SALT a+e the spirit o" vitriol* or o" salt* and the &est spirit o" wine* o" each hal" a po%nd. #istill them in a retort together three or "o%r-times* and they will &e %nited insepara&ly and &ecome sweet. .ome p%t eight o%nces o" the &est s%gar candy to these spirits &e"ore they &e th%s distilled. en or twenty drops o" this compo%nd spirit &eing ta+en in any appropriate li-%or is very good in any p%trid or epidemical disease. GILLA THEOPHRASTI OR A MOST DELICATE VOMITING LIQUOR MADE OF VITRIOL a+e o" crystals made o%t o" copper or iron. #issolve them in the acid phlegm that "irst comes "orth in the distilling o" common vitriol. Eirc%late them eight days. his li-%or m%st &e ta+en in wine. 0t ca%ses vomiting instantly* and is most e1cellent to cleanse and strengthen the stomach and to c%re all s%ch distempers that arise "rom thence* as salt de"l%1ions* "evers* worms* headache* vertigo* the hysterical passion* and s%ch li+e. he dose is "rom a scr%ple to two scr%ples. OIL OF SULPHUR PER CAMPANUM

a+e a large iron vessel li+e a platter. Bver it hang a glass &ell that has a nose li+e the head o" a cold still. Fill the lower vessel* &eing narrower than the compass o" the &ell or head* with &rimstone or s%lph%r. 0n"lame it* so will the "%me which arises "rom thence &e condensed in the &ell into a li-%or which will drop down thro%gh the nose into the receiver. ,ote that the &ell m%st hang at s%ch a distance "rom the other vessel that the "lame o" the s%lph%r to%ches it not* according to this "ollowing e1ample.

0" instead o" this &road vessel* yo% ta+e a large cr%ci&le and melt in it saltpetre and cast s%lph%r %pon it th%s melted* yo% shall ma+e a great deal -%ic+er dispatch. his spirit is o" the same nat%re* and has the same operations* as oil o" vitriol. THE OIL OF SULPHUR IS MADE AFTER A MORE PHILOSOPHICAL MANNER THUS a+e o" cr%de s%lph%r as m%ch as yo% please. '%t it into a melting vessel to &e dissolved over the "ire. 4eing dissolved* po%r it "orth into seething hot water (this do ten or more times* remem&ering that the water m%st &e always seething hot) and yo% shall see that the s%lph%r will &e li+e &%tter. hen p%t it into a retort* po%ring on it the &est spirit o" wine. #istill it with a so"t "ire* and there will come "orth an oil o" a golden color* o" a good taste and smell which is the tr%e &alsam o" s%lph%r. he oil that swims on the spirit m%st &e separated. his oil "or the c%re o" all distempers o" the l%ngs* "or all "evers whether p%trid or pentilential* and the c%re o" wo%nds and %lcers* is scarce to &e e-%alled. THE ESSENCE OF SULPHUR a+e o" s%lph%r viv%m as m%ch as yo% please. #issolve it as well as yo% can in a-%a "ortis (made o" vitriol and saltpetre). hen

evaporate the a-%a "ortis* and then rever&erate the matter %ntil it &ecomes very red. E1tract the tinct%re with spirit o" wine* and then digest them %ntil the essence &e separated "rom the spirit li+e an oil and sin+ to the &ottom. his essence also is o" wonder"%l virt%e against all p%tre"action &oth inward and o%tward* a great preservative against the plag%e* and is wonder"%l &alsamical* and c%res all sores &oth old and new* even to admiration. THE OIL OF ARSENIC IS MADE THUS a+e o" crystalline arsenic (&eing "irst s%&limed with colcothar alone) as m%ch as yo% please. :i1 it with an e-%al weight o" the salt o" tartar* and saltpetre. @et them &e &etween two little pots or cr%ci&les (whereo" the %pper has a hole) calcined %ntil no "%me ascends. he matter &eing th%s calcined dissolve in warm water that yo% may draw a salt "rom thence. he powder which "alls to the &ottom im&i&e with the li-%or o" tartar* and dry it &y the "ire. his yo% m%st do three times. hen dissolve the matter in warm water that yo% may draw o%t the salt thereo"* and there will remain a most white powder* and "i1ed* which in a moist place will &e dissolved into a li-%id matter li+e oil or &%tter. AQUA FORTIS OR A STRONG SPIRIT +THAT WILL DISSOLVE SILVER AND BASER METALS, IS MADE THUS a+e o" vitriol calcined two parts and o" nitre one part. Crind and mi1 them well together and p%t them into a glass retort coated or earthen retort that will end%re the "ire. .et them into the "%rnace in an open "ire and then* having "itted a large receiver* distill it &y degrees the space o" 6H ho%rs. hen recti"y the water or spirit in sand. AQUA REGIA OR STYGIA OR A STRONG SPIRIT THAT WILL DISSOLVE GOLD IS MADE THUS a+e o" nitre two parts* salt armoniac one part* and the powder o" "lints three parts. '%t them into a glass retort coated or earthen retort that will end%re the "ire. #istill them &y degrees over a na+ed "ire "or the space o" 6H ho%rs. a+e it o%t and recti"y it. his water will dissolve gold. ANOTHER AQUA REGIA IS MADE THUS a+e o" spirit o" nitre as m%ch as yo% please. '%t a dram o" cr%de nitre to every o%nce o" it* and it will &e as strong as any a-%a regia. his water will dissolve gold. TO MA$E A MOST STRONG AND VEHEMENT AQUA FORTIS

a+e o" the strongest a-%a "ortis that yo% can get and well recti"ied a po%nd* o" merc%ry s%&limed "o%r o%nces* and sal ammoniac two o%nces. :i1 all these together. OIL OR BUTTER OF ANTIMONY IS MADE THUS a+e o" cr%de antimony as m%ch as yo% please and o" s%&limed merc%ry a li+e -%antity. :a+e them &oth into a very "ine powder and mi1 them and p%t them into a glass retort* the nec+ whereo" m%st &e large. Cive "ire &y degrees in a close rever&eratory* or let the distillation &e made in sand. here will distill into the receiver a "atnessF part whereo"* stic+ing to the nec+ o" the retort* will melt &y a light "ire &eing p%t to it. hat "atness may &e recti"ied in a retort and either &e +ept &y itsel" as it is* or set in a cellar or moist place and &e resolved into a li-%or. his oil m%st &e washed in good store o" water* and then there will settle to the &ottom a white powder which* &eing washed o"ten in "air water %ntil all the sharpness is gone* is then called merc%ri%s vitae* si1 or seven grains whereo" is an e1cellent vomiting medicine. ! "%rnace "or a close rever&eration "%rnished with its retort and receiver.

!. .hows the "%rnace. 4. E. #. he retort. he receiver. he vessel "illed with cold water. HOW TO MA$E A WATER OUT OF ANTIMONY WHEREOF A FEW DROPS SHALL PURGE OR SWEAT AND WHICH HAS NEITHER SMELL OR SCARCE ANY TASTE a+e "lowers o" antimony and s%&lime them with sal ammoniac si1 or seven times. hen wash away the salt with warm water and dry the

powder* which then lay thin on a mar&le in a cellar %ntil it &e dissolved (which will &e in si1 wee+s time). his water* i" it &e ta+en to the -%antity o" twenty drops* will p%rge. 0" in a lesser -%antity* it will sweat. TO MA$E AN OIL OR QUINTESSENCE OF METALS #issolve what metal or mineral yo% please in a strong spirit o" salt (e1cept silver which m%st &e dissolved in a-%a "ortis). #raw o"" the phlegm in &alne%m* po%r on recti"ied spirit o" wine* and digest them so long %ntil a red oil swims a&ove which is the -%intessence o" metals and minerals* and is a very great secret. THE TRUE SPIRIT OF ANTIMONY IS MADE THUS a+e o" the s%&tle powder o" the reg%l%s o" antimony as m%ch as yo% please. .%&lime it o" itsel" %ntil it will s%&lime no more (still p%tting what is s%&limed to that which remains at the &ottom) or with sal ammoniac si1 or seven times (remem&ering that then yo% m%st d%lci"y it with warm water &y dissolving therewith the salt* and dry the precipitate a"terwards). .et this "i1ed powder in a cellar* laying it very thin %pon a mar&le stone* and in a&o%t si1 wee+s or two months it will all &e dissolved into water which m%st &e "iltered. hen evaporate part o" this water* and let it stand two or three days in the cellar to crystalli8e. hese crystals p%ri"y and dry. :i1 them with three times the -%antity o" the gross powder o" tiles* distill them in a retort* and there will come "orth "irst a white spirit* and then a red* which yo% may recti"y in &alne%m. THE TRUE OIL OR ESSENCE OF ANTIMONY IS MADE THUS a+e o" the "oresaid crystals. #issolve them in good recti"ied spirit o" wine. #igest them two months in &alne%m or horse d%ng. hen evaporate the spirit o" wine and there will remain in the &ottom the tr%e oil or essence o" antimony. hen ta+e new crystals o" antimony and let them im&i&e either this oil or the "oresaid spirit %ntil they will im&i&e no more. hen digest them two months in sand* and they will &ecome a "lowing "i1ed salt* and o" e1cellent virt%e. he a"oresaid spirit* this oil* and essence o" antimony may &e e-%ali8ed to a%r%m pota&ile to all intents and p%rposes* according to a medicinal %se* especially the "i1ed essence. he dose is "ive or si1 grains. A BURNING SPIRIT MADE OUT OF LEAD MOST FRAGRANT AND BALSAMICAL a+e the cal1 o" sat%rn* or else mini%m* and po%r %pon it so m%ch spirit o" vinegar that may cover it "o%r "ingers &readth. #igest them in a warm place the space o" 6H ho%rs* o"ten stirring them that the matter settle not too thic+ in the &ottom. hen decant

the menstr%%m and po%r on more. #igest it as &e"ore and this do so o"ten %ntil all the saltness &e e1tracted. Filter and clari"y all the menstr%%m &eing p%t together. hen evaporate it hal" away and set the other part in a cold place %ntil it crystalli8es. hese crystals dissolve again in "resh spirit o" vinegar. Filter and coag%late the li-%or again into crystals* and this do o"ten %ntil they &e s%""iciently impregnated with the sal ammoniac o" the vinegar as their proper "erment. #igest them in a temperate &alne%m that they may &e resolved into a li-%or li+e oil. hen distill this li-%or in sand in a retort with a large receiver anne1ed to it* and well closed that no spirits evaporate* together with the o&servation o" the degrees o" the "ire. hen there will distill "orth a spirit o" s%ch a "ragrant smell that the "ragrancy o" all "lowers and compo%nded per"%mes are not to &e compared to it. !"ter distillation when all things are cold* ta+e o%t and cast away the &lac+ "eces which is o" no %se. hen separate the yellow oil which swims on the top o" the spirit and the &lood red oil which sin+s to the &ottom o" it. .eparate the phlegm "rom the spirit in &alne%m. ?o% shall &y this means have a most "ragrant spirit that even ravishes the senses* and so &alsamical that it c%res all old and new sores inward and o%tward* and so cordial that the dying are with admiration revived with it. hey that have this medicine need scarce %se any other either "or inward or o%tward grie"s. HOW TO TURN QUIC$SILVER INTO A WATER WITHOUT MIXING ANYTHING WITH IT AND TO MA$E THEREOF A GOOD PURGATIVE AND DIAPHORETIC MEDICINE a+e an o%nce o" -%ic+silver* not p%ri"ied. '%t it into a &olt head o" glass which yo% m%st nip %p. .et it over a strong "ire in sand "or the space o" two months* and the -%ic+silver will &e t%rned into a red spar+ling precipitate. a+e this powder and lay it thin on a mar&le in a cellar "or the space o" two months* and it will &e t%rned into a water which may &e sa"ely ta+en inwardly. 0t will wor+ a little %pward and downward* &%t chie"ly &y sweat. ,ote that yo% may set diverse glasses with the same matter in the same "%rnace* so that yo% may ma+e the greater -%antity at the time. 0 s%ppose it is the s%lph%r which is in the -%ic+silver* and ma+es it so &lac+* that &eing stirred %p &y the heat o" the "ire "i1es the merc%ry. A FRAGRANT OIL OF MERCURY a+e o" merc%ry seven times s%&limed* and as o"ten revived with %nsla+ed lime* as m%ch as yo% please. #issolve it in spirit o" nitre in a moderate heat. hen a&stract the spirit o" salt and ed%lcorate it very well &y &oiling it in spirit o" vinegar. hen a&stract the spirit o" vinegar* and wash it again with distilled

rain water. #ry it and digest it two months in a li+e -%antity o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine yo% can get. #istill them &y retort* ma+ing yo%r "ire moderate at the &eginning* and a"terwards increasing it. hen evaporate the spirit o" wine in &alne%m* and there will remain in the &ottom a most "ragrant oil o" merc%ry. his oil so p%ri"ies the &lood &y sweat and %rine that it c%res all distempers that arise "rom the imp%rity thereo"* as the venereal disease* etc. he tr%th is* they that have this medicine well made need &%t "ew other medicines. he dose is "o%r or "ive drops. TO TURN MERCURY INTO A WATER BY ITSELF .et this "ollowing vessel &eing made o" iron into a "%rnace so that the three &owls thereo" &e within the "%rnace* and the pipe and receiver &e witho%t. :a+e yo%r "%rnace so as that there &e a great hole le"t open at the top where yo% m%st p%t in yo%r coals* sh%tting it a"terwards with a cover o" stone made "it Ghere%nto. Bn top also m%st &e holes to let in air. he vessel "or this operation.

First ma+e yo%r iron vessel as red hot as possi&ly it can &e made (or else yo% do nothing) having "irst anne1ed an earthen well gla8ed receiver to the &ottom o" it. hen p%t hal" an o%nce o" -%ic+silver at a time in at the top (which presently stop with clay) and presently the merc%ry will come over* part in a sharp li-%or and part as cr%de a merc%ry as &e"ore* which yo% may p%t in again %ntil it &e all t%rned to water.

"

,ote that %nless the -%ic+silver gives a great crac+ presently a"ter it is p%t in* it is a sign that the vessel is not hot eno%gh. his operation &eing well prosec%ted may prod%ce a medicine with which none %nder the 'hilosophers Eli1ir may compare. Dow to distill spirits and oils o%t o" minerals* vegeta&les* &ones* horns and "aster and in a greater -%antity in one ho%r than in the common way in twenty-"o%r. his m%st &e done in s%ch a "%rnace as this.

!. .igni"ies the "%rnace with its iron or earthen distilling vessel walled in* to which a very large recipient is 2oined. 4. he distiller who with his le"t hand ta+es o"" the cover and with his right casts in his prepared matter with an iron ladel. E. #. he "orm o" the distilling vessel. he same as it appears inward.

E. he "orm o" the vessel not walled in &%t standing on the coals "or other %ses.

his "%rnace m%st &e twice so high* as wide* and the pipe m%st &e a "oot long o%t o" the "%rnace. he vessel walled in m%st &e o" earth "or the distilling o" antimony* s%lph%r* and s%ch things as will corrode ironF &%t "or other things* iron is most convenient. 4e"ore yo% ma+e any distillation* let the vessel which is walled in &e red hot. hen little &y little cast in yo%r matter which m%st &e c%t or powdered small* and clap down the cover into the "alse &ottom a&ove which is "%ll o" molten lead and* there"ore* s%""ers no "%me to go "orth. Ahen yo% see the "%mes in the receiver (which m%st &e o" glass) to cease and condensed into a li-%or* then p%t in more matter. 4y this way yo% may ma+e a "ar greater dispatch and distill a greater -%antity o%t o" the same proportion o" matter than &y the common way. 4y this way there is no danger o" &rea+ing yo%r receiver* and yo% may end and &egin when yo% please* and try diverse e1periments in one ho%r. ?o% cannot ma+e the "ire too strong* and may ma+e the spirits o" s%ch things as can hardly or not so well &e made &y a retort* as the spirits o" salt* o" tartar* harts horn* antimony* etc.* etc. .alt and s%ch things as will "low m%st have &ole or powder o" &ric+ mi1ed with them &e"ore they &e cast into the vessel. Br* i" yo% please* yo% may "irst dissolve what salt yo% please and with red hot gross powder o" &ric+* im&i&e the water. hen cast in this powder &y little and little into the distilling vessel* and the salt &y this means will yield its spirit -%ic+ly and in a&%ndance. 4y either o" these two ways yo% may ma+e a po%nd o" the spirit o" nitre in an ho%r* and o" salt in two ho%rs. ,ow* whereas some things yield a spirit and a thic+ and heavy oil* they may &e recti"ied th%s= vi8.* &y p%tting them into a retort and distilling them in sand or ashes with a grad%al heat. here will come "orth the phlegm o" some li-%ors "irst and then the spirit* and o" other some the spirit* and then the phlegm* &%t o" all these the heavy thic+ oil at last which* &y distilling o""* &ecomes "ar clearer than &e"ore. his may again &e recti"ied &y spirit o" salt as 0 have showed &e"ore and* there"ore* need not here repeat it.

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TO MA$E AN OIL OF LAPIS CALAMINARIS a+e o" lapis calaminaris powdered as m%ch as yo% please. 'o%r on it "ive or si1 times as m%ch o" recti"ied spirit o" salt. .ha+e them together contin%ally or else it will &e congealed into a hard mass which can hardly &e molli"ied again. Ahen no more will dissolve in "rigido* p%t it in warm sand so long %ntil the spirit o" salt &e o" a high yellow colon hen po%r it o"" and p%t on more %ntil all &e dissolved that will. East away the "eces* p%t the sol%tion into a glass &ody* and distill it in sand. !&o%t the third part o" the spirit o" salt comes over as insipid as common water* tho%gh the spirit were well recti"ied &e"ore* "or the dryness o" the lapis calaminaris (which is the driest o" all minerals and metals e1cept 8inc) retains the spirit. !"ter the phlegm is come over* let the glass cool* and yo% shall "ind at the &ottom a thic+ red oil* very "at* even as olive oil* and not very corrosive. Leep it "rom the air* or else it t%rns into water. 0t is o" wonder"%l virt%e "or inward and o%tward grie"s* "or it has in it a p%re golden s%lph%r. Eommon s%lph%r mi1ed with this oil* and melted in a strong "ire* swims li+e water a&ove and is transparent. his oil distilled in a retort with p%re sand in a strong "ire* yields a spirit li+e "ire scarce to &e contained in any vessel and dissolves all metals e1cept silver* and red%ces p%re spirit o" wine into an oil within a "ew days. TO MA$E OIL OF TALC a+e o" the &est talc red%ced into very thin "la+es. :a+e them red hot and then -%ench them in the strongest li1ivi%m that soap &oilers %se. #o this "i"teen times and it will &ecome as white as snow. hen powder it very small and calcine it &y "%migation* &y the "%me o" some very sharp spirit as o" a-%a "ortis or the li+e. Ahen it has &een calcined "or the space o" a "ortnight* it will &ecome somewhat m%cilagino%s. hen set it in any heat o" p%tre"action as it is ("or it has im&i&ed eno%gh o" the sharp spirit to moisten and "erment it) "or the space o" two months in a &olt head nipped %p. hen evaporate the acid spirit and d%lci"y it with distilled rain water. !"ter this e1tract what yo% can o%t o" it with the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine. 'o%r o"" the sol%tion and evaporate the spirit o" wine* and at the &ottom will &e a most &ea%ti"%l oil. he oil is the most glorio%s "%c%s or paint in the world. TO MA$E OIL OF TALC ANOTHER WAY a+e o" the "oresaid powder o" talc a"ter it has &een p%tri"ied and again d%lci"ied as m%ch as yo% please. '%t "o%r times as m%ch o" the &est circ%lated oil o" camphor to it. #igest them in horse

!1

d%ng %ntil all the powder &e dissolved* and the oil &ecomes m%cilagino%s which will &e with in two months. his is "or the same %se as the "ormer. here is re-%ired a great deal o" pains* and care* and no small cost in the preparation o" these oils. OIL IS MADE OF BOLE AMMONIAC TERRA SIGILLATA AND SUCH $IND OF CLAY EARTHS THUS a+e o" either o" those earths as m%ch as yo% please. 4rea+ it into small pieces and p%t it into a retort over a na+ed "ire "or the space o" 16 ho%rs* and there will distill into the receiver (which m%st &e large) the phlegm* then white spirits in a little -%antity* yet o" a grate"%l taste and smell. OIL OUT OF THESE $INDS OF EARTH IS MADE BETTER THUS a+e o" either o" these earths which yo% please* as m%ch as yo% will. 'o%r %pon it distilled rain water. .et it in some warm place "or a month or more and the oiliness will separate "rom its &ody o" its own accord and swim %pon the water. .eparate the water &y a t%nnel* and distill the oil with "ive parts o" the spirit o" wine well recti"ied. here will come "orth an oil o" a golden color* swimming on the spirit* which is a most e1cellent &alsam. SPIRIT OF UNSLA$ED LIME IS MADE THUS a+e o" %nsla+ed lime as m%ch as yo% please. <ed%ce it into a s%&tle powder. 0m&i&e it with spirit o" wine most highly recti"ied (which m%st &e p%re "rom all its phlegm* or else yo% la&or in vain) as m%ch as it can im&i&e. #raw o"" the spirit o" wine with a gentle heat* coho&ate it eight or ten times* so will the "iery virt%e o" the lime &e "orti"ied. a+e o" this levigated lime ten o%nces* p%re salt o" tartar one o%nce* the "eces o" tartar a"ter the salt is e1tracted eleven o%nces. :i1 these well together and p%t them into a glass retort coated. .ee that two parts o" three &e empty* distill them into two receivers* the phlegm into one* the spirit into the other which m%st have a little o" recti"ied spirit o" wine in it to receive the spirit. 0" yo% will separate the spirit o" wine* then p%t "ire to it* and the spirit o" wine will &%rn away* and the spirit o" the lime stay &ehind which is a +ind o" a "i1ed spirit. his is a very secret "or the cons%ming o" the stone in the &ladder and the c%ring o" the go%t. OIL MADE OUT OF TILE STONES CALLED THE OIL OF PHILOSOPHERS a+e o" &ric+s or tiles as many as yo% please. 4rea+ them into small pieces* ma+e them red "ire hot* and then -%ench them in p%re old oil o" olive (in which let them lie %ntil they &e cold). hen

!2

ta+e them o%t and grind them very small. @et the powder &e p%t into a glass retort* coated* a "it receiver &eing p%t thereto* and distill o"" the oil in a na+ed "ire &y degrees which* &eing distilled o""* +eep in a vial* close stopped. his oil is wonder"%l penetrating and is good against all cold distempers whatsoever. THE LIQUOR OR WATER OF CORAL IS MADE THUS a+e sal ammoniac well p%ri"ied &y s%&limation* o" red coral "inely powdered* o" each a li+e -%antity. .%&lime them so o"ten %ntil the coral will no more rise %p. hen ta+e the cal1 o" coral that remains in the &ottom o" the s%&limatory* and p%t it on a mar&le or glass in the cellar to &e dissolved. hat which will not &e dissolved* s%&lime again* and do as &e"ore %ntil all &e dissolved. .o yo% have the li-%or o" coral. ,ote that i" yo% will have the tr%e tinct%re o" coral* evaporate the h%midity o" the "oresaid li-%or. hen e1tract the tinct%re o%t o" the powder with spirit o" wine* which spirit evaporate to the consistency o" honey. !nd yo% have a most rare medicine. his medicine strengthens all the parts in the &ody and c%res all distempers that arise "rom the wea+ness thereo". TO MA$E A WATER OUT OF LAPIS ARMENUS THAT SHALL HAVE NEITHER TASTE NOR SMELL A FEW DROPS WHEREOF SHALL PURGE a+e o" lapis armen%s powdered small and calcined as m%ch as yo% please. .%&lime it with sal ammoniac %ntil it will s%&lime no more* &%t remain in the &ottom o" the s%&limatory. hen ta+e it o%t and lay it very thin %pon a mar&le in a cellar* and there let it lay two months* and it will &e almost all dissolved into a li-%or. Br th%s=- a+e o" lapis armen%s powdered small and calcined as m%ch as yo% please. 'o%r %pon it o" distilled vinegar as m%ch as will cover it "o%r "ingers &readth. hen set it over a gentle heat* stirring o" it two or three times in an ho%r* "or the space o" si1 ho%rs or therea&o%ts. hen the spirit &eing tinged very &l%e with the powder* "ilter o"" "rom the "eces. hen po%r more spirit o" vinegar on the "eces and do as &e"ore %ntil the spirit &e tinged no more. hen ta+e all the &l%e spirit and vapor it away* and at the &ottom yo% shall have a salt which yo% m%st p%t into a calcining pot and calcine so long in the "ire %ntil no more vapor will arise and it &ecomes a dar+ red powder. hen p%t it %pon a mar&le in the cellar "or the space o" two months and it will &e dissolved into a li-%or* a "ew drops whereo" p%t into a glass o" &eer will p%rge delicately. HOW TO MA$E A FURNACE THAT SHALL OF ITSELF WITHOUT ANY VESSELS WHICH SHOULD CONTAIN THE MATTER BEING PUT INTO IT SUBLIME MINERALS

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AND DISTILL ALL MANNER OF OILS AND SPIRITS OUT OF MINERALS% VEGETABLES% AND ANIMALS AND THAT IN A VERY GREAT QUANTITY IN A VERY SHORT TIME AND WITH SMALL COST he "%rnace is made as "ollows. 0t may &e made o" one piece &y a potter or o" &ric+* ro%nd or "o%r-s-%are* greater or lesser as yo% please. 0" the inside &e one span &road in the middle* it m%st &e high* one "or the ash hole* another a&ove the grate to the middle coal hole and two a&ove the pipe. his pipe* &eing made o" earth or iron* m%st &e a span long &etween the "%rnace and the receiver* and a third part as wide as the "%rnace within. he recipients m%st &e made o" glass or very good earth well l%ted together* the greater the &etter. T-. F/012 F/340.

T-. S.5678 F/340.

!. .igni"ies the ash hole which m%st &e as wide as the "%rnace and always open that the "ire may &%rn the stronger.

!4

4 E.

he middle hole o" the "%rnace "or the p%tting in o" coals. he stopple made o" stone.

#. he %pper hole o" the "%rnace with a "alse &ottom wherein sand lies which is there lain that the cover may lie the closer and +eep in the "%mes the &etter. E. he cover which m%st &e presently clapped on as soon as the matter to &e distilled is p%t in. F. he pipe which goes o%t o" the "%rnace and to which the receiver is "itted. C. D. 0. he "irst recipient "or "lowers. he second. he third.

L. ! stool whereon the "irst recipient rests* in the midst whereo" is a hole* thro%gh which goes the nec+ o" the recipient to which another glass is "itted. @. he glass "itted to the recipient "or the %niting the spirits that drop down. :. !nother recipient %nited to the "ormer glass and into which the %nited spirits do r%n. ,. ! stool thro%gh the middle o" which goes a screw "or the raising o" that glass* which is set %nder the "irst recipient* higher or lower. '. he grate with two thic+ iron &ars which lie "ast* %pon which "o%r or "ive thinner are laid which may &e stirred when the "%rnace is made clean. h%s "ar the "irst o" the "ig%res is e1plained* &y which yo% may see how s%&limation and distillation are made at one time* vi8.* o" those things which will yield &oth "lowers and spirits (the "lowers stic+ing in the three %pper recipients and the spirits dropping down into the lower). ,ow "ollows the e1planations o" the second "ig%re which is the same with the "ormer in respect to the "%rnace itsel"* &%t di""ering in respect o" the recipients which serve "or the receiving o" the spirits and oils o" s%ch things as yield no "lowers. here"ore 0 shall &egin with the e1planation o" the receivers. C. he "irst croo+ed pipe as it is "itted to the pipe that comes o%t o" the "%rnace.

!5

D. he recipient with its cover in which is one hole "or one croo+ed pipe to go thro%gh* as yo% may see in the "irst D* and two holes "or two pipes to go thro%gh* as yo% may see in the second D* and in DD. ,ote that these pipes may either &e "astened to the cover* &eing all o" one piece* or they m%st &e well l%ted* that no vapors may pass thro%gh. ,ow yo% m%st conceive that in the lower receivers the vapor that goes o%t o" the "irst pipe goes "irst into the receiver* then o%t o" that into the ne1t pipe and so "orward %ntil it comes into the last receiver* &y which means it is m%ch cooled ("or indeed s%ch vapors that come o%t o" the "%rnace* especially when some materials are distilled* i" there were not some s%ch art to cool them wo%ld &rea+ all recipients). 0. ! t%& o" water wherein the recipient stands to cool the vapors and condense them. L. he "irst croo+ed pipe as it goes into the recipient.@. he second croo+ed pipe* whereo" one end goes into one receiver* and another end into another. :. he last croo+ed pipe to which yo% m%st anne1 a receiver.

,ow the manner o" distilling is th%s. @et the "%rnace &e "%ll o" coals well +indled* then cast on yo%r matter* and stop yo%r "%rnace close. his "%rnace needs no retort or other vessels to &e set into it. ,either can yo% do any h%rt &y too m%ch or too little "ire* and yo% may "inish yo%r operation when yo% please and in one ho%r try diverse e1periments. 0t saves very m%ch time and cost* and in one ho%r will do as m%ch as can &e done in another "%rnace in twenty-"o%r. 0n one ho%r yo% may ma+e a po%nd o" spirit o" salt with "o%r or "ive po%nds o" coals* and as m%ch "lowers o" antimony in a li+e space o" time* and with as "ew coals. 0" yo%r materials &e vegeta&les* or horn* or &ones* c%t them small. 0" hard minerals* let them &e powdered very small. 0" salts* let them &e "irst dissolved in water* which water m%st &e im&i&ed with red hot coals %ntil all the li-%or &e im&i&ed. hen cast in those coals into the "%rnace. 0" yo% wo%ld &y this means proc%re the spirit o" hard minerals* as o" antimony* and yo% m%st ta+e them as they come "rom the mine* &e"ore they have passed the "ire. 4y this "%rnace yo% may ma+e the spirits o" s%ch things which will not yield them in any other way. ,ote that s%ch oils and spirits as are drawn &y this "%rnace m%st &e recti"ied in spirit o" salt* as 0 have shown. ROS VITRIOLI IS MADE THUS

a+e o" the &est #ansic+ vitriol* as m%ch as yo% please* %ncalcined. '%t it into a glass go%rd and distill it in the sand* and there will come over a water somewhat sharpish. his water* or ros* is o" greater %se than the spirit or oil thereo". 0t helps all inward in"lammations* as o" the liver* +idneys* stomach* helps the e&%llition o" &lood* and all distempers that come "rom thence. his is that phlegm which most vapor away* &%t it is &eca%se they +now not the virt%es thereo". A SWEET GREEN OIL OF VITRIOL IS MADE THUS a+e as many copporas stones as yo% please. 4eat them small and lay them in a cool cellar. 0n twenty or thirty days they will attract the air and loo+ &lac+* and a"ter "o%rteen days &ecome whitish and sweetish. hen dissolve them in distilled rain water* then "ilter and evaporate the water* and they will shoot into green crystals which yo% may dissolve in a cellar per deli-%i%m* &eing "irst &eaten small and lain on a mar&le stone. his li-%or is that "amo%s medicine o" 'aracels%s "or the "alling sic+ness* a "ew drops thereo" &eing ta+en in any appropriate li-%or. a+e heed that it comes at no strong "ire* "or then* says 'aracels%s* it loses its greeness and* as m%ch as it loses o" that* so m%ch also o" its virt%e. ! spirit may &e drawn "rom hence &y an ingenio%s artist that will smell li+e m%s+ or am&er. THE SULPHUR OF VITRIOL MAY WITH SPIRIT OF WINE BE EXTRACTED THUS a+e o" the &est #ansic+ vitriol hal" a po%nd and dry it &y a gentle "ire %ntil it &e whitish. hen po%r on it o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine thirty o%nces (note that there m%st come to it no other moist%re than the spirit o" wine* and the glass also m%st &e very dry* else yo% la&or in vain). hen digest it in horse d%ng the space o" a month. hen decant "rom the "eces the spirit o" wine witho%t any tro%&ling o" it. hen in &alne%m evaporate the spirit* and at the &ottom yo% will have a yellow li-%or o" a most wonder"%l slipticity. his li-%or is a "amo%s anodyn%m* s%ppressing all no1io%s vapors whatsoever and ca%sing rest. ! "ew drops thereo" may &e ta+en in any speci"ical li-%or. A SUDORIFIC WATER TO BE USED OUTWARDLY

!!

a+e o" s%&limed merc%ry very "inely powdered an o%nce and a hal"* o" e%phor&i%m powdered a scr%ple* spirit o" wine well recti"ied* and rose water* o" each a po%nd. #igest them two or three ho%rs in a gentle &alne%m* the nec+ o" the vessel which m%st &e very long &eing well stopped. hen let them &oil a -%arter o" an ho%r. Ahen the li-%or is cold* po%r it "rom the "eces and +eep it in a glass. 0" the &ac+&one &e &athed with the water* or the wrist o" those that &e wea+* it ca%ses sweat presently* i" it &e done in the &ed. 4y which means diseases that re-%ire sweat may &e c%red. !lso* any pained place &y &eing &athed with this water is in a little time eased. ,ote that yo% m%st not &athe any place a&ove three or "o%r times with it* "or &y &eing too o"ten %sed it contracts the s+in. HOW TO RECTIFY OILS AND SPIRITS OF MINERALS '%t the li-%or that is distilled "rom minerals into the retort to which give "ire &y degrees. he spirit will rise %p into the %pper receiver and the heavy oil will go into the middle receiver which is the &iggest o" all. 0nto the little receiver* anne1ed to the end o" the middle* will pass some o" the spirit which* tho%gh it passes into the middle receiver* will not stay there* &%t goes &eyond it &eca%se it "inds vent.

!"

!OO" #+
OF A'#MA&% $ATE(%, %P#(#T%, A'D O#&%, %#MP&E A'D )OMPO*'D O*T OF A'#MA&% OIL AND WATER OUT OF BLOOD IS MADE THUS a+e o" &lood as m%ch as yo% please. @et it stand in p%tre"action in a glass vessel close covered the space o" "orty days. hen distill it in ashes* and there will come "orth a water and oil. E1tract the salt o%t o" the "eces with the said water. Ealcine the salt in a cr%ci&le and then dissolve it in the said water. hen distill o"" the water (which will &e a good recti"ying o" the water) and dry the salt very well* which then mi1 with the "oresaid oil &eing "irst recti"ied* and digest them &oth together "or the space o" a month. TO MA$E THE MAGISTERY OF BLOOD a+e o" the p%rest &lood as m%ch as yo% please. '%t it into a pelican* so that three parts o" "o%r may &e empty* and then digest it a month in horse d%ng (in which time it will swell and &ecome as m%ch more as it was when it was p%t in). hen distill o"" the phlegm in &alne%m* and in the &ottom will remain the magistery o" &lood which m%st &e distilled and coho&ated nine times in a retort in ashes* and then it is per"ected. his magistery is o" e1cellent virt%e which* &eing ta+en inwardly* and applied o%twardly c%res most diseases and eases pain* &eing very &alsamical. ELIXIR OF MUMMY IS MADE THUS a+e o" m%mmy (vi8.* o" man3s "lesh hardened)* c%t small "o%r o%nces* spirit o" wine tere&inthinated ten o%nces* and p%t them into a gla8ed vessel (three parts o" "o%r &eing empty) which set in horse d%ng to digest "or the space o" a month. hen ta+e it o%t and e1press it* and let the e1pression &e circ%lated a month. hen let it r%n thro%gh manica hippocratis* and then evaporate the spirit %ntil that which remains in the &ottom &e li+e an oil which is the tr%e eli1ir o" m%mmy. his eli1ir is a wonder"%l preservative against all in"ections* also very &alsamical. THE ESSENCE OF MAN)S BRAINS

!#

a+e the &rains o" a yo%ng man that has died a violent death* together with the mem&ranes* arteries* veins* nerves* all the pith o" the &ac+* and &r%ise these in a stone mortar %ntil they &ecome a +ind o" pap. hen p%t as m%ch o" the spirit o" wine as will cover it three or "o%r "ingers &readth. hen p%t it into a large glass so that three parts o" "o%r &e empty* &eing hermetically closed. hen digest it hal" a year in horse d%ng. hen ta+e it o%t and distill it in &alne%m and coho&ate the water %ntil the greatest part o" the &rains &e distilled o"". ! scr%ple or two o" this essence ta+en in some speci"ical water once in a day is a most in"alli&le medicine against the "alling sic+ness. A FAMOUS SPIRIT MADE OUT OF CRANIUM HUMANUM a+e o" crani%m h%man%m as m%ch as yo% please. 4rea+ it into small pieces* which p%t into a glass retort well l%ted* with a large receiver well l%ted. hen p%t a strong "ire to it &y degrees* contin%ing o" it %ntil yo% see no more "%mes come "orth* and yo% shall have a yellowish spirit* a red oil* and a volatile salt. a+e this salt and the yellow spirit* and digest them &y circ%lation two or three months in &alne%m* and yo% shall have a most e1cellent spirit. his spirit is o" a""inity with* i" not the same as* that "amo%s spirit o" #r. Coddards in Dol&orne. 0t helps the "alling sic+ness* go%t* dropsie* in"irm stomach* and indeed strengthens all wea+ parts* and opens all o&str%ctions* and is a +ind o" panacea. ANOTHER EXCELLENT SPIRIT MADE OUT OF CRANIUM% HARTS HORN% OR IVORY a+e o" either o" these. (0" yo% ta+e crani%m* it need not &e &r%ised at all* only &ro+en into little piecesF i" harts horn or ivory* yo% m%st c%t them in thin pieces). @ay it piece &y piece %pon a net spread %pon any vessel* &eing most "%ll o" water. Eover this net with another vessel very close. hen ma+e the water &oil* and +eep it &oiling three days and three nights* and in that time the &ones or horns will &e as so"t as cheese. hen po%nd them* and to every po%nd thereo"* p%t hal" a po%nd o" h%ngarian vitriol %ncalcined* and as m%ch spirit o" wine as will ma+e them into a thin paste. his paste digest in a vessel hermetically sealed the space o" a month in &alne%m. hen distill it in a retort in sand %ntil all &e dry* and yo% shall have a most e1cellent spirit. his spirit is o" wonder"%l %se in the epilepsy conv%lsions* all "evers p%trid or pestilential* passions o" the heart* and is a very e1cellent s%dori"ic.

"$

his spirit may &e ta+en "rom the -%antity o" hal" an o%nce to an o%nce in some speci"ical li-%or. A WATER AND OIL MADE OUT OF HAIR Fill an earthen retort with hair c%t small. .et it over the "ire and "it a receiver to it. here will come over a very stin+ing water and oil. his water and oil is %sed in Cermany to &e sprin+led %pon "ences and hedges to +eep wild and h%rt"%l cattle "rom coming to do harm in any place* "or s%ch is the stin+ o" this li-%or that it does "righten them "rom coming to any place near it. WATER OF MIL$ IS MADE THUS a+e o" what mil+ yo% please a gallon. 0n it dissolve hal" a po%nd o" salt* and p%t to it two hand"%ls o" plantain* and an o%nce o" licorice sliced. hen distill it in a hot still with a gentle "ire. his water is o" e1cellent %se in hot distempers o" the l%ngs and +idneys. ?o% may p%t in other ingredients according to the %se yo% wo%ld have it "or. AN EXCELLENT COMPOUND WATER OF MIL$ FOR ANY INFLAMMATIONS IN THE EYES a+e o" woman3s mil+ a pint* o" white copperas a po%nd* and distill them in ashes. ,ote that as soon as yo% perceive any sharp spirit to come o""* then cease. @et in"lamed eyes &e washed three or "o%r times in a day with this water* and it helps them wonder"%lly. SPIRIT OF URINE IS MADE THUS a+e o" the %rine o" a yo%ng man drin+ing m%ch wine* as m%ch as yo% please. @et it stand in glass vessels in p%tre"action "orty days. hen po%ring it "rom its "eces* distill it in a glass go%rd in sand %ntil all &e dry. hen coho&ate the said spirit on the cap%t mort%ary three times. hen distill it in a go%rd o" a long nec+ and there will ascend* &esides the spirit* a crystalline salt which yo% may either +eep &y itsel"* &eing called the volatile salt o" %rine* or mi1 it with its spirit which will there&y &ecome very penetrating i" they &e digested "or some days together. ,ote that the pipe o" the head m%st &e wide or else the volatile salt will soon stop it.

"1

,ote that this salt is so penetrating that it penetrates the &ody o" the glass. his spirit &y recti"ication may &e made so p%re and s%&tle that it will &%rn as "ire and dissolve gold and precio%s stones. his &eing o"ten applied to any place pained with the go%t eases it presently. 0t also -%ic+ens any part that is &en%m&ed. he salt volatile is Delmont3s "amo%s medicine "or the 2a%ndice. A COMPOUND SPIRIT OF URINE a+e o" h%ngarian vitriol a po%nd* and the %rine o" a &oy that is healthy "o%r po%nds. '%t these into a glass vessel well closed so that three parts o" "o%r may &e empty. #igest them in &alne%m "or the space o" a month and then distill them in ashes %ntil all &e dry. his spirit is o" great virt%e in the epilepsy* go%t* dropsy* conv%lsions* &eing ta+en "rom two drams to hal" an o%nce in some speci"ical li-%or. TO MA$E A SPIRIT OF HONEY a+e good strong stale mead* otherwise called metheglin* as m%ch as yo% please* distill it in a copper still or alem&ic* with its re"rigeratory* and it will yield a spirit li+e a-%a vitae. THE QUINTESSENCE OF HONEY IS MADE THUS a+e o" the p%rest honey two po%nds* and o" "o%ntain water one po%nd. 4oil these together %ntil the water &e &oiled away* ta+ing o"" the sc%m that rises. hen ta+e the honey and p%t it into a glass* "o%r parts o" "ive &eing empty. Elose it well and set it in digestion a whole year and yo% shall have the essence o" honey swimming on the top in "orm o" an oil* &eing o" as "ragrant smell as anything in the world. he phlegm will &e in the middle* and the "ec%lent matter in the &ottom* o" a dar+ color and stin+ing smell. SOME MA$E THE QUINTESSENCE OF HONEY AFTER THIS MANNER a+e as m%ch honey as yo% please* o" the &est* and p%t it into a glass. First distill o"" the phlegm in &alne%m* and then e1tract the tinct%re o%t o" what remains with the said water. hen calcine the remaining "eces and e1tract "rom thence the salt with the "oresaid water &eing distilled o"" "rom the tinct%re. Ealcine the salt and melt it in a cr%ci&le. hen let it dissolve in a cellar* and then again evaporate it away. ?o% shall have a most white salt which let im&i&e as m%ch o" the tinct%re as it will. #igest them "or three months* and yo% shall have an essence o" honey.

"2

AN ESSENCE OF HONEY MAY BE MADE THUS a+e o" honey well desp%mated as m%ch as yo% please. 'o%r %pon it as m%ch o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine as will cover it "ive or si1 "ingers &readth. #igest them in a glass vessel well closed (the "o%rth part only &eing "%ll) in a temperate &alne%m the space o" a "ortnight or %ntil the spirit &e very well tinged. hen decant o"" the spirit and p%t on more %ntil all the tinct%re &e e1tracted. '%t all these tinct%res together* and evaporate the spirit %ntil what remains &egins to &e thic+ish at the &ottom and o" a golden colon. his is a very e1cellent essence o" honey and is o" so pleasant an odor that scarce anything is li+e to it. 0t is so cordial that it even revives the dying i" two or three drops thereo" &e ta+en in some cordial water. A MOST STRONG SPIRIT OF THE VINEGAR OF HONEY a+e a po%nd o" honey and p%t to it o" the &est white wine vinegar si1 pints* an o%nce o" white pepper &r%ised small* o" the strongest m%stard seed &r%ised three o%nces. '%t these into a glass vessel so that three parts o" "o%r &e empty. #igest them in a temperate &alne%m* or set the vessel in the s%n "or the space o" a "ortnight. hen distill them in &alne%m and yo% shall have a spirit "ar sharper than the common spirit o" vinegar. his spirit is stronger and &etter than any common distilled vinegar "or the dissolving o" hard things and e1tracting o" the tinct%res o%t o" things. OIL OR QUINTESSENCE OF WAX a+e o" the &est wa1 a po%nd and as m%ch o" p%re sand well washed "rom all its imp%rity and again dried. First* melt the wa1* and then mi1 the sand with it very e1actly. hen p%t them into a glass retort well coated. Fit a strong receiver to it and set it in sand. Cive it "ire &y degrees* contin%ing it "o%r days* which at last m%st &e very strong. here will come o"" a spirito%s oil which m%st &e recti"ied seven times in a glass retort* every time changing the retort* and yo% shall have a s%&tle oil o" a golden color. his oil e1tracts the virt%es o" all "lowers presently* &eing set in the s%n. 0t is wonder"%l &alsamical "or the c%re o" wo%nds or %lcers &oth inward and o%tward. 4eing applied o%twardly* it also eases all pains* -%ic+ens any deadened mem&er* as in the palsy. WATER IS MADE OUT OF FLESH THUS

"3

a+e what "lesh yo% please* the &loodiest part thereo"* %nwashed* &eing c%t very small* and then &r%ised (or i" it &e a "eathered "owl* ta+e it &eing chased %p and down %ntil it &e wearied* and then s%ddenly strangled* the "eathers &eing pl%c+ed o"" witho%t p%tting o" it into water* and th%s &eing pl%c+ed &are and the &owels ta+en o%t* c%t the "lesh* &ones* gi8ard* liver* heart). 'o%r %pon it as m%ch water as will &e s%""icient* with what spices and her&s yo% please. hen set it over a gentle "ire in an earthen vessel* gla8ed* the space o" 6H ho%rs. '%t the head %pon it and l%te it close* and there will distill o"" a com"orta&le restorative water. WATER OR LIQUOR IS MADE OUT OF FLESH THUS a+e o" what "lesh yo% please* or "eathered "owl prepared as &e"ore. 4r%ise it small* and p%t it into a copper vessel tinned within side* witho%t any water &eing p%t to it. '%t a cover to it and l%te it close. .et it in &alne%m or over the vapor o" seething water. 0" the "lesh &e tender* it will &e t%rned into a clear li-%or the space o" twelve ho%rs* i" harder it will re-%ire a longer time. ?o% may p%t in what spices or her&s yo% please to give it a good relish and odor. !"ter all is done yo% may strain it and +eep it "or %se* &eing very restorative and good "or wea+ stomachs that cannot concoct hard meat. 0" this &e digested in a pelican or &olt-head a "ortnight* it will &e "ar &etter. !"ter this manner may &e prepared snails* worms* and s%ch li+e which are very medicinal. A VERY EXCELLENT RESTORATIVE LIQUOR a+e o" the heart* l%ngs* and liver o" a cal"* the seine parts o" a "o1 new +illed* c%t them small* and p%t to them a -%art o" shell snails well sco%red with salt water. @et these &e p%t into a copper vessel tinned within side and covered close that no vapor comes "orth. .et this vessel over the vapor o" seething water* and in 6H ho%rs or therea&o%ts they will &e "or the most part o" them t%rned into a li-%or o" themselves. hen ta+e o%t this li-%or and p%t it into a large pelican or &olt-head* p%tting to them a -%art o" old :allago wine* rosemary "lowers* &etony "lowers* marigold "lowers* marsh wallow "lowers* o" each a hand"%lF hal" a po%nd o" raisins o" the s%n stoned* mace* and n%tmeg* o" each two dramsF then po%r o"" that which is clear "rom the "eces and sweeten it with s%gar or syr%p o" gilly "lowers. @et the patient ta+e thereo" "ive or si1 spoon"%ls* three or "o%r times a day. his li-%or recovers the decaying strength wonder"%lly. hey that &y reason o" their wea+ness can neither eat nor digest any manner o" common meat will* in a short time* &e sensi&ly strengthened i" they drin+ a -%arter o" a pint o" this morning and evening.

"4

A BALSAM MADE OF BEAR)S FAT a+e o" &ear3s "at a po%nd* distill it in a retort* and recti"y it three or "o%r times. o this* th%s recti"ied* p%t the tinct%re o" rosemary and made with spirit o" wine* o" each three o%nces. :i1 them well together. 0n these in"%se cloves* cinnamon* sa""ron* n%tmeg* o" each three drams* in warm ashes the space o" a night. hen strain them and p%t to the oil "o%r o%nces o" the &est wa1 melted and mingled well together. his is a most incompara&le &alsam "or the go%t and palsy. THE OIL OF SNA$ES AND ADDERS a+e sna+es or adders when they are "at which will &e in J%ne or J%ly. E%t o"" their heads* ta+e o"" their s+ins* and %n&owel them. '%t them into a glass go%rd* and po%r on so m%ch o" the p%re spirit o" wine well recti"ied that it may cover them "o%r or "ive "ingers &readth. .top the glass well and set it in &alne%m %ntil all their s%&stance &e t%rned into an oil* which +eep well stopped "or yo%r %se. his oil does wonder"%l c%res in recovering hearing in those that &e dea"* i" a "ew drops thereo" &e p%t warm into the ears. ! no&leman o" Cermany that was "amo%s "or c%ring the dea" %sed this as his chie"est medicine* &y which they say he c%red those that were &orn dea". THE QUINTESSENCE OF SNA$ES% ADDERS% OR VIPERS a+e o" the &iggest and "attest sna+es* adders* or vipers which yo% can get in J%ne or J%ly. E%t o"" their heads* ta+e o"" their s+ins* and %n&owel them. hen c%t them into small pieces and p%t them into a glass o" a wide mo%th. .et them in a warm &alne%m so that they may &e well dried which will &e in three or "o%r days. hen ta+e them o%t* and p%t them into a &olthead. 'o%r on them o" the &est alcoli8ed wine* as m%ch as will cover them si1 or eight "ingers &readth. .top the glass hermetically* and digest them "i"teen days in &alne%m* or so long %ntil the wine &e s%""iciently covered* which po%r "orth. hen po%r on more o" the "oresaid spirit o" wine %ntil all the -%intessence &e e1tracted. hen p%t all the tinged spirits together* and draw o"" the spirit in a gentle &alne%m* %ntil it &e thic+ at the &ottom. Bn this po%r spirit o" wine caryophyllated* stir them well together* and digest them in a circ%latory ten days. hen a&stract the spirit o" wine* and the -%intessence remains at the &ottom per"ect. his -%intessence is o" e1traordinary virt%e "or the p%ri"ying o" the &lood* "lesh* and s+in and* conse-%ently* o" all diseases therein. 0t c%res also the "alling sic+ness* and strengthens the &rain* sight* and hearing* and preserves "rom grey hairs* renews yo%th* preserves women "rom a&ortion* c%res the go%t* cons%mption*

"5

ca%ses sweat* and is very good in and against pestilential in"ections. VIPER WINE IS MADE THUS a+e o" the &est "at vipers* c%t o"" their heads* ta+e o"" their s+ins* and %n&owel them. hen p%t them into the &est canary sac+* "o%r or si1 according to their &igness into a gallon. @et them stand two or three months. hen draw o"" yo% wine as yo% drin+ it. .ome p%t them alive into the wine* and there s%""ocate them* and a"terwards ta+e them o%t* and c%t o"" their heads* ta+e o"" their s+ins* and %n&owel them* and then p%t them into the same wine again* and do as &e"ore. his wine has the same virt%es as the "oregoing -%intessence. 0t also provo+es to venery* c%res the leprosy and s%ch li+e corr%ptions o" the &lood. $UNRATH)S FAMOUS WATER CALLED AQUA MAGNANIMITATIS a+e o" pismires or ants (the &iggest that have a so%rish smell are the &est) two hand"%ls* spirit o" wine a gallon. #igest them in a glass vessel close sh%t the space o" a month in which time they will &e dissolved into a li-%or. hen distill them in &alne%m %ntil all &e dry. hen p%t the same -%antity o" ants as &e"ore. #igest and distill them in the said li-%or as &e"ore. #o this three times* and then aromati8e the spirit with some cinnamon. ,ote that %pon the spirit will "loat an oil which m%st &e separated. his spirit is o" e1cellent %se to stir %p the animal spirit - in so m%ch that John Easmire* 'alse-grave o" the <hene and .ey"rie o" Eollen* Ceneral against the %r+s* did always drin+ o" it when they went to "ight* to increase magnanimity and co%rage which it did even to admiration. his spirit does also wonder"%lly irritate them that are sloth"%l to venery. 0t also provo+es %rine even to admiration. 0t does also wonder"%lly irritate the spirits that are d%lled and deeded with any cold distemper. his oil does the same e""ects* and indeed more power"%lly. his oil does* &esides what is spo+en o" the spirit* help dea"ness e1ceedingly* two or three drops &eing dropped into the ear* a"ter it is well syringed* once in a day "or a wee+ together. 0t helps also the eyes that have any "ilm growing on them* &eing now and then dropped into them.

"

ANOTHER AQUA MAGNANIMITATIS IS MADE THUS a+e o" ants or pismires a hand"%l* o" their eggs two h%ndred* o" millepedes or woodlice one h%ndred* and o" &ees one h%ndred and "i"ty. #igest all these in two pints o" spirit o" wine* &eing very well impregnated with the &rightest soot. #igest them together the space o" a month* then po%r o"" the clear spirit and +eep it sa"e. his water* or spirit* is o" the same virt%e as the "ormer. WATER OF DUNG IS MADE THUS a+e o" any d%ng as m%ch as yo% please. Ahile it is still "resh* p%t it into a common cold still and with a so"t "ire distill it o"". 0t will &e &est i" the &ottom o" the still &e set over a vapor. 0" yo% wo%ld have it &e stronger* coho&ate the said water over its "eces several timesF "or we see there is great virt%e in d%ng. 0t ma+es gro%nd "ertile* and many sorts thereo" are very medicinal. A WATER OF DOVES) DUNG IS MADE THUS a+e o" doves3 d%ng as m%ch as yo% please. o every po%nd p%t a pint o" <henish wine* in which let it steep all night in a gentle &alne%m. hen distill it in a glass go%rd in ashes. Eoho&ate this li-%or three times. 0" there &e any volatile salt* mi1 it with the water. his water is very e1cellent against all o&str%ctions o" the +idneys* &ladder* it helps the 2a%ndice presently* two or three spoon"%ls thereo" &eing dr%n+ once every morning and evening. A WATER MADE OF HORSE DUNG a+e o" the d%ng o" a horse that is "ed in the sta&le as m%ch as yo% please. @et it stand two days o%t o" the s%n and o%t o" the wet. o every po%nd o" this po%r a pint o" white wine. @et them stand in a warm &alne%m a "ortnight. hen distill them in a glass go%rd in sand. Eoho&ate this three or "o%r times. 0" there &e any volatile salt* mi1 it with the water. his water is very e1cellent against the &astard ple%risy* stitches* wind* o&str%ction o" the reins* &ladder* very good in a dropsy* 2a%ndice* sc%rvy* etc. 0" three or "o%r spoon"%ls &e ta+en every morning in the water o" 2%niper &erries* it also ca%ses sweat. A WATER SMELLING LI$E AMBER MADE BY PARACELSUS OUT OF COW DUNG a+e o" cow d%ng and distill it in &alne%m* and the water thereo" will have the smell o" am&ergris. his water is very e1cellent in all inward in"lammations.

"!

AN EXCELLENT SUDORIFIC MADE OF THE YOUNG BUDS OF HARTSHORN a+e o" the yo%ng &%ds o" hartshorn* while they are "%ll o" &lood and moist. 4r%ise them into a paste. hen mi1 as m%ch canary wine as will ma+e a very thin paste. #istill them in ashes %ntil they &e very dry. his is an e1cellent s%dori"ic in all &%rning "evers and epidemical diseases. 0" a spoon"%l &e ta+en &y itsel" or in any appropriated li-%or. OIL OUT OF BONES AND HORNS IS MADE THUS a+e o" what &ones yo% please. <ed%ce them to a gross powder* and p%t them into a retort* p%tting a strong "ire &y degrees Ghere%nto. here will come "orth an oil and volatile salt* &oth which yo% may mi1 together and digest them into an essence* the oil &eing "irst recti"ied with spirit o" wine. THE WATER OF SWALLOWS AGAINST THE FALLING SIC$NESS a+e o" swallows* c%t into small pieces witho%t separating anything "rom them si1 o%nces* o" castore%m c%t small an o%nce. :i1 them together* and in"%se them twelve ho%rs in hal" a pint o" canary wine. hen p%t them into a glass go%rd and distill them in sand %ntil all &e dry. hen coho&ate the li-%or three times. his water* &eing dr%n+ to the -%antity o" two spoon"%ls every morning* c%res them that have the "alling sic+ness. OIL OF EGGS IS MADE THUS a+e o" the yol+s o" eggs &oiled very hard. <%& them in pieces with yo%r "ingers. hen "ry them in a pan over a gentle "ire* contin%ally stirring them with a spoon %ntil they &ecome red* and the oil &e resolved and "low "rom them. hen p%t them into a hair cloth* and so press "orth the oil. his oil cleans the s+in "rom any "ilthiness contracted &y heat. 0t c%res p%st%les* chaps* e1coriations* ring worm* and especially all &%rnings. A WATER OF THE WHITES OF EGGS THAT WILL CURE A WOUND WITHOUT ANY VISIBLE SCAR a+e as many eggs as yo% please and &oil them very hard. hen c%t them in the middle and ta+e o%t the yol+s* "illing %p the cavities with some o" those whites* &eing "irst &r%ised into a paste. hen p%t &oth sides o" the eggs together as &e"ore* tie them together with a thread* and with a string hang them in the middle o" a go%rd glass* so that they to%ch not the sides. .top this glass very close and set it in &alne%m. ?o% shall see those whites which

""

were &r%ised drop down into a li-%or which yo% m%st gather %p o%t o" the &ottom o" the glass and +eep. ?o% will have very little o" this li-%or. his li-%or applied to any green wo%nd with a "eather c%res it presently* wheresoever it &e* witho%t any visi&le scar. 0t c%res most wonder"%lly all wo%nds in the eyes. A WATER OF CRABS IS MADE THUS a+e o" cra&s or craw"ish* as many as yo% please. 4rea+ them to pieces and macerate them in water o" sengreen "or the space o" a day. hen distill them and coho&ate the water three times. his water is o" sing%lar virt%e in all manner o" in"lammations inward and o%tward. AN OIL OR LIQUOR IS MADE OUT OF CRAB EYES THUS a+e o" cra&s3 eyes very "inely powdered "ive parts* oil o" tartar per deli-%i%m si1 parts (this oil o" tartar m%st &e made o" salt o" tartar a"ter it has "lowed in the "ire). #igest them in horse d%ng the space o" a month. hen coag%late the li-%or and ma+e an e1traction with the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine that can &e made (or else yo% lose yo%r la&or). hen evaporate the spirit o" wine* and there remains an oil at the &ottom. his oil is o" wonder"%l virt%e in all p%trid "evers and s%ch li+e distempers* and also in all o&str%ctions* especially* o" the +idneys. WATER OF SPAWN OF FROGS IS MADE THUS a+e o" the spawn o" "rogs gathered in :arch* as m%ch as yo% please. '%t a hand"%l o" salt to every -%art* and p%t them into a common cold still. Aith a gentle "ire distill o"" the water %ntil no more will distill. A COMPOUND WATER OF THE SPERM OF FROGS a+e o" the sperm o" "rogs gathered in :arch a&o%t the new o" the moon "o%r po%nds* o" cow d%ng "resh si1 po%nds. :i1 them well together and let them stand the space o" a day. hen distill them in ashes. his water allays all hot pains &oth inward and o%tward* especially o" the go%t. ANOTHER COMPOUND WATER OF THE SPERM OF FROGS a+e o" the sperm o" "rogs gathered in :arch two po%nds and a hal"* the %rine o" a yo%ng man three pints* new trea+le two o%nces

"#

and a hal"* white vitriol* salt* al%m* o" each "o%r o%nces. hen distill them and p%t to the water an o%nce and a hal" o" the salt o" vitriol* camphor* and sa""ron* o" each an o%nce. his water &eing applied o%twardly helps all pains* especially o" the go%t* and s%ch li+e* and also allays hot or cold swellings. 0t also stenches &leeding.

#$

!OO" +
A M#%)E&&A', OF %PAG,(#)A& E-PE(#ME'T% A'D )*(#O%#T#E% THE %PAG,(#)A& A'ATOM, OF $ATE( Aater seems to &e a &ody so very homogeneo%s* as i" neither nat%re nor art co%ld discover any heterogeneity in the parts thereo". h%s indeed it seems to the eye o" the v%lgar* &%t to that o" a philosopher "ar otherwise* as 0 shall endeavor to ma+e credi&le &y presenting to yo%r consideration a two"old process o" the discovering o" the dissimilarity o" parts thereo"* whereo" the one is nat%ral only* and the other arti"icial. 4%t &e"ore 0 spea+ o" either* it m%st &e premised that in the element o" water there is great plenty o" the spirit o" the world which is more predominant in it than in any other element* "or the %se and &ene"it o" %niversal nat%re* and that this spirit has three distinct s%&stances* vi8. salt* s%lph%r* and merc%ry. ,ow* &y salt we m%st %nderstand a s%&stance very dry* vital* and radical* having in it the &eginning o" corpori"ication* as 0 may call it. 4y s%lph%r* a s%&stance "%l1 o" light and vital heat* or vivi"ying "ire* containing in itsel" the &eginning o" motion* and &y merc%ry we m%st %nderstand a s%&stance a&o%nding with radical moist%re* with which the s%lph%r o" li"e* or vital "ire* is cherished and preserved. ,ow* these s%&stances which are in the spirit o" the world ma+e all "o%ntains and waters* &%t with some di""erence* according to the predominancy o" either. his several predominancy there"ore is the gro%nd o" the variety o" prod%ctions. 0 say Go" prod%ctionsG &eca%se all things are prod%ced o%t o" water. For water is &oth the sperm and the menstr%%m o" the worldF the "ormer* &eca%se it incl%des the seed o" everythingF the latter* &eca%se the sperm o" nat%re is p%tre"ied in it* so that the seed incl%ded in it sho%ld &e act%ated and ta+e %pon it the diverse "orms o" things* and &eca%se &y it the seed itsel"* and all things prod%ced o" seed* grow and are increased. ,ow* this &eing premised* 0 shall show yo% what the nat%ral process is which 0 shall ma+e plain &y instancing in three several prod%ctions. vi8. o" the spawn o" "rogs* o" stones and o" vegeta&les. he spawn o" "rogs is prod%ced a"ter this manner* vi8. the s%lph%r which is in the water* &eing &y the heat o" the s%n resolved and dissolved* is greedily and with delight conceived &y the element o" water* even as the sperm o" a male is &y the matri1 o" the "emale* and that %pon this acco%nt. he water wants siccity which the s%lph%r has and* there"ore e1ceedingly desiring it* does greedily attract it to itsel". .%lph%r also wants h%midity and* there"ore* attracts the h%midity o" the water. :oreover* the h%midity o" the water has the h%midity o" the salt laid %p occ%ltly in it. !lso* the s%lph%r cherishes the h%midity o" the "ire and desires nothing more than the h%midity o" the salt that is in the water. .%lph%r also contains the siccity o" the salt* whence it is that salt re-%ires a siccity "rom the s%lph%r. !nd

#1

th%s do these attractive virt%es m%t%ally act %pon each other3s s%&2ect. ,ow* &y this means there is a conception made in the water which now &egins to &e t%rgid* p%""ed %p* and tro%&led* as also to &e grosser and more slimy* %ntil o%t o" the spermatic vessels the sperms &e cast %pward* in which sperms a"ter a while appear &lac+ spec+s which are the seed o" the "rogs and &y the heat o" the s%n are in a short time t%rned into the same* &y which it appears there are dissimilar parts in water. .tones are prod%ced o%t o" water that has a m%cilagino%s merc%ry which the salt* with which it a&o%nds* "i1es into stones. his yo% may see clearly &y p%tting stones into water* "or they will a"ter a time contract a m%cilagino%s slimy matter which* &eing ta+en o%t o" the water and set in the s%n* &ecomes to &e o" a stony nat%re. !nd whence come those stones* gravel* and sand which we see in springs ; hey are not washed down o%t o" the mo%ntains and hills (as some thin+) "rom whence the waters spring. ,either were they in the earth &e"ore the springs &ro+e "orth (as some imagine) and now appear &y washing away o" the earth "rom them. For i" yo% dig aro%nd the springs* even &eyond the heads o" them* yo% shall "ind no stones at all in the earth* only in the veins thereo" thro%gh which the water r%ns. ,ow* the reason o" the smallness o" the stones is the contin%al motion o" the water which hinders them "rom &eing %nited into a contin%ed &igness. 0 shall ma+e a "%rther con"irmation o" this in the arti"icial process o" mani"esting the heterogeneity o" water. 0 shall here only add the assertion o" Delmont* saying that with his al+ahest all stones and* indeed* all things may &e t%rned into water. 0" so* then yo% +now what the ma1im is* vi8.* all things may &e resolved into that "rom whence they had their &eginning. 9egeta&les are prod%ced o%t o" water* as yo% may clearly see &y the waters sending "orth plants that have no roots "i1ed in the &ottom* o" which sort is the her& called Gd%c+weedG which p%ts "orth a little string into the water which is as it were the root thereo". For the con"irmation o" this* that this her& may &e prod%ced o%t o" mere water* there is a gentleman at this time in the city* o" no small worth* that says he had "air water standing in a glass diverse years* and at last a plant sprang o%t o" it. !lso* i" yo% p%t some plants* as water mint* etc.* into a glass o" "air water* it will germinate and shoot o%t into a great length* and also ta+e root in the water* which root will in a short time &e so increased and e1tended as to "ill %p the glassF &%t yo% m%st remem&er that yo% p%t "resh water into the glass once in two or three days. Dere%nto* also* may &e added the e1periment o" Delmont concerning the growth o" a tree. For (says he) 0 too+ two h%ndred po%nd weight o" earth dried in an oven and p%t it into a vessel* in which 0 set a willow tree which weighed "ive po%nds which* &y the addition o" water to the earth* did in "ive years time grow to s%ch a &igness as that it weighed 16M po%nds* at which time 0 also dried and weighed the earth* and within two o%nces it retained its "ormer weight. 4esides* the ancients have o&served that some her&s have grown o%t o" snow* &eing p%tre"ied. !nd do not we see that

#2

all vegeta&les are no%rished and increased with an insipid water* "or what else is their 2%ice; 0" yo% c%t a vine in the month o" :arch* it will drop diverse gallons o" insipid water which water i" it had remained in the tr%n+ o" the vine wo%ld in a little time have &een digested into leaves* stal+s* and grapes* which grapes also &y a "%rther mat%ration wo%ld have yielded a wine* o%t o" which yo% might have e1tracted a &%rning spirit. ,ow* 0 say* altho%gh this insipid water &e &y the speci"ical s%lph%r and salt o" the vine "i1ed into the stal+s* leaves* and grapes o" the vine* yet these give it not a corpori"icative matter* "or that it had &e"ore* and an aptit%de and potentiality to &ecome what a"terwards it proves to &e. For indeed stal+s* leaves* and grapes were potentially in it &e"ore* all which now it &ecomes to &e act%ally &y virt%e o" the s%n and o" the a"oresaid s%lph%r and salt* whereo" as 0 said co%ld not add any &%l+ to them. :oreover* do not we see that when things are &%rned and p%tre"ied* they ascend %p into the air &y way o" vapor and "%me and then descend &y way o" insipid dew or rain; ,ow* what do all these signi"y &%t that "rom water are all things prod%ced* and in it are dissimilar parts; he arti"icial process is this= ta+e o" what water yo% please* whether well water* "o%ntain* river* or rain water* as m%ch as yo% please. @et it settle three or "o%r ho%rs %ntil the slime thereo" separates itsel". hen digest it the space o" a month* a"ter which time evaporate the "o%rth part &y a very gentle heat and cast it away* &eing &%t the phlegm. hen distill o"" the remainder o" the water %ntil the "eces only &e le"t* which "eces will &e a slimy saltish s%&stance. his middle s%&stance distill again as &e"ore* casting away every time the "o%rth part* as phlegm* and +eeping the "eces &y themselves "or a "%rther %se* and this do seven times. ,ote that a"ter the "o%rth or "i"th distillation the water will distill over li+e mil+* coloring the head o" yo%r still so that it can hardly &e washed or sco%red o"". his p%re water a"ter the seventh distillation will leave no "eces &ehind* and i" yo% digest it three months it will &e coag%lated into stones and crystals which some magni"y very m%ch "or the c%re o" inward and o%tward p%tre"actions* o%t o" which also may &e made a dissolving spirit. ,ote that as this water stands in digestion yo% may see diverse c%rio%s colors. ,ow* as "or the "eces which 0 spo+e o" (which indeed all waters* even the sweetest* leave at the &ottom) &eing as 0 said a saltish slime and in taste* as it were* a medi%m &etween salt and nitre* ta+e them and distill them in a retort in sand. here will "irst come "orth a white "%me which* &eing condensed* descends in a straight line to the &ottom. ,e1t will come over a red oil o" great e""icacy* e1ceeding the virt%es o" the spirit o" salt or nitre. For con"irmation o" part o" this process* ta+e :ay dew gathered in the morning (when it has not rained the night &e"ore) and p%t it into a glass vessel* covered with a parchment pric+ed "%ll o" holes* and set it in the heat o" the s%n "or the space o" "o%r months. here will store o" green "eces "all to the &ottom* the resid%e o" the water &eing white and clear. ,ow &y all this yo% may concl%de what manner o"

#3

dissimilarity there is in the parts o" water. 0 shall add &%t one o&servation more* and so concl%de this s%&2ect. a+e a "lint o%t o" river water and p%t it into a go%rd glass. 'o%r %pon it as m%ch river water as will "ill the glass. Evaporate this water %ntil the "lint &e dry. hen po%r on more "resh water. #o this so long %ntil the "lint will "ill %p the glass ("or in a little time it will "ill it %p and &ecome to &e o" the "orm or "ig%re o" the glass) "or it attracts to itsel" the m%cilagino%sness o" the water which* indeed* is a slimy saltish matter and the tr%e matter o" stones. !nd th%s yo% shall have that done &y art in "ew days which nat%re wo%ld have &een per"ecting many years and* indeed* 2%st s%ch a "lint as is prod%ced in the rivers. !nyone that sho%ld see this "lint in the glass wo%ld wonder how it sho%ld come in there. ?o% may &rea+ yo%r glass and ta+e o%t yo%r "lint. here are diverse s%ch processes which may &e %sed &%t* in e""ect* they may demonstrate &%t little more concerning the potential heterogeneity o" water and* there"ore* to avoid tedio%sness* 0 shall here end with the anatomy o" water* concerning which i" anyone can ma+e a "%rther ill%stration* let him &e candid and impart it and 0 shall &e glad to learn o" him and* in the meantime* let him accept o" these* my endeavors. THE SPAGYRICAL ANATOMY OF WINE 0 shall not spea+ here o" the 2%ice o" grapes as &eing nat%rally divided into wine* tartar* and lees* &%t o" wine as arti"icially divided into p%re spirit* phlegm* and "eces. he spirit is that hot* s%&tle* p%re* clear* cordial* and &alsamical s%&stance which arises with a small heat a"ter "o%r or "ive distillations* &eing indeed &%t the twentieth part o" the wine. his spirit is not that ine&riating s%&stance o" the wine as most thin+* "or a man may drin+ the spirit that is e1tracted o%t o" ten pints o" wine witho%t distempering o" his &rain at all when* as perhaps* he wo%ld &e distempered with drin+ing a pint or two o" the wine. ,ow* this spirit contains in it a s%&tle ammoniac and essential s%lph%r insepara&ly con2oined which* indeed* are the li"e o" the spirit* and may &e separated "rom the merc%rial or watery part thereo" which* a"ter separation o" them* remains insipid* &%t yet o" wonder"%l s%&tility. hey may &e separated th%s= "irst* recti"y the spirit as high as yo% can the ordinary way. hen recti"y it once or twice in these "ollowing vessels.

#4

,ote that i" there &e any phlegm remaining in the spirit* it will go no "%rther than the middle receiver* especially the second time. 4y this means yo% have so s%&tle a spirit that %nless it is +ept close stopped it will "ly away in the air. hen ta+e o" this spirit two o%nces* and po%r it %pon si1 o%nces o" calcined tartar &e"ore the salt &e e1tracted* and mingle them together. hen distill it in &alne%m* and there will come over an insipid water which* as 0 said &e"ore* is very s%&tle. hen p%t on a li+e -%antity o" the said spirit as &e"ore* and distill it o"". his do so long %ntil the water that comes over is not insipid* &%t the spirit comes over again hot as it was po%red on. For &y this time the "i1ed matter is gl%tted with the sal ammoniac and s%lph%r o" the spirit. hen p%t this dried matter into a glass s%&limatory* and p%t "ire to it* and there will s%&lime a salt "rom thence* even as camphor is s%&limed. his salt is the tr%e essence o" wine* indeed* and its virt%es are wonder"%l* "or there is no disease* whether inward or o%tward* that can withstand it. his is that essence o" wine o" the philosophers which is so penetrating* oh wonder"%l cordial and &alsamical* which i" yo% do once o&tain* yo% shall need &%t "ew other medicines. ,ow* this spirit or a-%a vitae is in all vegeta&les as yo% may see in malt and vegeta&les that are p%tre"ied &e"ore they are distilled which then yield a &%rning spirit. ?et it is in wine more than in any other li-%ors. 0 say li-%ors* "or i" yo% ta+e eight gallons o" sac+ and as m%ch wheat* which is a solid &ody* and the wheat &eing malted will yield more a-%a vitae than the sac+.

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he phlegm is that which remains a"ter the spirit is distilled o""* and is a p%trid* insipid* cold* narcotic* and ine&riating li-%or* de&ilitating the stomach and o""ending the head. ! "ew spoon"%ls o" this will presently ma+e a man dr%n+* when as two pints o" wine itsel" wo%ld hardly do it. ,ay* the phlegm o" hal" a pint o" wine will ma+e a man dr%n+. Ahence yo% may collect what a great corrector o" malignant spirits and vapors the spirit o" wine is which* while it is mi1ed with the phlegm &e"ore distillation* does temper and correct this ine&riating -%ality thereo"* and as it does this* so also &eing given (0 mean the p%re dephlegmated spirit) to them that are already ine&riated* does m%ch allay their distemper. his phlegm there"ore &eing o" so narcotic a -%ality is the ca%se o" palsies and s%ch li+e distempers. :oreover* o"" there &y reason reason o" etc. it is to &e o&served that when this phlegm is distilled remains at the &ottom a visco%s corrosive matter which o" its viscosity is the ca%se o" o&str%ctions* and &y its corrosiveness the ca%se o" the go%t* colic* stone*

his "eces* &eing distilled* yields a sharp spirit and "etid oil which leave &ehind them a saltish s%&stance o%t o" which* when the salt is e1tracted* there remains an insipid earth. ,ow* i" any shall o&2ect against what 0 have asserted and say that a-%a vitae or spirit o" wine are ine&riating* the ca%ses o" paley* go%t* stone* colic* wea+ stomachs* and s%ch li+e* as we see &y daily e1perience in those that are given to the drin+ing o" these li-%ors* to which 0 answer it is tr%e. 4%t then 0 m%st disting%ish o" a-%a vitae and the spirit o" wine* "or there is a common a-%a vitae and spirit o" wine* o" which also they ma+e anise seed water &y p%tting a "ew anise seeds Ghere%nto* and other s%ch li+e waters* as clove* angelica* lemon* etc.* with which this nation is most a&omina&ly cheated* and their health impaired. 4%t these are not recti"ied thoro%ghly* &%t three parts o" "o%r o" them are an insipid narcotic phlegm* containing in it the "eces 0 spo+e o"* all which 0 can in a day separate "rom the tr%e p%re spirit* which spirit rather prevents than ca%ses s%ch distempers !nd the tr%th is* all the goodness o" the wine is "rom this p%re spirit. THE FAMOUS ARCANUM OR RESTORATIVE MEDICAMENT OF PARACELSUS CALLED HIS HOMUNCULUS First we m%st %nderstand that there are three acceptions o" the word GDom%nc%l%sG in 'aracels%s* which are these. 1. Dom%nc%l%s is a s%perstitio%s image made in the place* or name o" anyone* that it may contain an astral and invisi&le man* where"ore it was made "or a s%perstitio%s %se. 6. Dom%nc%l%s is ta+en "or an arti"icial man* made o" sperma h%man%m masc%lin%m digested into the shape o" a man* and then no%rished and increased with the essence o" man3s &loodF and this

is not rep%gnant to the possi&ility o" nat%re and art. 4%t is one o" the greatest wonders o" Cod which De ever did s%""er mortal man to +now. 0 shall not here set down the "%ll process &eca%se 0 thin+ it %n"it to &e done* at least to &e div%lged. 4esides neither this nor the "ormer is "or my present p%rpose. I. Dom%nc%l%s is ta+en "or a most e1cellent arcan%m or medicament e1tracted &y the spagyrical art "rom the chie"est sta"" o" the nat%ral line in man* and according to this acception 0 shall here spea+ o" it. 4%t &e"ore 0 show yo% this process* 0 shall give yo% an acco%nt why this medicament is called hom%nc%l%s* and it is this. ,o wise man will deny that the sta"" o" li"e is the n%triment thereo"* and that the chie"est n%triment is &read and wine* &eing ordained &y Cod* and nat%re a&ove all other things "or the s%stentation thereo". 4esides 'aracels%s pre"erred this n%triment "or the generation o" the &lood and spirits* and the "orming thence the sperm o" his hom%nc%l%s. ,ow* &y a s%ita&le all%sion the n%triment is ta+en "or the li"e o" man and* especially* &eca%se it is transm%ted into li"e. !nd again the li"e is ta+en "or the man* &%t %nless a man &e alive he is not a man* &%t the carcass only o" a man* and the &asest part thereo" which cannot per"ectly &e ta+en "or the whole man* as the no&lest part may. 0nasm%ch* there"ore* as the n%triment or aliment o" li"e may &e called the li"e o" man* and the li"e o" man &e called man* this n%triment e1tracted o%t o" &read and wine* and &eing &y digestion e1alted into the highest p%rity o" a n%tritive s%&stance* and conse-%ently &ecoming the li"e o" man* &eing so potentially* may metaphorically &e called hom%nc%l%s. he process which in part shall &e set down allegorically is th%s. a+e the &est wheat and the &est wine* o" each a li+e -%antity. '%t them into a glass which yo% m%st hermetically seal. hen let them p%tre"y in horse d%ng three days* or %ntil the wheat &egins to germinate or to spro%t "orth* which then m%st &e ta+en "orth and &r%ised in a mortar and &e pressed thro%gh a linen cloth. here will come "orth a white 2%ice li+e mil+. ?o% m%st cast away the "eces. @et this 2%ice &e p%t into a glass which m%st not &e a&ove hal" "%ll. .top it close and set it in horse d%ng as &e"ore "or the space o" "i"ty days. 0" the heat &e temperate* and not e1ceeding the nat%ral heat o" man* the matter will &e t%rned into a spagyrical &lood and "lesh* li+e an em&ryo. his is the principal and ne1t matter o%t o" which is generated a two-"old sperm* vi8.* o" the "ather and mother generating the hom%nc%l%s* witho%t which there can &e made no generation* whether h%man or animal. From the &lood and "lesh o" this em&ryo let the water &e separated in &alne%m* and the air in ashes* and &oth &e +ept &y themselves. hen to the "eces o" the latter distillation* let the water o" the "ormer distillation &e added* &oth which m%st (the glass &eing

#!

close stopped) p%tre"y in &alne%m the space o" ten days. !"ter this* distill the water a second time (which is then the vehic%l%m o" the "ire) together with the "ire* in ashes. hen distill o"" this water in a gentle &alne%m* and in the &ottom remains the "ire which m%st &e distilled in ashes. Leep &oth these apart. !nd th%s yo% have the "o%r elements separated "rom the chaos o" the em&ryo. he "ec%lent earth is to &e rever&erated in a close vessel "or the space o" "o%r days. 0n the interim* distill o"" the "o%rth part o" the "irst distillation in &alne%m and cast it away. he other three parts distill in ashes* and po%r it %pon the rever&erated earth* and distill it in a strong "ire. Eoho&ate it "o%r times* and so yo% shall have a very clear water which yo% m%st +eep &y itsel". hen po%r the air on the same earth* and distill it in a strong "ire. here will come over a clear* splendid* odori"ero%s water which m%st &e +ept apart. !"ter this po%r the "ire %pon the "irst water* and p%tre"y them together in &alne%m the space o" three days. hen p%t them into a retort and distill them in sand* and there will come over a water tasting o" the "ire. @et this water &e distilled in &alne%m. Ahat distills o""* +eep &y itsel"* as also what remains in the &ottom which is the "ire* and +eep &y itsel". his last distilled water po%r again %pon its earth* and let them &e macerated together in &alne%m "or the space o" three days. hen let all the water &e distilled in sand* and let what will arise &e separated in &alne%m* and the residence remaining in the &ottom &e reserved with the "ormer residence. @et the water &e again po%red %pon the earth* &e a&stracted and separated as &e"ore %ntil nothing remains in the &ottom which is not separated in &alne%m. his &eing done* let the water which was last separated &e mi1ed with the resid%e o" its "ire* and &e macerated in &alne%m three or "o%r days* and all &e distilled in &alne%m that can ascend with that heat. @et what remains &e distilled in ashes "rom the "ire* and what shall &e elevated is aerial. !nd what remains in the &ottom is "iery. hese two last li-%ors are ascri&ed to the two "irst principles* the "ormer to merc%ry and the latter to s%lph%r. hey are acco%nted &y 'aracels%s not as elements &%t their vital parts &eing* as it were* the nat%ral spirits and so%l which are in them &y nat%re. ,ow* &oth are to &e recti"ied and re"lected into their center with a circ%lar motion* so that this merc%ry may &e prepared with its water &eing +ept clear and odori"ero%s in the %pper place* &%t the s%lph%r &y itsel". ,ow* it remains that we loo+ into the third principle. @et the rever&erated earth* &eing gro%nd %pon a mar&le* im&i&e its own water which did a&ove remain a"ter the last separation o" the li-%ors made in &alne%m* so that this &e the "o%rth part o" the weight o" its earth and &e congealed &y the heat o" ashes into its earth. @et this &e done so o"ten* the proportion &eing o&served* %ntil the earth has dr%n+ %p all its water. !nd lastly* let this earth &e s%&limed into a white powder* as white as snow* the "eces &eing cast away. his earth* &eing s%&limed and "reed "rom its o&sc%rity* is the tr%e chaos o" the elements* "or it contains those things occ%lt* seeing it is the salt o" nat%re in which they

#"

lie hid &eing* as it were* re"le1ed in their center. his is the third principle o" 'aracels%s* and the salt* which is the matri1* in which the two "ormer sperms* vi8.* o" the man and woman* the parents o" the hom%nc%l%s* vi8.* o" merc%ry and s%lph%r are to &e p%t* and to &e closed %p together in a gla8ed wom& sealed with Dermes3 seals "or the tr%e generation o" the hom%nc%l%s prod%ced "rom the spagyrical em&ryo. !nd this is the hom%nc%l%s or great arcan%m* otherwise called the n%tritive medicament o" 'aracels%s. his hom%nc%l%s or n%tritive medicament is o" s%ch virt%e that presently a"ter it is ta+en into the &ody it is t%rned into &lood and spirits. 0" then diseases prove mortal &eca%se they destroy the spirits* what mortal disease can withstand s%ch a medicine that does so soon repair and so strongly "orti"y the spirits as this hom%nc%l%s* &eing as the oil to the "lame* into which it is immediately t%rned* there&y renewing the same. 4y this medicament* there"ore* as diseases are overcome and e1pelled* so also yo%th is renewed and grey hairs prevented. AN ARTIFICIAL WAY TO MA$E FLESH a+e o" the cr%m&s o" the &est wheaten &read as soon as it comes o%t o" the oven* &eing very hot* as m%ch as yo% please. '%t it into a glass vessel which yo% m%st presently hermetically close. hen set it in digestion in a temperate &alne%m the space o" two months* and it will &e t%rned into a "i&ro%s "lesh. 0" any artist sho%ld please to e1alt it to a higher per"ection according to the r%les o" art* he may "ind o%t how great a no%risher and restorative wheat is* and what an e1cellent medicine it may ma+e. ,ote that there m%st &e no other moist%re p%t into the glass &esides what is in the &read itsel". PARACELSUS% HIS WAY FOR THE RAISING OF A DEAD BIRD TO LIFE AND FOR THE GENERATING MANY SERPENTS OF ONE BOTH WHICH ARE PERFORMED BY PURTEFACTION ! &ird is restored to li"e th%s. a+e a &ird and p%t it alive into a go%rd glass and seal it hermetically. 4%rn it to ashes in the third degree o" "ire. hen p%tre"y it in horse d%ng into a m%cilagino%s phlegm. .o* &y a contin%ed digestion that phlegm m%st &e &ro%ght to a "%rther mat%rity (&eing ta+en o%t and p%t into an oval vessel o" a 2%st &igness to hold it) &y an e1act digestion* and will &ecome a renewed &ird which* says 'aracels%s* is one o" the greatest wonders o" nat%re* and shows the great virt%e o" p%tre"action. E%t a serpent into small pieces* which p%t into a go%rd glass and hermetically seal. hen p%tre"y them in horse d%ng* and the whole serpent will &ecome living again in the glass either in the "orm o" worms or spawn o" "ishes. ,ow* i" these worms &e in a "itting

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manner &ro%ght o%t o" p%tre"action and no%rished* many h%ndred serpents will &e &red o%t o" one serpent* whereo" every one will &e as &ig as the "irst. !nd as it is said o" the serpent* so also many other living creat%res may &e raised and restored again. TO MA$E AN ARTIFICIAL MALLAGO WINE First* ta+e a wine &arrel well trooped and dressed* with one end &eing open* to which a close cover m%st &e well "itted* which m%st &e to ta+e o"" and p%t on at pleas%re. .et it in a warm place winter or s%mmer* and "ill it "%ll with clear and p%re water* to each three gallons. '%t si1 po%nds o" the &est mallago raisins which yo% m%st &r%ise in a stone mortar. hen strong %pon the water* %pon each twenty gallons o" which yo% m%st cast a hand"%l o" cal1 vive. hen cover the vessel close with the cover* and cast clothes %pon it to +eep it warm. @et it stand "o%r or "ive days to wor+ as wine or &eer do when they &e new. hen see i" the raisins &e risen %p to the top o" the water. 0" so* then p%t them down again and cover it as &e"ore. @et them th%s stand three wee+s or a month together* the raisins &eing every "o%rth or "i"th day p%t down in case they rise %p. hen p%t a tap into the vessel three or "o%r "ingers a&ove the &ottom and try i" it &e good and taste li+e wine. 0" not* let it stand a while longerF &%t i" so* draw it o"" into another wine vessel* and to every twenty gallons that yo% have drawn o""* p%t a pint o" the &est a-%a vitae* two new laid hens eggs* and a -%art o" alligant &eaten well together. @et it stand in a cellar as other wine does %ntil it &e clear and "it to &e dr%n+. TO MA$E AN ARTIFICIAL CLARET WINE a+e si1 gallons o" water* two gallons o" the &est cider* and p%t here%nto eight po%nds o" the &est mallago raisins &r%ised in a mortar. @et them stand close covered in a warm place the space o" a "ortnight* every two days stirring them well together. hen press o%t the raisins and p%t the li-%or into the said vessel again* to which add a -%art o" the 2%ice o" rasp&erries* and a pint o" the 2%ice o" &lac+ cherries. Eover this li-%or with &read spread thic+ with strong m%stard* the m%stard side &eing downward* and so let it wor+ &y the "ireside three or "o%r days. hen t%rn it %p and let it stand a wee+* and then &ottle it %p. !nd it will taste as -%ic+ as &ottle &eer and* indeed* &ecome a very pleasant drin+ and* indeed* "ar &etter and wholesomer than o%r common claret. AN ARTIFICIAL MALMESEY a+e two gallons o" english honey and p%t it into eight gallons o" the &est spring water. .et these in a vessel over a gentle "ire. Ahen they have &oiled gently an ho%r ta+e them o""* and when they &e cold p%t them into a small &arrel or r%nlet* hanging in the vessel a &ag o" spices. .et it in the cellar* and in hal" a year yo% may drin+ thereo".

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TO MA$E AN EXCELLENT AROMATICAL HYPPOCRAS a+e o" cinnamon two o%nces* ginger an o%nce* cloves and n%tmeg o" each two drams* o" white pepper hal" a dram* o" cardam%m two drams* and o" m%s+ mallowseed three o%nces. @et all these &e &r%ised and p%t into a &ag and h%ng in si1 gallons o" wine. ,ote that yo% m%st p%t a weight in the &ag to ma+e it sin+. .ome &oil these spices in wine which they then sweeten with s%gar* and then let r%n thro%gh a hyppocras &ag and a"terwards &ottle it %p and %se when they please. ! .ingle Dyppocras 4ag* or :anica Dippocratis

Ahen yo% wo%ld have this or any other li-%or to &e very clear* yo% may %se the triple hyppocras &ag* "or what "eces pass the "irst will stay in the second* and what in the second will stay in the last. ,ote that these &ags m%st &e made o" white cotton. ! triple hyppocras &ag is only one h%ng a&ove another a"ter this manner.

TO MA$E EXCELLENT HYPPOCRAS WINE IN AN INSTANT

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a+e o" cinnamon two o%nces* n%tmeg* ginger* o" each hal" an o%nce* cloves two drams. 4r%ise these small* and then mi1 them with as m%ch spirit o" wine as will ma+e them into a paste. @et them stand close covered in a glass the space o" si1 days in a cold place. hen press o%t the li-%or and +eep it in a glass. ! "ew drops o" this li-%or p%t into any wine gives it a gallant relish and odor* and ma+es it as good as any hyppocras whatsoever and that in an instant. ,ote that i" the wine &e o" itsel" harsh* it will not &e amiss to sweeten it with s%gar* "or there&y it is made "ar more grate"%l. his also &eing p%t into &eer will ma+e it very pleasant and aromatical. ANOTHER WAY TO MA$E HYPPOCRAS OR MA$E ANY WINE TO TASTE OF ANY VEGETABLE IN AN INSTANT a+e what wine yo% please* and according as yo% wo%ld have it taste o" this or that spice or any other vegeta&le* o" one or more together* yo% may drop a "ew drops o" the distilled oil o" the said spices or vegeta&les into the wine* and &rew well together and yo% may ma+e in an instant all sorts o" hyppocras or other wines. !s "or e1ample* i" yo% wo%ld have wormwood wine* two or three drops o" oil o" wormwood p%t into a good <henish wine* &eing well &rewed together* will ma+e a wormwood wine e1ceeding any that yo% shall meet withall in the <henish wine ho%ses. TO MA$E A GOOD RASPBERRY WINE a+e a gallon o" sac+ in which let two gallons o" rasp&erries stand* steeping the space o" 6H ho%rs. hen strain them and p%t to the li-%or three po%nds o" raisins o" the s%n stoned. @et them stand together "o%r or "ive days* &eing sometimes stirred together. hen po%r o"" the clearest and p%t it %p in &ottles and set it in a cold place. 0" it &e not sweet eno%gh yo% may add some s%gar to it. TWO OTHER WAYS TO MA$E IT ALL THE YEAR AT AN INSTANT a+e o" the 2%ice o" rasp&erries and p%t it into a &ottle which yo% m%st stop close. .et it in a cellar. 0t will &ecome clear* and +eep all the year* and &ecome very "ragrant. ! "ew spoon"%ls o" this p%t into a pint o" wine sweetened well with s%gar gives it an e1cellent and "%ll taste o" the rasp&erries. 0" yo% p%t two or three o%nces o" the syr%p o" rasp&erries to a pint o" wine it will do as well* &%t then yo% need %se no other s%gar* "or that will sweeten it s%""iciently.

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TO MA$E MEAD OR METHEGLIN THAT IT SHALL TASTE STALE AND QUIC$ WITHIN A FORTNIGHT AND BE FIT TO DRIN$ o every three gallons o" water p%t one gallon o" the p%rest honey. '%t what her&s and spices yo% please. 4oil it and s+im it well* now and then p%tting in some water. Ahen it is s%""iciently &oiled* ta+e it o""* and when it is almost cold* p%t it into a wooden vessel. .et it &y the "ireside* and cover it over with &read spread thic+ with the strongest m%stard* the m%stard side &eing downwards. .o let it stand three days* and it will wor+. Bnly p%t a cloth over it. hen t%rn it %p* and a"ter a wee+ draw it "orth into &ottles and set it into a cellar. !"ter another wee+ yo% may drin+ o" it* "or it will taste as -%ic+ as &ottle &eer that is a "ortnight old and* indeed* as stale as other mead will in hal" a year. TO MA$E A SPIRIT OF AMBERGRIS THAT A FEW DROPS THEREOF SHALL PERFUME A PINT OF WINE MOST RICHLY a+e o" am&ergris two drams* and o" m%s+ a dram. E%t them small and p%t them into a pint o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine. Elose %p the glass hermetically and digest them in a very gentle heat %ntil yo% perceive they are dissolved. hen yo% may ma+e %se o" it. wo or three drops or more i" yo% please o" this spirit* p%t into a pint o" wine. gives it a rich odor. Br i" yo% p%t two or three drops aro%nd the &rim o" a glass* it will do as well. Dal" a spoon"%l o" it ta+en either o" itsel" or mi1ed with some speci"ical li-%or is a most rich cordial. AN EXCELLENT SWEET WATER a+e a -%art o" orange "lower water* as m%ch rose water* and add thereto o" m%s+-mallow seeds grossly &r%ised "o%r o%nces* o" &en2amin two o%nces* o" stora1 an o%nce* o" la&dan%m si1 drams* o" lavender "lowers two p%gills* o" sweet mar2oram as m%ch* o" calim%s aromatic%s a dram. #istill all these in a glass still in &alne%m* the vessels &eing very well closed so that no vapor &reathes "orth. ,ote that yo% may ma+e a sweet water in an instant &y p%tting a "ew drops o" some distilled oils together into some rose water and &rewing them well together. TO PURIFY AND TO GIVE AN EXCELLENT SMELL AND TASTE UNTO OIL OF OLIVE THAT THEY THAT LOATHE IT MAY DELIGHT TO EAT IT a+e o" a good sort o" oil o" olive* tho%gh not o" the &est. '%t the same into a vessel o" earth or copper that has a little hole in the &ottom thereo" which yo% may stop with wa1 or a cor+ to open at yo%r pleas%re. 0n this vessel* "or every -%art o" oil add

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"o%r -%arts o" "air water* and with a wooden spat%la or spoon &eat them well together "or a -%arter o" an ho%r3s space. Ahen yo% have so done* open the hole in the &ottom and let o%t the water* "or the oil does nat%rally "lee a&ove* as &eing the lighter &ody. !s soon as the water is passed away* stop the hole* and p%t in other cold water. 4egin a new agitation as &e"ore* and wor+ in the li+e manner diverse times as yo% did at the "irst* %ntil in the end the oil &e well cleansed and clari"ied. 0" the last time yo% wor+ it with rose water* it will &e so m%ch the &etter. hen hang in the midst o" the oil a coarse &ag "%ll o" n%tmeg sliced* cloves &r%ised* and the rinds o" oranges and lemons c%t small. .et the vessel in &alne%m "or two or three ho%rs and* 0 s%ppose* he that loathes oil will &e easily &y this means drawn to a li+ing o" it. ANOTHER WAY .et oil o" olive in the s%n in s%mmertime %ntil there settles a good store o" so%l and gross lees* "rom the which &y declination po%r o%t the clear oil. Leep it %ntil the ne1t winter* and a"ter the same has &een congealed with some "rosty weather the oil will &e most sweet and delecta&le to taste. !"ter this manner yo% may clari"y all thic+ oils and all +inds o" grease &%t* then* yo% m%st %se warm water instead o" cold. TO PURIFY BUTTER THAT IT SHALL $EEP FRESH AND SWEET A LONG TIME AND BE MOST WONDERFUL SWEET IN TASTE #issolve &%tter in a clean gla8ed or silver vessel and in a pan or +ettle o" water with a slow and gentle "ire. hen po%r the same so dissolved into a &asin that has some. "air water therein. Ahen it is cold* ta+e away the c%rds and the whey that remains in the &ottom. !nd i" yo% will &e at the charge thereo"* yo% may the second time ("or it m%st &e twice dissolved) dissolve the &%tter in rose water* wor+ing them well together. he &%tter th%s clari"ied will &e as sweet in taste as the marrow o" any &east* &y reason o" the great imp%rity that is removed &y this manner o" handling* the "irst part thereo" &eing drosse which ma+es the &%tter many times o""ensive to the stomach. TO MA$E BUTTER TASTE OF ANY VEGETABLE WITHOUT ALTERING THE COLOR THEREOF Ahen the &%tter is ta+en o%t o" the ch%rn and well wor+ed "rom the "ero%s part thereo"* mi1 with the said &%tter as m%ch o" the oil o" that vegeta&le which yo% li+e &est %ntil the same &e strong eno%gh in taste to yo%r li+ing. hen temper them well together. 0" yo% do in the month o" :ay mi1 some oil o" sage with yo%r &%tter* it may e1c%se yo% "rom eating sage with yo%r &%tter.

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0" yo% mi1 the oil with the a"oresaid clari"ied &%tter* it will &e "ar &etter and serve "or a most dainty dish and* indeed* a great rarity. TO MA$E CHEESE TASTE STRONG OF ANY VEGETABLE WITHOUT DISCOLORING OF IT ?o% may mi1 the distilled oil o" what vegeta&le yo% wo%ld have the cheese taste o" with the c%rd &e"ore the whey &e pressed o%t. 4%t &e s%re yo% mi1 them very well that all places may taste ali+e o" it. ?o% may ma+e it taste stronger or wea+er o" it* as yo% please* &y p%tting in more or less o" the oil. TO PURIFY AND REFINE SUGAR :a+e a strong li1ivi%m o" cal1 vive* wherein dissolve as m%ch coarse s%gar as the li1ivi%m will &ear. hen p%t in the white o" eggs (o" two to every -%art o" the li-%or) &eing &eaten into an oil. .tir them well together and let them &oil a little* and there will arise a sc%m which m%st &e ta+en o"" as long as any will arise. hen po%r all the li-%or thro%gh a great woolen cloth &ag* and so the "eces will remain &ehind in the &ag. hen &oil the li-%or again so long %ntil some drops o" it &eing p%t %pon a cold plate will* when they &e cold* &e congealed as hard as salt. hen po%r o%t the li-%or into pots or mo%lds made "or that p%rpose* having a hole in the narrower end thereo" which m%st &e stopped "or one night a"ter* and a"ter that night &e opened. here will a moist s%&stance drop "orth which is called molasses or trea+le. hen with potters clay cover the ends o" the pot* and as the clay sin+s down &y reason o" the sin+ing o" the s%gar* "ill them %p with more clay* repeating the doing thereo" %ntil the s%gar shrin+s no more. hen ta+e it o%t %ntil it &e hard and dried* and then &ind it %p in papers. TO MA$E A VEGETABLE GROW AND BECOME MORE GLORIOUS THAN ANY OF ITS SPECIES <ed%ce any vegeta&le into its three "irst principles. hen 2oin them together again* &eing well p%ri"ied* and p%t the same into a rich earth* and yo% shall have it prod%ce a vegeta&le "ar more glorio%s than any o" its species. ,ow* how to ma+e s%ch an essence* loo+ into the "irst &oo+* and there yo% shall see the process thereo". TO MA$E A PLANT GROW IN TWO OR THREE HOURS a+e the ashes o" moss and moisten them with the 2%ice o" an old d%nghill* &eing "irst pressed "orth and strained. hen dry them a little* and moisten them as &e"ore. #o this "o%r or "ive times. '%t this mi1t%re* &eing neither very dry nor very moist* into some earthen or metal vessel* and in it set the seeds o" lett%ce* p%rslain or parsley (&eca%se they will grow sooner than other plants) &eing "irst impregnated with the essence o" a vegeta&le o"

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its own species (the process thereo" yo% shall "ind in 4oo+ 0) %ntil they &egin to spro%t "orth. hen* 0 say* p%t them in the said earth with that end %pwards which spro%ts "orth. hen p%t the vessel into a gentle heat* and when it &egins to dry moisten it with some o" the said 2%ice o" d%ng. ?o% may &y this means have a salad grow while s%pper is ma+ing ready. TO MA$E THE IDEA OF ANY PLANT APPEAR IN A GLASS AS IF THE VERY PLANT ITSELF WERE THERE he process o" this yo% may see in 4oo+ 0 and* there"ore* 0 need not here again repeat it. Bnly remem&er that i" yo% p%t the "lame o" a candle to the &ottom o" the glass where the essence is* &y which it may &e made hot* yo% will see that thin s%&stance which is li+e impalpa&le ashes or salt send "orth "rom the &ottom o" the glass the mani"est "orm o" a vegeta&le* vegetating and growing &y little and little* and p%tting on so "%lly the "orm o" stal+s* leaves* and "lowers in s%ch per"ect and nat%ral wise in apparent show that anyone wo%ld &elieve verily the same to &e nat%rally corporeal when as* in tr%th* it is the spirit%al idea* ind%ced with a spirit%al essence which serves "or no other p%rpose &%t to &e matched with its "itting earth* so that it may ta+e %nto itsel" a more solid &ody. his shadowed "ig%re* as soon as the vessel is ta+en "rom the "ire* ret%rns to its ashes again and vanishes away* &ecoming a chaos and con"%sed matter. TO MA$E FIR TREES APPEAR IN TURPENTINE a+e as m%ch t%rpentine as yo% please and p%t it into a retort. #istill it &y degrees. Ahen all is distilled o""* +eep the retort still in a reasona&le heat so that what h%midity is still remaining may &e evaporated and it &ecome dry. hen ta+e this o"" "rom the "ire and hold yo%r hand to the &ottom o" the retort. he t%rpentine that is dried (which is called colophonia) will crac+ as%nder in several places* and in those crac+s or chaps yo% shall see the per"ect e""igies o" "ir trees which will there contin%e many months. TO MA$E HARTSHORN SEEMINGLY TO GROW IN A GLASS a+e hartshorn &ro+en into small pieces* and p%t them into a glass retort to &e distilled. ?o% shall see the glass to &e seemingly "%ll o" horns which will contin%e there so long %ntil the volatile salt comes over. TO MA$E GOLDEN MOUNTAINS AS IT WERE APPEAR IN A GLASS a+e o" adders eggs hal" a po%nd* and p%t them into a glass retort. #istill them &y degrees. Ahen all is dry* yo% shall see the "eces at the &ottom t%rgid and p%""ed %p and seem to &e* as it were* golden mo%ntains* &eing very glorio%s to &ehold.

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TO MA$E THE REPRESENTATION OF THE WHOLE WORLD IN A GLASS a+e o" the p%rest salt nitre as m%ch as yo% please* and o" tin hal" as m%ch. :i1 them together and calcine them hermetically. hen p%t them into a retort* to which anne1 a glass receiver* and l%te them well together. @et there &e leaves o" gold p%t into the &ottom thereo". hen p%t "ire to the retort %ntil vapors arise that will cleave to the gold. !%gment the "ire %ntil no more "%mes ascend. hen ta+e away the receiver and close it hermetically. :a+e a lamp "ire %nder it* and yo% will see represented in it the s%n* moon* stars* "o%ntains* "lowers* trees* "r%its and* indeed* even all things which is a glorio%s sight to &ehold. TO MA$E FOUR ELEMENTS APPEAR IN A GLASS a+e o" the s%&tle powder o" 2eat one o%nce and a hal"* o" the oil o" tartar made per deli-%l%m (in which there is not one drop o" water &esides what the tartar itsel" contracted) two o%nces which yo% m%st color with a light green with vardegrease* o" the p%rest spirit o" wine tinged with a light &l%e with indigo* two o%nces o" the &est recti"ied spirit o" t%rpentine colored with a light red with madder. '%t all these into a glass and sha+e them together. ?o% shall see the 2eat which is heavy and &lac+ "all to the &ottom and represent the earth. ,e1t* the oil o" tartar made green representing the element o" water "alls. Kpon that swims the &l%e spirit o" wine which will not mi1 with the oil o" tartar* and represents the element o" air* %ppermost will swim the s%&tle red oil o" t%rpentine which represent the element o" "ire. 0t is strange to see how a"ter sha+ing all these together they will &e distinctly separated the one "rom the other. 0" it &e well done* as it is easy eno%gh to do* it is a most glorio%s sight. TO MA$E A PERPETUAL MOTION IN A GLASS a+e seven o%nces o" -%ic+silver* as m%ch tin* and grind them well together with "o%rteen o%nces o" s%&limate dissolved in a cellar %pon a mar&le the space o" "o%r days. 0t will &ecome li+e oil o" olive* which distill in sand. here will s%&lime a dry s%&stance. hen p%t the water which distills o"" &ac+ %pon the earth in the &ottom o" the still* and dissolve what yo% can. Filter it and distill it again. his do "o%r or "ive times. hen that earth will &e so s%&tle that* &eing p%t into a vial* the s%&tle atoms thereo" will move %p and down "orever. ,ote that the vial or glass m%st &e close stopped and +ept in a dry place. TO MA$E A LUMINOUS WATER THAT SHALL GIVE LIGHT BY NIGHT a+e the tails o" glowworms* p%t them into a glass still* and distill them in &alne%m. 'o%r the said water %pon more "resh tails

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o" glowworms. #o this "o%r or "ive times and yo% shall have a most l%mino%s water &y which yo% may see to read in the dar+est night. .ome say this water may &e made o" the s+ins o" herring* and "or o%ght 0 +now* it may &e pro&a&le eno%gh. For 0 have heard that a shoal o" herring coming &y a ship in the night have given a great light to all the ship. 0t were worth the while to +now the tr%e reason why glowworms and herring and some other s%ch li+e things sho%ld &e l%mino%s in the night. TO MA$E A VAPOR IN A CHAMBER THAT HE THAT ENTERS INTO IT WITH A CANDLE SHALL THIN$ THE ROOM TO BE ON FIRE #issolve camphor in recti"ied a-%a vitae and evaporate them in a very close cham&er where no air can get in. De that "irst enters the cham&er with a lighted candle will &e m%ch astonished* "or the cham&er will seem to &e "%ll o" "ire* very s%&tle* &%t it will &e o" little contin%ance. ?o% m%st note that it is the com&%sti&le vapor* with which the cham&er is "illed* that ta+es the "lame "rom the candle. #iverse s%ch li+e e1periments as this may &e done &y p%tting s%ch a com&%sti&le vapor into a &o1* or c%p&oard* or s%ch li+e which will as soon as anyone shall open them* having a candle in his hand* ta+e "ire and &%rn. TO MA$E POWDER THAT BY SPITTING UPON SHALL BE INFLAMED a+e a loadstone* powder it* and p%t it into a strong calcining pot. Eover it all over with a powder made o" cal1 vive and colophonia* o" each a li+e -%antity* and also p%t some o" this powder %nder it. Ahen the pot is "%ll* cover it and l%te the clos%res with potters earth. '%t them into a "%rnace and there let them &oil. hen ta+e them o%t and p%t them into another pot. .et them in the "%rnace again* and this do %ntil they &ecome a very white and dry cal1. a+e o" this cal1 one part* o" salt nitre very well p%ri"ied "o%r parts* and as m%ch camphor* s%lph%r viv%m* and the oil o" t%rpentine and tartar. Crind all these to a s%&tle powder and searse them* and p%t them into a glass vessel. hen p%t as m%ch spirit o" wine well recti"ied as will cover them two "ingers &readth. hen close them %p and set the vessel in horse d%ng three months* and in that time they will all &ecome a %ni"orm paste. Evaporate all the h%midity %ntil the whole mass &ecomes a very dry stone. hen ta+e it o%t and powder it* and +eep it very dry. 0" yo% ta+e a little o" this powder and spit %pon it* or po%r some water %pon it* it will ta+e "ire presently* so that yo% may light a match or any s%ch thing &y it.

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TO FORTIFY A LOADSTONE THAT IT SHALL BE ABLE TO DRAW A NAIL OUT OF A PIECE OF WOOD a+e a loadstone and heat it very hot in coals* &%t so that it &e not "ired. hen presently -%ench it in the oil o" croc%s martis* made o" the &est steel* so that it may im&i&e as m%ch as it can. ?o% shall &y this means ma+e the loadstone so very strong and power"%l that yo% may p%ll o%t nails "rom a piece o" wood with it* and do s%ch wonder"%l things with it that the common loadstone can never do. ,ow the reason o" this (as 'aracels%s says) is &eca%se the spirit o" iron is the li"e o" the loadstone* and this may &e e1tracted "rom or increased in the loadstone. TO MA$E QUIC$SILVER MALLEABLE IN SEVEN HOURS a+e o" the &est lead* melt it* and po%r it into a hole. Ahen it is almost congealed* ma+e a hole in it* and presently "ill %p the hole with -%ic+silver* and it will presently &ecome congelated into a "ria&le s%&stance. hen &eat it into a powder* and p%t it again into a hole o" "resh melted lead as &e"ore. #o this three or "o%r times. hen &oil it* &eing all in a piece o" linseed oil* the space o" si1 ho%rs. hen ta+e it o%t and it will &ecome mallea&le. ,ote that a"ter this it may* &y &eing melted over the "ire* &e red%ced into -%ic+silver again. ! thin plate o" the said merc%ry laid %pon an inveterate %lcer ta+es away the malignity o" it in a great meas%re and renders it more c%ra&le than &e"ore. ! plate o" said merc%ry laid %pon t%mors wo%ld &e a great deal &etter reperc%ssive than plates o" lead which s%rgeons %se in s%ch cases. he powder o" the "ria&le s%&stance o" merc%ry &e"ore it &e &oiled in the oil is very good to &e strewed %pon old %lcers* "or it does m%ch to correct the vir%lency o" them. TO REDUCE GLASS INTO ITS FIRST PRINCIPLES VI*. SAND AND SALT a+e &its or powder o" glass* as m%ch as yo% please* and as m%ch o" the salt which glassmen %se in the ma+ing o" glasses. :elt these together in a strong "ire. hen dissolve all the melted mass in warm water. hen po%r o"" the water and yo% shall see no glass* &%t only sand in the &ottom* which sand is that which was in the glass &e"ore. his con"%tes the v%lgar opinion* namely that the "%sion o" glass is the last "%sion and &eyond all red%ction. TO WRITE OR ENGRAVE UPON AN EGG OR PIBBLE WITH WAX OR GREASE

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:a+e what letters or "ig%res yo% please with wa1 or grease %pon an egg or pi&&le. '%t them into the strongest spirit o" vinegar* and there let them lie two or three days. ?o% shall see every place a&o%t the letters or "ig%res eaten or cons%med away with the said spirit. 4%t the place where the wa1 or grease was is not at all to%ched. he reason whereo" is &eca%se the spirit wo%ld not operate %pon the said oleagino%s matter. TO MA$E ARTIFICIAL PEARL AS GLORIOUS AS ANY ORIENTAL #issolve mother o" pearl in spirit o" vinegar. hen precipitate it with oil o" s%lph%r per campan%m (and not with oil o" tartar* "or that ta+es away the splendor o" it) which adds a l%ster to it. Ahen it is th%s precipitated* dry it* and mi1 it with white o" eggs* and o" this mass yo% may ma+e pearls o" what &igness or "ashion yo% please. 4e"ore they &e dried* yo% may ma+e holes thro%gh them. Ahen they &e dried they will not at all* or very hardly* &e discerned "rom tr%e and nat%ral pearls. TO MA$E A MINERAL PERFUME #issolve antimony or s%lph%r in the li-%or or oil o" "lints or pe&&les* or crystals* or sand. Eoag%late the sol%tion into a red mass* po%r thereon the spirit o" %rine* and digest them %ntil the spirit &e tinged. hen po%r it o"" and po%r more on %ntil all the tinct%re &e e1tracted. '%t all the tinct%res together and evaporate the spirit o" %nine in &alne%m. here will remain a &lood red li-%or at the &ottom* %pon which po%r spirit o" wine* and yo% shall e1tract a p%rer tinct%re which smells li+e garlic. #igest it three or "o%r wee+s* and it will smell li+e &alm. #igest it longer and it will smell li+e m%s+ or am&ergris. 4esides the smell that it has* it is an e1cellent s%dori"ic* and c%res all diseases that re-%ire sweat= as the plag%e* p%trid "evers* l%es venerea* and s%ch li+e as these. THE OIL OR LIQUOR OF SAND% FLINTS% PEBBLES% OR CRYSTALS FOR THE AFORESAID PREPARATION IS MADE THUS a+e o" the &est salt o" tartar* &eing very well p%ri"ied &y two or three dissol%tions and coag%lations* and powdered in a hot mortar* one part. B" "lints* pe&&les* or crystals* &eing powdered* or small sand well washed* the "o%rth part. :ingle them well together. '%t as m%ch o" this composition as will "ill an eggshell into a cr%ci&le. .et in the earthen "%rnace (descri&ed in 4oo+ 000) and made red hot. 'resently there will come over a thic+ and white spirit. his do %ntil yo% have eno%gh. hen ta+e o%t o" the cr%ci&le while it is glowing hot* and that which is in it is li+e transparent glass* which +eep "rom the air. he spirit may &e recti"ied &y sand in a glass retort. his spirit is o" e1cellent %se in the go%t* stone* ptisic+* and indeed in all o&str%ctions. 0t provo+es sweat* %rine* and cleanses the stomach and* &y conse-%ence* is e""ect%al in most diseases.

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0t &eing applied e1ternally clears the s+in and ma+es it loo+ very "air. a+e that which remains at the &ottom in the cr%ci&le and &eat it to powder* and lay it in a moist place so that it dissolves into a thic+ "at oil. !nd this is that which is called the oil o" sand* o" "lints* pe&&les* or crystals. his oil is o" wonder"%l %se in medicine* as also in the preparation o" all sorts o" minerals. his oil* &eing ta+en inwardly in some appropriate li-%or* dissolves tartaro%s coag%lations in the &ody* and so opens all o&str%ctions. 0t precipitates metals and ma+es the cal1 thereo" more weighty than oil o" tartar does. 0t is o" a golden nat%re. 0t e1tracts colors "rom all metals* is "i1ed in all "ires* ma+es "ine crystals and &ora1* and mat%res imper"ect metals into gold. 0" yo% p%t it into water* there will precipitate a most "ine white earth* o" which yo% may ma+e as clear vessels as are china dishes. ,ote that all sand* "lints* and pe&&les* even the whitest* have in them a golden s%lph%r or tinct%re* and i" a prepared lead &e "or a time digested in this oil it will seem* as it were* gilded &eca%se o" the gold that will hang %pon it which may &e washed away in water. Cold also is "o%nd in sand and "lints* etc.* and i" yo% p%t gold into this oil it will &ecome more pondero%s there&y. TO MA$E STEEL GROW IN A GLASS LI$E A TREE #issolve steel in a recti"ied spirit o" salt* so shall yo% have a green and sweet sol%tion which smells li+e &rimstone. Filter it and a&stract all the moist%re in sand with a gentle heat. here will distill over a li-%or as sweet as rain water. .teel* &y reason o" its dryness* detains the corrosiveness o" the spirit o" salt which remains in the &ottom li+e a &lood red mass which is as hot on the tong%e as "ire. #issolve this red mass in oil o" "lints or o" sand* and yo% shall see it grow %p in two or three ho%rs li+e a tree with stem and &ranches. 'rove this tree at the test* and it shall yield good gold which this tree has drawn "rom the a"oresaid oil o" sand or "lints which has a golden s%lph%r in it. TO MELT A METAL IN ONE)S HAND WITHOUT BURNING OF THE HAND a+e a little calcining co%rse o" the powder o" s%lph%r* saltpeter* and together. '%t a coal o" &e melted into a mass. pot in yo%r hand. :a+e in it a lane or any metal. hen %pon it lay a lane o" saw d%st* o" each a li+e -%antity* mi1ed "ire to it* and "orthwith the metal will

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AN OBSERVATION UPON THE BEAMS OF THE SUN AND HEAT OF THE FIRE HOW THEY ADD WEIGHT TO MINERAL ' METAL BODIES a+e o" any mineral li-%or and set it in an open vessel in the s%n "or a good space* and it will &e a%gmented in -%antity and weight. 4%t some will say that this proceeds "rom the air* to the which 0 answer and demand whether the air had not this impregnation "rom the s%n* and what the air has in itsel" that proceeds not "rom the s%n and stars. '%t this li-%or in a cold cellar or in a moist air* and yo% shall "ind that it increases not in weight* as it does in the s%n or in the "ire (which has in this respect some analogy with the s%n). 0 do not say &%t haply it might attract some little moist%re which is soon e1haled &y any small heat. #issolve any s%lph%ro%s and imper"ect metal* as iron* copper* or 8inc* in a-%a "ortis or any other acid spirit. hen a&stract the spirit "rom it. :a+e it glowing hot* yet not too hot* so that the spirit may only vapor away. hen weigh this metal cal1 and set it in a cr%ci&le over the "ire. 4%t melt it not* only let it dar+ly glow* let it stand so three or "o%r wee+s* and then ta+e it o"" and weigh it again. ?o% shall "ind it heavier than &e"ore. .et any s%lph%ro%s metal* as iron or copper* with si1teen or eighteen parts o" lead on a test made with ashes o" wood or &ones in a pro&atory "%rnace. First weigh the test copper and lead &e"ore yo% p%t them into the "%rnace. @et the iron or copper "ly away with the lead* yet not with toe strong a heat. hen ta+e the test o%t and weigh it* and yo% shall "ind it (tho%gh the metals &e gone) when it is cold to &e heavier than it was when it was p%t into the "%rnace with the metals. he -%estion is now whence this heaviness o" all the a"oresaid minerals and metals proceeded* i" that the heat o" the s%n and "ire thro%gh the help o" the minerals and metals &e not "i1ed into a palpa&le mineral and metal &ody; .et a test with lead or copper in the s%n. Aith a concave glass %nite the &eams o" the s%n* and let them "all on the center o" the metal. Dold the concave glass in yo%r hand* and let yo%r test never &e cold. his will &e as well done in the s%n as in the "ire. 4%t this concave m%st &e two "eet in diameter* and not too hollow or deep* &%t a&o%t the eighteenth or twentieth part o" the circle* so that it may the &etter cast its &eams "orth. 0t m%st &e very well polished. Ealcine antimony with a &%rning glass and yo% shall see it smo+e and "%me and &e made drier than &e"ore* yet weigh it and it will &e heavier than &e"ore. 0 shall ta+e in* "or the con"irmation o" all this* a relation o" .ir Lenelme #ig&y concerning the precipitating o" the s%n &eams. 0 remem&er (says he) a rare e1periment that a no&leman o" m%ch sincerity and a sing%lar "riend o" mine told me he had seen which was* that &y means o" glasses made in a very partic%lar manner and arti"icially placed one &y another* he had seen the s%n &eams

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gathered together and precipitated down to a &rownish or p%rplish red powder. here (says he) co%ld &e no "allacy in this operation. For nothing whatsoever was in the glass when they were placed and disposed "or this intent. !nd it m%st &e in the hot time o" the year* else the e""ect wo%ld not "ollow. B" this magistery he co%ld gather some days nearly two o%nces* and it was a strong volatile virt%e* and wo%ld impress its spirit%al -%ality into gold itsel" (the heaviest and most "i1ed &ody we converse withal/) in a very short time. 0 leave it now to the reader to 2%dge whether the &eams o" the s%n and the heat o" the "ire add weight to minerals and metals. TO EXTRACT A WHITE MIL$Y SUBSTANCE FROM THE RAYS OF THE MOON a+e a concave glass and hold it against the moon when she is at the "%ll in a clear evening. @et the rays thereo" &eing %nited "all %pon a sponge* and the sponge will &e "%ll o" a cold mil+y s%&stance which yo% may press o%t with yo%r hand and gather more. #e-@a-4rosse is o" the opinion that this s%&stance is o" the s%&stance o" the moon* &%t 0 cannot assent to him in that. Bnly this 0 say* i" this e1periment were well prosec%ted* it might prod%ce* "or o%ght 0 +now* s%ch a discovery which might &e the +ey to no small secrets. TO CONDENSE THE AIR IN THE HEAT OF SUMMER AND IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY INTO WATER Fill an earthen vessel %ngla8ed* made pointed downward* and "ill it with snow water (which m%st &e +ept all the year) in which is dissolved as m%ch nitre as the water wo%ld dissolve. @et the vessel &e close stopped. Dold this vessel against the s%n and the air will &e so condensed &y the coldness o" the vessel that i" will drop down &y the sides thereo". HOW TWO SORTS OF VOLATILE SALTS WILL BE FIXED BY &OINING THEM TOGETHER a+e a strong li1ivi%m made o" %nsla+ed lime* and evaporate it. Ahereas yo% wo%ld e1pect to "ind a salt at the &ottom* there is none* "or all the salt in the li1ivi%m is vapored away* and the more the li-%or is evaporated the wea+er the li1ivi%m &ecomes* which is contrary to other li1ivi%ms. !lso* i" yo% ta+e the spirit o" vinegar and evaporate it* yo% shall "ind no salt at the &ottom. ,ow* i" yo% ta+e the clear li1ivi%m o" lime and spirit o" vinegar* o" each a li+e -%antity* and mi1 them together and evaporate the h%midity thereo"* yo% shall "ind a good -%antity o" salt at the &ottom which tastes partly hot and partly acid. his salt* &eing set in a cold cellar on a mar&le stone and dissolved into an oil* is as good as any lac virginis to clear and smooth the "ace and dry %p any hot p%st%les in the s+in* as also against the itch and old %lcers to dry them %p.

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TO MA$E AN UNGUENT THAT A FEW GRAINS THEREOF BEING APPLIED OUTWARDLY WILL CAUSE VOMITING OR LOOSNESS AS YOU PLEASE a+e lapis in"ernalis and mi1 therewith o" distilled oil o" to&acco as m%ch as will ma+e an ointment. Leep it in a dry place. 0" yo% wo%ld provo+e vomiting* anoint the pit o" the stomach with "ive or si1 grains thereo"* and the party will presently vomit* and as m%ch as with ta+ing o" vomit. 0" yo% wo%ld provo+e to loosness* anoint a&o%t the navel therewith* and the patient will presently "all into a loosness. ,ote that yo% m%st give the patient some warm s%ppings all the time this medicine is wor+ing. ,ote also* and that especially* that yo% let not the ointment lie so long as to ca%teri8e the part to which it is applied. HOW TO MA$E A MEDICINE THAT HALF A GRAIN THEREOF BEING TA$EN EVERY MORNING WILL $EEP THE BODY SOLUBLE a+e o" the distilled oil o" to&acco* o" which let the essential salt o" to&acco im&i&e as m%ch as it can. hen with this composition ma+e some lo8enges &y adding s%ch things as are "itting "or s%ch a "orm o" medicine. ,ote that yo% p%t &%t s%ch a -%antity o" this oily salt as hal" a grain only may &e in one lo8enge. Bne o" these lo8enges &eing ta+en every morning or every other morning +eeps the &ody sol%&le* and is good "or them as are apt to &e very costive in their &odies. ,ote that yo% may p%t some aromatical ingredient into the lo8enges that may -%ali"y the o""ensive odor o" the oil* i" there shall &e any. TO MA$E A CORDIAL STOMACHICAL AND PURGATIVE TINCTURE :a+e a tinct%re o" hierapera with spirit o" wine well recti"ied and aromati8ed with cinnamon or cloves. wo or three spoon"%ls o" this tinct%re &eing ta+en in a morning twice in a wee+ wonder"%lly helps those that have wea+ and "o%l stomachs. 0t opens o&str%ctions and p%rges viscosities o" the stomach and &owels* c%res all inveterate headaches* +ills worms and* indeed* leaves no imp%rities in the &ody* and is very cordial. For it e1ceedingly helps them that are tro%&led with "aintings. here is nothing o""ensive in this medicine &%t the &itterness thereo" which the other e1traordinary virt%es will more than &alance. ANOTHER

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#issolve scammony in spirit o" wine. Evaporate the one moity. hen precipitate it &y p%tting rose water to it* and it will &ecome most white* "or the &lac+ and "etid matter will lie on the top o" the precipitated matter which yo% m%st wash away with rose water. hen ta+e that white g%m* &eing very well washed* and dry it. (0" yo% please* yo% may powder it and so %se it. For indeed it has neither smell nor taste* and p%rges witho%t any o""ence. 0t may &e given to children* or to any that distaste physic* in their mil+ or &roth witho%t any discerning o" it and* indeed* it does p%rge witho%t any manner o" grippings. 0 was wont to ma+e it %p into pills with oil o" cinnamon or cloves which gave it a gallant smell* and o" which 0 gave a scr%ple which wro%ght moderately and witho%t any manner o" grippings). hen dissolve it again in spirit o" wine* &eing aromati8ed with what spices yo% please* and this +eep. his tinct%re is so pleasant* so gentle* so no&le a p%rgative that there is scarce the li+e in the world* "or it p%rges witho%t any o""ence* is ta+en witho%t any na%seating* and p%rges all manner o" h%mors* especially cholera and melancholy* and is very cordial. 0t may &e given to those that a&hor any medicine* as to children or those that are o" a na%seo%s stomach. he dose is "rom hal" a spoon"%l to two or three. ,ote it m%st &e ta+en o" itsel"* "or i" it &e p%t into any other li-%or the scammony will precipitate and "all to the &ottom. !"ter this manner* yo% may prepare 2ollap &y e1tracting the g%m there"rom and then dissolving it in spirit o" wine. 4y this means 2ollap wo%ld not &e so o""ensive to the stomach* as %s%ally it is* "or it is the g%m that is p%rgative and the earthliness that is so na%seo%s. Jollap &eing th%s prepared is a most e1cellent medicine against all hydropic diseases* "or it p%rges water away witho%t any na%sea or griping at all. TO REDUCE DISTILLED TURPENTINE INTO ITS BODY AGAIN a+e o" oil o" t%rpentine and the colophonia thereo" (which is that s%&stance which remains in the &ottom a"ter distillation) which yo% m%st &eat to powder. :i1 these together and digest them* and yo% shall have a t%rpentine o" the same consistency as &e"ore* &%t o" a "iery s%&tle nat%re. 'ills made o" this t%rpentine are o" e1cellent %se in o&str%ctions o" the &reast* +idneys* and the li+e. TO MA$E THE DISTILLED OIL OUT OF ANY HERB% SEED% OR FLOWER IN AN INSTANT WITHOUT ANY FURNACE

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?o% m%st have a long pipe made o" tin which m%st have a &owl in the middle with a hole in it as &ig as yo% can p%t yo%r "inger into it* &y which yo% m%st p%t yo%r matter that yo% wo%ld have the oil o". .et this matter on "ire with a candle or coal o" "ire. hen p%t one end o" the pipe into a &asin o" "air water and &low at the other end* and the smo+e will come into the water* and there will an oil swim %pon the water which yo% may separate with a t%nnel. TO MA$E WATER AND THE TINCTURE OF ANY VEGETABLE AT THE SAME TIME WHICH IS AN EXCELLENT WAY TO DRAW OUT THE VIRTUE THEREOF his m%st &e per"ormed &y these "ollowing vessels.

!. .igni"ies the "%rnace itsel". 4. he retort which stands in water or sand* wherein the matter to &e distilled is p%t* instead* whereo" i" yo% please yo% may p%t a go%rd glass with a head to it. E. he pipe.

#. !nother vessel where is more "resh matter* o%t o" which the tinct%re is to &e drawn* and which stands %pon ashes with a "ire %nder it. E. F he "%rnace with a pan o" ashes. he receiver.

C. he hole o" the "%rnace to p%t in coals to heat the second matter. A WAY TO SEPARATE FRESH WATER FROM SALT WITHOUT A FURNACE OR MUCH TROUBLE a+e a ca%ldron with a great and high cover having a &ea+ or nose* set it %pon a trivet* and %nder it p%t a "ire. @et this &e "illed with salt water* and there will presently distill o"" a good

11

-%antity o" "resh water into a receiver which m%st &e 2oined to the nose o" the a"oresaid cover. his is o" good %se "or seamen that want "resh water* "or &y this means they may distill a good -%antity in 6H ho%rs* especially i" they have any considera&le n%m&er o" the a"oresaid vessels* a "ig%re whereo" is this which "ollows.

A WAY TO PURGE AND PURIFY TROUBLED AND MUDDY WATERS Fill a great pot with p%ddled water* and p%t a so"t and gentle "ire %nder it. @ay some &ric+s across on the pot &rims* and %pon the stic+s lay clean wool or a sponge well washed. ,ow the wool drin+s %p the vapors that ascend which yo% then m%st wring o%t and lay on the wool again. his yo% may do %ntil yo% have as m%ch clean water as yo% desire. he manner o" this distillation is descri&ed th%s.

!. .igni"ies the pot.

11!

4. E. #.

he "ire. he stic+s. he wool.

his is o" %se "or them that can come at no other waters &%t what are tro%&led* as it "alls o%t many times in some places. ANY THIC$ ANOTHER WAY TO PURIFY MUDDY% OR FECULENT LIQUOR his is per"ormed &y shreds o" any white woolen cloth in vessels as yo% can see herea"ter e1pressed.

!. .igni"ies the vessels. 4. he shreds. ,ote that the shreds m%st &e "irst wet in "air water* and the "ec%lent matter &e p%t into the %ppermost vessel. ,ote also* whereas here &e two receivers* that in many cases one may &e s%""icient. his way serves "or the p%ri"ying o" decoctions* 2%ices* or diesol%tions o" salts "rom their "ec%lency* "or that which is distilled &y the shreds is as clear as crystal* when what remains is very "ec%lent. TO $EEP FIRE IN A GLASS THAT WHILE THE GLASS IS SHUT WILL NOT BURN BUT AS SOON AS IT IS OPENED WILL BE INFLAMED First e1tract the &%rning spirit o" the salt o" tin in a glass retort well coated. Ahen the retort is cold* ta+e it o%t and &rea+ it* and as soon as the matter in it which remains in the &ottom thereo" a"ter distillation comes into the air* it will presently &e in"lamed. '%t this matter into a glass vial* and +eep it close stopped.

11"

his "ire will +eep many tho%sand years and not &%rn %nless the glass &e opened. 4%t at what time soever that it is opened* it will &%rn. 0t is conceived that s%ch a +ind o" "ire as this was "o%nd in va%lts when they were opened which many conceived to &e a perpet%al &%rning lamp* when as indeed it was in"lamed at the opening the va%lt and the letting in air there&y which &e"ore it lac+ed and* there"ore* co%ld not &%rn. For it is to &e conceived that there is no "ire &%rns longer than its matter end%res* and there is no com&%sti&le matter can end%re "orever. here may &e many %ses o" s%ch a "ire as this* "or any man may carry it a&o%t with him and let it &%rn on a s%dden when he has any occasion "or "ire. ! lamp "%rnace is made th%s.

!. .igni"ies the candlestic+ which m%st &e hollow and "%ll o" water. 4. he top o" the candlestic+ which m%st &e wide to contain good store o" water "or to "ill %p the candlestic+ as the candle rises %p. E. he candle which m%st &e as long as the candlestic+.

11#

#. he vessel that contains either water* sand* or ashes "or any vessel to &e set into* also to contain any matter itsel" that is to &e distilled or digested. E. ! glass vessel standing in digestion. F. ! narrow-mo%thed stopple to &e p%t into the candlestic+ to +eep the candle %pright* and that m%st &e made o" tin with holes in it. C. he cover "or the vessel # which is to &e p%t %pon it when anything is decocted or +ept warm in it. D. ! still head to p%t %pon the vessel # when yo% wo%ld distill anything in it. ,ote that i" yo% ma+e all these vessels large yo% may do many considera&le things witho%t m%ch la&or or tro%&le. 0n the vessel #* i" it &e large* yo% may stew meat which* i" yo% p%t in at night and cover it close* yo% may have it ready "or yo%r &rea+"ast in the morning and so* according to the time yo% p%t it in* yo% may have it "or dinner or s%pper. !lso* yo% may +eep anything warm in the night and at all times* diverse s%ch %ses as these it may &e %sed "or. ,ote that the candle will still rise %p %ntil it &e -%ite &%rned o%t* and an ordinary candle will last twice as long this way as it will o%t o" the water. 0" yo% wo%ld have one candle last a long time* as twelve or twenty ho%rs* yo% m%st either ma+e yo%r candlestic+ very long that it may contain a long candle* or ma+e yo%r candle &ig and the wic+ small* or ma+e yo%r candle o" s%ch matter as will not presently &e cons%med. ,ote also that i" yo% wo%ld have a great heat* yo%r candle m%st &e great* and also the wic+ thereo" great* &%t i" gentle* let yo%r candle &e small. ANOTHER LAMP FURNACE here is another sort o" lamp "%rnace with three candles a"ter this manner.

12$

he %se o" this is when yo% wo%ld have a constant "ire that sho%ld give a stronger heat than one candle in the "ormer "%rnace. !nd the tr%th is that i" yo%r candles &e &ig (as yo% may ma+e them as &ig as yo% will) yo% may have as strong a heat this way as &y ashes in an ordinary "%rnace. TO MA$E A CANDLE THAT SHALL LAST LONG a+e ma+e soap s%ch %nsla+ed lime* powder it and mi1 it with yo%r tallow* and so yo% candle o" that. Br else* yo% may ma+e candles o" castile which will serve "or s%ch %ses as these* vi8.* to &%rn in a lamp "%rnace.

,ote that it is the salt that is in the lime and soap that preserves the the tallow "rom &%rnig o%t so "ast as otherwise it wo%ld. TO MA$E A LASTING AND DURABLE OIL a+e %nsla+ed lime* &ay salt* oil o" olive* o" each a li+e -%antity* and mi1 them well together and distill them in sand. Eoho&ate the oil %pon the same -%antity o" "resh lime and salt* and this do "o%r or "ive times. 4y this means will the oil &e clear and impregnated with what salt was volatile in the lime and salt. ,ow that saline impregnation is that which gives a d%ra&leness to the oil. ,ote that this oil while it is distilling is o" a most "ragrant smell. 0 have some o" it which 0 distilled seven times and it is as p%re* s%&tle* and odori"ero%s as many common distilled oils and vegeta&les. his oil* &esides the d%ra&ility o" it* is also good against any inveterate ache in the lim&s. ! lamp made with this oil will contin%e &%rning si1 times as long as a lamp made o" other oil. !lso* it &%rns very sweet.

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here m%st &e a great deal o" care %sed in ma+ing o" it* or else yo% will -%ic+ly &rea+ yo%r glasses. !lso* yo% m%st ta+e very strong lime* s%ch as the dyers %se* and call ca%+e.

PHILOSOPHICAL BELLOWS here &e here set down three "ig%res o" these +inds o" instr%ments which &elong to several %ses.

!. .igni"ies that which &lows a "ire "or the melting o" any metal or s%ch li+e operation* and it &lows most "orci&ly with a terri&le noise. 4. hat which &lows a candle to ma+e the "lame thereo" very strong "or the melting o" glasses and nipping them %p. E. hat which anyone may hold in their hand to &low %p the "ire strongly %pon any occasion. ,ow the manner o" the %sing o" them is this. ?o% m%st "irst heat them very hot. hen p%t the noses thereo" (which m%st have a very small hole in them* no &igger than that a pin3s head may go in) into a vessel o" cold water. hey will presently s%c+ in the water* o" which then &eing "%ll* t%rn the noses thereo" towards the candle or "ire which yo% wo%ld have &lown. !s "or the "ig%re E* it m%st have a mo%th drawn %p aro%nd and hanging o%t an inch "rom the "ace* which mo%th (the whole compass o" the "ace &eing heated "irst) yo% m%st dip in cold water* and it will s%c+ in water as the noses o" the "ormer did. his then yo% m%st hold close to the "ire that it may &e heated* and it will &low e1ceedingly* as otherwise it will not* vi8.* i" it &e cold.

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0" yo% p%t sweet water into s%ch a vessel* yo% may per"%me a cham&er e1ceedingly* "or a little -%antity thereo" will &e a long time &reathing "orth. ,ote that these +inds o" vessels m%st &e made o" copper and &e e1ceedingly well closed so that they may have no vent &%t &y their noses. AN EXCELLENT INVENTION TO MA$E A FIRE a+e three parts o" the &est ,ewcastle coals &eaten small and one part o" loam. :i1 these well together into a mass with water. :a+e thereo" &alls which yo% m%st dry very well.

his "ire is d%ra&le* sweet* not o""ensive &y reason o" the smo+e or cinder as other coal "ires are. 0t is &ea%ti"%l in shape and is not so costly as other "ires. 0t &%rns as well in a cham&er even as charcoal. his "ire may either serve "or s%ch distillations as re-%ire a strong and lasting heat or "or ordinary %ses either in the +itchen or cham&ers. A NEW INVENTION FOR BATHS .eeing that &y &athing and sweating most diseases are c%red* especially s%ch as proceed "rom wind* hot and distempered h%mors or cold and congealed h%mors* &eca%se all these are rari"ied and evaporated &y transpiration in sweating or &athing* 0 tho%ght it a thing m%ch cond%cing to man3s health to set down s%ch a way o" &athing and sweating that might &e very e""ect%al and appropriated to any partic%lar disease or distemper. 0 shall there"ore here commend to yo% a way o" &athing &y distillation* the manner o" which yo% may see &y these ens%ing vessels.

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!. .igni"ies a hot still with two pipes going into two wooden vessels. 0n this still yo% may p%t either her&s* spices* with water or with spirits* and distill them* &y which means they that are in the vessels will presently &e "orced into a sweat &y virt%e o" the s%&tlety o" the vapors. !nd this indeed is as good and e""ect%al a way "or sweating as any can &e invented. ?o% may &y this means appropriate yo%r ingredients to the nat%re o" the diseases. 4. ! vessel wherein a man sits in the &ath. ,ow this vessel has in it a door "or the easier going into it* which "ashion is "ar &etter and more convenient* than to &e open only at the top. E. ! long vessel where a man that is wea+* and not a&le to sit %p* lies and is &athed. ,ow yo% m%st note that these vapors m%st not &e hotter than the patient can &ear. !lso* i" the vapor comes "orth too hot %pon the &ody o" the patient* he may &y p%tting a pipe %pon the end o" the pipe that comes into the vessel* divert the hot vapor "rom his &ody* and so it will not o""end him that way. ,ote that the patient* as soon as he &egins to &e "aint* m%st come "orth or else he will s%""er more pre2%dice than good &y his &athing. !lso* to prevent him "rom "ainting let him ta+e some cordial or cold &eer which will revive him and ma+e him end%re his &athing longer* as also ma+e him sweat the more. !s soon as the patient comes "orth* let him go into a warm &ed and sweat as he is a&le to &ear it* and ta+e some posses drin+ or

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&roth or s%ch li+e warm s%ppings* as also some good cordial i" he &e very "aint. he patient may* according to his strength and his disease* &athe more seldom or o"tener. AN ARTIFICIAL BATH MADE FROM THE SAME PRINCIPLES AS THE NATURAL BATH IS 4e"ore 0 set down the process o" ma+ing an arti"icial hot &ath* 0 shall premise something concerning the tr%e nat%re and origin o" a hot &ath. ,ow the clearest and &est acco%nt that 0 ever heard or read o" the ca%se o" the heat in &aths is that which is given &y :onsie%r de <ochas* and that in a demonstrative way. Dis words are these= G!s 0 wasG* says he* Gwith some o" my companions wandering in .avoy* 0 "o%nd in the valley o" @%cerne &etween the !lps a hot spring. 0 &egan to consider the ca%se o" this heat* and whereas the v%lgar opinion is that the heat o" "o%ntains is "rom mo%ntains "ired within* 0 saw reason to thin+ the contrary &eca%se 0 saw snow %pon a mo%ntain "rom whence this hot spring came* %nmelted* which co%ld not have &een possi&le* &%t wo%ld have &een dissolved &y the hot "%mes o" the mo%ntains had they &een "ired. Ahere%pon* &eing %nsatis"ied* 0 with my companions and other la&orers (whom 0 co%ld hardly pers%ade to %nderta+e s%ch a &%siness &y reason they were a"raid that "ire wo%ld there%pon &rea+ "orth o%t o" the gro%nd and cons%me %s) got tools and set %pon digging to "ind o%t the tr%e ca%se o" the heat o" this "o%ntain. !"ter we had d%g "i"teen days (having &e"ore perceived the water to &e hotter and hotter &y degrees as we came nearer to the so%rce) we came to the original o" the heat where was a great e&%llition. 0n three ho%rs more we d%g &eyond this place o" e&%llition and perceived the water to &e cold* yet in the same contin%ed stream with the other that was hot. Kpon this 0 &egan to wonder m%ch at the reason o" these things. hen 0 carried to &y lodging some o" this hot water (which was &oth saltish and acid) and evaporated it. B" "orty o%nces 0 yet "%rther p%ri"ied and e1tracted thence three drams o" p%re nitro%s hermetic salt* the other two o%nces &eing a slimy s%lph%ro%s s%&stance. ?et with this 0 was not satis"ied* &%t with my la&orers went again to the place and d%g twelve days more. hen we came to a water which was insipid as ordinary "o%ntain water* yet still in a contin%ed stream with the saltish and hot water. !t this 0 wondered m%ch* where%pon 0 d%g %p some o" the earth where the cold and saltish stream ran and carried it home with me* and o%t o" a h%ndred weight thereo" 0 e1tracted a good -%antity o" nitro%s salt which was almost "l%1ile. 3Ahen 0 e1tracted as m%ch as 0 co%ld* 0 laid the earth aside* and in 6H ho%rs it was all covered over with salt which 0 e1tracted* and o%t o" a h%ndred weight o" this earth* which 0 call virgin earth* 0 had "o%r po%nds o" this +ind o" salt which it contracted in the a"oresaid 6H ho%rs* and so it wo%ld do constantly. ,ow this

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satis"ied me concerning one do%&t. For &e"ore 0 was %nsatis"ied how there co%ld &e a constant s%pply o" that salt which made the water saltish* seeing there was &%t a little distance &etween the insipid water and the hot water* and the constant stream o" water washed away the salt which was in that little space. For 0 perceived that this +ind o" earth attracts this %niversal salt o" the world partly "rom the air in the cavities o" the earth and partly "rom the vapors that constantly pass thro%gh the earth. !"ter this 0 too+ some o" that earth where the e&%llition was and carried it home and proved it* and 0 perceived it to &e a s%lph%r mine* into which the "ormer acid saltish water penetrating ca%sed an e&%llition* as do salt o" tartar and spirit o" vitriol &eing mi1ed together* and also water po%red on %nsla+ed lime. !"ter this 0 &egan to -%estion how it was that this s%lph%r mine was not cons%med* seeing so m%ch matter pass "rom it daily. 4%t when 0 &egan to %nderstand how all things in the earth did assimilate to themselves whatsoever was o" any +ind o" a""inity to them* as as mines convert the tools o" miners into their own s%&stance in a little time* and s%ch li+e e1periments o" that nat%re* 0 was satis"ied. !nd a"ter all this 0 %nderstood how this %niversal salt o" the world was to &e had* and 0 co%ld at any time mi1 it with water* and po%r that water %pon s%lph%r* and so ma+e an arti"icial hot &ath as good as any nat%ral &ath whatsoever. ,ote that no salt in the world &%t this nitro%s salt will do it* as 0 o"ten tried. !nd this salt is to &e "o%nd in all hot &aths* and to &e prepared arti"icially. G h%s "ar :onsie%r de <ochas. .omething li+e %nto this Delmont seems to hold "orth* saying that there is a 'rim%m Ens .ali%m or Femina .ali%m which are all seated in waters and vapors and give them an acidity* &%t as yet have no saline taste %ntil they meet with s%ch principles and &e received into certain matri1es in the earth which may ma+e them p%t "orth this potential saltiness into act. !ccording to this diversity o" places this water or vapor* &eing impregnated with those seeds o" salt* goes thro%gh arise the diversity o" salts* as al%m* sea salt* nitre* etc. hen %pon this acco%nt the earth* thro%gh which the cold* acid* saltish water a&ovesaid r%n thro%gh* did speci"icate that potential salt which was &oth in the water and vapors into a nitro%s salt (&y which means was that +ind o" salt in that place). 4%t whether this 'ri%m Ens .ali%m &y so %nspeci"icated or >%id Dermaphroditic%m as he asserts* or no* it matters not m%ch to my p%rpose. 0t s%""ices i" that earth*thro%gh which that acid nitro%s water r%ns* attracts and m%ltiplies an acid nitro%s salt with which the water* &eing impregnated and r%nning thro%gh a s%lph%ro%s mine* ca%ses an e&%llition. !ll this &eing premised* 0 shall now endeavor to ill%strate how nat%re may in this &e imitated* as that an arti"icial hot &ath may &e made &y s%ch li+e principles* as the nat%ral hot &ath consists o"* &eing arti"icially prepared. ,ow these principles are the s%lph%r mine and the acid nitro%s salt. he "ormer re-%ires no "%rther preparation (as says :onsie%r de <ochas) i" it &e p%re. he latter is to &e prepared two manner o" ways. Either it is to &e e1tracted* as says the "oresaid

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a%thor* o%t o" the waters o" the &ath &y evaporating them away* or &y condensing the nitro%s air ("or indeed as many 2%dicio%s philosophers are o" opinion* the air is wholly nitro%s as it appears &y the condensation o" it in cold places into nitre) which his virgin earth did do into a salt which was acid and almost "l%1ile. ,ow when 0 say that the nitro%s salt is to &e th%s prepared* 0 do not say that this is the "%ll preparation thereo"* "or indeed it is yet "%rther to &e prepared* and that is &y giving it a greater acidity. 0 -%estion m%ch whether or no the salt* &eing prepared a"ter the a"oresaid ways* does retain that acidity which is re-%ired "or that e&%llition 0 spo+e o"* and which the nitro%s water had &e"ore it came to the mine o" s%lph%r. For indeed* the a"oresaid a%thor when he a""irmed that he co%ld at any time ma+e an arti"icial hot &ath* did not say he %sed the salt prepared only a"ter the two "ormer ways* vi8.* &y e1tracting it o%t o" the waters o" the &ath and ma+ing it with his virgin earth which did attract and condense the nitro%sness o" the air* &%t withall &y ma+ing it so acid that it might ca%se an e&%llition when it came to &e 2oined with a s%lph%r mine. ,ow then* how to give this nitre a s%""icient acidity is the great -%estion. For the &etter e""ecting o" this we m%st consider whence that nitro%s water (a&ove mentioned) in the earth had the greatest part o" its acidity. !s to that* it m%st &e remem&ered that the virgin earth thro%gh which the acid nitro%s water did r%n* did condense the nitro%s air or vapors into a nitro%s salt and* withall* it is to &e considered that &e"ore this nitro%s air or vapor* &e"ore it is condensed* even when it is near %nto condensation is acid* and part o" it &e"ore condensation is mi1ed with the water* and so renders it acid. ,ow that waters have a great part o" their acidity "rom the acid vapors o" acid minerals &oth Denric%s a& Deers and Jordan %pon mineral waters a""irm. hat salts %n&odied are "ar more acid than when they have ass%med a &ody is clearly mani"est in this* vi8.* that spirits o" salts which 0 call salts %n&odied* &eca%se they have lost their &ody* are &ecome very acid &eca%se %n&odied. 0" so in spirits that have lost their &odies* why not a"ter some proportion in those that have not yet ass%med a &ody* as vapors o" nitre* or nitro%s air &eing near to congelation* and &odying* and impregnant with spirits o" nitre. ,ow* 0 say that nitro%s vapors or nitro%s air* &eing a salt %n&odied* are not so acid as spirits o" nitre* &eca%se they are more phlegmatic and cr%de* which phlegm they lose &y &eing congealed into a salt. ?et "or all this* they are "ar more acid than the &ody o" salt* and this is that which Delmont %nderstands when he says that the es%rine salt* &eing incorpori"icated* is "ar more active in giving taste and odor than when it has received its &ody &y &ecoming a speci"icated salt. F%rthermore* how nitre shall &ecome s%""iciently acid "or the a"oresaid operation is the great matter to &e en-%ired into. Ae m%st there"ore consider which way

12!

we may %n&ody nitre (seeing it is scarce possi&le to get it &e"ore it has received its &ody). hat is done two ways* either &y "orcing o" it into a most sharp spirit* which is too acid "or o%r intention* or &y digesting the whole s%&stance o" nitre into a li-%or moderately acid* which indeed serves "or o%r p%rpose* and the process is this. a+e the p%rest nitre yo% can get. #issolve it in rainwater* so as that the water im&i&es as m%ch o" it as it can. hen p%t this nitro%s water into a common earthen vessel %ngla8ed which yo% m%st set in a cellar. ?o% shall see this vessel in a short time to &e white all over on the o%tside as with a hoar"rost. his whiteness is partly the "lowers o" the nitre* &eing the p%rest part thereo"* penetrating the vessel and partly the nitro%s air condensed into nitre &y the coldness o" the vessel* as also assimilated to the nitre that penetrated the vessel. 0 said &y the coldness o" the vessel* &eca%se s%ch is the coldness o" an earthen vessel wherein is nitre* dissolved in water* that it will &eing set in snow &y the "ireside &e "ree8ed. his nitre yo% m%st stri+e o"" with a "eather and when yo% have a s%""icient -%antity thereo"* as three or "o%r po%nds* p%t this or the nitro%s salt e1tracted "rom &oth waters into a &olt head o" glass (a po%nd in each &olt head) that two parts o" three &e empty. ,ip it %p* set it in ashes* and give it a reasona&le strong "ire* vi8.* that the %pper part o" the &owl o" the &olt head &e as hot as that yo% can* &%t well s%""er yo%r hand %pon it* and yo% shall see that the nitre will &e dissolved every day a little* and in two or three months time &e wholly dissolved and &ecome acid* &%t not so acid as the spirit thereo". hen p%t it into a glass go%rd with a head and distill it o"". 0n the &ottom yo% shall "ind an acid nitro%s salt almost "l%1ile* and not %nli+e that salt which :onsie%r de <ochas "o%nd in the evaporating o" his water. hen po%r the distilled nitre water %pon the said salt* and then it is "or yo%r %se. he %se o" these principles or ingredients is this* vi8.* to ma+e "o%ntain water s%""iciently acid with this nitro%s li-%or. hen po%r it %pon a s%""icient -%antity o" the &est s%lph%r mine or s%lph%r viv%m in a large wooden vessel where the patient is to &e &athed. ?o% will see the water presently heated so hot as the patient is a&le to &ear. he inward %se o" these &athwaters is &y reason o" the nitre in them* to dissolve gross h%mors* open o&str%ctions* cleanse the +idneys and &ladder and* &y reason o" the s%lph%r* to dry* molli"y* disc%ss* and gl%tinate* and to help all %terine e""ects proceeding "rom cold and windy h%mors. ,ote that they m%st &e dr%n+ warm and in a good -%antity* or else they will do more h%rt than good. he o%tward %se o" this is "or s%ch ill e""ects as are in the ha&it o" o" the &ody and o%t o" the veins* as o" palsies*

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contractions* rhe%ms* cold h%mors* e""ects o" the s+in and aches* "or they resolve* disc%ss* cleanse* molli"y* etc. ,ow "or the manner o" &athing 0 shall not prescri&e anything* &%t leave this to the discretion o" the physician who is to give orders and directions "or all the circ%mstances a&o%t it. For indeed everyone is not to &athe when and how he pleases* &%t m%st apply himsel" to an a&le physician and s%&mit himsel" to his 2%dgment and e1perience* or else may receive either pre2%dice or no &ene"it there&y. AN ARTIFICIAL TUNBRIDGE AND EPSOM WATER 0t is granted &y all that t%n&ridge water proceeds "rom an iron mine* &%t how it contracts that acidity and that ironish and vitriolated taste and odor* seeing %pon evaporation thereo"* there remains little or no vitriol or salt o" iron at the &ottom* is the great -%estion. ,ow "or the sol%tion o" this* we m%st consider how many ways a s%&terranean mineral or metal may comm%nicate its acidity to waters and that* says Denric%s a& Deers* %pon spew waters* it does three ways= one* when the water passing thro%gh the mines carries along with it some o" the dissol%&le parts o" the mine* to which is consonant the saying o" !ristotle that s%ch are waters* as is the nat%re o" those mines thro%gh which they pass* as also o" Calen when he says that p%re water passing thro%gh mineral mines carry with them some o" the s%&stance o" the mines. he second way is when the vapors arising "rom "ermented minerals and metals are mi1ed with waters. ,ow that vapors retain the odor and taste o" those things "rom whence they are raised* !ristotle in his "o%rth &oo+* .%&limi%m* a""irms* and also Delmont when he says that some parts o" the iron mines* &eing &y "ermentation t%rned into a vapor* retain the odor and taste o" the mine &y virt%e o" the acid es%rine salt and are not presently red%ced into a &ody* and also arti"icial vapors o" the iron mines have more virt%e*and active (0 mean those parts that are raised &y a strong "ire in a "%rnace "rom the mine o" iron)than iron itsel" when it is melted. he third way is when a great -%antity o" vapors arising "rom the a"oresaid "ermented mines is elevated and &y the coldness o" the am&ient earth is t%rned into an acid water which* as it passes thro%gh the earth* meets with some springs o" water and* mi1ing with them* gives them a pleasant acidity. !nd this is the &est o" all acid waters* &eing clear and very p%re. his &eing premised* 0 shall now proceed to the process o" ma+ing arti"icial waters li+e to those o" %n&ridge and Epsom. o ma+e t%n&ridge water* ta+e o" the mine or ore o" iron. 4eat it very small and p%t it into the "%rnace e1pressed on page M5 and there will come "orth an acid spirit and "lowers which yo% m%st mi1 together %ntil the acid spirit e1tracts the salt o%t o" the "lowers. hen decant o"" the clear li-%or which will have a strong taste and smell o" iron.

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! "ew drops o" this li-%or p%t into a glass"%l o" "o%ntain water gives it the odor and taste o" t%n&ridge water and comm%nicates the same operations to it. 0t opens all o&str%ctions* p%rges &y %rine* cleanses the +idneys and &ladder* helps the pissing o" &lood* the stopping o" the %rine and di""ic%lty o" ma+ing water. 0t allays all sharp h%mors* c%res inward %lcers and impost%mes* cleanses and strengthens the stomach and liver* etc. ,ote that "o%ntain water &eing made moderately acid with this acid ironish li-%or may &e ta+en "rom a pint to si1 pints &%t* &y degrees and a"ter the ta+ing o" it* moderate e1ercise is to &e %sed* and "asting to &e o&served %ntil all the water &e gone o%t o" the &ody which will &e in seven or eight ho%rs. Epsom water is made arti"icially th%s. a+e o" the mine o" al%m or al%m stones. 'owder it very small and distill it in the "%rnace e1pressed on page M5 end there will distill over a certain acid al%minish water which m%st &e mi1ed with a do%&le -%antity o" nitre water (the preparation whereo" is set down in the process o" ma+ing the arti"icial hot &ath). ,ow yo% m%st +now that Epsom water has a certain +ind o" acid taste which is partly al%mino%s and partly nitro%s which proceeds "rom nitro%s air and vapors arising "rom the "ermentation o" al%mino%s mines* &eing "irst mi1ed together and then mi1ed with the "o%ntains passing thro%gh the earth. 0" yo% p%t a "ew drops o" this li-%or into a glass"%l o" "o%ntain water it will give it the odor and taste o" Epsom water* that yo% shall scarce discern them as%nder either &y that odor or operation. his water is p%rgative and* indeed* p%rges especially all sharp &%rning h%mors* cools an in"lamed* and opens an o&str%cted &ody* cleanses the +idneys and &ladder* c%res inward %lcers and impost%mes* and is a very good preservative against the cons%mption* etc. Fo%ntain water made acid with this li-%or may &e ta+en "rom a pint to si1 or eight* &%t &y degrees* and a"ter it moderate e1ercise m%st &e %sed* and "asting %ntil the water &e o%t o" the &ody. Bnly some thin warm s%ppings may &e ta+en to help the wor+ing thereo". .ome ta+e this water warm. TO MA$E ARTIFICIAL PRECIOUS STONES OF ALL SORTS OF COLORS a+e crystalline white pe&&le stones that are very white thro%gho%t and have no mi1t%re o" any other color which yo% shall "ind in "o%ntains and on the sands o" the sea. '%t them into a cr%ci&le and ma+e them glowing hot (covering the cr%ci&le). hen cast them into cold water* &y which means they will crac+ and &e easily red%ced into a powder. a+e the powder thereo" and p%t the

13$

li+e -%antity o" p%re salt o" tartar thereto* which salt m%st not &e made in any metalling* &%t glass vessels* so that it may have no mi1t%re o" any other colon o this mi1t%re yo% may add what color yo% please which m%st &e o" a mineral or a metalline nat%re. hen p%t them into a very strong cr%ci&le which m%st &e &%t hal" "%ll and then covered* and there melt them in a strong "ire %ntil they &ecome li+e glass. ,ote that when this mi1t%re is in melting yo% m%st p%t an iron rod into it and ta+e %p some o" it* and i" there appears no corns o" gravel in it* it is eno%gh. 0" otherwise* yo% m%st melt it longer. he especial minerals and metals that give colons are these* vi8.* copper* iron* silver* gold* wism%t* magnesia* and granite. Eommon copper ma+es a sea greenF copper made o%t o" iron* a grass greenF granite* a smaragdine greenF iron* yellow or a hyacinth colorF silver* white yellow* green* and granite colorF gold* a "ine s+y colorF wism%t common &l%eF magnesia* an amethyst colon !nd i" yo% will mi1 two or three o" these together* they will give other colors. For copper and silver mi1ed together give an amethyst colorF copper and iron* a pale greenF wism%t and magnesia* a p%rple colorF silver and magnesia* diverse colors li+e as an opal. 0" yo% wo%ld have this mass not to &e transparent* &%t opa-%e* yo% may add the cal1 o" tin to it when it is in melting. !s i" yo% wo%ld ma+e lapis la8%li* then to yo%r mi1t%re colored with wism%t add the cal1 o" tin* and this mi1t%re when it is almost ready to congeal cast into a mold where some powder o" gold has &een scattered and* &y this means* it will &ecome "%ll o" golden veins very li+e tr%e lapis la8%li which is very pleasant to &ehold. ?o% may &y these "oresaid preparations cast what "orms or "ig%res yo% please* o" what color yo% please. he metals and minerals "or the ma+ing o" colors o%ght to &e th%s prepared as "ollows. 'lates o" copper m%st &e made red hot and then -%enched in cold water* o" which then ta+e "ive or si1 grains* and mi1 them with an o%nce o" the a"oresaid mi1t%re* and melt them all together and they will color it sea green. 0ron m%st &e made into a croc%s in a rever&eratory "ire* and then eight or ten grains thereo" will tinge the mi1t%re into a yellow or hyacinth colon. .ilver is to &e dissolved in a-%a "ortis and precipitated with oil o" "lints* then d%lci"ied with water* and a"terward dried. B" this "ive or si1 grains give a mingled colon. Cold m%st &e dissolved in a-%a regis* precipitated with the li-%or o" "lints* and then sweetened and dried. Five or si1 grains thereo" give the "inest sapphire color to an o%nce o" the mi1t%re.

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0" gold &e melted with reg%l%s martis nitros%s* "ive or si1 grains thereo" give to an o%nce o" this mass a most incompara&le r%&ine colon. :agnesia may &e powdered only* and then ten or twelve grains thereo" ma+e an amethyst color. Aism%t m%st &e dissolved in a-%a regis and precipitated with li-%or o" "lints* and then sweetened and dried. B" this "o%r or "ive grains t%rn an o%nce o" the mass into a sapphire color* &%t not so nat%ral as gold does. Cranite may &e powder only* and then ten or "i"teen grains thereo" tinge an o%nce o" the mass into a "ine green color not %nli+e to the nat%ral smaragdine. TO PROVE WHAT $IND OF METAL THERE IS IN ANY ORE ALTHOUGH YOU HAVE BUT A VERY FEW GRAINS THEREOF SO AS THAT YOU CANNOT MA$E PROOF THEREOF THE ORDINARY WAY WITH LEAD a+e two or "o%r grains (i" yo% have no greater -%antity) o" any ore that yo% have* and p%t it to hal" an o%nce o" 9enice glass. :elt them together in a cr%ci&le (the cr%ci&le &eing covered) and according to the tinct%re that the glass receives "rom the ore* so may yo% 2%dge what +ind o" metal there is in the ore. For i" it &e a copper ore* then the glass will &e tinged with a sea-green colon. 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" copper and iron* a grass-green. iron* a dar+ yellow. tin* a pale yellow. silver* a whitish yellow. gold* a "ine s+y colon gold and silver together* a smaragdine colon gold* silver* copper* and iron together* an amethyst colon

A PRETTY OBSERVATION UPON THE MELTING OF COPPER AND TIN TOGETHER First* ma+e two &%llets o" red copper o" the same magnit%de. :a+e also two &%llets o" the p%rest tin in the same mold as the others were made. Aeigh all "o%r &%llets and o&serve the weight well. hen melt the copper &%llets "irst. Kpon their &eing melted* p%t the two tin &%llets and melt them together* &%t have a care that the tin "%me not away. hen cast this molten mi1t%re in the same molds as &e"ore* and it will scarce ma+e three &%llets* &%t yet they weigh as heavy as the "o%r did &e"ore they were melted together. 0 s%ppose the copper condenses the &ody o" the tin which &e"ore was very poro%s* and which condensation rather adds than diminishes the weight thereo". A REMAR$ABLE OBSERVATION UPON THE MELTING OF SALT ARMONIAC AND CALX VIVE TOGETHER

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a+e salt armoniac and cal1 vive* o" each a li+e -%antity* and mi1 and melt them together. ,ote that cal1 o" itsel" will not melt in less than eight ho%rs with the strongest "ire that can &e made* &%t &eing mi1ed with this salt melts in hal" an ho%r and less li+e a metal with an indi""erent "ire. his mi1t%re &eing th%s melted &ecomes a hard stone* o%t o" which yo% may stri+e "ire as o%t o" a "lint which* i" yo% dissolve again in water* yo% shall have the salt armoniac in the same -%antity as &e"ore* &%t "i1ed. ,ote that hard things have their congelation "rom salt armoniac* as horns* &ones* and s%ch li+e* "or little "i1ed salt can &e e1tracted "rom them* only volatile and armoniac. !n o%nce o" any o" these volatile salts (as o" horns* &ones* am&er* and s%ch li+e) red%ced into an acid li-%or &y distillation* condenses and end%res a po%nd o" oily matter. AN EASY AND CHEAP POWDER LI$E UNTO AURUM FULMINANS a+e o" salt o" tartar one part* salt petre three parts* s%lph%r a third part* and grind these well together and dry them. ! "ew grains o" this powder &eing "ired will give as great a clap as a m%s+et when it is discharged. TO MA$E THE ANTIMONIAL CUP AND TO CAST DIVERSE FIGURES OF ANTIMONY a+e the &est cr%de antimony* very well powdered* and nitre - o" each a po%nd - and o" cr%de tartar* "inely powdered* two po%nds. :i1 them well together and p%t them into a cr%ci&le. Eover the cr%ci&le and melt them. he reg%l%s will "all to the &ottom and &e li+e a melted metal. hen po%r it "orth into a &rass mortar* &eing "irst smeared over with oil. Br* ta+e two parts o" powdered antimony and "o%r parts o" powder o" cr%de tartar. :elt these as a"oresaid. his reg%l%s yo% may (when yo% have eno%gh o" it) melt again and cast it into what maids yo% please. ?o% may either ma+e c%ps or what pict%res yo% please* and o" what "ig%res yo% please. ?o% may cast it into "orms o" shillings or hal" crowns* either o" which i" yo% p%t into two or three o%nces o" wine in an earthen gla8ed vessel* or glass* and in"%se in a moderate heat all night* yo% may have a li-%or in the morning which will ind%ce vomit. he dose is "rom two drams to two o%nces and a hal". ,ote that in the wine yo% may p%t a little cinnamon to correct and give a more grate"%l relish to it. 0t is the c%stom to "ill the antimonial c%p with wine and to p%t as m%ch wine ro%nd a&o%t &etween that and the little earthen c%p

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where it stands* and so in"%se it all night* and then drin+ %p all that wine. 4%t 0 "ear that so m%ch wine will &e too m%ch as &eing three or "o%r o%nces* when as we seldom e1ceed the -%antity o" two o%nces o" the in"%sion o" antimony. hese c%ps or pict%res will last "orever and &e as e""ect%al a"ter a tho%sand times in"%sion as at "irst. !nd i" they &e &ro+en at any time (as easily they may* &eing as &rittle as glass) they may &e cast again into what "orms yo% please. ,ote that he that casts them m%st &e s+ill"%l in ma+ing his spawde* as also in sco%ring o" them and ma+ing them &right a"terwards* "or i" they &e care"%lly handled they will loo+ even as &right as silver.

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!OO" +#
THE %PAG,(#)A& A'ATOM, OF GO&D A'D %#&+E( TOGETHE( $#TH THE )*(#O%#T#E% THE(E#' A'D )H#EFE%T P(EPA(AT#O'% THE(EOF 0 shall "irst endeavor to show whence gold had its origin* and what the matter thereo" is* as nat%re (says .endivogi%s) is in the will o" Cod* and Cod created her. .o nat%re made "or hersel" a seed* with her will in the elements. ,ow she indeed is one* yet she &rings "orth diverse things* &%t she operates nothing witho%t a sperm. Ahatsoever the sperm will* nat%re operates* "or she is as it were the instr%ment o" any arti"icers. he sperm there"ore o" everything is &etter and more pro"ita&le than nat%re hersel". For yo% shall "rom nat%re do as m%ch witho%t a sperm as a goldsmith witho%t "ire or a h%s&andman witho%t grain or "eed. ,ow the sperm o" anything is the eli1ir* the &alsam o" s%lph%r* and the same as h%mid%m radicale is in metals. 4%t to proceed to what concerns o%r p%rpose. Fo%r elements generate a sperm* &y the will o" Cod* and the imagination o" nat%re. For* as the sperm o" a man has its canter or the vessel o" its seed in the +idneys* so the "o%r elements &y their inde"inite motion (every one according to its -%ality) cast "orth a sperm into the center o" the earth where it is digested and &y motion is sent a&road. ,ow the center o" the earth is a certain empty place where nothing can rest. he "o%r elements send "orth their -%alities into the circ%m"erence o" the canter. !s a male sends "orth his seed into the wom& o" the "emale which* a"ter it has received a d%e portion* casts o%t the rest* so it happens in the center o" the earth that the magnetic power o" a part o" any place attracts something and the rest is cast "orth into stones and other e1crements. For something has its origin "rom this "o%ntain* and there is nothing in the world prod%ced &%t &y this "o%ntain. !s "or e1ample* set %pon an even ta&le a vessel o" water which may &e placed in the middle thereo"* and ro%nd a&o%t it set diverse things* and diverse colors* also salt* etc.* everything &y itsel". hen po%r the water into the middle* and yo% shall then see water to r%n every way* and when any stream to%ches the red color* it will &e made red &y it. 0" the water to%ches the salt* it will contract the taste o" salt "rom it* and so o" the rest. ,ow the water does not change the places* &%t the diversity o" places changes the water. 0n li+e manner* the seed or sperm* &eing cast "orth &y the "o%r elements "rom the canter o" the earth %nto the s%per"icies thereo"* passes thro%gh vario%s places* and according to the nat%re o" the place is anything prod%ced. 0" it come to a p%re place o" earth and water* a p%re thing is made. he seed and sperm o" all things is &%t one* and yet it generates diverse things* as it appears &y the "ormer e1ample. he sperm while it is in the center is indi""erent to all "orms* &%t when it is come into any determinate place* it changes no more its "orm.

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he sperm while it is in the center can as easily prod%ce a tree as a metal* and an her& as a stone* and one more precio%s than another according to the p%rity o" the place. ,ow this sperm is prod%ced o" elements th%s. hese "o%r are never -%iet &%t* &y reason o" their contrariety* m%t%ally act one %pon another* and every one o" itsel" sends "orth its own s%&tlety* and they agree in the canter. ,ow in this canter is the !rchae%s* the servant o" nat%re which* mi1ing those sperms together* sends them a&road and &y distillation s%&limes them &y the heat o" a contin%al motion %nto the s%per"icies o" the earth. For the earth is poro%s* and the vapor (or wind* as the philosophers call it) is &y distilling thro%gh the pores o" the earth resolved into water* o" which all things are prod%ced. @et there"ore as 0 said &e"ore* all sons o" !rt* +now that the sperm o" metals is not di""erent "rom the sperm o" all things* &eing a h%mid vapor. here"ore* in vain do artists endeavor the red%ction o" metals into their "irst matter which is only a vapor. ,ow* says 4ernard revisan* when philosophers spea+ o" a "irst matter they did not mean this vapor* &%t the second matter which is an %nct%o%s water which to %s is the "irst* &eca%se we never "ind the "ormer. ,ow the speci"ication o" this vapor into distinct metals is th%s. his vapor passes in its distillation thro%gh the earth* thro%gh places either cold or hot. 0" thro%gh hot and p%re* where the "atness o" s%lph%r stic+s to the sides thereo"* then that vapor (which philosophers call the merc%ry o" philosophers) mi1es* and 2oins itsel" %nto that "atness which a"terwards it s%&limes with itsel". hen it &ecomes* leaving the name o" a vapor* an %nct%osity* which a"terwards coming &y s%&limation into other places (which the antecedent vapor did p%rge) where the earth is s%&tle* p%re* and h%mid* "ills the pores thereo" and is 2oined to it* and so it &ecomes gold. Ahere it is hot and something imp%re* it &ecomes silver. 4%t i" that "atness comes to imp%re places which are cold* it is made lead. 0" that place &e p%re and mi1ed with s%lph%r* it &ecomes copper. For &y how m%ch the more p%re and warm the place is* so m%ch the more e1cellent does it ma+e the metals. ,ow this "irst matter o" metals is a h%mid* visco%s* incom&%sti&le* s%&tle s%&stance* incorporated with an earth s%&tlety* &eing e-%ally and strongly mi1ed per minima in the caverns o" the earth. 4%t* as in many things* there is a two"old %nct%osity (whereo" one is* as it were* internal* retained in the canter o" the thing lest it sho%ld &e destroyed &y "ire which cannot &e witho%t the destr%ction o" the s%&stance itsel" wherein it isF the other is* as it were* e1ternal* "ec%lent* and com&%sti&le). .o in all metals e1cept gold* there is a two"old %nct%osity. Bne is e1ternal* s%lph%ro%s* and in"lamma&le which is 2oined to it &y accident and does not &elong to the total %nion with the terrestrial parts o" the thing. he other is internal* very s%&tle* and incom&%sti&le* &eca%se it is o" the s%&stantial composition o" argent vive and* there"ore* cannot &e destroyed &y "ire* %nless with the destr%ction o" the whole s%&stance* whence it appears what the ca%se is that metals are more or less d%ra&le in the "ire. For those which a&o%nd with that internal %nct%osity

13

are less cons%med* as it appears in silver and* especially* in gold. Dence* <osari%s says the philosophers co%ld never &y any means "ind o%t anything that co%ld end%re the "ire* &%t that %nct%o%s h%midity only which is per"ect and incom&%sti&le. Ce&er also asserts the same when he says that imper"ect &odies have s%per"l%o%s h%midities and s%lph%reity generating a com&%sti&le &lac+ness in them* and corr%pting them. hey have also an imp%re* "ec%lent* and com&%sti&le terrestriety so gross as that it hinders ingression and "%sion. 4%t a per"ect metal as gold* has neither this s%lph%ro%s nonterrestrial imp%rity* 0 mean* when it is "%lly mat%rated and melted. For while it is in concoction it has &oth 2oined to it* as yo% may see in the golden ore* &%t then they do not adhere to it so* &%t that it may &e p%ri"ied "rom them which other metals cannot* &%t are &oth destroyed together i" yo% attempt to separate the one "rom the other. 4esides gold has so little o" these corr%pti&le principles mi1ed with it that the inward s%lph%r or metalline spirit does sometimes and in some places overcome them o" itsel"* as we may see in the gold which is "o%nd very p%re sometimes in the s%per"icies o" the earth and in the sea sands* and is many times as p%re as any re"ined gold. ,ow* this gold which is "o%nd in sands and rivers is not generated there* as says Cregori%s !gricola in his third &oo+* #e <e :etallica* &%t is washed down "rom the mo%ntains with "o%ntains that r%n "rom thence. here is also a "laming gold "o%nd (as 'aracels%s says) in the tops o" mo%ntains which is indeed separated o" itsel" "rom all imp%rities and is as p%re as any re"ined gold whatsoever. .o that yo% see* that gold* altho%gh it had an e1trinsical s%lph%r and earth mi1ed with it* yet it is sometimes separated "rom it o" itsel"* vi8.* &y that "iery spirit that is in it. ,ow this p%re gold (as says .endivogi%s) nat%re wo%ld have per"ected into an eli1ir* &%t was hindered &y the cr%de air* which cr%de air is indeed nothing else than that e1trinsical s%lph%r which it meets with and is 2oined to in the earth* and which "ills with its violence the pores thereo"* and hinders the activity thereo". his is that prison which the s%lph%r (as says the a"oresaid a%thor) is loc+ed %p in so that it cannot act %pon its &ody* vi8.* merc%ry and concoct it into the seed o" gold* as otherwise it wo%ld do. his is that dar+ &ody (as says 'enot%s) that is interposed &etween the philosophical s%n and moon and +eeps o"" the in"l%ences o" the one "rom the other. ,ow i" any s+ill"%l philosopher co%ld wittily separate this adventitio%s imp%rity "rom gold while it is yet living* he wo%ld set s%lph%r at li&erty* and "or this his service he sho%ld &e grati"ied with three +ingdoms* vi8.* vegeta&le* animal* and mineral. 0 mean he co%ld remove that great o&str%ction which hinders gold "rom &eing digested into the eli1ir. For* as says .endivogi%s* the eli1ir or tinct%re o" philosophers is nothing else &%t gold digested into the highest degree. For the gold o" the v%lgar is as an her& witho%t seed* &%t when living gold ("or common gold never can &y reason that the spirits are &o%nd %p and* indeed* as good as dead and not possi&ly

13!

to &e red%ced to that activity which is re-%ired "or the prod%cing o" the sperm o" gold) is ripened it gives a seed which m%ltiplies even ad in"init%m. ,ow the reason o" this &arrenness o" gold that it prod%ces not a seed* is the a"oresaid cr%de air* vi8.* imp%rities. ?o% may see this ill%strated &y this e1ample. Ae see that orange trees in 'olonia do grow li+e other trees* also in 0taly and elsewhere* where their native soil is* and yield "r%it* &eca%se they have s%""icient heat. 4%t in these colder co%ntries they are &arren and never yield any "r%it* &eca%se they are oppressed with cold. 0" at any time nat%re &e wittily and sweetly helped* then art can per"ect what nat%re co%ld not. !"ter the same manner it is in metals* "or gold wo%ld yield "r%it and seed in which it might m%ltiply itsel"* i" it were helped &y the ind%stry o" the s+ill"%l artist who +nows how to promote nat%re and to separate these s%lph%ro%s and earthly imp%rities "rom gold. For there is a s%""icient heat in living gold which i" it were stirred %p &y e1trinsical heat* to digest it into a seed. 4y e1trinsical heat 0 do not mean the heat o" the celestial s%n* &%t that heat which is in the earth and stirs %p the seed* the living spirit that is in all s%&terranean sperms to m%ltiply and* indeed* ma+es gold &ecome gold. ,ow this is a heat o" p%tre"action occasioned &y acid spirits in the earth "ermenting* as yo% may see &y this e1ample related &y !l&ert%s :agn%s* &%t to which the reason was given &y .endivogi%s. here was* says the "ormer a%thor* certain grains o" gold "o%nd &etween the teeth o" a dead man in the grave* where"ore he conceived there was a power in the &ody o" man to ma+e and "i1 gold. 4%t the reason is "ar otherwise* as says the latter a%thor. De says argent vive was &y some physician conveyed into the &ody o" this man when he was alive* either &y %nction or &y t%r&ith* or some s%ch as was the c%stom. 0t is the nat%re o" merc%ry to ascend to the mo%th o" the patient and thro%gh the e1coriation o" the mo%th to &e avoided with the phlegm. ,ow* then* i" in s%ch a c%re the sic+ man died* that merc%ry not having passage o%t remained &etween the teeth in the mo%th. hat carcass &ecame the nat%ral vessel o" merc%ry* and so "or a long time &eing sh%t %p* was congealed &y its proper s%lph%r into gold &y the nat%ral heat o" p%tre"action* &eing p%ri"ied &y the corrosive phlegm o" the carcass* &%t i" the mineral merc%ry had not &een &ro%ght in thither* gold had never &een prod%ced there. his is a most tr%e e1ample that as merc%ry is &y the proper s%lph%r that is in itsel"* &eing stirred %p and helped &y an e1trinsical heat* coag%lated into gold* %nless it &e hindered &y any accident* or have not a re-%isite e1trinsical heat* or a convenient place* so also nat%re does in the &owels o" earth prod%ce o" merc%ry only gold and silver* and other metals according to the disposition o" the place and matri1* which assertion is "%rther cleared &y the r%le o" red%ction. For i" it &e tr%e that all things consist o" that which they may &e red%ced into* then gold consists o" merc%ry* &eca%se (as most grant* 'aracels%s a""irms* and many at this day pro"ess they can do) it may &e red%ced into it.

13"

here is a way &y which the tinct%re o" gold which is the so%l thereo"* and "i1es it* may &e so "%lly e1tracted that the remaining s%&stance will &e s%&limed li+e arsenic and may &e as easily red%ced into merc%ry as s%&limate. 0" so* and i" all merc%ry may &e red%ced into a transparent water* as it may (according to the process set down earlier* and as 0 +now how another &etter and easier way to t%rn a po%nd o" merc%ry o" itsel" into a clear water in hal" an ho%r* which is one o" the greatest secrets 0 +now or care to +now* together with what may &e prod%ced thence* and shall crave leave to &e silent in) may not that water in some sense* i" it &e well recti"ied* &e called a +ind o" living gold o%t o" which yo% may perhaps ma+e a medicine and a menstr%%m %n"it "or the v%lgar to +now. 0t appears now "rom what is premised that the immediate matter o" gold is pro&a&ly merc%ry* and not certain salts and 0 +now not what as many dream o"* and that the e1trinsical heat is "rom within the earth and not the heat o" the s%n* as some imagine (&eca%se in the hottest co%ntries there is all or almost all gold generated) who i" they considered that in cold co%ntries also are and* as in .cotland were gold mines in Ling James3 time* wo%ld &e o" another mind than to thin+ that the celestial s%n co%ld penetrate so as to heat the earth so deep as most gold lies. 0 now having in some meas%re discovered what the intrinsical and e1trinsical heat and the matter o" gold is* 0 shall ne1t endeavor to e1plain what those three principles are* vi8.* salt* s%lph%r* and merc%ry* o" which argent vive and gold consist. Lnow there"ore that a"ter nat%re had received "rom the most Digh Cod the privilege o" all things %pon the monarchy o" this world* she &egan to distri&%te places and provinces to every thing according to its dignity* and in the "irst place did constit%te the "o%r elements to &e the princes o" the world and* that the will o" the :ost Digh (in whose will nat%re in placed) might &e "%l"illed* ordained that they sho%ld act %pon one another incessantly. he "ire there"ore &egan to act %pon the air and prod%ced s%lph%r. he air also &egan to act %pon the water and prod%ced merc%ry. he water also &egan to act %pon the earth and prod%ced salt. ,ow the earth not having whereon to act prod%ced nothing* &%t &ecame the s%&2ect o" what was prod%ced. .o then there were prod%ced three principles* &%t o%r ancient philosophers* not so strictly considering the matter* descri&ed only two acts o" the elements and so named &%t two principles* vi8.* s%lph%r and merc%ry* or else they were willing to &e silent in the other* spea+ing only to the sons o" art. he s%lph%r* there"ore* o" philosophers (which indeed is the s%lph%r o" metals and o" all things) is not* as many thin+* that common com&%sti&le s%lph%r which is sold in shops* &%t is another thing "ar di""ering "rom that* and is com&%sti&le* not &%rning nor heating* &%t preserving and restoring all things which it is in. 0t is the calid%m innat%m o" everything* the "ire o" nat%re* the created light* and o" the nat%re o" the s%n* and is called the

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s%n. h%s whatsoever in anything is "iery and airy is s%lph%r* not that anything is wholly s%lph%ro%s* &%t what in it is most thin and s%&tle* having the essence o" the nat%ral "ire and the nat%re o" the created light which indeed is that s%lph%r which wise philosophers have in all ages with great diligence endeavored to e1tract* and with its proper merc%ry to "i1* and so to per"ect the great magistery o" nat%re. ,ow o" all things in the world there is nothing that has more o" this s%lph%r in it than gold and silver* &%t especially gold* insom%ch that o"tentimes it is called s%lph%r &eca%se s%lph%r is the most predominant and e1cellent principle in it* and &eing in it more than in all things &esides. :erc%ry is not here ta+en "or common argent vive* &%t it is the h%mid%m radicals o" everything* that p%re a-%eo%s* %nct%o%s* and visco%s h%midity o" the matter. 0t is o" the nat%re o" the moon and it is called the moon and "or this reason* vi8.* &eca%se it is h%mid* as also &eca%se it is capa&le o" receiving the in"l%ence and light o" the s%n* vi8.* s%lph%r. .alt is that "i1ed permanent earth which is the center o" everything that is incorr%pti&le and %naltera&le* and it is the s%pporter and n%rse o" the h%mid%m radicale with which it is strongly mi1ed. ,ow this salt has in it a seed* vi8.* its galid%m innat%m which is s%lph%r and its h%mid%m radicale* which is merc%ry* and yet these three are not distinct or to &e separated* &%t are one homogeno%s thing* having %pon a di""erent acco%nt diverse names. For in respect o" its heat and "iery s%&stance* it is called s%lph%r. 0n respect o" its h%midity it is called merc%ry* and in respect o" its terrestrial siccity it is called salt* all which are in gold per"ectly %nited* dep%rated* and "i1ed. Cold there"ore is the most no&le and solid o" all metals* o" a yellow colon* compacted o" principles digested to the %tmost height and* there"ore "i1ed. .ilver is in the ne1t place o" dignity to gold and di""ers "rom it in digestion chie"ly. 0 said chie"ly* &eca%se there is some small imp%rity &esides adhering to silver. ,ow* having given some small acco%nt o" the original matter "irst* and second o" the manner o" the growth o" gold* 0 shall in the ne1t place set down some c%riosities therein and preparation thereo". he preparations are chie"ly three* vi8.* a%r%m pota&ile which is the mi1tion thereo" with other li-%orsF oil o" gold which is gold li-%id &y itsel" witho%t the mi1t%re o" any other li-%orF and the tinct%re which is the e1traction o" the color thereo". DR. ANTHONY)S FAMOUS AURUM POTABILE AND OIL OF GOLD #issolve p%re "ine gold in a-%a regis according to art (the a-%a regis &eing made o" a po%nd o" a-%a "ortis and "o%r o%nces o" salt armoniac distilled together &y retort in sand) which clear sol%tion p%t into a large glass o" a wide nec+ and %pon it po%r drop &y drop oil o" tartar made per deli-%i%m* %ntil the a-%a

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aegis which &e"ore was yellow &ecomes clear and white* "or that is a sign that all cal1 o" gold is settled to the &ottom. hen let it stand all night* and in the morning po%r o"" the clear li-%or* and wash the cal1 "o%r or "ive times with common spring water* &eing warmed* and dry it with a most gentle heat. ,ote* and that well* that i" the heat &e too great* the cal1 ta+es "ire presently li+e g%n powder and "lies away to yo%r danger and loss. here"ore* it is &est to dry it in the s%n* or on a stone* stirring it diligently with a wooden spat%le. o this cal1 add hal" a part o" the powder o" s%lph%r. :i1 them together* and in an open cr%ci&le let the s%lph%r &%rn away in the "ire* p%tting a gentle "ire to it at the "irst* and in the end a most strong "ire "or the space o" an ho%r so that the cal1 may in some manner &e rever&erated and &ecome most s%&tle* which +eep in a vial close stopped "or yo%r %se. hen ma+e a spirit o" %rine a"ter this manner. a+e the %rine o" a healthy man drin+ing wine moderately. '%t it into a go%rd which yo% m%st stop close* and set in horse d%ng "or the space o" "orty days. hen distill it &y alem&ic in sand into a large receiver %ntil all the h%midity &e distilled o"". <ecti"y this spirit &y coho&ation three times so that the spirit only may rise. hen distill it in sand &y a glass with a long nec+ having a large receiver anne1ed and closed very well to it* and the spirit will &e elevated into the top o" the vessel li+e crystal witho%t any a-%eo%s h%midity accompanying o" it. @et this distillation &e contin%ed %ntil all the spirits &e risen. hese crystals m%st &e dissolved in distilled rain water and &e distilled as &e"ore. his m%st &e done si1 times and every time yo% m%st ta+e "resh rain water distilled. hen p%t these crystals into a glass &olt head* close hermetically* and set in the moderate heat o" a &alne%m "or the space o" "i"teen days so that they may &e red%ced into a most clear li-%or. o this li-%or add an e-%al weight o" spirit o" wine* very well recti"ied* and let them &e digested in &alne%m the space o" twelve days* in which time they will &e %nited. hen ta+e the cal1 o" gold a&ove said* and po%r %pon it o" these %nited spirits as m%ch as will cover them three "ingers &readth. #igest them in a gentle heat %ntil the li-%or &e tinged as red as &lood. #ecant o"" the tinct%re and p%t on more o" the a"oresaid spirits and do as &e"ore %ntil all the tinct%re &e e1tracted. hen p%t all the tincted spirits together and digest them ten or twelve days* a"ter which time a&stract the spirit with a gentle heat and coho&ate it once. !nd then the cal1 will remain in the &ottom li+e an oil as red as &lood and o" a pleasant odor* and which will &e dissolved in any li-%or. Ahere"ore this oil may &e the s%ccedane%m o" tr%e gold. 0" yo% distill the same sol%tion &y retort in sand there will come over a"ter the "irst part o" the menstr%%m the tinct%re with the other part thereo"* as red as &lood* the earth which is le"t in the &ottom o" the vessel &eing &lac+* dry* spongy* and light. he menstr%%m m%st &e vapored away and the oil

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o" gold will remain &y itsel"* which m%st &e +ept as a great treas%re. !nd this is #r. !nthony3s !%r%m 'ota&ile. Fo%r or eight grains o" this oil ta+en in what manner soever wonder"%lly re"reshes the spirits* and wor+s several ways* especially &y sweat. THE TRUE OIL OF GOLD a+e an o%nce o" lea" gold and dissolve it in "o%r o%nces o" the recti"ied water o" merc%ry. #igest them in horse d%ng the space o" two months. hen evaporate the merc%rial water* and at the &ottom yo% shall have the tr%e oil o" gold which is radically dissolved. A TINCTURE OF GOLD #issolve p%re gold in a-%a regis. 'recipitate it with the oil o" sand into a yellow powder which yo% m%st d%lci"y with warm water* and then dry it (this will not &e "ired as a%r%m "%lminans). his powder is twice as heavy as the gold that was p%t in* the ca%se o" which is the salt o" the "lints precipitating itsel" with the gold. '%t this yellow powder into a cr%ci&le and ma+e it glow a little* and it will &e t%rned into the highest and "airest p%rple that ever yo% saw* &%t i" it stands longer it will &e &rown. hen po%r %pon it the strongest spirit o" salt ("or it will dissolve it &etter than any a-%a regis) on which dissol%tion po%r on the &est recti"ied spirit o" wine* and digest them together. 4y a long digestion some part o" the gold will "all to the &ottom li+e a white snow and may with &ora1* tartar* and salt nitre &e melted into a white metal as heavy as gold and* a"terwards with antimony* may recover its yellow color again. hen evaporate the spirit o" salt and o" wine* and the gold tinct%re remains at the &ottom and is o" great virt%e. ANOTHER TINCTURE OF GOLD a+e o" the a"oresaid yellow cal1 o" gold precipitated with oil o" sand* one part* and three or "o%r parts o" the li-%or o" sand or o" crystals. :i1 them well together and p%t them into a cr%ci&le in a gentle heat at "irst* so that the moist%re o" the oil may vapor away (which it will not do easily &eca%se o" the dryness o" the sand which retains the moist%re thereo"* so that it "lies away li+e molten al%m or &ora1). Ahen no more will vapor away* increase yo%r "ire %ntil the cr%ci&le &e red hot and the mi1t%re ceases &%&&ling. hen p%t it into a wind "%rnace and cover it so that no ashes "all into it. :a+e a strong "ire a&o%t it "or the space o" an ho%r* and the mi1t%re will &e t%rned into a transparent r%&y. hen ta+e it o%t* &eat it* and e1tract the tinct%re with spirit o" wine which will &ecome li+e thin &lood* and that which remains %ndissolved may &e melted into a white metal as the "ormer. ANOTHER TINCTURE OF GOLD

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Dang plates o" gold over the "%me o" argent vive* and they will &ecome white* "ria&le* and "l%1ile as wa1. his is called the magnesia o" gold* as says 'aracels%s* in "inding o%t o" which (says he) philosophers as homas !-%inas and <%pescissa with their "ollowers too+ a great deal o" pains* &%t in vain* and it is a memora&le secret and indeed very sing%lar "or melting o" metals that are not easily "l%1i&le. ,ow* then* gold &eing th%s prepared and melted together with the merc%ry* is &ecome a &rittle s%&stance which m%st &e powdered and o%t o" it a tinct%re may &e drawn "or the transm%ting o" metals. ANOTHER TINCTURE a+e hal" an o%nce o" p%re gold and dissolve it in a-%a regis. 'recipitate it with oil o" "lints* d%lci"y the cal1 with warm water and dry it* and so it is prepared "or yo%r wor+. hen ta+e reg%l%s martis powdered and mi1 it with three parts o" salt nitre* &oth which p%t into a cr%ci&le and ma+e them glow gently at "irst. hen give a strong melting "ire and then this mi1t%re will &ecome to &e o" a p%rple colon* which then ta+e o%t and &eat to powder. !dd to three parts o" this one part o" the cal1 o" gold prepared as &e"ore. '%t them into a wind "%rnace in a strong cr%ci&le* and ma+e them melt as a metal. .o will the nitr%m antimoniat%m in the melting ta+e the cal1 o" gold to itsel" and dissolve it* and the mi1t%re will come to &e o" an amethyst colon @et this stand "lowing in the "ire %ntil the whole mass &e as transparent as a r%&ine which yo% may try &y ta+ing a little o%t and cooling o" it. 0" the mi1t%re does not "low well* cast in some more salt nitre. Ahen it is completely done* cast it "orth &eing "lowing into a &ra8en mortar and it will &e li+e an oriental r%&ine. hen powder it &e"ore it &e cold. hen p%t it into a vial and with the spirit o" wine e1tract the tinct%re. his is one o" the &est preparations o" gold and o" most e1cellent %se in medicine. ANOTHER TINCTURE First ma+e a "%rnace "it "or the p%rpose which m%st &e closed at the top and have a pipe to which a recipient with a "lat &ottom m%st &e "itted. Ahen this "%rnace is th%s "itted* p%t in three or "o%r grains* not a&ove at once* o" a%r%m "%lminans which* as soon as the "%rnace is hot* "lies away into the recipient thro%gh the pipe li+e a p%rple colored "%me and is t%rned into a p%rple colored powder. hen p%t in three or "o%r grains more and do as &e"ore %ntil yo% have eno%gh "lowers o" gold (that which "ly not away &%t remain at the &ottom* may with &ora1 &e melted into good gold). hen ta+e them o%t and po%r %pon them recti"ied spirit o" wine tartari8ated* and digest them in ashes %ntil the spirit &e colored &lood red which yo% m%st them evaporate and at the &ottom will &e a &lood red tinct%re o" no small virt%e. AURUM FULMINANS

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a+e the p%rest gold yo% can get and po%r on it "o%r times as m%ch a-%a regia. .top yo%r glass with a paper* and set it in warm ashes. .o will the a-%a regia in an ho%r or two ta+e %p the gold and &ecome a yellow water* i" it &e strong eno%gh. (4e s%re that yo%r gold has no copper in it* "or then yo%r la&or will &e lost* &eca%se the copper will &e precipitated with the gold and hinder the "iring thereo"). hen po%r on this yellow water drop &y drop p%re oil o" tartar made per deli-%i%m* so will the gold &e precipitated into a dar+ yellow powder and the water &e clear. ,ote that yo% po%r not on more oil o" tartar than is s%""icient "or the precipitation* otherwise it will dissolve part o" the precipitated gold to yo%r pre2%dice. 'o%r o"" the clear li-%or &y inclination* and d%lci"y the cal1 with distilled rain water warmed. hen set this cal1 in the s%n or some warm place to dry* ta+e great heed and especial care that yo% set it not in a place too hot* "or it will presently ta+e "ire and "ly away li+e th%nder and not witho%t great danger to the standers &y* i" the -%antity &e great. his is the common way to ma+e a%r%m "%lminaris* and has considera&le di""ic%lties in the preparation. 4%t the &est way is to precipitate gold dissolved in a-%a regis &y the spirit o" salt armoniac or o" %rine* "or &y this way the gold is made p%rer than &y the other and gives a "ar greater crac+ and so%nd. ,ote that the salt o" the spirits which is precipitated with the gold m%st &e washed away and the gold d%lci"ied as &e"ore. ! "ew grains o" this &eing "ired give a crac+ and so%nd as great as a m%s+et when it is discharged and will &low %p anything more "orci&ly "ar than g%npowder* and it is a powder that will -%ic+ly and easily &e "ired. his is o" %se "or physic+ as it is in powder* &%t especially it is %sed in ma+ing the "oregoing tinct%re. TO MA$E GOLD GROW IN A GLASS LI$E A TREE WHICH IS CALLED THE GOLDEN TREE OF THE PHILOSOPHERS a+e oil o" sand* as m%ch as yo% please* and po%r %pon it the same -%antity o" oil o" tartar per deli-%i%m. .ha+e them well together so that they &e incorporated and &ecome as one li-%or o" a thin consistency. hen is yo%r menstr%%m or li-%or prepared. hen dissolve gold in a-%a regia* and evaporate the menstr%%m and dry the cal1 in the "ire* &%t ma+e it not too hot* "or it will there&y lose its growing -%ality. hen ta+e it o%t and &rea+ it into little &its* not into powder. '%t those &its into the a"oresaid li-%or (that they may lay a "inger3s &readth the one "rom the other) in a very clear glass. Leep the li-%or "rom the air* and yo% shall see that those &its o" the cal1 will presently &egin to grow. First they will swell. hen they will p%t "orth one or two stems* and then diverse &ranches and twigs so e1actly as that yo% cannot choose &%t e1ceedingly to wonder. his growing is real and not imaginary only. ,ote that the glass m%st stand still and not &e moved.

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ANOTHER WAY Ealcine "ine gold in a-%a regia so that it &ecomes a cal1* which p%t into a go%rd glass* and po%r %pon it good and "resh a-%a regia and the water o" gradation* so that they cover the cal1 "o%r "inger3s &readth. his menstr%%m a&stract in the third degree o" "ire %ntil no more will ascend. his distilled water po%r on it again and a&stract it as &e"ore* and this do so o"ten %ntil yo% see the gold rise in the glass and grow in the "orm o" a tree having many &o%ghs and leaves. TO MA$E GOLD GROW AND BE INCREASED IN THE EARTH a+e leaves o" gold and &%ry them in the earth which loo+s towards the east. @et it o"ten &e soiled with man3s %rine and dove3s d%ng* and yo% shall see that in a short time they will &e increased. he reason o" this growth* 0 conceive* may &e the gold3s attracting that %niversal vapor and sperm that comes "rom the canter thro%gh the earth (as has &een spo+en in the !natomy o" Cold) and &y the heat o" p%tre"action o" the d%ng p%tri"ying and assimilating it to itsel". A REMAR$ABLE OBSERVATION UPON A GOLDEN MARCASITE here is "o%nd a certain stone in 4ononia* which some call a golden marcasite* some a salary magnes* that receives light "rom the s%n in the daytime and gives it "orth in the dar+. !&o%t this there has &een m%ch reasoning among philosophers* as whether light &e really a &ody* or any +ind o" s%&stance* or an accident only* and whether this stone had any gold in it or no* and what it did consist o". De that "irst discovered it tho%ght that he had "o%nd a thing that wo%ld transm%te metals into gold (&y which it appears that there seemed to &e something o" gold in it or something more glorio%s than gold). 4%t his hopes were "r%strated &y a "r%itless la&or* notwithstanding which 0 conceive there might &e some immat%re or cr%de gold in itF "or cr%de gold is a s%&2ect (&eing there is some li"e in it) that is most "it to receive the in"l%ences o" the s%n according to the %nanimo%s consent o" all philosophers and* there"ore* is &y them not only called salary* &%t sol* the s%n itsel". 0t is prepared "or the receiving o" light th%s. 0t is calcined two ways. First it is &ro%ght into a most s%&tle powder with a very strong "ire in a cr%ci&le. .econdly* &eing th%s &ro%ght into a powder* it is made %p into ca+es as &ig as a dollar or a piece-o"eight* either with common water alone or with the white o" an egg. '%t those ca+es &eing dried &y themselves into a wind "%rnace . . . with coals and calcine them in a most strong "ire "or the space o" "o%r or "ive ho%rs. Ahen the "%rnace is cold* ta+e them o%t* and i" they &e not s%""iciently calcined the "irst time (which is +nown &y their giving &%t little light) then reiterate the

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calcination a"ter the same manner as &e"ore* which is sometimes to &e done thrice. hat is the &est which is made with the choicest stones that are clean* p%re* and diaphano%s* and gives the &est light. Aith this &eing powdered* yo% may ma+e the "orms o" diverse animals* o" what shapes yo% please* which yo% m%st +eep in &o1es* and they will* receiving light "rom the s%n in the daytime* give light in the night or in a dar+ place which light will vanish &y degrees. THE VIRTUES OF THE AFORESAID PREPARATIONS OF GOLD Aith the a"oresaid preparations* the ancients did not only preserve the health and strength o" their &odies* &%t also prolong their lives to a very old age* and not that only* &%t c%red thoro%ghly the epilepsy* apople1y* elephantiasis* leprosy* melancholy* madness* the -%artain* the go%t* dropsy* pl%risy* all manner o" "evers* the 2a%ndice* l%cs venerea* the wol"e* cancer* nolli nes angere* asthma* cons%mption* the stone* stopping o" the %rine* inward impost%mes* and s%ch li+e diseases which most men acco%nt inc%ra&le. For there is s%ch a potent "ire lying in prepared gold which does not only cons%me deadly h%mors* &%t also renews the very marrow o" the &ones* and raises %p the whole &ody o" man &eing hal" dead. hey that %se any o" these preparations "or any o" the "oregoing diseases m%st ta+e themselves to their &ed "or the space o" two or three ho%rs and e1pect sweating to ens%e "or* indeed* it will send "orth sweat plenti"%lly and with ease* and leave no imp%rity or s%per"l%ity in the whole &ody. ,ote that they m%st ta+e it "o%rteen days together in appropriate li-%ors. @et yo%ng men that e1pect long li"e ta+e any o" the a"oresaid preparations once in a month* and in the morning* &%t they m%st a&stain "rom neat and drin+ %ntil the evening o" the same day* "or in that time that matter will &e digested into the radical h%mor* where&y the strength o" the &ody is wonder"%lly increased* &ea%ty does "lo%rish most wonder"%lly* and contin%es %ntil e1treme old age. @et old men ta+e it twice in a month* "or &y this means will their old age &e "resh %ntil the appointed time o" death. @et yo%ng women and maids ta+e it once in a month a"ter their menstr%a* "or &y this means they will loo+ "resh and &ea%ti"%l. @et women that are in travail ta+e it* and it will help and strengthen them to &ring "orth witho%t m%ch pain* notwithstanding many di""ic%lties. @et it &e given to women that have passed the years o" their menstr%a once or twice a month* and it will preserve them very "resh* and many times ca%se their menstr%a to ret%rn and ma+e them capa&le again o" &earing children.

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0t c%res the plag%e and e1pells the matter o" a car&%ncle &y sweat most potently. Ahen 0 say that this* or it will do th%s or th%s* 0 mean any one o" the "orementioned preparations* vi8.* a%r%m pota&ile* oils or tinct%re o" gold. THE PREPARATIONS OF SILVER IN GENERAL !ll the several preparations o" gold may* e1cept that o" a%r%m "%lminans* &e applied to silver* o" which &eing th%s prepared the virt%es are in"erior to those o" gold* yet come nearer to them than those o" any other matter whatsoever* or howsoever prepared. ,ote that silver has some pec%liar preparations which neither gold nor any other metals are capa&le o". A GREEN TINCTURE OF SILVER a+e "ine silver and dissolve it in twice so m%ch recti"ied spirit o" nitre. hen a&stract hal" o" the said spirit in sand. @et it stand a day or two in a cold place* and m%ch o" the silver will shoot into crystals* and in o"t doing* most o" it. hese crystals are very &itter* yet may &e made into pills and ta+en inwardly "rom three grains to twelve. hey p%rge very sec%rely and gently* and color the lips* tong%e* and mo%th &lac+. 0" in this dissol%tion o" silver &e"ore it &e &ro%ght to crystals* hal" so m%ch merc%ry &e dissolved and &oth shoot together into crystals* yo% shall have a stone not m%ch %nli+e to al%m. his p%rges sooner and &etter* and is not so &itter. 0t colons the nails* hair* s+in* i" it &e dissolved in rainwater* with a lovely &rown* red* or &lac+* according as yo% p%t more or less thereo". a+e o" the a"oresaid crystals o" silver and mi1 with them a li+e -%antity o" p%re saltpetre well powdered. hen p%t this mi1t%re into the distilling vessel at the &ottom o" which m%st &e powdered coals to the thic+ness o" two "ingers &readth. hen ma+e a strong "ire so that the vessel and coals &e red hot. '%t in a dram o" the a"oresaid mi1t%re* and it will presently s%&lime in a silver "%me into the recipient which* &eing settled* p%t in more and do so %ntil yo% have eno%gh. a+e o%t the "lowers and digest them in the &est alcholi8ated spirit o" wine so that there&y the tinct%re may &e e1tracted which will &e green. A GREEN OIL OF SILVER a+e o" the a&ovesaid crystals o" silver one part* o" spirit o" salt armoniac two or three parts* and digest them together in a glass with a long nec+* well stopped* twelve or "o%rteen days. .o will the spirit o" salt armoniac &e colored with a very specio%s &l%e color. 'o%r it o"" and "ilter it. hen p%t it into a small retort and draw o"" most o" the spirit o" ammoniac* and there will remain in the &ottom a grass green li-%or. hen draw o"" all the

14!

spirit* and there will remain in the &ottom a salt which may &e p%ri"ied with spirit o" wine or &e p%t into a retort. hen there will distill o"" a s%&tle spirit and a sharp oil. his green li-%or is o" great %se "or the gilding o" all things presently. 0" yo% ta+e common rainwater distilled* and dissolve and digest the a"oresaid crystals o" silver "or a "ew days* yo% shall a"ter the appearance o" diverse colors "ind an essence at the &ottom* not so &itter as the "ormer* &%t sweet. 0n this li-%or may all metals in a gentle heat &y long digestion &e mat%rated and made "it "or medicine. 4%t note that they m%st "irst &e red%ced into salts* "or then they are no more dead &odies* &%t &y this preparation have o&tained a new li"e* and are the metals o" the philosophers. TO MA$E OIL OF SILVER PER DELIQUIUM a+e o" the a"oresaid salts or crystals o" silver and rever&erate them in a very gentle "ire. hen p%t them into a cellar on a mar&le stone* and they will in two months time &e resolved into a li-%or. TO MA$E A LIQUOR OF SILVER THAT SHALL MA$E THE GLASS WHEREIN IT IS SO EXCEEDING COLD THAT NO MAN IS ABLE FOR THE COLDNESS THEREOF TO HOLD IT IN HIS HAND ANY LONG TIME a+e the a"oresaid salt o" silver* po%r %pon it the spirit o" salt armoniac* dissolve it thoro%ghly* and it will do as a&ovesaid. Aith a glass &eing "%ll o" this li-%or yo% may condense the air into water in the heat o" the s%mmer* as also "ree8e water. TO MA$E SILVER AS WHITE AS SNOW a+e o" the cal1 o" silver made &y dissol%tion o" it in a-%a "ortis. #%lci"y it* &oil it in a li1ivi%m made o" soap ashes* and it will &e white as any snow. TO MA$E THE SILVER TREE OF THE PHILOSOPHERS a+e "o%r o%nces o" a-%a "ortis in which dissolve an o%nce o" "ine silver. hen ta+e two o%nces o" a-%a "ortis in which is dissolved hal" an o%nce o" argent vive. :i1 these two li-%ors together in a clear glass with a pint o" p%re water. .top the glass very close and yo% shall see day a"ter day a tree to grow &y little and little which is wonder"%l pleasant to &ehold. 0 have set down several v%lgar preparations o" gold and silver* and o" almost all things else* 0 shall now crave leave to give an acco%nt o" some philosophical preparations o" the philosophers gold and silver. For indeed the art o" preparing them is the tr%e

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alchemy* in comparison o" which all the chemical discoveries are &%t a&ortives and "o%nd o%t &y accident* vi8.* &y endeavoring a"ter this. 0 wo%ld not have the world &elieve that 0 pretend to the %nderstanding o" them. ?et 0 wo%ld have them +now that 0 am not incred%lo%s as to%ching the possi&ility o" that great philosophical wor+ which many have so m%ch la&ored a"ter and may have "o%nd. o me there is nothing in the world seems more possi&le* and whosoever shall witho%t pre2%dice read over the &oo+ entitled he ,ew @ight B" !lchemy shall almost whether he will or not (%nless he resolves not to &elieve anything tho%gh never so credi&le) &e convinced o" the possi&ility o" it. Ahat %nworthiness Cod saw in gold more than in other things that he sho%ld deny the seed o" m%ltiplication (which is the per"ection o" the creat%res) to it* and give it to all things &esides* seems to me to &e a -%estion as hard to &e resolved* yea* and harder than the "inding o%t the eli1ir itsel"* in the discovering o" which the greatest di""ic%lty is* not to &e convinced o" the easiness thereo". 0" the preparations were di""ic%lt many more wo%ld "ind it o%t than do (says .endivogi%s) "or they cast themselves %pon most di""ic%lt operations and are very s%&tle in di""ic%lt discoveries which the philosophers never dreamed o". ,ay* says the a"orenamed a%thor* i" Dermes himsel" were now living together with s%&tle witted Ce&er and most pro"o%nd <aim%nd @%llie* they wo%ld &e acco%nted &y o%r chemists not "or philosophers* &%t rather "or learners. hey were ignorant o" those so many distillations* so many circ%lations* so many calcinations* and so many other inn%mera&le operations o" artists nowadays %sed which* indeed* men o" this age did "ind o%t and invented o%t o" their &oo+s. ?et there is one thing wanting to %s which they did* vi8.* to +now how to ma+e the 'hilosophers .tone* or physical tinct%re the processes o" which according to some philosophers are these. THE PROCESS OF THE ELIXIR ACCORDING TO PARACELSUS a+e the mineral electr%m* &eing immat%re and made very s%&tle. '%t it into its own sphere so that the imp%rities and s%per"l%ities may &e washed away. hen p%rge it as m%ch as possi&ly yo% can with sti&i%m a"ter the alchemystical way* lest &y its imp%rity yo% s%""er pre2%dice. hen resolve it in the stomach o" an estridge which is &ro%ght "orth in the earth and thro%gh the sharpness o" the eagle is com"ortated in its virt%e. ,ow when the electr%m is cons%med* and has a"ter its sol%tion received the color o" a marigold* do not "orget to red%ce it into a spirit%al transparent essence which is li+e to tr%e am&er. hen add hal" so m%ch* as the electr%m did weigh &e"ore its preparation* o" the e1tended eagle* and o"tentimes a&stract "rom it the stomach o" the estridge* and &y this means the electr%m will &e made more spirit%al. ,ow when the stomach o" the estridge is wearied with la&or* it will &e necessary to re"resh it and always to a&stract it. @astly* when it has again lost its sharpness* add the tartari8ated -%intessence* yet so that it &e spoiled o" its redness the height o" "o%r "ingers and that pass

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over with it. his do so o"ten %ntil it &e o" itsel" white* and when it is eno%gh and yo% see that sign* s%&lime it. .o will the electr%m &e converted into the whiteness o" an e1alted eagle* and with a little more la&or &e transm%ted into deep redness* and then it is "it "or medicine. THE PROCESS OF THE ELIXIR ACCORDING TO DIVI LESCHI GENUS AMO a+e o" o%r earth thro%gh eleven degrees* eleven grains* o" o%r gold* and not o" the v%lgar* one grain* o" o%r t%na* not o" the v%lgar* grains two. 4%t &e yo% admonished that yo% ta+e not the gold and silver o" the v%lgar* "or they are dead* &%t ta+e o%rs which are living. hen p%t them into o%r "ire* and there will thence &e made a dry li-%or. First the earth will &e resolved into water which is called the merc%ry o" philosophers* and in that water it will resolve the &odies o" the s%n and moon and cons%me them so that there remain &%t the tenth part with one part* and this will &e the h%mid%m radicale metallic%m. hen ta+e the water o" the salt nitre o" o%r earth* in which there is a living stream i" yo% digest the pit +nee deep. a+e there"ore the water o" it* &%t ta+e it clear and set over it that h%mid%m radicals* and p%t it over the "ire o" p%tre"action* &%t not so m%ch as was that in the "irst operation. Covern all things with a great deal o" discretion %ntil there appear colors li+e to the tail o" a peacoc+. Covern it &y digesting o" it* and &e not weary %ntil these colons cease and there appear thro%gho%t the whole a green color* and so o" the rest* and when yo% shall see in the &ottom ashes o" a "iery color and the water almost red* open the vessel* dip in a "eather* and smear over some iron with it. 0" it tinge* have in readiness that water which is the menstr%%m o" the world (o%t o" the sphere o" the moon so o"ten recti"ied %ntil it can calcine gold). '%t in so m%ch o" that water as was the cold air which went in. 4oil it again with the "ormer "ire %ntil it tinge again. THE PROCESS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS STONE ACCORDING TO PONTANUS a+e the matter and grind it with a physical contrition as diligently as may &e. hen set it %pon the "ire and let the proportion o" "ire &e +nown* vi8.* that it only stir %p the matter* and in a short time that "ire witho%t any other laying on o" hands will accomplish the whole wor+* &eca%se it will p%tre"y* corr%pt* generate* and per"ect* and ma+e to appear the three principal colors= &lac+* white* and red. !nd &y the means o" o%r "ire* the medicine will &e m%ltiplied i" it &e 2oined with the cr%de matter* not only in -%antity &%t also in virt%e. Aithall* they might there"ore search o%t this "ire (which is mineral* e-%al* contin%al* vapors not away* e1cept it &e too m%ch stirred %pF parta+es o" s%lph%r* is ta+en "rom elsewhere than "rom the matterF p%lls down all things* dissolves* congeals* and calcines* and is arti"icial to "ind o%t* and that &y a compendio%s and near way witho%t any cost* at least very small* is not transm%ted with

15$

the matter &eca%se it is not o" the matter). !nd yo% shall attain yo%r wish* &eca%se it does the whole wor+* and is the +ey o" the philosophers which they never revealed. THE SMARAGDINE TABLE OF HERMES FROM WHENCE ALL ALCHEMY DID ARISE r%e* witho%t all "alsity* certain and most tr%e. hat which is in"erior is as that which is s%perior* and that which is s%perior is as that which is in"erior* "or the accomplishing o" the miracles o" one thing. !nd as all things were "rom one* &y the mediation o" one* so all things have proceeded "rom this one thing &y adaptation. he Father thereo" is the s%n* and the :other thereo" the moon. he wind carried it in its &elly. he n%rse thereo" is the earth. he "ather o" all the per"ection o" the whole world is this. he virt%e thereo" is entire* i" it &e t%rned into earth. ho% shalt separate the earth "rom the "ire* the s%&tle "rom the thic+* sweetly* with a great deal o" 2%dgment. 0t ascends "rom the earth %p to heaven* and again descends down to the earth* and receives the powers o" s%periors and in"eriors. .o yo% have the glory o" the whole world. here"ore let all o&sc%rity "ly "rom yo%. his is the strong "ortit%de o" the whole "ortit%de* &eca%se it shall overcome everything that is s%&tle and penetrate every solid thing* as the world is created. Dence shall wonder"%l adaptations &e* whereo" this is the manner* where"ore 0 am called Dermes rismegist%s* having three parts o" the philosophy o" the whole world. 0t is complete* what 0 have spo+en o" the operation o" the s%n. POSTSCRIPT 0" 0 shall herea"ter see that what 0 have here done shall deserve a second edition* 0 shall Ghere%nto add some other parts o" chemistry* vi8.* s%&limation and calcination which here 0 have omitted (e1cept what 0 have written &y the way o" re"erence to the per"ecting o" any +ind o" distillation). For indeed distillation (which is the ma+ing* e1tracting* or p%ri"ying o" li-%ors) is the chie"est s%&2ect o" this disco%rse and* indeed* the whole* e1cept some spagyrical e1periments and c%riosities set down in the "i"th &oo+.

Finis

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