7
2.1 Describe and sketch the locus of a point A which moves according to the equations
2.2 Find the position difference from point P to point Q on the curve
2
= +− x 16 , where
yx
2
2
2
+ −
16
10
=− ;
R
P
ˆ
= 2 i −
10
ˆ
j
4
2
+− = ;
4
16
4
R
Q
ˆ
= i +
4
4
ˆ
j
ˆ
= RR− =+i 2
Q
P
14
ˆ
j =
14.142
∠
81.9
°
Ans.
The
path
equation
of a moving point
is defined
by the
y = 2 x
2
− 28 .
Find
the
position
difference from point P to point Q if
R
x
P
=
4
and
R
x
Q
3
= − .
8
R
y
P
=
2
4
2
−= ;
28
4
R
P
ˆ
= 4 i +
4
ˆ
j
R
y
Q
=
2
−
3
2
−
28
10
=− ;
ˆ
R =− i −
Q
3
10
ˆ
j
ˆ
ˆ
R = RR− =− i − j =
QP
Q
P
7
14
15.652
∠
243.4
°

y = 60 − 
x 
3 
/ 3 . 

displacement of the point if its motion begins when 
R 
P 
0 
and ends when 


R 
y P 
()0 60 =− ()0 3 
/ 3 
= 
60 ; R P (0 ) 
= 
60 
ˆ j 

ˆ 
ˆ 

R y P ()3 60 =− ()3 3 / 3 = 51 ; R P (3 )= 3 i + ΔRR = PP ()ˆ ˆ
− R P 0 = 3 ij − 9 = () 
51 j ∠− 
71.6 
° 
Ans. 

What is the 

R 
x 
3 
? 

P 
= 

Ans. 
2.5 If point A moves on the locus of Problem 2.1, find its displacement from t = 2 to t =2.5.
R
A
2.0
=
2.0
ˆ
ˆˆ
aaa
cos 4
π i += π j i
2.0
sin 4
2.0
R
A
2.5
=
2.5
ˆ
aa
cos5
π i +
2.5
sin 5
ˆˆ
π j =− 2.5 a i
ΔRR =
AA
2.5
− R
A
2.0
ˆ
=− 4.5 a i
Ans.
2.6 The position of a point is given by the equation
R =
100
e
j
2 π
t
.
What is the path of the
point? Determine the displacement of the point from t = 0.10 to t = 0.40.
The point moves in a circle of radius 100 with its center at the origin. Ans.
9
2.7
R
0.10
=
100
e
j 0.628
ˆ
=+i 80.902
58.779
ˆ
j
R
0.40
=
100
e
j 2.513
=−
80.902
ˆ
i +
58.779
ˆ
j
ΔRR =
0.40
− R
0.10
ˆ
=−161.803i = 161.803∠180°
Ans.
The equation
R =
t
2
+
4
e
j
− π
t
/10
defines the position of a point. In which direction is
the position vector rotating? Where is the point located when t = 0? What is the next
value t can have if the direction of the position vector is to be the same as it is when t =
0? What is the displacement from the first position of the point to the second?
Since the polar angle for the position vector is
θ =− j πt /10 , then dθ / dt is negative and therefore
the position vector is rotating clockwise.
R
0
=
0
2
+
4
e
−
j
0
= ∠°
40
Ans.
Ans.
The position vector will next have the same direction
when π t /10 = 2π , that is, when t=20.
R
20
=
20
2
+
4
e
−
j
2
π
=
404
∠°
0
ΔRR
=
_{(} 20 _{)} − R _{(} 0 _{)} = 400∠°
0
Ans.
Ans.
2.8 The location of a point is defined by the equation
R =
4
t
+
2
e
j
π
t
2 / 30
, where t is time in
seconds. Motion of the point is initiated when t = 0. What is the displacement during the
first 3 s? Find the change in angular orientation of the position vector during the same
time interval.
R
0
=
02
+
e
j
0
ˆ
= 20 ∠ °= 2 i
R
3
=
12
+
2
e
j
π 9 / 30
= ∠ °=
14
54
8.229
ˆ
i +
11.326
ˆ
j
ΔRR
=
3
− R
0
ˆ
= 6.229 i +
ˆ
11.326 j = 12.926∠°
61.2
Δθ = 54°− 0°= 54° ccw
Ans.
Ans.
10
2.9 Link 2 in the figure rotates according to the equation θ = πt / 4 . Block 3 slides outward
on link 2 according 
to the equation 

Δ R 
P 3 

R 
P 3 = re θ j (t 2 =+ 
2 
)e jt π /4 

ˆ 
ˆ 

R 
P 3 ( )1 = ∠ °= 3 45 
2.121 i + 2.121 
j 

P 3 (2 )= ∠ 6 90 
ˆ 

R 
°= 6 j 

ˆ 

ΔRR = PP 33 (2 )− R 
P 3 
( )1 =− 2.121 ˆ 
i + 

R 
j 0 (t 2 = re =+ 
2 )i 2 

P /2 3 

ˆ 

R 
P /2 3 ( )1 = 3 i 2 

P /2 3 (2 )= 6 ˆ i 2 

R 

ΔRR = /2 PP 33 /2 (2 
) 
R ()−= P 3 /2 13 
ˆ i 
2 
3.879
r = t
2
+ 2 .
What is the absolute displacement
?
3/2
from t = 1 to t = 2? What is the apparent displacement Δ R
P
ˆ 

j = 
∠ 4.421 118.7 
_{°} 
Ans. 
Ans. 
2.10 A wheel with center at O rolls without slipping so that its center is displaced 10 in to the right. What is the displacement of point P on the periphery during this interval?
θ ′
2
Since the wheel rolls without slipping,
ΔR = −Δθ R . O PO 

Δθ = −ΔR / R O PO 

= − 10 in / 6 in =− 1.667 rad 
=− 95.5 
° 

For R PO , 

θ ′ = θ +Δθ = 270°− 95.5°= 174.5° 

R ′ = ∠ 6 174.5 °=− ˆ 5.972 
ˆ 

i + 0.574 j in 

PO (ΔR =+ ΔRR P O PO ′ − R PO 
) 

ˆ ˆ 
ˆˆ 

= −++ 10 i 5.972 i 0.574 j 6 j 

Ans. 

3 while link 2 rotates from θ 
2 = 30° 
to 

ˆ 
ˆ 

R = 75 ∠ °= 30 64.95 
i + 
37.5 j 

Q 3 

′ 
ˆ 
ˆ 

R = ∠ °=− 75 120 
37.5 i + 
64.95 j 

Q 3 

′ 
ˆ 

ΔRRR = − 
=− 102.45 i + 
27.45 

33 Q 3 ˆ 

ΔRR = = i 150 

Q 5 /3 BA 

ΔR Q 5 = ΔR + ΔR QQ /3 35 

ˆ ˆ 

ΔR = Q 5 47.5 ij + 27.5 
= ∠° 55 30 
mm 
= 120° . Find the absolute displacement of Q.
ˆ
j
11
2.12 The linkage shown is driven by moving the sliding block 2. Write the loopclosure equation. Solve analytically for the position of sliding block 4. Check the result graphically for the position where _{φ} = −45° .
Taking the imaginary components of this, we get
R
A
sin15
°=− R
AB
sin
φ
R
A
=−
R
AB
sin
φ
sin
−
45
°
=−
200
sin15
°
sin15
°
=
546 mm
Ans.
2.13 The offset slidercrank mechanism is driven by rotating crank 2. Write the loopclosure equation. Solve for the position of the slider 4 as a function of
Taking real and imaginary parts,
RR
C
=
BA
cos
θ + R
2
CB
cos
θ
3
and
0
= RR +
A
BA
sin
and, solving simultaneously, we get
= sin
− 1
⎛ −
⎜
R
A
−
R
BA
sin
θ
2
⎝
R
CB
⎞
⎟
⎠
with
−90°< θ < 90°
3
R
C
= R
BA
cos
θ + R −+ RR θθ
2
CB
A
BA
sin
=
63cos
22
2
2
θ . 2 

R 
C 

θ + R 2 
R C = CB sin θ 3 

+ 1043.75 − 
= RR+
A
Re
A
j
π
/ 2
BA
R
BA
e
CB
θ
j
2
+ R
++
R
CB
e
3
θ
j
125sin
θ +
2
156.25cos
2
θ
2
Ans.
2.14 Write a calculator program to find the sum of any number of twodimensional vectors expressed in mixed rectangular or polar forms. The result should be obtainable in either form with the magnitude and angle of the polar form having only positive values. Because the variety of makes and models of calculators is vast and no standards exist for programming them, no standard solution is shown here.
12
2.15 Write a computer program to plot the coupler curve of any crankrocker or doublecrank form of the fourbar linkage. The program should accept four link lengths and either rectangular or polar coordinates of the coupler point relative to the coupler. Again the variety of programming languages makes it difficult to provide a standard solution. However, one version, written in FORTRAN IV, is supplied here as an example. There are no accepted standards for programming graphics. Therefore the Tektronix PLOT10 subroutine library, for display on Tektronix 4010 series displays, is chosen as an older but somewhat recognized alternative. The symbols in the program correspond to the notation shown in Figure 2.19 of the text. The required input data are:
R1, R2, R3, R4,
⎧ X5, Y5, 1
⎨
⎩
R5, θ5,
1
The program can be verified using the data of Example 2.7 and checking the results
against those of Table 2.3.
PROGRAM CCURVE
C 

C 
A FORTRAN IV PROGRAM TO PLOT THE COUPLER CURVE OF ANY CRANKROCKER 

C 
OR DOUBLECRANK FOURBAR LINKAGE, GIVEN ITS DIMESNIONS. 

C 
WRITTEN FOR A DEC 11/70 COMPUTER SYSTEM, USING SUBROUTINES FROM 

C 
TEKTRONIX PLOT10 FOR DISPLAY ON 4010 SERIES DISPLAYS. 

C 
REF:J.J.UICKER,JR, G.R.PENNOCK, & J.E.SHIGLEY, ‘THEORY OF MACHINES 

C 
AND MECHANISMS,’ THIRD EDITION, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2003. 

C 
EXAMPLE 2.6 

C 

C 
WRITTEN BY: JOHN J. UICKER, JR. 

C 
ON: 
01 JANUARY 1980 
C 

C 
READ IN THE DIMENSIONS OF THE LINKAGE. 

READ(5,1000)R1,R2,R3,R4,X5,Y5,IFORM 

1000 FORMAT(6F10.0,I2) 

C 

C 
FIND R5 AND ALPHA. 

IF(IFORM.LE.0)THEN 

R5=SQRT(X5*X5+Y5*Y5) 

ALPHA=ATAN2(Y5,X5) 

ELSE 

R5=X5 

ALPHA=Y5/57.29578 

END IF 

Y5=AMAX1(0.0,R5*SIN(ALPHA)) 

C 

C 
INITIALIZE FOR PLOTTING AT 120 CHARACTERS PER SECOND. CALL INITT(1200) 

C 

C 
SET THE WINDOW FOR THE PLOTTING AREA. CALL DWINDO(R2,R1+R2+R4,R4,R4+R4+Y5) 

C 

C 
CYCLE THROUGH ONE CRANK ROTATION IN FIVE DEGREE INCREMENTS. 
TH2=0.0
DTH2=5.0/57.29578
IPEN=1
DO 2 I=1,73
CTH2=COS(TH2)
STH2=SIN(TH2)
C
13
C 
CALCULATE THE TRANSMISSION ANGLE. 

CGAM=(R3*R3+R4*R4R1*R1R2*R2+2.0*R1*R2*CTH2)/(2.0*R3*R4) 

IF(ABS(CGAM).GT.0.99)THEN 

CALL MOVABS(100,100) CALL ANMODE 

WRITE(7,1001) 

1001 
FORMAT(//’ *** THE TRANSMISSION ANGLE IS TOO SMALL. ***’) GO TO 1 END IF 

SGAM=SQRT(1.0CGAM*CGAM) 

GAM=ATAN2(SGAM,CGAM) 

C 

C 
CALCULATE THETA 3. 

STH3=R2*STH2+R4*SIN(GAM) 

CTH3=R3+R1R2*CTH2R4*COS(GAM) 

TH3=2.0*ATAN2(STH3,CTH3) 

C 

C 
CALCULATE THE COUPLER POINT POSITION. 

TH6=TH3+ALPHA 

XP=R2*CTH2+R5*COS(TH6) 

YP=R2*STH2+R5*SIN(TH6) 

C 

C 
PLOT THIS SEGMENT OF THE COUPLER CURVE. 

IF(IPEN.LT.0)THEN 

IPEN=1 

CALL MOVEA(XP,YP) ELSE 

IPEN=1 

CALL DRAWA(XP,YP) END IF 

TH2=TH2+DTH2 



C 

C 
DRAW THE LINKAGE. CALL MOVEA(0.0,0.0) CALL DRAWA(R2,0.0) 
XC=R2+R3*COS(TH3)
YC=R3*SIN(TH3)
CALL DRAWA(XC,YC) CALL DRAWA(XP,YP) CALL DRAWA(R2,0.0) CALL MOVEA(XC,YC) CALL DRAWA(R1,0.0)
1 CALL FINITT(0,0) CALL EXIT STOP END
14
2.16 For each linkage shown in the figure, find the path of point P: (a) inverted slidercrank mechanism; (b) second inversion of the slidercrank mechanism; (c) straightline mechanism; (d) draglink mechanism.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
15
2.17 Using the offset slidercrank mechanism of Fig. 2.15, find the crank angles corresponding to the extreme values of the transmission angle.
As shown, γ = 90°− θ .
3
Also from the figure
+ er 2 sin θ 23 respect to θ , 2 

r 2 d 
cos θ = − 23 r γ = − r 2 cos 
sin θ 2 
γ 

d 
θ 2 
r sin 3 
γ 
. 
= r cos γ .
Differentiating with
d γ
d θ
2
;
Therefore, we conclude that
= ±
2 k + 1 π / 2 =±90°, ±270°, … Ans.
2.18 In Section 1.10 it is pointed out that the transmission angle reaches an extreme value for the fourbar linkage when the crank lies on the line between the fixed pivots. Referring to Fig. 2.19, this means that γ reaches a maximum or minimum when crank 2 is
16
2.19 The figure illustrates a crankandrocker linkage in the first of its two limit positions. In a limit position, points
O
2
, A, and B
lie on a straight line; that is, links 2 and 3 form a
straight line. The two limit positions of a crankrocker describe the extreme positions of
the rocking angle.
Suppose
that
such
a
linkage has
r
1
= 400 mm _{,}
= 500 mm , and
= 400 mm .
(a)
Find θ
2
and θ
4
corresponding to each limit position.
(b) What is the total rocking angle of link 4?
r
2
= 200 mm ,
(c) What are the transmission angles at the extremes?
(a)
From isosceles triangle
OOB
4
2
we
can calculate or measure θ
2
and
θ ′ 2 = 248° , θ ′ 4 4 
= 136° . θ ′ θ 44 

Finally, 
from 

2 

and 
r 4 
= 12 in . 
Find 

From 
O AO 
using 

4 2 cosines, we can find 

4 

2 
4 

occur at θ ′ 2 
= 56.5° , 

θ ′′ = −133.1° . 4 
= 29° ,
θ = 58°
4
Ans.
triangle
Ans.
(b) Then Δθ =−=°
78
.
(c) isosceles
OOB , γ = 29° and γ ′ = 68° .
4
2.20 A doublerocker mechanism has a deadcenter position and may also have a limit position (see Prob. 2.19). These positions occur when links 3 and 4 in the figure lie along a straight line. In the deadcenter position the transmission angle is 180° and the mechanism is locked. The designer must either avoid such positions or provide the external force, such as a spring, to unlock the linkage. Suppose, for the linkage shown in the figure, that
= 14 in ,
= 5.5 in ,
= 5 in ,
θ 2 and 
θ 4 O A . 2 

the law 
of 

θ = 114.0° , 2 

θ ′ 4 = 133.1° 

2 
corresponding to the deadcenter position. Is there a limit position?
For the given dimensions, there are
two deadcenter positions, and they
correspond to the two extreme
travel positions of crank
θ = 162.8° and, symmetrically,
θ ′′′ = −114.0° , θ ′′′ =−162.8° . There
are also two limit positions, these
and, symmetrically, at θ ′′ = −56.5° ,
Ans.
2.21
17
The figure shows a slidercrank mechanism that has an offset e and that is placed in one
of its limiting positions. By changing the offset e, it is possible to cause the angle that
crank 2 makes in traversing between the two limiting positions to vary in such a manner
that the driving or forward stroke of the slider takes place over a larger angle than the
angle used for the return stroke. Such a linkage is then called a quickreturn mechanism.
The problem here is to develop a formula for the crank angle traversed during the
forward stroke and also develop a similar formula for the angle traversed during the
return stroke. The ratio of these two angles would then constitute an time ratio of the
drive to return strokes. Also determine which direction the crank should rotate.
From the figure we can see that
1 
⎛ 

θ 2 = sin − 
⎜ ⎝ 

r 3 

Δ θ 
′ 

= 
− 

drive 
2 

Δ θθ return = 2 
+ 
θθ
e + 
r 2 
⎞ ⎟ ⎠ ^{,} θ 2 
′ = 180 

= 180 
°+ sin 

2 360 
θ ′ °− = 180 

2 
e = rr + sin θ =− 32 2 rr 32 ()()− 1 ⎛ e ⎞ 

°+ sin ⎜ ⎝ r 1 ⎛⎞ e 
3 − r 2 ⎟ ⎠ 1 ⎛⎞ e 

− 
− sin − 

⎜⎟ ^{⎝}^{⎠} rr − 32 °+ sin − 1 
⎜⎟ ^{⎝}^{⎠} + rr 32 ⎛⎞ e − sin − 1 
⎛⎞ e 

⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ + rr 32 
⎜⎟ ⎝⎠ rr − 32 
sin
θ ′
2
− 180°
or
Assuming driving when sliding to the right, the crank should rotate clockwise.
Ans.
Ans.
Ans.