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7

# Position and Displacement

• 2.1 Describe and sketch the locus of a point A which moves according to the equations x
y
cos
(
z
R
= at
2
πt ,
)
R
= at
sin
(
2
π t
)
,
R
=
0
.
A
A
A
• 2.2 Find the position difference from point P to point Q on the curve

2

= +− x 16 , where

yx x
x
R
=
2
and
R
=
4
.
P
Q
y
R
=
P
y
R
=
Q
R
QP
2.3

2

2

2

+ −

16

10

=− ;

R

P

ˆ

= 2 i

10

ˆ

j

4

### )

2

+− = ;

4

16

4

R

Q

ˆ

= i +

4

4

ˆ

j

ˆ

= RR− =+i 2

Q

P

14

ˆ

j =

14.142

81.9

°

Ans.

The

path

equation

of a moving point

is defined

by the

y = 2 x

2

28 .

Find

the

position

difference from point P to point Q if

R

x

P

=

4

and

R

x

Q

3

= − .

8 R

y

P

=

2

4

2

−= ;

28

4

R

P

ˆ

= 4 i +

4

ˆ

j

R

y

Q

=

2

3

### )

2

28

10

=− ;

ˆ

R =− i

Q

3

10

ˆ

j

ˆ

ˆ

R = RR− =− i j =

QP

Q

P

7

14

15.652

243.4

°

• 2.4 The path of a moving point P is defined by the equation

y = 60

x

3

/ 3 .

displacement of the point if its motion begins when

R

• x =

P

0

and ends when R

y

P

0

60

=−

0

3

/ 3

=

60

;

R

P

0

=

60

ˆ

j

ˆ

ˆ

R

y

P

3

60

=−

3

3

/ 3

=

51

;

R

P

3

= 3 i +

ΔRR =

PP

ˆ

ˆ

• 3 9.487

R

P

0

= 3 ij 9 =

### )

51

j

∠−

71.6

°

 Ans. What is the R x 3 ? P = Ans.
• 2.5 If point A moves on the locus of Problem 2.1, find its displacement from t = 2 to t =2.5.

R

A

2.0

=

2.0

ˆ

ˆˆ

aaa

cos 4

π i += π j i

2.0

sin 4

2.0

R

A

2.5

=

2.5

ˆ

aa

cos5

π i +

2.5

sin 5

ˆˆ

π j =− 2.5 a i

ΔRR =

AA

2.5

R

A

### ()

2.0

ˆ

=− 4.5 a i

Ans.

• 2.6 The position of a point is given by the equation

R =

100

e

j

2 π

t

.

What is the path of the

point? Determine the displacement of the point from t = 0.10 to t = 0.40.

The point moves in a circle of radius 100 with its center at the origin. Ans.

9

2.7

R

0.10

=

100

e

j 0.628

ˆ

=+i 80.902

58.779

ˆ

j

R

0.40

=

100

e

j 2.513

=−

80.902

ˆ

i +

58.779

ˆ

j

ΔRR =

0.40

R

0.10

### )

ˆ

=−161.803i = 161.803180°

Ans.

The equation

R =

t

2

+

4

## )

e

j

− π

t

/10

defines the position of a point. In which direction is

the position vector rotating? Where is the point located when t = 0? What is the next

value t can have if the direction of the position vector is to be the same as it is when t =

0? What is the displacement from the first position of the point to the second? Since the polar angle for the position vector is

θ =− j πt /10 , then dθ / dt is negative and therefore

the position vector is rotating clockwise.

R

0

=

0

2

+

4

## )

e

j

0

= ∠°

40

Ans.

Ans.

The position vector will next have the same direction

when π t /10 = 2π , that is, when t=20.

R

20

=

20

2

+

4

## )

e

j

2

π

=

404

∠°

0

ΔRR

=

( 20 ) R ( 0 ) = 400∠°

0

Ans.

Ans.

• 2.8 The location of a point is defined by the equation

R =

4

t

+

2

### )

e

j

π

t

• 2 / 30

, where t is time in

seconds. Motion of the point is initiated when t = 0. What is the displacement during the

first 3 s? Find the change in angular orientation of the position vector during the same

time interval. R

0

=

02

+

e

j

0

ˆ

= 20 ∠ °= 2 i

R

3

=

12

+

2

e

j

π 9 / 30

= ∠ °=

14

54

8.229

ˆ

i +

11.326

ˆ

j

ΔRR

=

3

R

0

### )

ˆ

= 6.229 i +

ˆ

11.326 j = 12.926∠°

61.2

Δθ = 54°− 0°= 54° ccw

Ans.

Ans.

10

• 2.9 Link 2 in the figure rotates according to the equation θ = πt / 4 . Block 3 slides outward

on link 2 according

to the equation

Δ R

P

3

R

P

3

=

re

θ

j

t

2

=+

2

e

jt

π

/4

ˆ

ˆ

R

P

3

1

= ∠ °=

3

45

2.121

i +

2.121

j

P

3

2

= ∠

6

90

ˆ

R

°= 6 j

ˆ

ΔRR =

PP

33

2

R

P

3

1

=−

2.121

ˆ

i +

R

j 0

t

2

= re =+

2

## )

i

2

P /2

3

ˆ

R

P /2

3

1

=

3

i

2

P /2

3

2

=

6

ˆ

i

2

R

ΔRR =

/2

PP

33

/2

2

R

### ()

−=

P

3

/2

13

ˆ

i

2

3.879

r = t

2

+ 2 .

What is the absolute displacement

?

3/2

from t = 1 to t = 2? What is the apparent displacement Δ R

P

 ˆ j = ∠ 4.421 118.7 ° Ans. Ans.
• 2.10 A wheel with center at O rolls without slipping so that its center is displaced 10 in to the right. What is the displacement of point P on the periphery during this interval? ˆ
ˆ
ΔR =
4.028
ij
+
6.574
=
7.710
∠°
58.5
in
P
2.11
A
point
Q moves
from A
to
B along
link

θ

2

Since the wheel rolls without slipping,

ΔR = −Δθ R .

O

PO

Δθ = −ΔR / R

O

PO

= −

10 in / 6 in

=−

1.667 rad

=−

95.5

°

For

R

PO

,

θ ′ = θ θ = 270°− 95.5°= 174.5°

R

= ∠

6

174.5

°=−

ˆ

5.972

ˆ

i +

0.574

j

in

PO

ΔR =+ ΔRR

P

O

PO

R

PO

# )

ˆ

ˆ

ˆˆ

= −++

10

i

5.972

i

0.574

j

6

j

Ans.

3 while

link 2 rotates from

θ

2

= 30°

to

ˆ

ˆ

R

=

75

∠ °=

30

64.95

i +

37.5

j

Q

3

ˆ

ˆ

R

= ∠ °=−

75

120

37.5

i +

64.95

j

Q

3

ˆ

ΔRRR = −

=−

102.45

i +

27.45

QQ

33

Q

3

ˆ

ΔRR = = i

150

Q

5

/3

BA

ΔR

Q

5

=

ΔR + ΔR

QQ /3

35

ˆ

ˆ

ΔR =

Q

5

47.5

ij

+

27.5

= ∠°

55

30

mm

= 120° . Find the absolute displacement of Q. ˆ

j

11

• 2.12 The linkage shown is driven by moving the sliding block 2. Write the loop-closure equation. Solve analytically for the position of sliding block 4. Check the result graphically for the position where φ = −45° . The loop-closure
equation is
RRR
=
+
.
A
B
AB
j
π
/12
j (
π φ
+
)
Re
=
R
+
R
e
A
B
AB
j
φ
=
R
Re
B
AB

Taking the imaginary components of this, we get

R

A

sin15

°=− R

AB

sin

φ

R

A

=−

R

AB

sin

φ

sin

45

°

=−

200

sin15

°

sin15

°

=

546 mm

Ans.

• 2.13 The offset slider-crank mechanism is driven by rotating crank 2. Write the loop-closure equation. Solve for the position of the slider 4 as a function of Taking real and imaginary parts,

RR

C

=

BA

cos

θ + R

2

CB

cos

θ

3

and

0

= RR +

A

BA

sin

and, solving simultaneously, we get θ
3

= sin

1

⎛ −

R

A

R

BA

sin

θ

2

R

CB

with

90°< θ < 90°

3

R

C

= R

BA

cos

θ + R −+ RR θθ

2

CB

A

BA

sin

=

63cos

22

2

### )

2

 θ . 2 R C θ + R 2 R C = CB sin θ 3 + 1043.75 −

= RR+

A

Re

A

j

π

/ 2

BA

R

BA

e

CB

θ

j

2

+ R

++

R

CB

e

3

θ

j

125sin

θ +

2

156.25cos

2

θ

2

Ans.

• 2.14 Write a calculator program to find the sum of any number of two-dimensional vectors expressed in mixed rectangular or polar forms. The result should be obtainable in either form with the magnitude and angle of the polar form having only positive values. Because the variety of makes and models of calculators is vast and no standards exist for programming them, no standard solution is shown here.

12

• 2.15 Write a computer program to plot the coupler curve of any crank-rocker or double-crank form of the four-bar linkage. The program should accept four link lengths and either rectangular or polar coordinates of the coupler point relative to the coupler. Again the variety of programming languages makes it difficult to provide a standard solution. However, one version, written in FORTRAN IV, is supplied here as an example. There are no accepted standards for programming graphics. Therefore the Tektronix PLOT-10 subroutine library, for display on Tektronix 4010 series displays, is chosen as an older but somewhat recognized alternative. The symbols in the program correspond to the notation shown in Figure 2.19 of the text. The required input data are:

R1, R2, R3, R4,

X5, Y5, -1

R5, θ5,

1

The program can be verified using the data of Example 2.7 and checking the results

against those of Table 2.3.

PROGRAM CCURVE

 C C A FORTRAN IV PROGRAM TO PLOT THE COUPLER CURVE OF ANY CRANK-ROCKER C OR DOUBLE-CRANK FOUR-BAR LINKAGE, GIVEN ITS DIMESNIONS. C WRITTEN FOR A DEC 11/70 COMPUTER SYSTEM, USING SUBROUTINES FROM C TEKTRONIX PLOT-10 FOR DISPLAY ON 4010 SERIES DISPLAYS. C REF:J.J.UICKER,JR, G.R.PENNOCK, & J.E.SHIGLEY, ‘THEORY OF MACHINES C AND MECHANISMS,’ THIRD EDITION, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2003. C EXAMPLE 2.6 C C WRITTEN BY: JOHN J. UICKER, JR. C ON: 01 JANUARY 1980 C C READ IN THE DIMENSIONS OF THE LINKAGE. READ(5,1000)R1,R2,R3,R4,X5,Y5,IFORM 1000 FORMAT(6F10.0,I2) C C FIND R5 AND ALPHA. IF(IFORM.LE.0)THEN R5=SQRT(X5*X5+Y5*Y5) ALPHA=ATAN2(Y5,X5) ELSE R5=X5 ALPHA=Y5/57.29578 END IF Y5=AMAX1(0.0,R5*SIN(ALPHA)) C C INITIALIZE FOR PLOTTING AT 120 CHARACTERS PER SECOND. CALL INITT(1200) C C SET THE WINDOW FOR THE PLOTTING AREA. CALL DWINDO(-R2,R1+R2+R4,-R4,R4+R4+Y5) C C CYCLE THROUGH ONE CRANK ROTATION IN FIVE DEGREE INCREMENTS.

TH2=0.0

DTH2=5.0/57.29578

IPEN=-1

DO 2 I=1,73

CTH2=COS(TH2)

STH2=SIN(TH2)

13

 C CALCULATE THE TRANSMISSION ANGLE. CGAM=(R3*R3+R4*R4-R1*R1-R2*R2+2.0*R1*R2*CTH2)/(2.0*R3*R4) IF(ABS(CGAM).GT.0.99)THEN CALL MOVABS(100,100) CALL ANMODE WRITE(7,1001) 1001 FORMAT(//’ *** THE TRANSMISSION ANGLE IS TOO SMALL. ***’) GO TO 1 END IF SGAM=SQRT(1.0-CGAM*CGAM) GAM=ATAN2(SGAM,CGAM) C C CALCULATE THETA 3. STH3=-R2*STH2+R4*SIN(GAM) CTH3=R3+R1-R2*CTH2-R4*COS(GAM) TH3=2.0*ATAN2(STH3,CTH3) C C CALCULATE THE COUPLER POINT POSITION. TH6=TH3+ALPHA XP=R2*CTH2+R5*COS(TH6) YP=R2*STH2+R5*SIN(TH6) C C PLOT THIS SEGMENT OF THE COUPLER CURVE. IF(IPEN.LT.0)THEN IPEN=1 CALL MOVEA(XP,YP) ELSE IPEN=-1 CALL DRAWA(XP,YP) END IF TH2=TH2+DTH2 2 CONTINUE C C DRAW THE LINKAGE. CALL MOVEA(0.0,0.0) CALL DRAWA(R2,0.0)

XC=R2+R3*COS(TH3)

YC=R3*SIN(TH3)

CALL DRAWA(XC,YC) CALL DRAWA(XP,YP) CALL DRAWA(R2,0.0) CALL MOVEA(XC,YC) CALL DRAWA(R1,0.0)

• 1 CALL FINITT(0,0) CALL EXIT STOP END

14

• 2.16 For each linkage shown in the figure, find the path of point P: (a) inverted slider-crank mechanism; (b) second inversion of the slider-crank mechanism; (c) straight-line mechanism; (d) drag-link mechanism.  (a)

(b) (c) (d)

15

• 2.17 Using the offset slider-crank mechanism of Fig. 2.15, find the crank angles corresponding to the extreme values of the transmission angle. Now, setting
d γ / dθ
= 0 , we get cos θ
= 0 .
2
2

As shown, γ = 90°− θ .

3

Also from the figure

 + er 2 sin θ 23 respect to θ , 2 r 2 d cos θ = − 23 r γ = − r 2 cos sin θ 2 γ d θ 2 r sin 3 γ .

= r cos γ .

Differentiating with

• d γ

• d θ

2

;

Therefore, we conclude that θ
2

= ±

### )

2 k + 1 π / 2 90°, ±270°, Ans.

• 2.18 In Section 1.10 it is pointed out that the transmission angle reaches an extreme value for the four-bar linkage when the crank lies on the line between the fixed pivots. Referring to Fig. 2.19, this means that γ reaches a maximum or minimum when crank 2 is coincident with the line
O O . Show, analytically, that this statement is true.
2
4
From ΔOOA :
4
2
2
22
s =+−
r
r
2 rr cos θ
.
1
2
12
2
Also, from ΔABO :
4
2
22
s =+−
r
r
2 rr cos γ .
3
4
34
Equating these we differentiate
with respect to θ
to obtain
2
d
γ
2
rr
sin
θ
=
2
rr
sin
γ
or
12
2
34
d
θ
2
d
γ
r r
sin
θ
12
2
=
.
d
θ
rr
sin
γ
2
34
d
γ
Now, for
=
0
, we have
sin θ
= 0 .
Thus,
θ = 0, ± 180°±
,
360°, …
Q.E.D.
2
2
d
θ
2

16

• 2.19 The figure illustrates a crank-and-rocker linkage in the first of its two limit positions. In a limit position, points

O

2

, A, and B

lie on a straight line; that is, links 2 and 3 form a

straight line. The two limit positions of a crank-rocker describe the extreme positions of

the rocking angle.

Suppose

that

such

a

linkage has

r

1

= 400 mm , r
3

= 500 mm , and r
4

= 400 mm .

(a)

Find θ

2

and θ

4

corresponding to each limit position.

• (b) What is the total rocking angle of link 4?

r

2

= 200 mm ,

• (c) What are the transmission angles at the extremes? (a)

From isosceles triangle

OOB

4

2

we

can calculate or measure θ

2

and

 θ ′ 2 = 248° , θ ′ 4 4 = 136° . θ ′ θ 44 Finally, from 2 and r 4 = 12 in . Find From O AO using 4 2 cosines, we can find 4 2 4 occur at θ ′ 2 = 56.5° , θ ′′ = −133.1° . 4

= 29° ,

θ = 58°

4

Ans.

triangle

Ans.

• (b) Then Δθ =−=°

78

.

• (c) isosceles

OOB , γ = 29° and γ ′ = 68° .

4

• 2.20 A double-rocker mechanism has a dead-center position and may also have a limit position (see Prob. 2.19). These positions occur when links 3 and 4 in the figure lie along a straight line. In the dead-center position the transmission angle is 180° and the mechanism is locked. The designer must either avoid such positions or provide the external force, such as a spring, to unlock the linkage. Suppose, for the linkage shown in the figure, that r
1

= 14 in , r
2

= 5.5 in , r
3

= 5 in ,

 θ 2 and θ 4 O A . 2 the law of θ = 114.0° , 2 θ ′ 4 = 133.1° 2

corresponding to the dead-center position. Is there a limit position? For the given dimensions, there are

two dead-center positions, and they

correspond to the two extreme

travel positions of crank

θ = 162.8° and, symmetrically,

θ ′′′ = −114.0° , θ ′′′ =−162.8° . There

are also two limit positions, these

and, symmetrically, at θ ′′ = −56.5° ,

Ans.

2.21

17

The figure shows a slider-crank mechanism that has an offset e and that is placed in one

of its limiting positions. By changing the offset e, it is possible to cause the angle that

crank 2 makes in traversing between the two limiting positions to vary in such a manner

that the driving or forward stroke of the slider takes place over a larger angle than the

angle used for the return stroke. Such a linkage is then called a quick-return mechanism.

The problem here is to develop a formula for the crank angle traversed during the

forward stroke and also develop a similar formula for the angle traversed during the

return stroke. The ratio of these two angles would then constitute an time ratio of the

drive to return strokes. Also determine which direction the crank should rotate. From the figure we can see that

 1 ⎛ θ 2 = sin − ⎜ ⎝ r 3 Δ θ ′ = − drive 2 Δ θθ return = 2 +

θθ

 e + r 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ , θ 2 ′ = 180 = 180 °+ sin 2 360 θ ′ °− = 180 2

e = rr + sin θ =−

32

2

rr

32

1

e

°+

sin

r

1

⎛⎞

e

3

r

2

1

⎛⎞

e

sin

⎜⎟

rr

32

°+

sin

1

⎜⎟

+

rr

32

⎛⎞

e

sin

1

⎛⎞

e

⎜⎟

⎝⎠

+

rr

32

⎜⎟

⎝⎠

rr

32

sin

θ

2

180°

### )

or

Assuming driving when sliding to the right, the crank should rotate clockwise.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.