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S. CeL a feel for Lhe slLe dralnage by cllcklng on varlous areas LhroughouL Lhe slLe.

1here ls no wrong place Lo


cllck, as long as you are lnslde Lhe surface boundary.
An x represenLs Lhe place your cursor cllcked. 1he place you cllck ls a locaLlon on Lhe surface where waLer hlLs
Lhe surface. ?ou wlll see llnes formlng ln Lhe dlrecLlon waLer flows from Lhe area. lf you see an x buL no paLh, lL
could mean you are ln a flaL area or lnslde a small depresslon. AfLer you cllck ln several locaLlons, your drawlng
wlll resemble
llgure 14-2
.
I|gure 14-2:
Surface wlLh waLer drop paLhs
6. Cllck around as many places as you would llke Lo examlne. ress Lsc when you flnlsh.
1he waLer drop paLhs LhaL are creaLed are polyllnes wlLhouL any speclal lnLelllgence. 1he nexL sLep demonsLraLes
how Lo remove Lhem lf your surface model changes or you need Lo clear Lhem from Lhe screen.
7. (CpLlonal) SelecL one of Lhe x symbols and Lhe waLer drop paLh. 8e sure your surface ls noL selecLed. 8lghL-
cllck and choose SelecL Slmllar. All of Lhe flow paLhs and correspondlng xs wlll be hlghllghLed. 8emove Lhem by
presslng ueleLe on your keyboard.
Catchments
1he flrsL sLep ln any runoff compuLaLlon ls flndlng Lhe area of Lhe waLersheds (also known as dralnage baslns or
caLchmenLs) LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe flow.
A new ob[ecL Lype has been added Lo Clvll 3u 2012: cotcbmeots. CaLchmenLs work wlLh your surface models Lo
deLermlne Lhe area dralnlng Lo a polnL you speclfy. 1hey are also used Lo flnd Lhe dralnage paLh wlLhln Lhe
caLchmenL Lo compuLe Llme of concenLraLlon (1c).
cotchment 6roups
?ou musL creaLe a caLchmenL group before creaLlng caLchmenLs. CaLchmenL groups are a way Lo separaLe
predevelopmenL and posLdevelopmenL waLershed areas. Slmllar Lo slLes, a caLchmenL ln one caLchmenL group wlll
noL lnLerfere wlLh ob[ecLs ln anoLher caLchmenL group. CaLchmenL groups do noL lnLeracL wlLh each oLher,
allowlng caLchmenLs from dlfferlng groups Lo overlay each oLher.
cotchment creotion
ln llgure 14-3 you see a caLchmenL wlLh all lLs relaLed feaLures. ?ou wlll need a grasp of Lhe Lermlnology used ln
Lhe sofLware before proceedlng. lL ls useful Lo Lhlnk abouL a hypoLheLlcal ralndrop hlLLlng Lhe caLchmenL Lo grasp
whaL Lhe varlous componenLs represenL.
I|gure 14-3: A caLchmenL wlLh several flow paLh segmenLs
Catchment 8oundary 1he ouLllne represenLs Lhe caLchmenL boundary, ofLen called Lhe basln dlvlde or
waLershed boundary. 1hls represenLs Lhe ouLermosL polnLs of Lhe caLchmenL ob[ecL. Any ralndrops LhaL hlL
lnslde Lhls boundary wlll flow Lo Lhe same polnL.
D|scharge o|nt 1oward Lhe boLLom of Lhe boundary ln llgure 14-3 ls Lhe dlscharge polnL. 1hls ls Lhe maln
polnL of analysls used for Lhe caLchmenL. All ralndrops LhaL hlL Lhe basln ulLlmaLely end up aL Lhls locaLlon.
nydrau||ca||y Most D|stant o|nt near Lhe Lop of Lhe caLchmenL boundary ln llgure 14-3 ls a marker
lndlcaLlng Lhe hydraullcally mosL dlsLanL polnL. A ralndrop LhaL lands aL Lhls polnL wlll Lake Lhe longesL Lo arrlve
aL Lhe dlscharge polnL.
Catchment I|ow ath ln llgure 14-3, Lhe caLchmenL flow paLh ls shown as a dashed llne runnlng Lhrough Lhe
caLchmenL. 1hls llnear paLh represenLs Lhe course Lhe ralndrop Lakes on lLs [ourney from Lhe hydraullcally mosL
dlsLanL polnL Lo Lhe dlscharge polnL. 1he caLchmenL flow paLh ls used Lo deLermlne Lhe slope and lengLh for
compuLlng 1c for hydrology calculaLlons.
I|ow ath Segments 8y defaulL, a flow paLh ls creaLed wlLh an average slope Lhrough lLs overall lengLh. uslng
flow paLh segmenLs, you can break up Lhe flow paLh lnLo smaller pleces wlLh Lhe average slope compuLed per
segmenL. Lach segmenL can have dlfferenL compuLaLlon meLhods assoclaLed wlLh Lhem for 1c compuLaLlons.
1he compuLaLlon meLhods are as follows:
SCS Shallow ConcenLraLed llow
SCS SheeL llow
SCS Channel llow
1|me of Concentrat|on 1lme of concenLraLlon ls Lhe Llme lL Lakes for a drop of raln Lo Lravel from Lhe
hydraullcally mosL dlsLanL polnL Lo Lhe dlscharge polnL. 1he defaulL meLhod for deLermlnlng Lhls value ls 18-33.
Clvll 3u uses Lhe flow Lype, slope, and user-speclfled Mannlng's roughness Lo deLermlne Lhe Llme. AlLernaLely,
you can lnpuL a user-deflned Llme of concenLraLlon.
SCS, What? 1k, Who?
18-33 ls shorL for a Lechnlcal documenL puL ouL ln 1986 by a branch of Lhe uS ueparLmenL of AgrlculLure. 1he agency prlor Lo 1996 was
called SCS (Soll ConservaLlon Servlce), buL ls now known as n8CS (naLlonal 8esources ConservaLlon Servlce). 1echnlcal 8elease 33 urban
Pydrology for Small WaLersheds" ls Lhe semlnal work behlnd hydrology compuLaLlons ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes.
1hls documenL, whlch has been added Lo Lhe chapLer daLaseL (whlch you can download from Lhls book's webpage) for your reference,
descrlbes Lhe procedures needed for deLermlnlng Lhe curve number (a.k.a. runoff coefflclenL), when Lo apply Lhe dlfferenL flow Lypes, and
how Lo compuLe 1c for each flow Lype.
Clvll 3u lncorporaLes Lhe 1c compuLaLlon dlrecLly ln Lhe caLchmenL ob[ecL. Powever, 18-33 does have some llmlLaLlons LhaL you need Lo
keep an eye ouL for ln Clvll 3u:
Mlnlmum Llme of concenLraLlon = 0.1 hour (6 mlnuLes).
lf you're uslng sheeL flow, lL should be your flrsL flow segmenL and should noL exceed 300' . Some newer llLeraLure says sheeL flow
should noL exceed 200'. Check wlLh your local regulaLlng auLhorlLy for speclflc requlremenLs. 1yplcally, sheeL flow morphs lnLo
shallow concenLraLed flow before 200'.
Lach Clvll 3u caLchmenL supporLs one enLry for curve number. Powever, Lhe curve number ls noL used for deLermlnlng Lhe Llme of
concenLraLlon. lf you have nonhomogeneous land and/or soll Lypes, leave Lhe defaulL, buL be sure Lo compuLe Lhe composlLe curve
number ln Lhe SSA porLlon of Lhe sofLware.
lf you need Lo use a meLhod oLher Lhan 18-33 for 1c, you can speclfy user-ueflned and leave Lhe enLry blank unLll you exporL Lo Lhe
SSA porLlon of Lhe producL.
llnally, keep ln mlnd LhaL Clvll 3u caLchmenLs are noL dynamlc Lo Lhe surface model. lf Lhe surface model changes, you wlll need Lo re-
creaLe your caLchmenL.
cotchment Options
?ou can choose Lo creaLe a caLchmenL from a surface model or by converLlng a closed polyllne. ?ou wlll geL Lhe
besL resulLs when deflnlng your caLchmenL by converLlng a polyllne Lo a caLchmenL area. Manually dellneaLe your
waLershed areas uslng Lhe WaLer urop command you used ln Lhe prevlous secLlon as a gulde.
Create Catchment Irom Cb[ect ln mosL cases, Lhls wlll be Lhe meLhod you should use for waLershed creaLlon.
use CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Cb[ecL lf you have waLershed daLa creaLed ahead of Llme (l.e., from an lmporLed
ClS flle or exlsLlng uWC). ?ou wlll also need Lo use Lhe CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Cb[ecL opLlon for waLersheds
LhaL are ad[acenL Lo your pro[ecL's llmlLs of dlsLurbance. Lven lf you choose Lo use an exlsLlng polyllne as Lhe
caLchmenL boundary, you can sLlll use Lhe surface model Lo deLermlne Lhe flow paLh locaLlon and slope.
Create Cb[ect Irom Surface use Lhe CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Surface opLlon lf you have a well-formed surface
model wlLh adequaLe daLa for Clvll 3u Lo compuLe Lhe waLershed area. Surface models wlLh many flaL areas,
sparse daLa, or mulLlple hlde boundarles wlll noL work well for Lhls Lool. lf you do noL have good luck wlLh Lhls
Lool, don'L be surprlsed. Make sure Lhe surface model used for caLchmenL creaLlon ls compleLe before deflnlng
a caLchmenL ob[ecL. 1he caLchmenL ls noL dynamlcally llnked Lo Lhe surface model, Lherefore, lL wlll noL updaLe
lf changes are made Lo Lhe surface model. lf you are uslng Lhe hydrology Lool on an exlsLlng ground surface
(predevelopmenL), make sure all surveyed shoLs and breakllnes are added before proceedlng. lf you are uslng
Lhe Lools on a proposed slLe (posLdevelopmenL), make sure corrldor surface models, gradlng surface models,
and any proposed elevaLlon daLa are pasLed LogeLher ln Lhe surface model used for analysls.
ln Lhe followlng exerclse, you wlll use mulLlple Lools Lo dellneaLe several waLershed areas for a predeveloped
slLe. ?ou wlll also use Lhe slLe characLerlsLlcs Lo speclfy Mannlng's roughness for SCS SheeL flow and SCS Channel
flow. 1he slLe ls covered ln a dense grass.
1. Cpen Lhe Catchment-1.dwg flle, whlch you can download from Lhls book's web page.
2. lor Lhls exerclse you wlll flnd lL helpful Lo Lurn on Lhe lnserL ob[ecL snap.
3. Cn Lhe Analyze Lab, locaLe Lhe Cround uaLa panel. Choose CaLchmenLs r CreaLe CaLchmenL Croup, as shown
ln llgure 14-4. name Lhe group re-deve|oped. Cllck Ck.
I|gure 14-4:
Accesslng caLchmenL Lools from Lhe Analyze Lab
4. Cn Lhe Analyze Lab, locaLe Lhe Cround uaLa panel. Choose CaLchmenLs r CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Surface.
S. When you see Lhe prompL Specify the Discharge Point:, selecL Lhe lnserLlon polnL of Lhe sLorm sLrucLure
labeled LxlsLlng lnleL (S).
6. When Lhe CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Surface dlalog appears:
name Lhe caLchmenL South.
SeL Lhe surface Lo uralnage CL-Survey.
Cllck Lhe selecL sLrucLure lcon Lo seL Lhe 8eference lpe neLwork sLrucLure Lo LxlsLlng lnleL (S).
AlLernaLely, you can rlghL-cllck Lo plck sLrucLures from a llsL.
SeL CaLchmenL Label SLyle Lo name Area And roperLles.
SeL 8unoff CoefflclenL Lo 0.4. (1hls ls Lhe runoff coefflclenL used ln Lhe 8aLlonal meLhod and wlll noL
affecL our 1c value.)
lf your dlalog looks llke
llgure 14-3
, cllck Ck.
I|gure 14-S:
CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Surface seLLlngs
7. AfLer a momenL, a red llne represenLlng Lhe caLchmenL boundary wlll form. ress Lsc on your keyboard Lo
dlsmlss Lhe command.
8. Cn Lhe Analyze Lab, locaLe Lhe Cround uaLa panel. Choose CaLchmenLs r CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Cb[ecL.
9. SelecL Lhe closed polyllne norLh of Lhe flrsL caLchmenL. AL Lhe prompL Select a polyline on the uphill end to
use as a flow path (or Press Esc to skip):, cllck Lhe easLern end of Lhe blue, dashed polyllne LhaL runs across
Lhe caLchmenL.
10. ln Lhe CreaLe CaLchmenL lrom Cb[ecL dlalog LhaL appears:
name Lhe caLchmenL North.
Cllck Lhe selecL sLrucLure lcon Lo seL Lhe 8eference lpe neLwork sLrucLure Lo LxlsLlng lnleL (n).
SeL CaLchmenL Label SLyle Lo name Area And roperLles.
SeL 8unoff CoefflclenL Lo 0.4.
uncheck Lrase LxlsLlng LnLlLles. ?our dlalog wlll now look
llke llgure 14-6a
.
SwlLch Lo Lhe llow aLh Lab.