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Global warming Definition: Rapid increase in Earths average surface temperature due to the greenhouse gases that are

released by burning fossil fuels is called Global warming. The infrared rays absorbing gases are called green house gases. Ex: C oxide and o%one. Green house effect ne of the ma&or causes of global warming is green house effect. Earth absorbs most of the heat radiated by the sun and reflects bac' the remaining part. Greenhouse gases such as water vapor" carbon dioxide" methane and o%one trap the reflected heat. Thus prevented from escaping" the reflected heat adds to the warmth of surface air. This absorption and radiation of heat by the atmosphere(the natural greenhouse effect(is beneficial for life on Earth. )f there were no greenhouse effect" the Earths average surface temperature would be a very chilly *+,-C ./-#0 instead of the comfortable +1-C .12-#0 that it is today. 3ut" today humans have been artificially raising the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at an ever*increasing rate" mostly by burning fossil fuels" but also from cutting down carbon*absorbing forests. 3y increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases" we are ma'ing Earths atmosphere a more efficient green house and warming Earth. Causes of global warming Carbon dioxide It is produced by burning fossil fuels for various purposes li'e 3urning coal for electricity generation" 3uring gasoline and petrol for transport Carbon 4ioxide from 5utomobiles: 5pproximately +67 of the carbon dioxide emissions released into the environment comes from the burning of gasoline in internal*combustion engines of automobiles" buses" motorcycles" 89:;s"< recreational vehicles" truc's and of course" motor sports. Carbon 4ioxide from 5irplanes: The :nited $ation=s )ntergovernmental >anel on Climate Change estimates that aviation currently is responsible for &ust under 1? of
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methane" C#C" $itrous

global warming and that the figure could very well rise to approximate +1? by the year !/1/.

Methane: C ! is not the only 8Greenhouse Gas< that the planet is contending. @hile carbon dioxide may be primary greenhouse gas" methane actually is !/ times more effective as C ! at trapping heat in the Earths atmosphere. Emissions of methane released into the atmosphere have risen +A1? in the last +// years. Bethane is created when bacteria brea' down organic matter under oxygen*starved conditions. This occurs when organic matter is trapped underwater" as in rice paddies. Bethane is also produced from herbivorous animals such as cows" sheep" and goats. Bethane gas is also released during the processing and preparation of fossil fuels.

Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons" commonly 'nown as C#Cs" are a group of man*made compounds containing chlorine" fluorine and carbon. C#Cs used for the purpose of refrigeration. 9ince then they have been extensively utili%ed as propellants in aerosols" as blowing agents in foam manufacture and in air conditioning. There are no removal processes or sin's for C#Cs in the lowest part of the atmosphere called the troposphere. 5s a result they are transported up into the stratosphere" between +/ to 1/ 'm above the Earth=s surface" where they are bro'en down by ultraviolet .:;0 radiation from the 9un" releasing free chlorine atoms which cause significant o%one depletion. Nitrous Oxide: $itrous oxide .$! 0 is a colorless" non*flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor. Bost commonly 'nown as 8laughing gas< and used as a medical anesthetic" nitrous oxide is naturally produced by oceans and rainforests. $itrous oxide is naturally bro'en down in the atmosphere through chemical reactions that occur with sunlight. 9ome of the most prevalent 8man*made< sources of nitrous oxide are agricultural fertili%ers" nitric acid" along with the burning of organic matter. Deforestation

The use of forests for fuel is one of the causes for deforestation. This deforestation results in carbon accumulation and overloads the atmosphere.

Effects of Global warming +. 9ea levels are expected to rise between C and !7 inches .+, and 12 centimeters0 by the end of the century" and continued melting at the poles could add between A and , inches .+/ to !/ centimeters0. !. Belting of ice in the ice dominated areas of earth such as @est 5ntarctica and Greenland" and 5rctic sea ice can be seen. These include the melting of mountain glaciers and ice sheets covering. 7. Durricanes and other abnormal storms" drought and floods and can be of immediate threat to life. A. 5dverse impact of climate stress on agriculture worldwide may add 7// million victims of malnutrition to the existing number 1. @arm temperatures will aggravate air and water pollution and pose health ha%ards E. 9pecies that depend on one another may become out of sync. #or example" plants could bloom earlier than their pollinating insects become active. C. #loods and droughts will become more common. ,. 9ome diseases will spread such as malaria carried by mosFuitoes due to increased temperature. 2. Ecosystems will change(some species will move farther north or become more successfulG others wont be able to move and could become extinct. +/. 9ome researchers predict algal blooms could occur more often*especially in polluted sea waters*and cause infectious diseases li'e cholera ++. )n brief * global warming can soon become a ris' factor for heat stro'es" cardiovascular and respiratory problems. >eople with an ailing heart are especially vulnerable because the cardiovascular system has to wor' harder to cool the body in very hot weather.

+!. Digh air temperatures increase the o%one concentration at ground level. $atural o%one layer in the upper atmosphere protects the earth from the suns harmful ultraviolet radiationG but at ground level o%one becomes a harmful pollutant that damages lung tissue and aggravates asthma and other breathing diseases. Even in healthy individuals exposure to modest levels of o%one can cause nausea" chest pain and pulmonary congestion. re!enti!e measures 3urn less fossil fuel by going in for fuel*efficient small cars" or even better" using public transport Reduce energy consumption by switching off appliances when not needed :se energy*efficient light bulbs li'e fluorescent light bulb and heating devices Binimi%e the use of timber*based products such as paper" and fossil*based products such as plastic Recycle paper and plastic products >lanting a tree outside every house :se alternative energy sources li'e solar" wind energy.