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# Ref. No.

Ex/PG/SWE/T/115A/175/2013

Department of InforEjlation technology M.E. Software Engineering '3"Semester Examination 2013 Subject: Network Technologies Time: 3 Hours (Answer must be brief and to the points) Answer any five questions
1. a. (8+5+ 3+4) Explain how the telephone network might modify the way calls are handled to provide the following services: i. Call waiting: a special sound is heard when the called party is on the line and another user is trying to reach the called party. ii. Call anSwer: if the called party is busy or after the phone rings a prescribed number of times, the network gives the caller the option of leaving a voice message. Discuss the similarities between the following communication network. i. Railroad Network ii. Highway System nation transportation network and a Full Marks: 100

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Protocol Independence is an important issue. Why? Find out where this important issue is ignored in the Internet. Suppos~ shared ~mediulTf'!vi ""offers'll) ilasts A ;.~7i"'.1~"c.;: . Av in lountl-robin fashi'On an opportunity to transmit one packet: hosts that have nothing to transmit immediately relinquish M. How does this differ from STDM? How does network utilization of this scheme compare with STDM?
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Suppose a transmission channel operates at 3 Mbps and has a bit error rate of 10-3. Bit error occurs at random and independent of each other. Suppose that the following code is used. To transmit a I bit, the codeword III is sent; to transmit a 0 bit, the codeword 000 is sent. The receiver takes the three received bits and decides which bit was sent by taking the majority vote of three bits. Find the probability that the receiver makes a decoding error. 1.5 Mbps communication link uses HDLC to transmit information to the moon. What is the smallest possible frame size that allows continuous transmission? The distance between earth and the 11100n is approximately 375000km, and the speed of signal propagation is 3x IORm/s. The sliding window protocol can be used to implement flow control. We can imagine doing this by having the receiver delay ACKs, that is, not send the ACK until there is free. buffer space to hold the next frame. In doing so, each ACK would simultaneously acknowledge the receipt of the last frame and tell the source that there is now free buffer space available to hold the next frame. Explain why implementing flow control in this way is not a good idea. Compare the operation of Stop-and-Wait ARQ and bidirectional Go-Back-N ARQ with a window size ot: I. Sketch out a sequence of frame exchanges using these protocols and observe how the protocols react to the loss of information frame and to the loss of acknowledgement frame.

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. (3+4+3+3+7) Suppose that a group of workstations is connected to an Ethernet LAN. If the workstations communicate only with each other, does it make sense to use TP in the workstations? Should the workstations are TCP directly over Ethemet? How is addressing handled? An application requires the transfer of network layer packets between clients and server on the same LAN. Explain how reliable connection oriented service can be provided over an Ethernet. Modern Ethernet do not use CSMA/CD. Why? Suppose a group of 10 stations is serviced by an Ethemet LAN. How much bandwidth is available to each station if . i. The 10 stations are connected to a 10 Mbps Ethernet Hub. ii. The 10 stations are connected to a 10 Mbps Ethernet switch.

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Consider a Ikm, I Mbps token bus system in which the token is passed on a broadcast bus. Assume that the token is passed down the logical ring through N active stations in a way that causes a minimum amount of propagation overhead. Also, assume that there are total of 10 stations, which are distributed evenly on the bus with equal propagation delay between two neighboring stations. If the average transmission rate from each active station is 100 packets/second and the signal propagation speed is 10000km/s, what is the channel utilization for packet size 1000 bits? (3+5+ 3+9) Consider a "fast" circuit switching network in which the first packet in sequence enters the network and triggers the setting up of a connection "on-the-fly" as it traces a path to its destination. Discuss the issues in implementing this' approaclfin packet"Switching. A 64-kolobyte message is to be transmitted over two hops in a network. The network limits packets to a maximum size of 2-kilobytes, and each packet has a 32-byte header. The transmission lines in the network are error free and have a speed of 50Mbps. Each hop is 1000 kmlong. How long does it take to get the message from the source to the destination? Why connection less service is less efficient to stop congestion setting up, but better to have when congestion set up? Consider the following six node network. Assume all links have bit rate R.

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Suppose the network uses datagram routing. Find the routing table for each node, assuming minimum-hop routing. II. Explain why the above routing tables lead to inefficient use of network bandwidth. 111. Suggest an approach in which the routing tables in datagram network are modified to improve efficiency. Give the modified routing table. .J

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. (6+3+3+3+5) An organization has been assigned the prefix 212.1.1.0/24 and wants to form subnets for four departments, with hosts as follows: A 75 hosts B 35 hosts C 20 hosts D 18 hosts i. Give a possible anangement of subnet masks to make this possible. ii. Suggest what the organization might do if department D grows to 32 hosts. ARP only permits address resolution to occur on a single network. Could ARP send a request to and get a reply from a remote server using an IP datagram? Three subnets have the following network prefixes: 57.6.96.0/21,57.6.104.0/21,57.6.112.0/21, and 57.6.120.0/21 If these network prefixes are aggregated into a single route, what will be the aggregated network prefix and the mask? Why does IPv6 allow fragmentation at the source only? Suppose hosts A and B are on an Ethernet LAN with IP network address 200.0.0/24. It is desired to attach a host C to the network via a direct connection to B. Explain how to do this with subnets; give sample subnet assignments. Assume that an additional network prefix is not available. What does this do to the size ofthe Ethernet LAN? (4+4+6+6 ) Suppose we need a communication service to transmit real time voice over the Internet. What features ofTCP and what features ofUDP are appropriate? What do you mean by delay-bandwidth product? Do you think that delay-bandwidth product must be considered for designing new protocol? Suppose you are transfening a file of 10MB over a network, which has a capacity of 20 MB and 50 msec one-way delay. The packet size used in network is I KB. The initial slow start threshold is set to 10MB. What is the effective throughput achievable for TCP? What problem does TCP Reno have with multiple packet losses from a window? Give an example to illustrate.

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