Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

alexandrine, a verse line of twelve syllables adopted by poets since the 16th century as the standard verse-form of French

poetry, especially dramatic and narrative. It was first used in 12th-century * !"#$%#$ &' ('$)', and probably ta*es its name from its use in +ambert le )ort,s -oman d,"lexandre .c.12//0. )he division of the line into two 1roups of six syllables, divided by a * "'$2-", was established in the a1e of -acine, but later challen1ed by 3ictor !u1o and other 14th-century poets, who preferred three 1roups of four. )he 'n1lish alexandrine is an iambic * !'5"6')'- .and thus has six stresses, whereas the French line usually has four0, and is found rarely except as the final line in the * $7'#$'-I"# $)"#8", as in 9eats,s )he 've of $t "1nes, $he *nelt, so pure a thin1, so free from mortal taint. alliterationparallel between two .or more0 levels of meanin1 in a story, so that its persons and events correspond to their e:uivalents in a system of ideas or a chain of events external to the tale; each character and episode in <ohn =unyan,s )he 7il1rim,s 7ro1ress .16>?0, for example, embodies an idea within a pre-existin1 7uritan doctrine of salvation. "lle1orical thin*in1permeated the hristian literature of the 6iddle "1es, flourishin1 in the*6%-"+I)@ 7+"@$ and in the *&-'"6 3I$I%#$ of &ante and +an1land.$ome later alle1orists li*e &ryden and %rwell used alle1ory as a methodof * $")I-'A their hidden meanin1s are political rather than reli1ious. Inthe medieval discipline of biblical *'5'('$I$, alle1ory became animportant method of interpretation, a habit of see*in1 correspondencesbetween different realms of meanin1 .e.1. physical and spiritual0 orbetween the %ld )estament and the #ew .see typolo1y0. It can be ar1uedthat modern critical interpretation continues this alle1oriBin1 tradition.$ee also ana1o1ical, emblem, exemplum, fable, parable, psychomachy,symbol. For a fuller account, consult "n1us Fletcher, "lle1ory .146C0.alliteration .also *nown as ,head rhyme, or ,initial rhyme,0, therepetition of the same soundsDusually initial consonants of words or ofstressed syllablesDin any se:uence of nei1hbourin1 words; ,+andscapelover,lord of lan1ua1e, .)ennyson0. #ow an optional and incidentaldecorative effect in verse or prose, it was once a re:uired element in thepoetry of (ermanic lan1ua1es .includin1 %ld 'n1lish and %ld #orse0 andin eltic verse .where alliterated sounds could re1ularly be placed inpositions other than the be1innin1 of a word or syllable0. $uch poetry, inwhich alliteration rather than * -!@6' is the chief principle ofrepetition, is *nown as alliterative verseA its rules also allow a vowelsound to alliterate with any other vowel. $ee also alliterative metre,alliterative revival, assonance, consonance.alliterative metre, the distinctive verse form of %ld (ermanic poetry,includin1 %ld 'n1lish. It employed a lon1 line divided by a * "'$2-" intotwo balanced half-lines, each with a 1iven number of stressed syllables.usually two0 and a variable number of unstressed syllables. )hese halflinesare lin*ed by * "++I)'-")I%# between both .sometimes one0 of thestressed syllables in the first half and the first .and sometimes thesecond0 stressed syllable in the second half. In %ld 'n1lish, the lines werenormally unrhymed and not or1aniBed in * $)"#8"$, althou1h somewor*s of the later 6iddle 'n1lish *"++I)'-")I3' -'3I3"+ used bothstanBaic patterns and rhyme. )his *6')-' was the standard form of versein 'n1lish until the llth century, and was still important in the 1Cth, but> ambi1uitydeclined under the influence of French *$@++"=I 3'-$'. E. !. "udenrevived its use in )he "1e of "nxiety .14C?0. )hese lines from the 1Cthcenturypoem 7iers 7lowman illustrate the alliterative metre;"l for love of oure +ord livede wel straite,In hope for to have heveneriche blisseanapaest .2$ anapest0 Fan-a-pestG, a metrical *F%%) made up oftwo unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable, as in the word,interrupt, .or, in *H2"#)I)")I3' 3'-$', two short syllables followed bya lon1 one0. %ri1inally a (ree* marchin1 beat, adopted by some (ree*and -oman dramatists, the *-I$I#( rhythm of anapaestic .or anapestic0verse has sometimes been used by poets in 'n1lish to echo ener1eticmovement, notably in -obert =rownin1,s ,!ow they =rou1ht the (ood#ews from (hent to "ix, .1?CI0;#ot a word to each otherA we *ept the 1reat pace#ec* by nec*, stride by stride, never chan1in1 our place.%thers have used anapaestic verse for tones of solemn complaint, as inthis famous line from $winburne,s ,!ymn to 7roserpine, .1?660;)hou hast con:uered, % pale (alileanA the world has 1rown 1rey from thy breath.+ines made up of anapaests alone are rare in 'n1lish verse, thou1hA moreoften they are used in combination with other feet. )he commonestanapaestic verse form in 'n1lish, the *+I6'-I 9, usually omits the firstsyllable in its first, second, and fifth lines. $ee also metre, triple metre. alle1ory, a story or visual ima1e with a second distinct meanin1partially hidden behind its literal or visible meanin1. )he principaltechni:ue of alle1ory is * 7'-$%#IFI ")I%#, whereby abstract :ualitiesare 1iven human shapeDas in public statues of +iberty or <ustice. "nalle1ory may be conceived as a *6')"7!%- that is extended into astructured system. In written narrative, alle1ory involves a continuous

assonance Fass-6n-ansG, the repetition of identical or similar vowelsounds in the stressed syllables .and sometimes in the followin1unstressed syllables0 of nei1hbourin1 wordsA itis distinct from *-!@6' inthat the consonants differ althou1h the vowels or * &I7!)!%#($ match;sweet dreams, hit or miss. "s a substitute for rhyme at the ends of verselines, assonance .sometimes called vowel rhyme or vocalic rhyme0 had asi1nificant function in early eltic, $panish, and French *3'-$IFI ")I%#.notably in the * !"#$%#$ &' ('$)'0, but in 'n1lish it has been an optionalpoetic device used within and between lines of verse for emphasis ormusical effect, as in these lines from )ennyson,s )he +otos-'aters,;21 "u1ustan "1e"nd round about the *eel with faces pale,&ar* faces pale a1ainst that rosy flame,)he mild-eyed melancholy +otos-eaters came."dJective; assonantal. $ee also alliteration, consonance, half-rhyme ballad, a *F%+9 $%#( or orally transmitted poem tellin1 in a direct anddramatic manner some popular story usually derived from a tra1icincident in local history or le1end. )he story is told simply, impersonally,and often with vivid dialo1ue. =allads are normally composed in* H2")-"I#$ with alternatin1 four-stress and threestress lines, thesecond and fourth lines rhymin1 .see ballad metre0A but some ballads arein * %27+') form, and some others have six-line *$)"#8"$. "ppearin1 inmany parts of 'urope in the late 6iddle "1es, ballads nourishedparticularly stron1ly in $cotland from the 1Ith century onward. $incethe 1?th century, educated poets outside the fol*-son1 traditionDnotably olerid1e and (oetheDhave written imitations of the popularballad,s form and style; olerid1e,s ,-ime of the "ncient 6ariner, .1>4?0is a celebrated example.ballad metre or ballad stanBa, the usual form of the fol* ballad andits literary imitations, consistin1 of a * H2")-"I# in which the first andthird lines have four stresses while the second and fourth have threestresses. 2sually only the second and fourth lines rhyme. )he rhythm isbasically *I"6=I , but the number of unstressed syllables in a line mayvary, as in this * $)"#8" from the traditional ,+ord )homas and Fair"nnet,;,% art thou blind, +ord )homasK, she said,,%r canst thou not very well seeK%r dost thou not see my own heart,s blood-uns tric*lin1 down my *neeK,)his *6')-' may also be interpreted .and sometimes printed0 as acouplet of seven-stress lines, as in 9iplin1,s ,=allad of 'ast and Eest,.1??40;)he olonel,s son has ta*en horse, and a raw rou1h dun was he,Eith the mouth of a bell and the heart of !ell and the head of a 1allows-tree. blan* verse, unrhymed lines of iambic *7'#)"6')'-, as in these finallines of )ennyson,s ,2lysses, .1?C20;%ne e:ual temper of heroic hearts,6ade wea* by time and fate, but stron1 in will)o strive, to see*, to find, and not to yield.=lan* verse is a very flexible 'n1lish verse form which can attainrhetorical 1randeur while echoin1 the natural rhythms of speech andallowin1 smooth *'#<"6=6'#). First used .c.1IC/0 by !enry !oward,'arl of $urrey, it soon became both the standard * 6')-' for dramaticpoetry and a widely used form for *#"--")I3' and meditative poems.6uch of the finest verse in 'n1lishDby $ha*espeare, 6ilton,Eordsworth, )ennyson, and $tevensDhas been written in blan* verse.In other lan1ua1es, notably Italian .in * !'#&' "$@++"=+'$0 and (erman,blan* verse has been an important medium for poetic drama. =lan*verse should not be confused with *F-'' 3'-$', which has no re1ularmetre. caesura Fsi-Bew-raG .plural -as or-ae0, a pause in a line of verse, oftencoincidin1 with a brea* between clauses or sentences. It is usually placedin the middle of the line .,medial caesura,0, but may appear near thebe1innin1 .,initial,0 or towards the end .,terminal,0. In *$ "#$I%#, acaesura is normally indicated by the symbol LL. If it follows a stressedsyllable, it is *nown as a ,masculine, caesura, while if it follows anunstressed syllable, it is ,feminine,. )he re1ular placin1 of the caesurawas an important metrical re:uirement in much (ree* and +atin verse,in the %ld 'n1lish and 6iddle 'n1lish *"++I)'-")I3' 6')-', and in theFrench *"+'5"#&-I#'A but in the 'n1lish iambic *7'#)"6')'- there isscope for artful variation between medial, initial, and terminal positions,and a line may have more than one caesura, or none. In (ree* and +atin* 7-%$%&@, the term is also applied to a brea* between words within a*F%%); the opposite of *&I"'-'$I$. "dJective; caesural. closed couplet, two lines of metrical verse in which the * $@#)"5 andsense come to a conclusion or a stron1 pause at the end of the secondline, 1ivin1 the couplet the :uality of a self-contained *'7I(-"6. )heterm is applied almost always to rhymin1 couplets, especially to the*!'-%I %27+')A but whereas the heroic couplets of haucer and 9eatsoften allow the sense to run on over the end of the second line .seeenJambment0,

those written by 'n1lish poets in the late 1>th centuryand in the 1?th are usually *'#&-$)%77'&, and are thus closed couplets,as in these lines about men from $arah Fy1e '1erton,s ,)he 'mulation,.1>/M0;CM cohesion)hey fear we should excel their slu11ish parts,$hould we attempt the sciences and artsA7retend they were desi1ned for them alone,$o *eep us fools to raise their own renown. common measure or common metre, a form of verse * H2")-"I#.also called the ,hymnal stanBa,0 often used in hymns. +i*e the *="++"&6')-', its first and third lines have four *$)-'$$'$, and its second andfourth have threeA but it tends to be more re1ularly * I"6=I , and it moreoften rhymes not only the second and fourth lines .abcb0 but the first andthird too .obob0. " variant form is lon1 measure or lon1 metre, in whichall four lines have four stresses, and in which the rhyme scheme aabb issometimes also used. $ee also short measure. conceit, an unusually far-fetched or elaborate *6')"7!%- or *$I6I+'presentin1 a surprisin1ly apt parallel between two apparently dissimilarconcordance C?thin1s or feelin1s; ,(riefe is a puddle, and reflects not cleare N @ourbeauties rayes, .). arew0. 2nder * 7')-"- !"# influence, 'uropeanpoetry of the *-'#"I$$"# ' cultivated fanciful comparisons andconceits to a hi1h de1ree of in1enuity, either as the basis for wholepoems .notably &onne,s )he Flea,0 or as an incidental decorative device.7oetic conceits are prominent in 'liBabethan love * $%##')$, in*6')"7!@$I "+ 7%')-@, and in the French dramatic verse of orneilleand -acine. onceits often employ the devices of *!@7'-=%+',*7"-"&%5, and *%5@6%-%#.concordance, an hyperbole Fhy-per-boliG, exa11eration for the sa*e of emphasis in a* FI(2-' %F $7'' ! not meant literally. "n everyday example is thecomplaint ,I,ve been waitin1 here for a1es., !yperbolic expressions arecommon in the inflated style of dramatic speech *nown as *=%6="$), asin $ha*espeare,s "ntony and leopatra when leopatra praises the dead"ntony;!is le1s bestrid the ocean; his reared arm rested the world.!ypermetrical onomatopoeia Fon-6-mat-o-pee-aG, the use of words that seem toimitate the sounds they refer to .whac*, fiBB, crac*le, hiss0A or anycombination of words in which the sound 1ives the impression ofechoin1 the sense. )his *FI(2-' %F $7'' ! is often found in poetry,sometimes in prose. It relies more on conventional associations betweenverbal and non-verbal sounds than on the direct duplication of one by theother. "dJective; onomatopoeic. simile Fsim-i-liG, an explicit comparison between two different thin1s,actions, or feelin1s, usin1 the words ,as, or ,li*e,, as in Eordsworth,s line;I wandered lonely as a cloud" very common *FI(2-' %F $7'' ! in both prose and verse, simile ismore tentative and decorative than *6')"7!%-. " len1thy and moreelaborate *ind of simile, used as a di1ression in a narrative wor*, is the*'7I $I6I+'. antithesis Fan-tith-esisG .plural-theses0, a contrast or opposition, eitherrhetorical or philosophical. In * -!')%-I , any disposition of words thatserves to emphasiBe a contrast or opposition of ideas, usually by thebalancin1 of connected clauses with parallel 1rammatical constructions.In 6ilton,s 7aradise +ost .166>0, the characteristics of "dam and 've arecontrasted by antithesis;For contemplation he and valour formed,For softness she and sweet attractive 1raceA!e for (od only, she for (od in him.1I aphorism"ntithesis was cultivated especially by 7ope and other 1?th-centurypoets. It is also a familiar device in prose, as in <ohn -us*in,s sentence,,(overnment and cooperation are in all thin1s the laws of lifeA anarchyand competition the laws of death., In philosophy, an antithesis is asecond ar1ument or principle brou1ht forward to oppose a firstproposition or *)!'$I$ .see dialectic0. "dJective; antithetical. irony a subtly humorous perception of inconsistency, in which anapparently strai1htforward statement or event is undermined by its* %#)'5) so as to 1ive it a very different si1nificance. In various forms,irony appears in many *inds of literature, from the *)-"('&@ of$ophocles to the novels of <ane "usten and !enry <ames, but is especiallyimportant in * $")I-', as in 3oltaire and $wift. "t its simplest, in verbalirony, it involves a discrepancy between what is said and what is reallymeant, as in its crude form, sarcasmA for the *FI(2-'$ %F $7'' !exploitin1 this discrepancy, see antiphrasis, litotes, meiosis. )he moresustained structural irony in literature involves the use of a naive ordeluded hero or *2#-'+I"=+' #"--")%-, whose view of the world differswidely from the true circumstances reco1niBed by the author andreadersA literary irony thus flatters its

readers, intelli1ence at the expenseof a character .or fictional narrator0. " similar sense of detachedsuperiority is achieved by dramatic irony, in which the audience *nowsmore about a character,s situation than the character does, foreseein1 anoutcome contrary to the character,s expectations, and thus ascribin1 asharply different sense to some of the character,s own statementsA in*)-"('&I'$, this is called tra1ic irony. )he term cosmic irony issometimes used to denote a view of people as the dupes of a cruellymoc*in1 Fate, as in the novels of )homas !ardy. " writer whose wor*sare characteriBed by an ironic tone may be called an ironist. For a fulleraccount, consult &. . 6uec*e, Irony and the Ironic .14?20. oxymoron Fo*si-mor-onG .plural -mora0, a *FI(2-' %F $7'' ! thatcombines two usually contradictory terms in a compressed *7"-"&%5, asin the word bittersweet or the phrase livin1 death. %xymoronic phrases,li*e 6ilton,s ,dar*ness visible,, were especially cultivated in 16th- andoxymoron 1?/1>th-century poetiy. $ha*espeare has his -omeo utter several in onespeech;Ehy then, % brawlin1 love, % lovin1 hate,% anythin1 of nothin1 first createA% heavy li1htness, serious vanity,6isshapen chaos of well-seemin1 forms,Feather of lead, bri1ht smo*e, cold fire, sic* health,$till-wa*in1 sleep, that is not what it is paradox, a statement or expression so surprisin1ly self-contradictoryas to provo*e us into see*in1 another sense or context in which it wouldbe true .althou1h some paradoxes cannot be resolved into truths,remainin1 flatly self-contradictory, e.1. 'verythin1 I say is a lie0.Eordsworth,s line )he hild is father of the 6an, and $ha*espeare,s,the truest poetry is the most fei1nin1, are notable literary examples."ncient theorists of * -!')%-I described paradox as a * FI(2-' %F$7'' !, but 2/th-century critics have 1iven it a hi1her importance as amode of understandin1 by which poetry challen1es our habits ofthou1ht. 7aradox was cultivated especially by poets of the 1>th century,often in the verbally compressed form of * %5@6%-%#. It is also found inthe prose *'7I(-"6A and is pervasive in the literature of hristianity, anotoriously paradoxical reli1ion. In a wider sense, the term may also beapplied to a person or situation characteriBed by stri*in1 contradictions." person who utters paradoxes is a paradoxer. trope, a *FI(2-' %F $7'' !, especially one that uses words in sensesbeyond their *+I)'-"+ meanin1s. )he theory of *-!')%-I has involvedseveral disputed attempts to clarify the distinction between tropes .or,fi1ures of thou1ht,0 and *$ !'6'$ .or ,fi1ures of speech,0. )he most1enerally a1reed distinction in modern theory is that tropes chan1e themeanin1s of words, by a ,turn, of sense, whereas schemes merelyrearran1e their normal order. )he maJor fi1ures that are a1reed upon asbein1 tropes are *6')"7!%-, *$I6I+', *6')%#@6@, *$@#' &% !',*I-%#@, *7'-$%#IFI ")I%#, and *!@7'-=%+'A *+I)%)'$ and *7'-I7!-"$I$are also sometimes called tropes. )he fi1urative sense of a word issometimes called its tropolo1ical sense, tropolo1y bein1 the study oftropesDand especially of the spiritual meanin1s concealed behind theliteral meanin1s of reli1ious scriptures .see typolo1y0. In a second sense,the term was applied in the 6iddle "1es to certain additional passa1esintroduced into church services. )he most important of these, the :uern:uaeritis trope in the 'aster Introit, is thou1ht to have been the ori1in of*+I)2-(I "+ &-"6". "dJective; tropical. metaphor, the most important and widespread *FI(2-' %F $7'' !, inwhich one thin1, idea, or action is referred to by a word or expressionnormally denotin1 another thin1, idea, or action, so as to su11est somecommon :uality shared by the two. In metaphor, this resemblance isassumed as an ima1inary identity rather than directly stated as acomparison; referrin1 to a man as that pi1, or sayin1 he is a pi1 ismetaphorical, whereas he is li*e a pi1 is a *$I6I+'. 6etaphors may alsoappear as verbs .a talent may blossom0 or as adJectives .a novice may be1reen0, or in lon1er *I&I%6")I phrases, e.1. to throw the baby out with thebathwater. )he use of metaphor to create new combinations of ideas is amaJor feature of *7%')-@, althou1h it is :uite possible to write poemswithout metaphors. 6uch of our everyday lan1ua1e is also made up ofmetaphorical words and phrases that pass unnoticed as ,dead,metaphors, li*e the branch of an or1aniBation. " mixed metaphor is onein which the combination of :ualities su11ested is illo1ical or ridiculous.see also catachresis0, usually as a result of tryin1 to apply two metaphorsto one thin1; those vipers stabbed us in the bac*. 6odern analysis ofmetaphors and similes distin1uishes the primary literal term .called the,*)'#%-,0 from the secondary fi1urative term .the ,vehicle,0 applied to it;in the metaphor the road of life, the tenor is life, and the vehicle is the road.For a fuller account, consult )erence !aw*es, 6etaphor .14>20.

metonymy Fmet-on-imiG, a *FI(2-' %F $7'' ! that replaces the nameof one thin1 with the name of somethin1 else closely associated with it,e.1. the bottle for alcoholic drin*, the press for Journalism, s*irt for woman,6oBart for 6oBart,s music, the %val %ffice for the 2$ presidency. "well-*nown metonymic sayin1 is the pen is mi1htier than the sword .i.e.writin1 is more powerful than warfare0. " word used in such metonymicexpressions is sometimes called a metonym Fmet-onimG. "n important*ind of metonymy is *$@#' &% !', in which the name of a part issubstituted for that of a whole .e.1. hand for wor*er0, or vice versa.6odern literary theory has often used ,metonymy, in a wider sense,to desi1nate the process of association by which metonymies areproduced and understood; this involves establishin1 relationships ofconti1uity between two thin1s, whereas *6')"7!%- establishesrelationships of similarity between them. )he metonymNmetaphordistinction has been associated with the contrast between *$@#)"(6and * 7"-"&I(6. $ee also antonomasia.metre .2$ meter0, the pattern of measured sound-units recurrin1 moreor less re1ularly in lines of verse. 7oetry may be composed accordin1 toone of four principal metrical systems;.i0 in :uantitative metre, used in (ree* and +atin, the pattern is ase:uence of lon1 and short syllables counted in 1roups *nown as feet .seefoot, :uantitative verse0A.ii0 in syllabic metre, as in French and <apanese, the pattern comprises afixed number of syllables in the line .see syllabic verse0A.iii0 in accentual metre .or ,stron1-stress metre,0, found in %ld 'n1lishand in later 'n1lish popular verse, the pattern is a re1ular number ofstressed syllables in the line or 1roup of lines, re1ardless of the number ofunstressed syllables .see accentual verse0A1II metre.iv0 in accentual-syllabic metre, the pattern consists of a re1ular numberof stressed syllables appropriately arran1ed within a fixed totalnumber of syllables in the line .with permissible variations includin1*F'6I#I#' '#&I#($0, both stressed and unstressed syllables bein1counted.)he fourth systemDaccentual-syllabic metreDis the one found inmost 'n1lish verse in the literary tradition since haucerA some flexibleuses of it incline towards the accentual system. !owever, the descriptiveterms most commonly used to analyse it have, confusin1ly, beeninherited from the vocabulary of the very different (ree* and +atin:uantitative system. )hus the various 'n1lish metres are named after theclassical feet that their 1roupin1s of stressed and unstressed syllablesresemble, and the len1th of a metrical line is still often expressed interms of the number of feet it contains; a *&I6')'- has two feet, a*)-I6')'- three, a *)')-"6')'- four, a *7'#)"6')'- five, a*!'5"6')'- six, and a *!'7)"6')'- seven. " simpler and often moreaccurate method of description is to refer to lines in either accentual oraccentual-syllabic metre accordin1 to the number of stressed syllables;thus an 'n1lish tetrameter is a ,four-stress line,, a pentameter a ,fivestressline, .these bein1 the commonest lines in 'n1lish0.'n1lish accentualsyllabic metres fall into two 1roups, accordin1 to theway in which stressed .N0 and unstressed . x 0 syllables alternate; in duplemetres, stressed syllables alternate more or less re1ularly with sin1leunstressed syllables, and so the line is traditionally described as ase:uence of disyllabic .2-syllable0 feetA while in triple metres, stressedsyllables alternate with pairs of unstressed syllables, and the line is seenas a se:uence of trisyllabic .Msyllable0 feet.%f the two duple metres, by far the more common in 'n1lish is theiambic metre, in which the stressed syllables are for the most partperceived as followin1 the unstressed syllables with which they alternate. x N x N x N etc.0, althou1h some variations on this pattern are accepted. Intraditional analysis by feet, iambic verse is said to be composedpredominantly of *I"6=$ . x N0. )his iambic pentameter by <ohn &rydenillustrates the metre;"nd doom,d to death, thou1h fated not to die.)he other duple metre, used in 'n1lish less fre:uently than the iambic,is trochaic metre, in which the iambic pattern is reversed so that thestressed syllables are felt to be precedin1 the unstressed syllables withwhich they alternate .Nx Nx Nx etc.0A in terms of classical feet, trochaicmetrics 1I6verse is said to be made up predominantly of *)-% !''$ . N x 0 . )histrochaic tetrameter from +on1fellow illustrates the metre;&ar* behind it rose the forestIt is common, thou1h, for poets usin1 trochaic metre to be1in and endthe line on a stressed syllable .see catalectic0, as in =la*e,s line;)y1er, ty1er, burnin1 bri1htIn such cases it is hard to distin1uish trochaic and iambic metres.)he triple metres are far less common in 'n1lish, althou1h sometimesfound. In dactylic metre, named after the *&" )@+ .Nx x0, the stressedsyllables are felt to precede the intervenin1 pairs of unstressed syllables; annon in front of them .)ennyson; dactylic dimeter0In anapaestic metre, named after the *"#"7"'$) . x x N0, the pattern isreversed;%f your faintin1, dispirited race ."rnold; anapaestic trimeter0&actylic and anapaestic verse is not usually composed purely of dactylsand anapaests, however; other feet or additional syllables are fre:uentlycombined with or substituted for them."ll these patterns are open to different *inds of variation, of which themost common is traditionally called * $2=$)I)2)I%# of one foot foranother .but see also demotion, promotion0A for the other feet sometimesmentioned in the context of substitution, see foot. %ther

variationsinclude the addition or subtraction of syllables to alter the line,s len1th.)he theory and practice of metrical verse is *nown as *7-%$%&@ ormetrics, while the detailed analysis of the metrical pattern in lines ofverse is called * $ "#$I%#. For a fuller account, consult &ere* "ttrid1e,7oetic -hythm; "n Introduction .144I0. personification, a *FI(2-' %F $7'' ! by which animals, abstractideas, or inanimate thin1s are referred to as if they were human, as in $ir7hilip $idney,s line;Invention, #ature,s child, fled stepdame $tudy,s blows)his fi1ure or *)-%7', *nown in (ree* as prosopopoeia, is common inmost a1es of poetry, and particularly in the 1?th century. It has a specialfunction as the basis of *"++'(%-@. In drama, the term is sometimesapplied to the impersonation of non-human thin1s and ideas by humanactors. 3erb; personify. $ee also pathetic fallacy. obJective correlative, an external e:uivalent for an internal state ofmindA thus any obJect, scene, event, or situation that maybe said to standfor or evo*e a 1iven mood or emotion, as opposed to a direct subJectiveexpression of it. )he phrase was 1iven its vo1ue in modern criticism by). $. 'liot in the rather tan1led ar1ument of his essay ,!amlet and !is7roblems, .14140, in which he asserts that $ha*espeare,s !amlet is an,artistic failure, because !amlet,s emotion does not match the ,facts, ofthe play,s action. )he term is symptomatic of 'liot,s preferenceDsimilarto that of *O6"(I$6Dfor precise and definite poetic ima1es evo*in1particular emotions, rather than the effusion of va1ue yearnin1s which'liot and 'Bra 7ound criticiBed as a fault of 14th-century poetry. symbol, in the simplest sense, anythin1 that stands for or representssomethin1 else beyond itDusually an idea conventionally associatedwith it. %bJects li*e fla1s and crosses can function symbolicallyA andwords are also symbols. In the *$'6I%)I $ of . $. 7eirce, the termdenotes a *ind of *$I(# that has no natural or resemblin1 connectionwith its referent, only a conventional one; this is the case with words. Inliterary usa1e, however, a symbol is a specially evocative *ind of ima1e.see ima1ery0A that is, a word or phrase referrin1 to a concrete obJect,$ymbolic, the 2I2scene, or action which also has some further si1nificance associated withit; roses, mountains, birds, and voya1es have all been used as commonliterary symbols. " symbol differs from a *6')"7!%- in that itsapplication is left open as an unstated su11estion; thus in the sentence$he was a tower of stren1th, the metaphor ties a concrete ima1e .the,vehicle,; tower0 to an identifiable abstract :uality .the *)'#%-; stren1th0.$imilarly, in the systematically extended metaphoric parallels of*"++'(%-@, the ima1es represent specific meanin1s; at the be1innin1 of+an1land,s alle1orical poem 7iers 7lowman .c.1M?/0, the tower seen by thedreamer is clearly identified with the :uality of )ruth, and it has noindependent status apart from this function. =ut the symbolic tower in-obert =rownin1,s poem , P hilde -oland to the &ar* )ower ameP ,.1?II0, or that in E. =. @eat,s collection of poems )he )ower .142?0,remains mysteriously indeterminate in its possible meanin1s. It istherefore usually too simple to say that a literary symbol ,stands for,some idea as if it were Just a convenient substitute for a fixed meanin1A itis usually a substantial ima1e in its own ri1ht, around which furthersi1nificances may 1ather accordin1 to differin1 interpretations. )heterm symbolism refers to the use of symbols, or to a set of relatedsymbolsA however, it is also the name 1iven to an important movementin late 14thcentury and early 2/th-century poetry; for this sense, see$ymbolists. %ne of the important features of *-%6"#)I I$6 andsucceedin1 phases of Eestern literature was a much more pronouncedreliance upon eni1matic symbolism in both poetry and prose fiction,sometimes involvin1 obscure private codes of meanin1, as in the poetryof =la*e or @eats. " well-*nown early example of this is the albatross in olerid1e,s )he -ime of the "ncient 6ariner, .1>4?0. 6any novelistsDnotably !erman 6elville and &. !. +awrenceDhave used symbolicmethods; in 6elville,s 6oby-&ic* .1?I10 the Ehite Ehale .and indeedalmost every obJect and character in the boo*0 becomes a focus for manydifferent su11ested meanin1s. 6elville,s extrava1ant symbolism wasencoura1ed partly by the importance which "merican*)-"#$ '#&'#)"+I$6 1ave to symbolic interpretation of the world. 3erb;symboliBe. $ee also motif. rhetorical :uestion, a :uestion as*ed for the sa*e of persuasive effectrather than as a 1enuine re:uest for information, the spea*er implyin1that the answer is too obvious to re:uire a reply, as in 6ilton,s lineFor what can war but endless war still breedK

sonnet, a *+@-I poem comprisin1 1C rhymin1 lines of e:ual len1th;iambic *7'#)"6')'-$ in 'n1lish, *"+'5"#&-I#'$ in French, *!'#&' "$@++"=+'$in Italian. )he *-!@6' $ !'6'$ of the sonnet follow two basicpatterns..10 )he Italian sonnet .also called the *7')-"- !"# $%##') after themost influential of the Italian sonneteers0 comprises an ?-line ,octave, oftwo *H2")-"I#$, rhymed abbaabba, followed by a 6-line ,sestet, usuallyrhymed cdecde or cdcdcd. )he transition from octave to sestet usuallycoincides with a ,turn, .Italian, volta0 in the ar1ument or mood of thepoem. In a variant form used by the 'n1lish poet <ohn 6ilton, however,the ,turn, is delayed to a later position around the tenth line. $ome laterpoets Dnotably Eilliam EordsworthDhave employed this feature ofthe ,6iltonic sonnet, while relaxin1 the rhyme scheme of the octave toabbaacca. )he Italian pattern has remained the most widely used in'n1lish and other lan1ua1es..20 )he 'n1lish sonnet .also called the $ha*espearean sonnet after itsforemost practitioner0 comprises three :uatrains and a final couplet,rhymin1 ababcdcdefef11. "n important variant of this is the $penseriansonnet .introduced by the 'liBabethan poet 'dmund $penser0, whichlin*s the three :uatrains by rhyme, in the se:uence ababbabccdcdee. Ineither form, the ,turn, comes with the final couplet, which maysometimes achieve the neatness of an *'7I(-"6.%ri1inatin1 in Italy, the sonnet was established by 7etrarch in the 1Cthcentury as a maJor form of love poetry, and came to be adopted in $pain,soubrette 2C/France, and 'n1land in the 16th century, and in (ermany in the 1>th.)he standard subJect-matter of early sonnets was the torments of sexuallove .usually within a * %2-)+@ +%3' convention0, but in the 1>thcentury <ohn &onne extended the sonnet,s scope to reli1ion, while6ilton extended it to politics. "lthou1h lar1ely ne1lected in the 1?thcentury, the sonnet was revived in the 14th by Eordsworth, 9eats, and=audelaire, and is still widely used. $ome poets have written connectedseries of sonnets, *nown as sonnet se:uences or sonnet cycles; of these,the outstandin1 'n1lish examples are $ir 7hilip $idney,s "strophel and$tella .1I410, $penser,s "moretti .1I4I0, and $ha*espeare,s $onnets .16/40Alater examples include 'liBabeth =arrett =rownin1,s $onnets from the7ortu1uese .1?I/0 and E. !. "uden,s ,In )ime of Ear, .14M40. " 1roup ofsonnets formally lin*ed by repeated lines is *nown as a * -%E# ofsonnets. Irre1ular variations on the sonnet form have included the12-line sonnet sometimes used by 'liBabethan poets, (. 6. !op*ins,s* 2-)"+ $%##')$ of 1/ 1N2 lines, and the 16-line sonnets of (eor1e6eredith,s se:uence 6odern +ove .1?620. For an extended introductoryaccount, consult <ohn Fuller, )he $onnet .14>20. $penserian stanBa, an 'n1lish poetic *$)"#8" of nine *I"6=I lines,the first ei1ht bein1 *7'#)"6')'-$ while the ninth is a lon1er line*nown either as an iambic hexameter or as an *"+'5"#&-I#'. )herhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. )he stanBa is named after 'dmund $penser,who invented itDprobably on the basis of the *%))"3" -I6" stanBaDforhis lon1 alle1orical *-%6"# ' )he Faerie Hueene .1I4/-60. It was revivedsuccessfully by the youn1er 'n1lish -omantic poets of the early 14thcentury; =yron used it for hilde !arold,s 7il1rima1e .1?12, 1?160, 9eats for)he 've of $t "1nes, .1?2/0, and $helley for )he -evolt of Islam .1?1?0 and"donais .1?210. For the $penserian sonnet, see sonnet. rhyme royal, a *$)"#8" form consistin1 of seven I-stress lines .iambic*7'#)"6')'-$0 rhymin1 ababbcc, first used by haucer and thus also*nown as the haucerian stanBa. Followin1 haucer,s use of rhyme royalin his )roilus and riseyde, )he 7arlement of Fowles, and some of the anterbury )ales, it continued to be an important form of 'n1lish verse inthe 1Ith and 16th centuries, bein1 used by &unbar, !enryson, $penser,and $ha*espeare .in his +ucrece, 1I4C0A Eilliam 6orris,s )he 'arthly7aradise .1?6?->/0 is a rare example of its use in later periods. )he name214 rime richeof this stanBa seems to come from its use in )he 9in1is Huair .c.1C2C0, apoem uncertainly attributed to 9in1 <ames I of $cotland. ottava rima Fot-ahv-a-ree-maG, a form of verse *$)"#8" consistin1 ofei1ht lines rhymin1 abababcc, usually employed for * #"--")I3' verse butsometimes used in * +@-I poems. In its ori1inal Italian form .,ei1hthrhyme,0, pioneered by =occaccio in the 1Cth century and perfected by"riosto in the 16th, it used *!'#&' "$@++"=+'$A but the 'n1lish versionuses iambic *7'#)"6')'-$. It was introduced into 'n1lish by )homasEyatt in the 16th century, and later used by =yron in &on <uan .1?14-2C0as well as by 9eats, $helley, and @eats. ballad metre or ballad stanBa, the usual form of the fol* ballad andits literary imitations, consistin1 of a * H2")-"I# in which the first andthird lines have four stresses while the second and fourth have threestresses.

2sually only the second and fourth lines rhyme. )he rhythm isbasically *I"6=I , but the number of unstressed syllables in a line mayvary, as in this * $)"#8" from the traditional ,+ord )homas and Fair"nnet,;,% art thou blind, +ord )homasK, she said,,%r canst thou not very well seeK%r dost thou not see my own heart,s blood-uns tric*lin1 down my *neeK,)his *6')-' may also be interpreted .and sometimes printed0 as acouplet of sevenstress lines, as in 9iplin1,s ,=allad of 'ast and Eest,.1??40;)he olonel,s son has ta*en horse, and a raw rou1h dun was he,Eith the mouth of a bell and the heart of !ell and the head of a 1allows-tree.$ee also common measure :uatrain, a verse *$)"#8" of four lines, rhymed or .less often0unrhymed. )he :uatrain is the most commonly used stanBa in 'n1lishand most modern 'uropean lan1ua1es. 6ost *="++"&$ and many*!@6#$ are composed in :uatrains in which the second and fourth linesrhyme .abcb or abab0A the ,heroic :uatrain, of iambic *7'#)"6')'-$ alsorhymes abab. " different *-!@6' $ !'6' .abba0 is used in the *I#6'6%-I"6 $)"#8" and some other forms. )he rhymin1 four-line 1roupsthat ma*e up the first ei1ht or twelve lines of a *$%##') are also *nownas :uatrains. terBa rima Fter-tsa ree-maG a verse form consistin1 of a se:uence ofinterlin*ed *)'- ')$ rhymin1 aba bcb cdc ded etc. )hus the second line ofeach tercet provides the rhyme for the first and third lines of the nextAthe se:uence closes with one line .or in a few cases, two lines0 rhymin1with the middle line of the last tercet; yBy B.B0. )he form was invented by&ante "li1hieri for his &ivina ommedia .c.1M2/0, usin1 the Italian*!'#&' "$@++"=I line. It has been adopted by several poets in 'n1lish*7'#)"6')'-$, notably by 7. =. $helley in his ,%de to the Eest Eind, enJambment or enJambement, the runnin1 over of the sense and1rammatical structure from one verse line or couplet to the next withouta punctuated pause. In an enJambed line .also called a ,run-on line,0, thecompletion of a phrase, clause, or sentence is held over to the followin1line so that the line endin1 is not emphasiBed as it is in an *'#&-$)%77'&line. 'nJambment is one of the resources available to poets in 'n1lish*=+"#9 3'-$', but it appears in other verse-forms too, even in *!'-%I %27+')$; 9eats reJected the 1?th-century * +%$'& %27+') by usin1fre:uent enJambment in 'ndymion .1?1?0, of which the first and fifthlines are end-stopped while the lines in between are enJambed." thin1 of beauty is a Joy for ever;Its loveliness increases; it will never7ass into nothin1ness; but still will *eep" bower :uiet for us, and a sleepFull of sweet dreams, and health, and :uiet breathin1 heroic couplet, a rhymed pair of iambic *7'#)"6')'- lines;+et %bservation with extensive 3iew$urvey 6an*ind, from hina to 7eru /ohnson0#amed from its use by &ryden and others in the *!'-%I &-"6" of thelate 1>th century, the heroic couplet had been established much earlierby haucer as a maJor 'n1lish verseform for narrative and other *inds ofnon-dramatic poetryA it dominated 'n1lish poetry of the 1?th century,notably in the * +%$'& %27+')$ of 7ope, before declinin1 in importancein the early 14th century. couplet F*up-litG, a pair of rhymin1 verse lines, usually of the samelen1thA one of the most widely used verseforms in 'uropean poetry. haucer established the use of couplets in 'n1lish, notably in the anterbury )ales, usin1 rhymed iambic * 7'#)"6')'-$ later *nown asIM courtly love* !'-%I %27+')$; a form revived in the 1>th century by =en <onson,&ryden and others, partly as the e:uivalent in *!'-%I &-"6" of the* "+'5"#&-I#' couplets which were the standard verse-form of Frenchdrama in that century. "lexander 7ope followed &ryden,s use of heroiccouplets in non-dramatic verse to become the master of the form,notably in his use of * +%$'& %27+')$. )he octosyllablic couplet .of?-syllable or C-stress lines0 is also commonly found in 'n1lish verse. "couplet may also stand alone as an * '7I(-"6, or form part of a lar1er* $)"#8", or .as in $ha*espeare0 round off a * $%##') or a dramatic* $ '#'. $ee also distich. free verse .or, in French, vers libre0, a *ind of poetry that does notconform to any re1ular * 6')-'; the len1th of its lines is irre1ular, as is itsuse of rhymeDif any. Instead of a re1ular metrical pattern it uses moreflexible * "&'# '$ or rhythmic 1roupin1s, sometimes supported by*"#"7!%-" and other devices of repetition. #ow the most widelypractised verse form in 'n1lish, it has precedents in translations of thebiblical 7salms and in some poems of =la*e and (oethe, but establisheditself only in the late 14th and early 2/th centuries with Ealt

Ehitman,the French *$@6=%+I$)$, and the poets of *6%&'-#I$6. Free verseshould not be confused with * =+"#9 3'-$', which does observe a re1ularmetre in its unrhymed lines. blan* verse, unrhymed lines of iambic *7'#)"6')'-, as in these finallines of )ennyson,s ,2lysses, .1?C20;%ne e:ual temper of heroic hearts,6ade wea* by time and fate, but stron1 in will)o strive, to see*, to find, and not to yield.=lan* verse is a very flexible 'n1lish verse form which can attainrhetorical 1randeur while echoin1 the natural rhythms of speech andallowin1 smooth *'#<"6=6'#). First used .c.1IC/0 by !enry !oward,'arl of $urrey, it soon became both the standard * 6')-' for dramaticpoetry and a widely used form for *#"--")I3' and meditative poems.6uch of the finest verse in 'n1lishDby $ha*espeare, 6ilton,Eordsworth, )ennyson, and $tevensDhas been written in blan* verse.In other lan1ua1es, notably Italian .in * !'#&' "$@++"=+'$0 and (erman,blan* verse has been an important medium for poetic drama. =lan*verse should not be confused with *F-'' 3'-$', which has no re1ularmetre. hexameter Fhe*-samm-it-erG, a metrical verse line of six feet .see foot0.Its most important form is the *&" )@+I hexameter used in (ree* and+atin *'7I poetry and in the ele1iac *&I$)I !; this * H2"#)I)")I3' metrepermitted the substitution of any of the first four dactyls .and morerarely of the fifth0 by a *$7%#&'', and was * ")"+' )I in that the finalfoot was either a spondee or a *)-% !''. "lthou1h successfully adaptedto the stress-based metres of (erman, -ussian, and $wedish verse .by,amon1 others, (oethe and 7ush*in0, the dactylic hexameter has notfound an established place in 'n1lish or French verse, except in somerather aw*ward experiments such as ". !. lou1h,s )he =othie of )ober-na-3uolich .1?C?0, from which this hexameter comes;)his was the final retort from the ea1er, impetuous 7hilip.)he * I"6=I hexameter in 'n1lish is more usually *nown as an*"+'5"#&-I#'. pentameter Fpen-tamm-it-erG, a metrical verse line havin1 five main*$)-'$$'$, traditionally described as a line of five ,feet, .see foot0. In'n1lish poetry since haucer, the pentameterDalmost always an*I"6=I line normally of 1/ syllablesDhas had a special status as thestandard line in many important forms includin1 *=+"#9 3'-$', the*!'-%I %27+'), *%))"3" -I6", *-!@6' -%@"+, and the *$%##'). In itspure iambic form, the pentameter shows a re1ular alternation ofstressed and unstressed syllables, as in this line by 7ercy =ysshe $helley;If Einter comes, can $prin1 be far behindK)here are, however, several permissible variations in the placin1 ofstresses, which help to avoid the monotony of such re1ular alternation.see demotion, promotion, inversion0A and the pentameter may belen1thened from 1/ syllables to 11 by a *F'6I#I#' '#&I#(. In classical(ree* and +atin poetry, the second line of the ele1iac *&I$)I !,commonly but inaccurately referred to as a ,pentameter, is in factcomposed of two half-lines of two and a half feet each, with * &" )@+$or *$7%#&''$ in the first half and dactyls in the second. tetrameter Ftet-ram-it-erG, a verse line of four feet .see foot0. In 'n1lishverse, this means a line of four *$)-'$$'$, usually *I"6=I or*)-% !"I Da very common form.trimeter Ftrim-it-erG, a verse line of three feet .see foot0. In 'n1lish verse,this means a line of three *$)-'$$'$. iamb FI-am or I-ambG .also called iambus0, a metrical unit .*F%%)0 ofverse, havin1 one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable, asin the word ,beyond, .or, in (ree* and +atin * H2"#)I)")I3' 3'-$', oneshort syllable followed by one lon1 syllable0. +ines of poetry made uppredominantly of iambs are referred to as iambics or as iambic verse,which is by far the most common *ind of metrical verse in 'n1lish. Itsmost important form is the 1/-syllable iambic *7'#)"6')'-, eitherrhymed .as in *!'-%I %27+')$, *$%##')$ etc.0 or unrhymed in *=+"#93'-$';=eyond the utmost bound of human thou1ht. .)ennyson0)he iambic pentameter permits some variation in the placin1 of its five* $)-'$$'$A thus it may often be1in with a stressed syllable followed by anunstressed syllable .a reversal called trochaic * I#3'-$I%# or* $2=$)I)2)I%#0 before resumin1 the re1ular iambic pattern;%ft she reJects, but never once offends .7ope0)he ?-syllable iambic *)')-"6')'- is another common 'n1lish line; ome live with me, and be my love .6arlowe0Iambic tetrameters were also used in ancient (ree* dramatic dialo1ue.)he 'n1lish iambic * !'5"6')'- or six-stress line is usually referred to asthe *"+'5"#&-I#'. $ee also metre.

feminine rhyme .also called double rhyme0, a rhyme on two syllables,the first stressed and the second unstressed .e.1. mother Nanother0,commonly found in many *inds of poetry but especially in humorousverse, as in =yron,s &on <uan; hristians have burned each other, :uite persuaded)hat all the "postles would have done as they did.*6"$ 2+I#' -!@6', on the other hand, does not employ unstressedsyllables. Ehere more than one word is used in one of the rhymin1 units,as in the example above, the rhyme is sometimes called a ,mosaicrhyme,. In French verse, the alternation of masculine and femininerhymes become the norm durin1 the 16th century. masculine endin1, the endin1 of a metrical verse line on a stressedsyllable, as in 'mily =ronte,s re1ular *I"6=I line;"nd who can fi1ht a1ainst despairKmasculine rhyme 1C?6asculine endin1s are also common in *)-% !"I verse, where thefinal unstressed syllable expected in the re1ular pattern is fre:uentlyabandoned .see catalectic0. In French, a masculine line is any linenot endin1 in mute e, es, or ent. " masculine * "'$2-" is one thatimmediately follows a stressed syllable, usually in the middle of a line.$ee also metre, stress.masculine rhyme, the commonest *ind of rhyme, between sin1lestressed syllables .e.1. delayNstay0 at the ends of verse lines. In contrastwith *F'6I#I#' -!@6', which adds further unstressed syllables after therhymin1 stressed syllables, masculine rhyme matches only the finalsyllable with its e:uivalent in the paired line, as in hristina -ossetti,s* %27+');"nd all the rest for1et,=ut one remembers yet.In French verse, the alternation of masculine and feminine rhymesbecame the norm from the 16th century onwards. double rhyme, a * -!@6' on two syllables, the first stressed and thesecond unstressed .e.1. tarry Nmarry, adore usNchorus0, also *nown as* F'6I#I#' -!@6', and opposed to * 6"$ 2+I#' -!@6', which matchessin1le stressed syllables. feminine endin1, the endin1 of a metrical verse line on an unstressedsyllable, as in the re1ular *)-% !"I line. In 'n1lish iambic* 7'#)"6')'-$, a feminine endin1 involves the addition of an eleventhsyllable, as in $ha*espeare,s famous line)o be, or not to beA that is the :uestionIn French, a feminine line is one endin1 with a mute e, es, or ent. "feminine * "'$2-" is a pause followin1 an unstressed syllable, usually inthe middle of a line. $ee also metre, stress. triple rhyme, a rhyme on three syllables, the first stressed and theothers unstressed; beautifulNdutiful. )riple rhymes are used chiefly forcomic purposes in *+I(!) 3'-$', as in 'dward +ear,s *+I6'-I 9be1innin1)here was an old man of )hermopylaeEho never did anythin1 properly.=yron,s &on <uan has some ludicrous examples. $ee also rhyme. rhyme, the identity of sound between syllables or paired 1roups ofsyllables, usually at the ends of verse linesA also a poem employin1 thisdevice. #ormally the last stressed vowel in the line and all soundsfollowin1 it ma*e up the rhymin1 element; this may be a monosyllable.loveNaboveD*nown as ,*6"$ 2+I#' -!@6',0, or two syllables .whetherNto1etherD*nown as ,*F'6I#I#' -!@6', or ,double rhyme,0, or even threesyllables .1lamorous N amorousD*nown as ,*)-I7+' -!@6',0. Ehere arhymin1 element in a feminine or triple rhyme uses more than one word.famousNshame us0, this is *nown as a ,mosaic rhyme,. )he rhymin1 pairsillustrated so far are all examples of ,full rhyme, .also called ,perfectrhyme, or ,true rhyme,0A departures from this norm ta*e three mainforms; .i0 *-I6' -I !', in which the consonants precedin1 the rhymin1elements are also identical, even if the spellin1s and meanin1s of thewords differ .madeNmaid0A .ii0 *'@' -!@6', in which the spellin1s of therhymin1 elements match, but the sounds do not .loveNprove0A .iii0 *!"+F-!@6'or ,slant rhyme,, where the vowel sounds do not match .loveNhave,or, with rich * %#$%#"# ', loveNleave0. !alf-rhyme is *nown by severalother names; ,imperfect rhyme,, ,near rhyme,, ,pararhyme,, etc."lthou1h rhyme is most often used at the ends of verse lines, *I#)'-#"+-!@6' between syllables within the same line is also found .see alsocrossed rhyme, leonine rhyme0. -hyme is not essential to poetry; manylan1ua1es rarely use it, and in 'n1lish it finally replaced *"++I)'-")I%#as the usual patternin1 device of verse only in the late 1Cth century. "writer of rhymin1 verse may sometimes be referred to dispara1in1ly as arhymester or rhymer. rhyme scheme, the pattern in which the rhymed line-endin1s arearran1ed in a poem or *$)"#8". )his may be expressed as a se:uence ofrecurrences in which each line endin1 on the same rhyme is 1iven thesame alphabetic

symbol; thus the rhyme scheme of a *+I6'-I 9 is 1iventhe notation aabba. -hyme schemes may follow a fixed pattern, as in the*$%##') and several other forms, or they may be arran1ed freelyaccordin1 to the poet,s re:uirements. )he simplest rhyme schemes arethose of rhymin1 * %27+')$ .aabbcc, etc.0 and of the common *H2")-"I#forms .abab, abcb, abba0, while those of *%))"3" -I6", *-!@6' -%@"+, the*$7'#$'-I"# $)"#8", and the French *FI5'& F%-6$ are far moreintricate. end-stopped, brou1ht to a pause at which the end of a verseline coincides with the completion of a sentence, clause, or otherindependent unit of * $@#)"5. 'nd-stoppin1, the opposite of*'#<"6=6'#), 1ives verse lines an appearance of self-contained senseAit was favoured especially by 7ope and other 1?th-century poets in'n1lish in their * !'-%I %27+')$, and by the classical French poets intheir *"+'5"#&-I#'$. $ee also closed couplet tautolo1y .(* ,the same sayin1,0 -edundant words or ideas.-epetition of words or ideas, as in the common phrase ,I myself personally,.$ee also 7'-I7!-"$I$.4/2