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Communicating in Digital Age

Chapter 14 | Dida Lioniesa Susilo

Communication

Perceptual Process Model of

Communication

Imparting

information and news

or

exchanging

of

Sender

The first step in the process involves the sender of a message thinking of

an idea that he wants to communicate.

Encoding

Encoding the message into a language that can be understood.

Choosing a Medium

Choose the medium by which to send the message.

Output of Message

Communicate the message to the other individual.

Decoding of Message

The recipient of the message accepts the message and converts it into a

form that can be interpreted.

Create a Meaning

The recipient will hear the message and try to understand what is being

said.

Dealing with Noise

Noise is anything that can distract the recipient of the message from hearing it clearly.

Feedback

Once the message is clearly received and understood by the recipient, feedback occurs.

Personal Barriers that Influence

Communication

Other

Barriers that

Influence

Communication

Variable skills in communicating effectively

Variations in how information is processed and

interpreted

Variations in personal trust

Stereotypes and prejudices

Big egos

Poor listening skills

Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages

Inability to listen with understanding

Nonverbal communication

Physical barriers effective communication can be

interfered by the gap between the employees

Semantic barriers encoding and decoding errors

involve transmitting and receiving words and

symbolsfueled by the use of jargon and

unnecessary words

Communication Style

ASSERTIVE Expressive without influence or intruding others AGRESSIVE Expressive and taking advantage from others
ASSERTIVE
Expressive without
influence or
intruding others
AGRESSIVE
Expressive and
taking advantage
from others
NON-ASSERTIVE
Self denying and
tend to make others
taking advantages
from ourselves
taking advantage from others NON-ASSERTIVE Self denying and tend to make others taking advantages from ourselves

Non-Verbal Communication

Touch Body movements and gestures Facial expressions Eye contact

5 Dominants Listening Styles

Appreciative

Emphatetic

Comprehensive

Discerning

Evaluative

listener listens in a relaxed manner.

listener

emotions and body language of the speaker.

listener makes sense of a message by organizing specific thoughts

and then integrating this information by focusing on relationships

among ideas.

interprets

by

focusing

messages

on

listener attempts to understand the main message and determine important points.

listener listens analytically and formulates arguments

and challenges what is being said.

Ways to be a good listener

Capitalize on thought speed

Listen for ideas

Find an area of interest

Judge content

Hold your fire

Work at listening

Resist distractions

Hear what is said

Challenge yourself

Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids

Communication Differences Based on Gender

Biological Perspective Attribute

Inherited drives, needs, and conflicts associated

with reproductive strategies between men and

women by attributing the genders differences in

communication

Social Role Theory

Both females and males learn different ways of

speaking as children growing up

in communication Social Role Theory Both females and males learn different ways of speaking as children

Formal Communication

Vertical

Horizontal

External Routes

Up and down in the organization

Communicating within and between

work units

communicating

outside the organization

with

others

Informal Communication

Do not follow the chain of command

The Grapevine

unofficial

organization

communication media

communication

and

system

encompasses

of

all

informal

types

of

Critical Questions

1. In what circumstances formal communication types can be applied?

2. What do you have to do to be listened?