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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.

0 Introduction This chapter gives the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, the research questions, hypotheses of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitation of the study and finally theoretical framework. These sections are further discussed below: 1.1 Background of th !tud" Child growth has been internationally recognised as the best global indicator of physical ell-being in children !e "nis #$$%& #$$'(. The )*" +ulticenter ,rowth -eference .tudy %//0-#$$'( conducted in 1ra2il, ,hana, 3orway, 4enya, "man and 5.6 suggests that given the optimum tart in life, children born anywhere in the world have the potential to develop to within the same range of height and weight. 7stimates in the past suggested that height is to a large e8tent a result of the phenotypic variation in a given population and determined by genetic factors 1atty, et. al., #$$/(. 3otwithstanding individual differences, across large populations, regionally and globally, the )*" +,-. suggests that the average growth of the child should be remarkably similar when provided healthy growth conditions in early life )orld *ealth "rgani2ation, #$$9a& #$$9b& #$%$& #$$9(. )hile highest growth rates are attained during the human foetal period and early life, differences in children:s growth to age five are more influenced by nutrition, feeding practices, environment, and healthcare than genetics or ethnicity. 6 wide variety of problems can affect orphans, including increased food insecurity, stigma and discrimination, reduced access to education and economic opportunities, and se8ual abuse and e8ploitation !esmond, +ichael and ,row, #$$$& !onahue, %//;& ,ilborn et al., #$$%(. )hen a parent becomes ill, the education of a child is disrupted. 6 study of data collected in 5ganda ,ilborn et al., #$$%( shows that #9 percent of children reported a decline in school attendance and #< percent reported a decline in school performance when parents became ill. 6ccording to the children of this study, parental illness detracts from school attendance because children stay home to care for sick parents. They have increased household responsibilities and need to care for younger

children. They suffer emotional distress that interferes with school, and they have less money for school e8penses. =n another study of children in 5ganda .engendo and 3ambi, %//0(, it was found that among children %<>%/ years of age whose parents had died, only #/ percent had continued schooling undisrupted& #< percent had lost school time, and ?< percent had dropped out of school. The school-age children with the greatest chance of continuing their education were those who lived with a surviving parent& children fostered by grandparents had the least chance. Child development is an important determinant of health over the course of life. The early years of life are a period of considerable opportunity for growth, or vulnerability to harm 6nderson et al., #$$'(. Therefore, it is of great importance that children with developmental delays are identified as early as possible. !evelopmental screening is one of several strategies in the prevention and amelioration of developmental disabilities and their sequelae .onnander and Claesson, %///(. =n the 5nited .tates and 7uropean countries, developmental screening is an essential part of health care, and nurses are recogni2ed as an important member of interdisciplinary team for the care of children and families .tepans, Thompson, and 1uchanan, #$$#(. *owever, the importance of developmental screening had not been valued until recently in 4orea. "nly some public health centers started preliminary developmental screening project just a few years ago 1ang, 4im, @ark, and Aee, #$$#& *an, 1ang, and Bun, #$$%(. The rate of developmental delays has been increasing with the increment of premature births and their survival rates. 6ccording to a recent estimate, %#C to %9C of 6merican children have developmental or behavioral disorders 6merican 6cademy of @ediatrics, #$$%(. 1ut in 4orea, precise incidence rate of developmental delays is still unclear, and only the premature birth rate is estimated about ;C Committee on the data collection and statistical analysis, The 4orean .ociety of 3eonatology, #$$<(. -ecently, prematures have been registered at public health centers, but systematic analysis or follow up care has not been performed yet "h, Aee, and Aee, #$$?(.

To identify developmental problems earlier and prevent complications, the predictions of risk factors are very important. Comple8 relationships between biological and environmental factors are known to influence developmental courses and outcomes .onnander and Claesson, %///(. 6s biological factors, premature birth, congenital anomalies, perinatal brain injuries, pregnancy and delivery related complications were reported *ollomon, !obbins, and .cott, %//;(, and as environmental risk factors, maternal education levels, socioeconomic status, maternal depression, relationship with caregivers, home environment, family functioning, social support, and so forth were reported in previous researches 1eck, %///& 1radley and Corwyn, #$$#& Aiaw and 1rooks-,unn, %//'& To, Cadarette, and Aiu, #$$%(. 6mong various environmental factors, the quality of parenting is crucial for child development, and research has found that what goes on in the early years can have a vital influence on later outcomes 1urston, @uckering, and 4earney, #$$<(. *owever, studies on overall risk factors affecting child development are still very limited in 4orea. Therefore, it was attempted in this study that finding questionable developmental delays in !enver developmental screening test, and determining the risk factors for developmental delays by comparing biological, and environmental characteristics between normal development group and questionable development group. =n short, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of developmental delays, and to find the risk of a poor developmental outcome associated with e8posure to various biological and environmental risk factors. The results of this study can be used to plan prevention of developmental disorders and intervention services. Child growth is a measure of a physiological process that depends on the childDs nutrition both in utero and post-natally. This is modulated by many factors which include genetics, child illness, the care the child receives, maternal behaviour, and economic, health or emotional shocks suffered during pregnancy and during the lifetime of the child.0 !evelopment of physical capacity in the early years is the foundation of health, across the life course of an individual and is now recogni2ed as a social determinant of health.;,/ The human foetus initially differentiates and thereafter attains its highest growth rates

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during the early embryonic period. ,rowth slows during the late gestation period and continues to slow in childhood !e "nis, #$$'(. The supply of nutrients to the foetus has a major influence on growth and under-nutrition in early intra-uterine life and leads to permanent changes in body structure, physiology, and metabolism that are forerunner to diseases of the later life 1arker, %//;(. 78tensive work has been done linking childhood health to adult health using height and weight as pro8y for early life health and nutrition. *eight-for-age stunting(, weightforheight wasting( and weight-for-age underweight( have been comprehensively used in anthropometry. The height-for-age is an indicator of linear growth retardation and cumulative growth deficits. =t reflects long term failure to receive adequate nutrition and is also affected by recurrent and chronic illness. =t does not vary according to the recent dietary intake. )eight-for-height is an indicator of current nutritional status of the child and represents failure to receive adequate nutrition or an episode of illness in the recent past. )eight-for-age is a composite inde8 of height-for-age and weight-for-height. =t takes into account both acute and chronic malnutrition )orld *ealth "rgani2ation, #$%$& =nternational =nstitute of @opulation .ciences ==@.( and +acro =nternational. 3ational Eamily *ealth .urvey 3E*. '(, #$$<(. =n the assessment of growth, it is important to determine the overall trajectory of growth by observing whether the child is tracking along the growth curve or crossing over centiles towards a lower centile, and not merely a single measurement point. @oor child growth is of public health importance not only because it signifies infections, lack of adequate nutrition and poor psychological state of the mother or child, but can translate into infant and child death, developmental delays and diseases in adulthood !onovan, 1ailey, +pyisi, and )eber, #$$'(. Child growth is viewed with increased interest as the world grapples with child death due to malnutrition in the developing world and a growing burden of chronic disease of adulthood in the developed countries. This chapter provides a review of the literatures on the factors that influence child growth in developing countries Eoster, and )illiamson, #$$$(.

6n adequate response to the situation should have characteristics of both a developmental and humanitarian response. 6 combined approach needs to be planned and implemented in such a manner that a humanitarian approach supports the recovery of capabilities and coping mechanisms of communities, households and families, and it should not lead to long-term dependency on larger communities. )hen the capability of communities, households and individuals has been restored, developmental approaches should support the process of capacity development E6", #$$'(. @arents have the mandate to be involved in their childrenDs education that guides parents to take an active role in their childrenDs schoolwork and make it possible for the children to complete assigned homework. @arents should attend meetings that the governing body convenes ibid(. =t is at these meetings that parents have opportunities to understand their roles. @arents are also given opportunities to participate in various portfolios such as serving in school committees. "ne way of involving parents in their childrenDs education is to involve them in the development of their childrenDs literacy. Eor e8ample, +orrow %//0( argues that collaborative working relationship between educators and parents is one of the key factors that contribute positively towards the development of childrenDs literacy. =t is important for parents to be involved with, and supportive of, their children:s education. Children feel encouraged when their parents are informed about their progress in school. .ometimes they also need their parents: support and assistance. =t is believed that early reading e8periences with parents prepare children for the benefits of formal literacy instruction and an advantage over their peers throughout foundation phase )ade and +oore, #$$$(. 1.# !tat $ nt of th Pro%& $ The child development and growth has given parents and or the guardians the mandate to be involved in their childrenDs care. The child rights policies also legislated that parents and wider community have an important role to play in influencing the directions a child growth and development. Aiterature reveals that parents can make a significant contribution to the development of their childrenDs literacy *ornby, #$$$& !riessen et al., #$$<& and Aittlefair, #$$?(. Aiterature also shows that parents tend to be aware of the

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benefits of their involvement in the literacy development of their children ibid(. *owever, parents tend to withdraw their participation once their children reach primary school pupils !riessen, #$$<(. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the factors that influence parental involvement in the development of their childrenDs literacy at primary school pupils school level. The parental involvement and other factors are considered essential in child growth and development. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors that influence parental involvement in the development of their childrenDs literacy and also to identify main factors associated with the trajectory of childDs growth among poor children in 7ldoret Aangas estate, with specific attention on the effects of maternal education and maternal mental health.. 6fter observing the trend of behaviour of parents at a combined, the researcher felt it necessary to carry out this study. 1.' O%( cti) * of th !tud" 5sing data from two surveys of children conducted by the .ave a Child project: %. To individually link data to identify a cohort of children surveyed at ages % and < years& #. To use increases in height and weight to describe their observed trajectories of child growth& '. To e8amine associations between child growth and two key risk factors maternal education and maternal mental health( and other potential risk factors at the child, maternal, paternal and community level& ?. To identify the independent effects on childDs growth of each of risk factor considered. 1.+ R * arch ,u *tion* The general research question was: To what e8tent does maternal education and maternal mental health influence early childhood growth in poor populations of Aangas estate in 7ldoretF

%. )hat are the cohorts factors affecting growth and development of children surveyed at ages % and < yearsF #. *ow do height and weight to describe their observed trajectories influence child growth and developmentF '. )hat is the association between child growth and two key risk factors and other potential risk factors at the child, maternal, paternal and community levelF ?. )hat are the independent effects on childDs growth of each of risk factor consideredF 1.- !ignificanc of th !tud"

1.. /u*tification of th !tud" This research observed increases in childDs growth between the ages of % and < years, in resource poor settings of Aangas 7state using individually linked data. The .ave a Child @roject provided complete datasets for two consecutive survey rounds, with a follow-up of /0C.Two sensitive continuous measures of childDs growth were used: a( increase in height in centimetres and b( increase in weight in kilograms. +ost previous studies of child growth in developing countries have been predominantly case-control or cross sectional in their design and using prevalence stunting and wasting as their indices. The researcher observed that various factors that are essential in child growth and development are basically withdrawn once their children reach certain stage. *aving observed this the researcher felt that it was necessary to investigate factors that influence these withdrawal in line with child growth and development. *owever, research falls short of identifying factors that influence this pattern of involvement. =t is therefore against this background that this study seeks to investigate the factors that influence child growth and development in the development of their childrenDs literacy at senior phase. 1.0 !co1 and 2i$itation* of th !tud"

1.0.# 2i$itation* of th !tud" The researcher was aware that the availability of parents in rural communities posed a problem. The researcher therefore set aside enough time for regular visits to the areas selected for study until the required information was obtained. 6nother challenge was that the interviews were conducted in .ave a Child @roject sites only using vernacular languages only 4alenjin, 4isii, Auo, Auhya and 4ikuyu mostly(. This involved a lot of translation of data on the part of the researcher. The .ave a Child has used a pro poor sampling technique within a single state in 4enya. The resultant smaller variation in maternal education may e8plain the lack of association with child growth after adjusting for the confounding effects of other important factors at the community level such as the wealth inde8. The first survey took place when children were aged on average %%.; months and second survey when aged <.< years. The time between the two survey rounds ranged from ?/ to <; months, which may have introduced variability into the period of childDs growth. )hile data could have been restricted to a narrower age range, analyses would have lost precision. +aternal depression was only recorded at -ound % while maternal education was only recorded at -ound #. =n addition the information on breastfeeding was incomplete. =t would have been preferable to have had information regarding all these three variables at both survey rounds. Aack of information on the '# children who died was not provided at -ound # 1.3 D &i$itation of th !tud" The study is restricted to a Combined .chool within the 7ldoret +unicipality in the 3orth -ift of -ift Galley @rovince. The participants were educators, learners and parents of primary going school pupils. The researcher was investigating factors that influence child growth and development in relation to parental involvement in their childrenDs literacy development at primary school pupils. 1.4 A**u$1tion* of th !tud" This study has the following assumptions:

@arents are aware that their involvement in their childrenDs literacy development yield positive results. @arents are not aware that their involvement in their childrenDs literacy development yield positive results. @arental involvement in the development of their children:s literacy has no effect on the results.

%.%$ Out&in of Cha1t r* The outline of the study is as follows: Chapter "ne the =ntroduction =t gives background to the topic being investigated. =t presents the status quo regarding the involvement of parents in their children:s education as well as the roles parents should play in their children:s school work. =t also outlines the general overview of the study, research problem, questions, purpose, objectives, assumptions, significance, rationale, limitations and definition of terms. The ne8t is Chapter two that provides literature review. This chapter discusses the conceptual framework and related literature with regards to factors influencing parental involvement in the development of their childrenDs literacy. =t further outlines the approaches and strategies when dealing with literacy development both at primary and secondary school levels. This is followed by Chapter three, a -esearch design and +ethodology section. This chapter discusses the research process, paradigm, design and methodology. =t indicates why the researcher has chosen qualitative approach and gives advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The ne8t section is Chapter four which is data presentation, analysis and interpretation. This chapter deals with themes and sub-themes that emerged from field research. 6nalysis and interpretation of findings are also discussed in this chapter. Einally chapter five represents Conclusion and recommendations. This chapter is a summary of the research findings. =n this chapter provides recommendations on how to overcome the factors that negatively influence parents in the development of their children:s literacy at the .ave a Childcare submitted.

CHAPTER T5O: 2ITERATURE RE6IE5 #.0 Introduction This chapter involves systematic identification, location and analysis of the previous studies related to the matter of investigation. =t is useful chapter that entails analysis of casual observations and opinions related to this study. Chapter two, through the literature review, helped the researcher to get a thorough understanding and insight into past works and trends records concerning the objectives of the study. The literature review enabled the researcher to identify key areas that have thoroughly been researched on the strength of weaknesses of past researchers, and identify the gaps to be filled from these studies 6yoke, #$$'(. #.1 Hi*torica& P r*1 cti) * Child growth has been internationally recognised as the best global indicator of physical well-being in children. The )*" +ulticenter ,rowth -eference .tudy %//0-#$$'( conducted in 1ra2il, ,hana, 3orway, 4enya, "man and 5.6 suggests that given the optimum start in life, children born anywhere in the world have the potential to develop to within the same range of height and weight. 7stimates in the past suggested that height is to a large e8tent a result of the phenotypic variation in a given population and determined by genetic factors.' 3otwithstanding individual differences, across large populations, regionally and globally, the )*" +,-. suggests that the average growth of the child should be remarkably similar when provided healthy growth conditions in early life.?,< )hile highest growth rates are attained during the human foetal period and

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early life, differences in children:s growth to age five are more influenced by nutrition, feeding practices, environment, and healthcare than genetics or ethnicity. The long-term biological, psycho-social and behavioural processes in adult life that link adult life and disease processes can be attributed to physical and social e8posures during gestation, childhood, adolescence and early adult life or across generations.%'=nitial research 6nthropometric +easures *eight-for-age stunting(: The height-for-age is an indicator of linear growth retardation and cumulative growth deficits. The median height of the reference population is the point of reference. Children with height-for-age 2 score of minus two standard deviations from the median reference value are considered to be stunted while those which are minus three standard deviations away from the median reference value are severely stunted. Thus, stunting reflects long term failure to receive adequate nutrition and also affected by recurrent and chronic illness. =t represents long term effects of malnutrition and does not vary according to the recent dietary intake. )eight-for-height wasting(: weight-for-height is an indicator of current nutritional status of the child. )asting represents failure to receive adequate nutrition or an episode of illness in the recent past. The median weight of the reference population is considered the point of reference. Children whose weight-for-height 2 scores are below two standard deviations of the median reference value of the reference population are considered thin or wasted and those whose weight are below three standard deviations from the median reference value are considered severely wasted. )eight-for-age under-nutrition(: is a composite inde8 of height-for-age and weight-forheight. =t takes into account both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weightfor-age is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the reference population are classified as underweight. Children whose weight-for-age is below minus three standard deviations -' .!( from the median of the reference population are considered to be severely underweight.

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#.1.1 P r*1 cti) * of Chi&d 7ro8th Child growth is a measure of a physiological process that depends on the childDs nutrition both in utero and post-natally. This is modulated by many factors which include genetics, child illness, the care the child receives, maternal behaviour, and economic, health or emotional shocks suffered during pregnancy and during the lifetime of the child. !evelopment of physical capacity in the early years is the foundation of health, across the life course of an individual and is now recogni2ed as a social determinant of health.;,/ The human foetus initially differentiates and thereafter attains its highest growth rates during the early embryonic period. ,rowth slows during the late gestation period and continues to slow in childhood !e "nis, #$$'(. The supply of nutrients to the foetus has a major influence on growth and under-nutrition in early intra-uterine life and leads to permanent changes in body structure, physiology, and metabolism that are forerunner to diseases of the later life 1arker, %//;(. 78tensive work has been done linking childhood health to adult health using height and weight as pro8y for early life health and nutrition. *eight-for-age stunting(, weight-forheight wasting( and weight-for-age underweight( have been comprehensively used in anthropometry. The height-for-age is an indicator of linear growth retardation and cumulative growth deficits. =t reflects long term failure to receive adequate nutrition and is also affected by recurrent and chronic illness. =t does not vary according to the recent dietary intake. )eight-for-height is an indicator of current nutritional status of the child and represents failure to receive adequate nutrition or an episode of illness in the recent past. )eight-for-age is a composite inde8 of height-forage and weight-for-height. =t takes into account both acute and chronic malnutrition )orld *ealth "rgani2ation, #$%$& =nternational =nstitute of @opulation .ciences ==@.( and +acro =nternational. 3ational Eamily *ealth .urvey 3E*.(, #$$<(. =n the assessment of growth, it is important to determine the overall trajectory of growth by observing whether the child is tracking along the growth curve or crossing over centiles towards a lower centile, and not merely a single measurement point. @oor child growth is of public health importance not only because it signifies infections, lack of adequate nutrition and poor psychological state of the mother or child, but can

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translate into infant and child death, developmental delays and diseases in adulthood.%# Child growth is viewed with increased interest as the world grapples with child death due to malnutrition in the developing world and a growing burden of chronic disease of adulthood in the developed countries. This chapter provides a review of the literatures on the factors that influence child growth in developing countries.

#.1.# 5or&d P r*1 cti) =n #$$<, child growth was studied in %'/ countries and ';; national surveys produced estimates of prevalence of under-nutrition, wasting, and stunting. These estimates revealed that #$C of children below < years in low-income and middle-income countries had under-nutrition. The highest rates of prevalence of under-nutrition were in .outhCentral 6sia and 7astern 6frica with ''C and #;C affected children, respectively.%9 Current )*" estimates indicate that appro8imately %9C of children from developing countries are severely malnourished.%0 )ith #H# million deaths and #%C of !6ABs for children below < years, the number of global deaths and disability-adjusted life-years !6ABs( attributed to stunting, severe wasting and under-nutrition, constitutes the largest percentage of risk factor in this age group.%9 Ta%& #.1: 5or&d8id 1r )a& nc of 7ro8th 9 a*ur * in 0:- " ar o&d chi&dr n Countr" 6fghanistan 1ra2il 7thiopia =ndia =raq 4enya 4uwait +e8ico @eru Gietnam Iimbabwe 54 Japan 3etherlands ; ar of Data Co&& ction #$$? #$$0 #$$< #$$9 #$$9 #$$' #$$< #$$9 #$$< #$$$ #$$9 %/0' %/;% %/;$ !a$1& !i< /?9 ??%< ?/9; ?/#'' %9'$/ <<'9 <9$% 00$0 %;/' '$?% <#<? %'';$ 0'$; %;/'$ %' Und r: Nutrition '#./ #.# '?.9 ?'.< 0.% %9.< #.0 '.? <.? #9.0 %? %.$ $.; %.9 !tunting </.' 0.% <$.0 ?0./ #0.< '<.; ?.< %<.< #/.; ?'.? '<.; #.? <.9 %.; 5a*ting ;.9 %.9 %#.' #$ <.; <.; 0.< 0.9 %.$ 9.% /.% #.% '.0 #.'

5.6 %/// '/#$ Source: World Health Organisation, 2010

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The 3ational Eamily *ealth .urvey 3E*.(, 4enya, in #$$<, found ?;C stunting and ?'C underweight in children below < years of age. 6mong these children, #?C were severely stunted and %9C were severely undernourished. )asting was present in almost #$C of children surveyed. ,irls and boys were about equally undernourished. 5ndernutrition was generally lower for first born child and consistently increased with increasing birth order and shorter birth intervals. =n urban areas of 6ndhra @radesh, ''.#C children were stunted and #'./C children were underweight. Corresponding figures were substantially higher in rural areas where ?$C of children were stunted and ''C underweight. The 3E*. survey also revealed that *indu and +uslim children were equally likely to be undernourished, but Christian, .ikh, and Jain children were considerably better nourished. =t also evidenced that children belonging to .cheduled Castes .C(a, .cheduled Tribes .T(b, or other backward classes had relatively high levels of under-nutrition according to all three measures. Children from .cheduled Tribes .T( had the poorest nutritional status on almost every measure with very high prevalence of wasting #;C(. #.# =actor* a**ociat d 8ith chi&d gro8th in d ) &o1ing countri * @lausible non-genetic determinants of height as noted in secular rises in childhood and adult stature across successive birth cohorts include socioeconomic status, nutrition, environmental factors, parental and caregiver factors, illness, injuries and psychosocial stress. The reduction in child growth in any society can be thus viewed as an operation of social, economic, biological and environmental influence which operates through these determinants. Boung children in developing countries are e8posed to multiple risks, including poverty, gender biases, incorrect feeding practices, infections, maternal care giving behaviour, paternal education and urban and rural setting which detrimentally affect their physical, emotional and psycho-social development. 7ach of these factors has been considered below:

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@overty, household wealth and family income: family economic resources and food availability are important for reduction of malnutrition and improved child growth. 6t the low end of the wealth spectrum, poverty is a key determinant of mortality and poor health in all countries. !ue to its numerous dimensions, it has a profound effect on child growth as it deprives children of the capabilities needed to survive, develop and thrive and also entrenches on social and economic aspects needed for child growth. +ore than #$$ million children under the age of < years fail to reach their growth and cognitive potential due to poverty, poor health, lack of adequate nutrition and deficient care. 6 longitudinal study conducted in 5ganda noted that the majority of the growth faltering occurred in the first %# months of life. @overty leads to poor growth outcomes in children hence long term reduction in poverty is considered to be far more effective than short term management of issues. =n contrast, household wealth offers leverage for improving child growth by providing an opportunity to improve material circumstances of the family to purchase goods and services that are health enhancing. 7nvironmental factors such as overcrowding, unsafe water, lack of sanitation and sewerage and poor garbage disposal facilities have a deterministic role in childDs growth. Eamily income also allows the family to spend more on food, clean water, hygiene and sanitation, and preventive and curative health care. ,ender: associations between nutritional status and thereby child growth with reference to the gender of a child are highly variable. .ome studies reported no relation between gender of the child and the indices of nutritional status while others found that the female child either received better nutrition or was nutritionally disadvantaged. 7vidence from a study in 6ndhra @radesh, 4enya suggests that gender discrimination is notable among girl children. .everal studies in -ural 3epal '9, @eru '0, 4enya'%, '; and =ndonesia '/ have suggested that malnutrition can result from inequities in food distribution and preferential child care practices that favour certain age and se8 groups within societies even when food supplies are sufficient. The relationship between child gender and nutrition maybe moderated by a variety of factors including cultural values birth order or se8 ratio of children in the family and household decisions on allocation of supplementary food resources.

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Eeeding @ractices: longitudinal studies revealed that under-nutrition has a profound influence on the childDs physical growth as well as their cognitive development. @oor feeding continues to affect a high proportion of children in developing countries. =mproved breast feeding practices is estimated to save up to % million lives. Complementary feeding while breast feeding for up to two years or beyond could save up to half million lives by reducing the risk of infection leading to improved physical growth and motor development. This is debatable in highly endemic *=G settings of resource poor developing countries, where an estimated %<C of children born to *=G-infected mothers are infected with *=G through breastfeeding. The longer a child is breastfed by an *=G-positive mother the higher the risk of *=G infection. The childDs risk of acquiring *=G is reduced to one third when breastfed for 9 months as compared to breastfeeding for # years while e8clusive breast feeding for shorter durations are protective. "n the other hand, early introduction of supplementary feeds is suggested to encourage e8cessive weight gain, increased risk of infections and allergies, and reduce the amount of breast milk ingested by the infant. =n developing countries the protective effects of breastfeeding are compromised by malnutrition, poor environmental conditions, overdilution of formula milk, and infectious diseases. =nfections: there is considerable evidence mostly from resource poor countries that infections including diarrhoea, acute respiratory tract infection, and intestinal parasites such as hookworm, trichuris and ascaris each retard physical development. 6 third of the worldDs children suffer from intestinal helminthiasis. !iarrhoea, dysentery, *=GK6=!. and malaria are some of the infections that compound the problem of malnutrition and thereby seriously hamper child growth. #.#.1 9at rna& =actor* .ince the early %/;$Ds there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of the mother or caregiver on childDs growth. -elevant maternal characteristics include her education, mental health and self confidence, intelligence, knowledge and beliefs, autonomy and control of resources, reasonable workload and availability of time, and family and

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community social support. -elying on the strong correlation between maternal education and child health, public policy discourse has increasingly assumed that investment in womenDsD education is important for lowering infant mortality and improving child growth. +aternal 7ducation: it has often been argued that children of educated mothers e8perience lower co-morbidities such as gastro-intestinal disorders, inadequate nutritional status and lower mortality and achieve better health outcomes and higher growth than children of uneducated mothers. )hile motherDs education was found to have a positive effect on long-term nutritional status, as measured by stunting, evidence also suggests this is more important in the earlier years of child growth. .tudies in developing countries indicate that higher levels of maternal education are related to increased knowledge and understanding of health information and use of health services. 5tili2ation of health-promoting activities such as vaccination and vitamin 6 supplementation of the off-spring, by educated mothers is one such mechanism through which maternal education influences their childDs physical growth. 6 longitudinal study in 1angladesh suggests that there was improved feeding practices and cleanliness due to maternal education. +others were likely to feed the child more frequently, with fresh food and in cleaner, more protected environment. 7ducation may also affect health through a reduction in the number of pregnancies and the number of children, which allows more resources to be devoted to the surviving children. 7vidence suggests that associations between mothersD level of education and the physical growth of their children involves her greater participation in important family decisions, as mothers are more likely than fathers to allocate family resources in ways that promote their childDs nutrition. =ncreased levels of schooling are linked to higher levels of maternal intelligence. 6 study shows that intelligent mothers make appropriate decisions on resource allocation when the family economic resources are limited leading to better physical growth of the child. 4nowledge and verbal skill enhance mothersD ability to be successful in decision making situations, and empower them through access to outside resources like job opportunities.

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+aternal education may thus transmit information about health and nutrition directly, by enabling mothers to acquire information, and e8posing them to new environments thus making them receptive to modern medical treatments. =t imparts self confidence which enhances the womanDs role in intra-household decision making and interaction with health care professionals. Currently, @ublic *ealth @olicies have been increasingly focused towards improving maternal education as an important discourse towards achieving lower infant and child mortality and improving child health. 7ducation is linked to socioeconomic status of the family, which itself is one of the major determinants of child health. +aternal +ental *ealth: that poor mental health of mothers might adversely affect their child:s health and development is evidenced by a study from .outh 6sia which demonstrates an association between postnatal maternal depression and impaired child growth. Case control and cohort studies in @akistan and Tamil 3adu state of 4enya revealed that, compared to controls, infants of depressed mothers were likely to be more than twice underweight at 9 months of age '$C versus %#C( and three times more likely to be stunted #<C versus ;C(. .tudies in .outh 6sia indicated that the odds of a malnourished child having a depressed mother were './ to 0.? times higher. 6 study in ,oa, 4enya found that the more educated women are at lower risk for depression than are less educated women. 6 cohort study in -awalpindi, @akistan noted that infants of mothers with depression are at greater risk of growth failure than are infants whose mothers are not depressed. The mechanism through which depression in the mother influences the physical growth of their child probably entails reduced involvement in parental care by depressed women. +aternal 6ge and *eight: there is a strong association between infant mortality, low birth weight and poor child growth in mothers younger than #$ years of age. .tudies have suggested that prominent risk factor for decreased childhood growth is maternal short stature. #.#.# Pat rna& Education =n recent years researchers have begun to acknowledge the influence of fathers on the development of their young children. Eathers assume multiple roles in families which

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influence children in numerous ways, directly and indirectly via mothers(. The education of parents often is used as an indicator of the quality of time children spend with their parents. =t has been hypothesi2ed that better educated parents are more concerned and involved with their children:s development as they are aware of children:s developmental needs. @aternal education along with maternal education is a strong predictor of child growth as evidenced by these studies. =t is also hypothesised that more educated fathers usually earn more money and marry women of a comparable level of education. 6 study in 1angladesh showed that lack of paternal education led to diminished child growth. #.#.' ! tting: Ur%an ) r*u* Rura& 7vidence suggests that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. This is of particular relevance for stunting and underweight. 5sing data from E6" for %% countries, most of which were from 6frica, .tunting rates in urban areas were found to be <<>0;C of those found in rural areas. +ore recently 53=C7E data from '' countries in 6frica, 6sia, and the 6mericas showed that, on average, stunting was %.9 times greater in rural compared to urban areas. !emographic and *ealth .urveys from #; countries have also documented consistently lower prevalence of stunting in urban areas, with wider urbanKrural differences in Aatin 6merica compared to 6frica and 6sia. 6lthough typically prevalence of wasting is also higher in rural areas most studies have found very small urbanKrural differences and even slightly higher wasting in urban areas has been reported. 6ccording to @aratore L +cCormack #$$<( some studies tell us that children who achieve high levels of reading achievement have the benefit of parental support and involvement Taylor L @earson, #$$#& Jordan, .now and @orche,#$$$ as well as the old ones like !urkin,%/99& Clark,%/09( . This view is further supported by *enderson %/;;( who also found that learners learn more effectively and successfully when parents are involved in their childrenDs education. =nvolvement with reading activities at home has significant positive influences not only on reading achievement, language comprehension and e8pressive language skills ,est,

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Ereeman, !omitrovich, L )elsh, #$$?(, but also on pupilsD interest in reading, attitudes towards reading and attentiveness in the classroom -owe, %//%(. The reading at home pre-supposes that parents have a great role to play in this regard. 6 clear role definition and its understanding on the part of parties is crucial for positive contribution to the child:s reading activities. .tudies by 6llen L !aly, #$$#& !esforges L 6bouchaar, #$$'( show that children whose parents are involved show greater social and emotional development. These include more resilience to stress, greater life satisfaction, greater self-direction and self-control, greater social adjustment, greater mental health, more supportive relationships, greater social competence, more positive peer relations, more tolerance, more successful marriages, and less delinquent behaviours because there is free interaction between learners and parents. =n partnership, educators, families and community memberDs work together to share information, guide learners, solve problems and celebrate successes @aratore L +cCormark, #$$<(. They emphasise that partnerships recogni2e shared responsibilities of home, school and community for childrenDs learning and development. 6 common approach and understanding on the roles of all members in the partnership is paramount as it can only improve working together to the advantage of the children concerned. 1y home environment this study refers to the conditions in the households of learners. =t also wishes to find out whether conduce learning atmosphere may have any influence on the literacy development of children. *ornby #$$$( identifies two major difficulties which parents e8perience in arranging to attend school events. These are transportation and child care. @roviding assistance in each of these areas would improve attendance rates. @arents who have had a negative e8perience at school are also less likely to be involved or playing an active role in school activities .cottish ,overnment, #$$;(. *ere in .outh 6frica, studies carried out in @retoria by Johnson #$$0( revealed that the nature of home reading environment influenced the reading ability of children with learning disabilities and that reading at home contributed to the development of children:s language and literacy skills. Eamilies acquire important information about their childrenDs

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development through parent education programs ,ian2ero, %///(. .uch programs are guided by firm belief that parents are capable of learning new techniques for working with their children. ,ian2ero recommended that these programs focused on helping lowincome parents to work with their children to improve childrenDs behavior, language skills and test performance. These programs also helped parentsD ability on how they would engage in helping their children with home activities. 6ccording to Aessing L +ahabeer #$$0(, low socio-economic environments and literacy levels of parents tend to provide learners with minimal chances of e8posure reading material thereby effectively reducing their literacy abilities. Eor e8ample, the frequent lack of books, maga2ines and newspapers, radio and television at home tend to result in dissonance between home and school. This kind of dissonance diminishes the chances of school success. The low and unstable incomes leave many homes without electricity and as a result learners lack restful and stimulating study environments and their e8posure to e8periential world is limited. #.' Th or tica& =ra$ 8ork 6ccording to 1iddle %/0/( the role theory perspective emerged simultaneously across disciplines in the social sciences during the %/#$s and %/'$s. 1iddle defines role theory as concerned with the study of behaviors that are characteristic of persons within conte8ts and with various processes that presumably produce, e8plain or are affected by those behaviors. The role theory has been applied in the helping professions including counseling, social work, education and healthcare to cope with demands of individuals -heiner, %/;#& *ardy L Conway %/;;& and @ayne, %/;;(. *award %//#( e8plains a role as an e8pected pattern or set of behaviours associated with a particular position or status. =n the role theory the focus is primarily on roles in the family and work domains, considered to be the two most central institutions in peopleDs lives. *award %//#( further e8plains that roles become personali2ed for individuals. Eor e8ample, not all parents are subject to identical e8pectations and they all do not enact the parental role in the same way. 1iddle %/0/( and *award %//#( above e8plain that role theory affects behaviors of persons in conte8t as well as that it focuses on family and

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work domains as central institutions respectively. 6s much as they cover the definition of the role theory, they however, do not cover the factors that influence such behaviours. Theoretical work on roles suggests that they include e8pectations held by groups for the behavior of members, individualDs beliefs and e8pectations regarding their own behavior as a group member, and behaviors that come to characteri2e various membersD participation in the group. -oles include beliefs and e8pectations about oneDs own and other group membersD responsibilities, rights and obligations. They also include social e8pectations and scripts that guide group membersD behavior in various situations *oover-!empsey et. al, #$$?(.They also suggest that ideas about the roles they should assume in their childrenDs development education. =t also suggests that parental role beliefs and behaviors are influenced by personal ideas and those of important others about the goals of childrenDs education. They are also influenced by personal observations of, and interactions of others who also hold responsibilities related to childrenDs educational outcomes. *oover-!empsey #$$?( further e8plains that roles are also characteri2ed by their focus on goals held by the group and its individual members. These goals include sociali2ation of the child, instilling of appropriate behavior, learning specific subject matter, development of childrenDs unique talents and interests. They further argue that roles are characterised by goals which include socialisation of a child and development of children:s talents. @arents play a major role in the socialisation of children and they know these roles and play them effectively and efficiently ibid(. The researcher aligns the study with the role theory because parents and educators have to develop a balanced coping strategy that is appropriate at developing the childrenDs literacy. *owever, it is not possible for educators to come up with one best strategy because individual parents vary. The aim of the research is to help parents overcome some of the obstacles that influence them from being involved in the development of their childrenDs literacy.

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#.+ !u$$ar" of th Cha1t r Consideration of the recent research in each of these three areas suggests that these constructs are each composed of specific sets of beliefs, e8periences and behaviours that serve to position the parent in terms of their own answer to the question whether heKshe should or will become involved in hisK her childDs education ibid(. 1ased on the above constructs that influence parental involvement, it becomes evident that parents become involved in their childrenDs literacy development because they have developed a parental role. They have a positive sense of efficacy for helping children succeed and that they perceive general opportunities and invitations for involvement from their children and their childrenDs school. Erom the studies, various approaches and strategies on literacy development were discussed. 4ey role players that may constitute an effective partnership were also identified. The review of literacy also revealed some factors that influence the involvement of parents in the development of their children:s literacy. The following chapter deals in detail with the methods that were applied to investigate the factors that influence parental involvement in the development of their childrenDs literacy at secondary school level.

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CHAPTER THREE: RE!EARCH DE!I7N AND 9ETHODO2O7; '.0 Introduction =n order to achieve the objective of this research study& which is to e8amine the factors affecting child growth and development, the following methodological designs was employed. These included the description of the design used in the study, the sample utili2ed during the study, the procedures followed in obtaining data as well as information pertaining to the analysis of data and the ethical measures employed. 7ach of the sub headings mentioned above is e8plained separately below. '.1 R * arch D *ign =n order to answer the research questions and to achieve the aims of the study, the qualitative survey design was adopted. This was because the researcher was not only concerned about the factors affecting child growth and development but also about the coping mechanisms the villagers employ to survive in their difficult circumstances. =n this study, the respondents were comprised of the ordinary villagers, pupils of lower primary school cadre, and teachers. The ordinary villagers made up the residents of the area. =n order to attain the goal of the evaluation and assessment research, which is to influence policy process through the provision of empirically driven feedback, the research was limited to one estate. The people and institutions involved will be mainly residents and any organi2ations working in the area. These institutions promote development in the area in terms of children feeding programmes, orphanage care, education, and security among others. =t should be mentioned here that these are not the only institutions dealing with the issues of child care in the area. *owever, these were chosen due to the importance of collaboration between them. =t was assumed that though these institutions are informed by the same policies they have adopted different strategies and approaches

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in addressing the plight of child care and rearing. Therefore, it was one of the objectives to assess the coping mechanisms the villagers employ to survive.

'.# Th !tud" Ar a The study was carried out in Aangas 7state& in 7ldoret, which considered the largest slam in 7ldoret. Aangas area recently got the attention of +oi Teaching and -eferral *ospital in conjunction with the +arithiano Bouth ,roup held a day-long anti- jigger campaign on January #;th, #$%# at the Aangas 7state in 7ldoret. Children in the estate were also dewormed and their habitats sprayed. .taff drawn from @ublic *ealth, *ousekeeping, .ocial )ork and @ublic -elations !epartments participated in the event. Jiggers have been a menace in this place. Bou could not have come at a better time considering that people have suffered here for quite a long time. 1esides, we cannot access food and medical services,M said John )anyonyi, a ?<-year-old, who was infested with jiggers. The staff visited 4ambi ya 3guruwe, 4ambi ya )agema and 4inyago where over #< benefited from the campaign. Jiggers has afflicted children aged, #, through to 9$-yearolds in the Aangas 7state. This is one of the *ospitalDs Corporate .ocial -esponsibility C.-( activities lined up in the Einancial Bear #$%%K#$%#. The +inister for @ublic *ealth and .anitation reportedly told the ,lobal @ress =nstitute that over %$ million 4enyans are currently at risk for e8posure to jiggers. +ugo says that number will likely increase in the near future if proper health measures are not taken. Those with jigger infestations face a negative stigma from the community since many regard victims of jiggers as cursed. =nformation posted on the 6hadi 4enya Trust 64T( website states that over #.9 million jigger infested 4enyans are registered with 64T.6 report carried in the !aily 3ation /th 6ugust, #$$0( says +urang:a leads in those infected with Jiggers in the country. The area is prone to drugs a long with other unpleasant behaviours that are obviously e8perienced in most slams in the world and as usual most of the youth in this area were not educated, most of the time they were roaming from here to there looking for money through all means including stealing properties to go and sale at a through away price

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thus hurting the owners of such items, some were also being caught and made to call it an end of their journey in life which was not good at all to young people dying at a very low age of even below %;. 7ven though the free education system had started in 4enya, their worries was, how to sustain themselves with those other needs like food, clothing and few lu8uries whereas most of them came from very poor back grounds that make it hard for them to survive if they were to go back to school. This was one greatest challenge that one can e8perience in Aangas slum. The government should channel more funds to schools located in slum areas to enable children access education, an official with an international non-governmental organisation has said. .am )anyonyi, the distribution supervisor of Children =nternational 4enya said that most of the schools in slum areas are over populated and learning for this disadvantaged children has proved to be a big problem. )anyonyi further said that schools in such areas were lacking enough desks, learning materials library and adequate classrooms to meet the ever increasing number of pupilsD enrolment every term. *e was speaking at 4apkenduiywo primary school in Aangas estate, 5asin ,ishu County where the organi2ation donated more than #$$ desks to the institution which has a population of more than ?,$$$ pupils. The little known school situated in the sprawling langas estate made headlines when +au +au war veteran, 4imani +aruge then aged ;$ years old enrolled at the institution in standard one saying he wanted to learn how to read the bible. *owever his dream was cut short in #$$; following the post election violence that hit the country forcing him to seek refuge at the 7ldoret 6.4 showground before relocating to 3airobi. The school head teacher Jane "mbicha said the school was faced with various challenges ranging from lack of desks and te8t books owing to overwhelming number of pupils looking for admission to the institution every year. The school has a lot of problems with a population of more than ?,$$$ it is not easy to teach such students complained. .he appealed to donors and other well-wishers to come to the assistance of the school by providing material and financial support to enable the children pursue their learning.

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The data collection was done at .ave a Child is an international project investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty across four developing countries namely 4enya, 7thiopia, Tan2ania, @eru and others. =t follows a total of %#,$$$ children of two birth cohorts, the first born in %//?-/< and the second in #$$%-$#.There have been two survey rounds of data collection completed to date. The first was in the year #$$# and second in #$$9-$0. This section provides a background to .ave a Child @roject relevant to the current research. =t uses quantitative data, for the second birth cohort of #$$$ children born in #$$%>$# in Aangas 7state, 4enya collected at the first and second rounds. =t describes the particular characteristics for which data were abstracted, the methods applied in the quantitative analysis of the trajectory of growth in this younger cohort of children followed to the age of five. The .ave a Child @roject selected #$%% children born in the year #$$%-$#, from twenty sentinel sites. They used a sampling methodology known as sentinel site surveillance system through a pro-poor approach, which consisted of a multi-stage semi-purposive method. 6 hundred households were then randomly selected from each sentinel site using a list drawn from the %//% census in such a way that they were uniformly spread. Three areas across *yderabad city were also included in the survey to study the urban slum. '.' Targ t Po1u&ation '.+ !a$1& !i< and !a$1&ing Proc dur .ampling must be done whenever one can gather information from only a fraction of the population of a group or a phenomenon which one wants to study. =deally, one should try to select a sample which is free from bias ,reenfield, #$$#(. =t allows the researcher to select a fraction of respondents from a population. There are basically two types of sampling procedure, namely, random and nonrandom. -andom sampling techniques give the most reliable representation of the whole population, while non-random techniques, relying on the judgment of the researcher or an

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accident, cannot generally be used to make generali2ations about the whole population )alliman, #$$9(. =n purposive sampling, information-rich cases are those from which one can learn great about issues of central importance to the purpose of the study Cohen et al., #$$0(. =n purposive sampling which is often a feature of qualitative research, the researcher handpicks the cases to be included in the sample on the basis of their judgment of their typicality or possession of the particular characteristics being sought. =n this way they build up a sample that is satisfactory to their specific needs. 6s the name suggests, the sample has been chosen for a specific purpose ibid(. =n selecting the site and the participants the study applied purposive sampling because they were seen as instances that were likely to produce valuable data. The study was conducted at a combined area from the site of .ave a Child @roject. The researcher used this particular area because it starts from standard % to ; and includes the groups under study. The researcher had chosen this site because it observed a trend of behaviours by parents and would like to investigate if the same trend happened at the project area where the study was undertaken. The parent population of group # to ' learners is ;%. 6bout ';C of the parent population participated in the study. 6fter giving the parents a brief e8planation about the purpose of the research, parents willingly wanted to participate in the study, hence the ';C. 6 bout '% parents of group # to ' parents were interviewed. The interviews enabled the researcher to gather information about the parents: involvement in the development of their children:s literacy at secondary school level. =t was from this information that the researcher was able to identify the activities done by parents, resources they used, roles they played and support they provided. The information was further arranged into themes relating to the study questions. '.- Data Co&& ction Proc dur

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The study utili2ed primary data-gathering methods such as interviews, focus group discussions and observation throughout the project period, but mostly during the quick appraisal phase. .econdary data such as census materials, ministry of health and world health organisation data on the study communities, national and city government development plans for children, and previous research on children and urban poor communities were simultaneously gathered and reviewed. The study used the following research instruments in data collection& interview schedule, participatory observation, and focus group discussions. !ata for the research study were essentially collected using interview questions and review of documents from government institutions and 3,"s. '.. Data Co&& ction In*tru$ nt* =n line with the protocols of a case study design, the used a combination of methods as follows& .tructured interviews, .emi-structured interviews, Eocus group discussions, and !ocument analysis. '...1 Int r)i 8* !ch du& 6n interview is an interaction between the interviewer and the interviewee& it is also referred to as an interchange of views between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest for production of knowledge Cohen et al, #$$$(. 6n interview is a research technique considered as one of a range of survey methods in social research =bid(. )hat may be used as a means of evaluating or assessing a person in some respect, for selecting or promoting an employee, for testing or developing hypothesis, for gathering data, as in surveys or e8perimental situations, or for sampling respondentsD opinions, as in doorstep interviews. -esearch interview has been defined as a two-person conversation initiated by the interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining research-relevant information and focused by the researcher on content specified by research objectives of systematic description, prediction or e8planation =bid(. =nterviews can be structured, unstructured and semi-structured. .tructured interviews can be defined as a professional discussion between two persons or one person and a group of persons *itchcock L *ughes, %//'(. The advantages of this method are that the

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interactions and behaviour of the interviewee can be observed and results can be noted. =t can also be used to lessen tension between the individual and the researcher and even motivate the subject to participate in the research. =n the unstructured interview scope is allowed for the interviewer to introduce new material into the discussion which the researcher had not thought of before hand but only arose during the course of the interview *itchcock L *ughes, %//'(. This type allows the interviewer greater scope in asking questions in their own ways. The aim is to provide for a greater and freer flow of information between researcher and the subject. This kind of interview incorporates everyday social interaction. 5nstructured interviews are fle8ible& few restrictions are placed on respondentsD answers. =f planned questions are asked, the queries, vocabulary, and order are altered to suit the situation and subjects. .ometimes respondents are encouraged to talk freely and fully concerning a particular issue, incident or relationship. =n an unstructured interview one can gain an insight into the character and intensity of a respondentDs attitudes, motives, feelings and beliefs and can detect underlying motivations and unacknowledged attitudes. The researcher used semi-structured interview because of its fle8ibility @atton, #$$#(. =t allows depth to be achieved by providing the opportunity on the part of the interviewer to probe and e8pand intervieweeDs responses. This atmosphere enabled the researcher to clarify points and raise fresh questions so as to gain a deeper meaning phenomenon. .emi-structured interviews do not offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a respondent to choose, but rather listen to how each individual responds to the question Cohen et al, #$$$(. The researcher was granted permission by the respondents to use a tape recorder. The ne8t section will deal with focus groups as the second instrument of data collection. '.-.# =ocu* 7rou1 Di*cu**ion >=7D? 6 focus group discussion is an interview with a small group of people on specific topic @atton, #$$#(. Eocus group s can be useful to obtain certain types of information or circumstances would make it difficult to collect information using other methods

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*ancock, #$$#(. +embers of each focus group should have something in common and characteristics which are important to the topic of investigation ibid(. 6nderson %//'( also defines focus group as a comprised of individuals with certain characteristics who focus discussion on a given issue or topic. Aitoselliti #$$'( further defines focus groups as small structured groups with selected participants normally led by a moderator. They are set up in order to e8plore specific topics and individuals views and e8periences, through group interaction. Eocus groups are special groups in terms of purpose, si2e, composition and procedures. =t can be described as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a primitive, non- threatening environment, where participants share and respond to comments, ideas and perceptions. They are normally made up of people with certain common characteristics and similar levels of understanding of a topic rather than aiming for diversity ibid(. =n practice one would have to strike a balance between similarity and difference as regards potential participants, as often too homogeneous a group may result in a fewer diverse opinions and e8periences. *omogeneous in terms of socioeconomic status but incompatible in terms of gender. This is usually determined by research questions being investigated Aitoselliti, #$$'(. The researcher conducted three focus group discussions. =n this study they are referred to as E,!s. =n this study focus groups were learners of: @re 5nit% @re 5nit # and standard %, #, ', and ?. The composition of these focus groups was: FDG Pre Unit 1 -24: Group 1 learners FDG 1 2: Group 2 learners FDG 3 4: Group 3 learners The groups had commonality of being learners who were doing the groups under investigation. The use of E!,s in this study enabled the researcher to obtain quality data in a social conte8t. Aearners could therefore consider their own views in the conte8t of the views of the others through participation in the group discussion. Aearners could also get closer to understandings of and perspectives on issues under discussion.

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*oggart et al #$$#( further highlight the following advantages of E,!s: They afford rich insight into the realities defined in a group conte8t and in particular the dynamic effects of interaction on e8pressed beliefs, attitudes, opinions and feelings& they are communication events in which the interplay of the personal and the social can be systematically e8plored& +embers become more aware of their perspective and when confronted with disagreement they are prompted to analyse their views more intensely than during the individual interview& focus group discussion can replicate social relations and interactions because communication within the group becomes multidimensional, intra-personal, interpersonal and trans personal. 6s a result, group responses are more than the sum of individual responses& focus groups provide a forum for people to share and test their views with others& the researcher hears not only what people say, and how they say it, but how participants interact, whether views are challenged and how people respond to challenges. The ne8t instrument that was used is a document analysis. '.-.' Docu$ nt ana&"*i* Aeeds #$$%( describes document analysis as a detailed and systematic e8amination of documents on a particular organi2ation for a purpose of identifying pattern or themes. The primary documents analysed by the researcher included junior senior phase minute book from #$$9 up to #$$; and policies formulated during the said period regarding parental involvement at the school. The aim of collecting these documents was to find out whether the school had put in place any policies regarding parental involvement at the school. The junior secondary minute book which entailed communication during meetings, as well as agendas of meetings was looked at. This assisted the researcher to see whether any literacy issues were up for discussion in the meeting. 6nalysis of documents was undertaken on available documents that were given to the researcher. These entailed attendance register for meetings of .chool ,overning 1ody .,1( and parents, Eoundation phase minute book for meetings between parents and educators, .enior @hase minute book for meetings between group %# educators and group

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%# learners and minute book for meetings between group %# educators and parents of group %# learners. '.0 6a&idit" and R &ia%i&it" of In*tru$ nt* '.3 Data Ana&"*i* Terre 1lanche et al. #$$#( maintain that data analysis involves reading through your data repeatedly and engaging in activities of breaking the data down and building it up again in novel ways. They identify steps to be followed in data analysis which the researcher adhered to as outlined hereunder: The researcher familiari2ed herself with the data so that she had a clear understanding of the meaning thereof and what interpretations could be sought out of it. The researcher arranged data according to themes and translated into 7nglish where necessary. This means that the researcher broke down data into meaningful pieces. The researcher compared sections of te8t that appeared to belong together more closely and grouped them into sub-issues. This involved putting together interpretation and fi8ing weak points for e8ample bias and objectivity on the part of the researcher.

Dono)an@ C.@ Bai& "@ 2.@ 91"i*i@ E. A 5 % r@ 9. #$$'. Prime age adult morbidit and mortalit in rural !"anda: e##e$ts on %ouse%old in$ome& agri$ultural produ$tion and #ood se$urit strategies. 4igali, +inistry of 6griculture, 6nimal -esources and Eorestry, Eood .ecurity .upport @roject =AO. #$$'. 'easuring impa$ts o# ()*+,)D- on rural li.eli%oods and #ood se$urit , by C. .hannon .tokes. -D dimensions, January available at www.fao.orgKsdK#$$'K@7$%$#aNen.htm(.

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=o*t r@ 7. A 5i&&ia$*on@ /. #$$$. 6 review of current literature of the impact of *=GK6=!. on children in sub-.aharan 6frica. ,)D- 2///, %? .uppl. '(: .#0<>.#;?.

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