You are on page 1of 415

www.inclusivedemocracy.

org/fotopoulos



v v

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

2010

h ttp://www.inclusivedemocracy. org!fo topoulos/


17 - 104 33
.: 210 8252279 - Fax: 210 8210506
e-rnail : gordiosbooks @ yahoo gr
.

ISBN 978-960-6826-18-4

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

EINAI \f.:
r, \
f , OXI

C c )L1:

v.- -p')3.0

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

nn n n n
[] n
n n n

, nn n .
n n n
n n n n
. nnn n
, , ..
nn
1. n n n n n
n nn n n n
n . n
n n
,
n, nn, n, ,
.. , ,
.
2. n n nn/n
n n. n n n
n , '
n / .
3. n [PayPa] n
n . fi n.
n n n nn n
n n
n . n n !

PayPa [ editors i ncusiedemocracy.org]:


www. incusiedemocracv.org/pd/stiriksi.htm
:
n n
. : 211/636454-31
I BAN : GR95011 02110000021163645431
. SWF [BIC]: ETHNGRAA

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

(, , 1985

1987)
r (, ,


, , 1993)

1991)

(, , 1997)
Towards an InclusiveDemocracy ( Cassell,

London & New York, 1997 & 1998)

(, , 1999)

Per Una Democrazia Globale

(Eleuthera, Milano, 1999)

:
( , , 1999)

(,

, 1999)

, , : a (

, , 2000)
-
( , , 2000)
,

, , 2002)
Vers uneDemocratie Generale: UneDemocratie Directe, Eco nomique, Ecologique
et Sociale

(Seuil, Paris, 2002)

Hacia una Democracia Inclusiva


Umfassende Demokratie

(Nordan, Montevideo, 2002)

(rotzdem Verlag, Grafenau, 2003)

- (

, , 2003)
,

(, , 2004)

(, , 2005)

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
The Multidimensional Crisis and Inclusive Democracy ( IJID, 2005- electronic
edition )

!H't.Btftf\.81!E:E::E. ( Jinan, 2008)


-10

( , , 2008)

The Pink Revolution in Iran and the "Left" ( IJID, 2009-electronic edition )

, (, ,
2009)

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

......................................................17

1
............23
................................................................23
....................................................................26
..................................................................29
................................................................31
..........................................................................33

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

.35

.........................................

35

....

39

......


1965-73 ............40
..........44

3

......................................................49
, ............49
............................50
..54


2. - -
3.
4.

5.
1.

54

..................................................

56

........

57

................

63

........................................................

65

....................................................

4

..................67

67

..................................................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

69

............................

76

................................

79

..........................

89

....................................................

89

..............................................................

94

......................

99

..............................................

103

......................................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

107

......................................................

107

..............................................

115

..........................................................................

124

................................

128

......................

7

;

........

135
135

..............................................................

138

..................

142

......................................................

146

................................

149

....................................................................

156

....................................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

8

/

167

....................................................................

167

......................................

.171

.....................................................

178

........................


/
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

1.

180

..............................................

187

..........................

198

..................

207

....................................................

223

..................................

231

............................................

TPITO

241

..............................

:
2009 ............................................................241
:

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

245

..............................................

247

............................

....................

........................

251
255

260

............

10

269

....

269

..............

........................................

272

'

............................

276

......................................................

283

289

..................................................................................

....................

292



11

299

302

..........................................

........................................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

'
; ..................................................304

12


..................................................311
-
....................................................313
..........................321
..................................323

324

........................

) ...................................... 329

(, ) ..............332

13
............339
-,
... ..........................................................340
..................................344
1.

345

........................................

2.

347

............................

3.

351

4.

356

......................................................................

........................................

5.

361

..............................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos




14

;
;

373

............................................

;

1.

2.

373

....................

381

............

385

..............

386

............................................

387

..............................................

15

395

....................................

395

............................................................

397

........

400

........................................

409

............................................................................

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos



,
, -
!
, ,

.
,
,
, , ,
. ,

, ,
,
,
,

,
,
,
.

,
.
,

.
,
a ( 4
)

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
18

r .
r r
. ,
r r

, r
. , ,
r
( !)
, ,
,
,

. ,
,


.
, ,

,
. , ,
, ,
, ,

. ,
, ,

r.

r (
r )
r r ,
, .

,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

19

,
,
,
,

, ,

. , , (
, a
r )
. ,
21
,
, r
( r
),
( "
).
, , ,
r,
, ,

, . ,

, , .

a , ,


. ,

, ,
/
,
. ,
,
( ) , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
20

r ,
,
.

, , 2010

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos


,
,
,
.
,
( 15 2008) ,
, (
, ,
,

, ..)
.
,
,
.


,

,
,

.
(
, ), ,
' a
. , ,
(!) , :

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

24

,

,
, ,
,
( ,
) .


,
, ,
..,
,
..

,


, r

.
r
,
, a
r r r1. ,
, ,
,
.

, .. r
,
-
. ,
, .

1. . .., . , . , . .. (. . 13).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

25

, (
) ,

..,
..
,
a ,

-
2

,


.

, ,

,

3.
, ,
,

(
)
, ,
/
.
, ,

2. . . ,
,
, . Steven Best (, 2008).
3. . , - 10 'v ( ,
2008).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

26

, a
.
,
, ,
6
6
4
- 6
.


, 6 ,
,
, 6,
, ,
, 6 6
. 6 r 6 6
,
6 6
, 6. 6
2010 -
r,
,
- r .
6 , 6
, 6 6
, 6
6 ( 6 ).
6 6 6 ,
6 6

4. . , , v
(, 2009).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

27

-
- ,

( ) ,
.

, ,
, , ,
,

,
a : , ,
Marfin ,

' (
),

,

.


,
. ,


, , -

. ,

,
, .
, ,

,

- -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
28

r !-
.
, ,
,

.
r
" , 5.
60%
( , ),
42% .
, , ,
,

(
), ,
(
,
,
). , ,
,
, , ,
, ' a ,
... ,
6 .

,
-, ,
,
, r ! t

5. , uropean Social Survey-ESS' ( 2003).

6. . .., . , , w (21/4/2009) &


, w (29/5/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

29

,
,
-

-
, !
, a

.


. ' ,
, Siemens
, ,
:
. , ,
, ,
,
,
, "

.
, Siemens


.

,
,

.

v v
,
, , ,
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
30


> .
, -
' '
(.
. 8).
7,
,
<<
,
.


,
..
,
, ,
,
.
,
,

, ,
,
,
,
-


.
,

. -

7. . , : v vy v
v ( , 1999).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

31



,
, , ,
, , ..
>>
brain drain,

. ,
,
,
,
!

,
,
,
, ,
,

( ),

a (
!) , ,
.


, ,

'
.
2007,
, ,
.
, ,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
32


, 8. ,
,
,
/
:
.
,

. ,

,
. , ,
( )
,
9,
,
" (
). ' (
)
,
.
,
,
, ,
,

.
, ,
( )

8. , "The deadly fires in Greece: a tragedy or the ineitable outcome


ofthe criminal elites' actiities?", The Intemational Joumal ofInclusive Democracy, vol.
3, . 4 (October 2007) - : ""
, w (1 2007).
9. . .. Ted Trainer The Intemational
Joumal of Inclusive Democracy. http://wiww. nclusiedemocracy.or&(joumal/

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

33

,
r
, ..

v
, ,
, - -
, .
, .

,
( r r),
( r)
,
,
r . ,


.
( r)
,
,
-
r . ,
r
, ,
. , ,


,
r ,
,
.
,

r , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
34

. ,
, ,
,
() ,
,

! ,
(. . 13), 10

!

10. , . ,

. , . ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos


, ,
,
,
' 6%
(1950-80) 1
- ,

. , ,
(1980-2000)
1,5%2,
(2000-2008)
4,2%3, (
)-
4.
, , ,

,
() 1. . . , vv v v
v ( 1993) . 7. on line:
http://www.inclusiedemocracy.org/fotopoulos/greek/grbooksconsensus/grbooksconsensushtm
2. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2002, Table, 4.1.
3. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.1.
4. . : ...
20-25 , (10-11
/7/2004).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
36

!
30 /
( )
( 15 )5 -

. , ,
,
.
,
1980
(
) . ,
,
1980
, .
, ,

,
.

,
6
1980,
,

. ,
, ,
,
, ,
. , 1980-1999
, (20002006) (. . 8)

5. World Development Indicators 2010, Table 1.1.


6. , ,
28% 1987, 6% 1980,
!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

37

,


1960 1970.
,

, 19807
, ,

1960 1970,

, ,
.

1980-99
3% r ,
.
,
, 1950
,
44% 59%
8. , 1980
,
r . , r
, ,
.

. ,
,
- .
, r
1950 ( 47% 80% ) ,

7. 7,5%
'70, 4,5% '80.
8. World Development Indicators 2010, .. Table 2.3.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

38

. ,
1990-2000 2,6%
(4,8%) 9,
,

2000-2008 4,8%
2% 10.


. ,

:

,
,
(
, )

,
, .

, ,
(,
) 1920,
.
, , ,
1940 -
-

11,

.

9. World Development Indicators 2006 & 2010, Table 4.1.


10. World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.1.
11. . , v vv: v (, 1985
& 1987). on line :
http://www.inclusiedemocrag-.orglfotopoulos/greek/grbooksexartimeni/grbooksexartimeni.htm

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

39

v v v v

, ,
,
.
,
, .
40%

. ,

33% 12,
53% 1929
66% 1938!


( , )
. ,

.
(),
,
, ,
.
, 13
,
().
, ,
, 1960,

12. 44% 1950


38% , 32,5% 2008 (
100% v!). . vvv, .. . 2
World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.4 & 4.5.
13.
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
40


>> 14,
a .

(
1950)
15. ,

1970
16
,
.

v v>
1965-73

1965-73,


,
/. ,
,
,
.
,
-

14. (. )
(0,34
0,26 1990, )
1950.
15. , 2/3
, 1960 , ,
,
( vvv, ..).
16. , 2.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

41

,
,
, 1.220.000
17.
,
-
. , ,
,
18,
,
. , ,
,

, /
14% 1961-71 19,

.
,
,
, a
,
.

, 1974,

20. ,
1968-73 ,
,
. ,
, ( -

17. . , ,
(22/4/2010).
18. . , v vv, v , .., . 117-30.
19. . -, v v (, 1983),
. 108.
20. . . , : , , (, 1986).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
42

,
),
.
, ,

,

, 21.
, , " a

. ,
(, ,
, , a)
( )

, .
, ,
, ,
,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
,
. ,

,
, ,
(
). , , '70,
, , ,
. ,
196573 ( ) 1974
.

21. . , v vv, .., . 172-82.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

43



,
( )
1965-73. , ,

,
,
.
, ,
,
, .

,
, 1980,
3% .
,
(, ),
- 22,

.
,

,
23.
, ,

,
,
- -
.

( )

22. . Fotopoulos, Key sectors in the Greek Economy, Greek Economic Review, 2,
. 1, . 78-86.
23. . , v v, .., . 198-206.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

44

. (
)

,
, ,
,
, -
- .


, ,
,
.
, r
15%
, (56%) r r
,
. , ,

r
(1965-73) 3%
r ,
(, , , , )
, , 24
, ( 28%
) , r
.
, r
40% r
1950-89, 2/3
(, , ).
r

24. OECD, Economic Surveys: Greece 1978, . 29.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

45


, .
,

, 25.



" ,
. , ,
,
, ,
, ,
,
-
. 26
(
),
.

,
. ,
,
- ,
,
- (
-

25. 1986-89
(27,5% 5% -C). ,
. (. Papandreou, Intemational Review of
Applied Economics, .., . 13)
8% , 1960,
10% ,
1970 1980.
26. . Papandreou, Finance and industry: the case of Greece, Intemational Review of
Applied Economics, 5, . 1 (1991), . 9.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
46

)
, r
27.
r,
,
28. ,
1993,
( )
, ,
.
,
,
. , ,
,
,
,
. , , ,
'90,

, ,
(. . 6).
.
,
, ,
/ .
,
a
. ,
r
: , ,

27. 1980, (, , , ,
, , , , ) 60%
2/3 .
28.
( 1980 1987)
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

47

, , ,
/
..,
. ,


. , ,
,
(. . 14),
a
.
. '
,

- -
.
, , "
, , 29,
'70,
'80, 20%
1970 , ,
, ! 30
, ,

, ,


. ,


.

29. . 6, vvv v vw
(6, 1993), 1.
30. World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.2.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

,
, ,
(
-
, , , ,
, ,
..),
, , r
; , ,
,

, r r
, ,
, :
) r

)
, .
, ,
,
, 15%
1950, 20% r 1960-79 1.

1. , v v, v , ( 1985), . 5.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
50

, ,
, ,
,
. , ,
2 1960 ,
,
.


.
,

1970,
, ,
,
.

, ,
,
1965-73 ,
(

/
)
,
,
,
1981
.

2. . , vv
( 1993), 13.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

51

,
. ,
, ,
,

", , ,

, . , ,
"
. ,

.
, , ,
,
(, r ..)
,
3. ,
74% 1990,
57% r . ,

, 2008
10% r , 16% r 4,
r
(5% 2009!)5
. ,
.. ,

,

, r !
3. OECD, Economic Surveys, Greece 1986-7, . 38.
4. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.8
5. 2010,
, , 7%
2008 5% 2009,
.
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
52

,
,

.

,
" ,
,

( ..).
,
" 6,
" ,
,
.

; ' ,
, ,
. 1990 7,

(
) , 1980, 2/3
(, , , )

8 . ,
9, , 27
/,
, (
) -

6. . -v, v v, (, 1983),
. 60.
7. Eurostat, Poverty in figures: Europe in the early 1980s (EC, 1990).
8. . /, ( ) 13,6%
21,5% ( 50%
).
9. ., , , (7/10/2008).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

53

(20%) 10. , 6 6
6 6 ( 6
6 6 , 6 6, 6) 6 11.
6,
6 6 ( )
6 6 12. ,

( )
6 6 6 1970
(47% 1977)13, 6 17 6 6, 1994, 46%
614, 6 6
6 15 ( ,
6 , ,
, !).
, , 6 6

. , 6
"6 6 r
. 6 6
( 6 r
6 6) 6

"6. ,
a -

10. / (10/3/2010).
11. Gini 6 (6 6 6 6 6) 6 25% 6
34% ( 6 !) World Development
Indicators 2010, 6.., Table 2.9.
12. '90 6 53% 6 ,
6 6 83% 15 . (Eurostat, BasicStatistics ofthe European
Union, 1996, Table 3.16) 6 6.
13. Eurostat, Review 1977-86 (EC, 1988).
14. Eurostat, Basic Statistics ofthe European Union, 1996, Table 3.41.
15. . , vv (14/7/2006).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

54

16,
.

-

-
,
.
, ,
,
,
:

, '
.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
() ,
-
, (
!)
.
.


1.

,
, ,

16. R. Pollin and Alarcon, "Debt crisis, accumulation csis and economic restructuring in Latin
Ameca", Intemational Review ofApplied Economics, 2, (1988), . 131-32.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

55

, , .
, ,
,
17. , ,

. r
r . ,
,


r (, ..). , , r


(
, r
r
..), ,
r
. , , r
,

,
.
,
-
-
. ,
r
,

. ,

, r

17. . v vv, .., . .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
56

,
.
, ,

, r (
),
, ,
,
( , , , , ..).

18. a
, , .
, , ,
(
), ,
( )
,

.
2. - -

,
, ,

,
, .
,
,
,
. , ,

18. 14% 1960 27% 1981 . -v,


v (, 1983) . 26-7. '90
47% 17% . 15
(Eurostat, Basic Statistics of the European Union, 1996), Table 3.16.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

57

7,7%, -
! (. . 7) 19.
,
,

. , , ,
( , ,

), , ,
r .

,
20.
3.



.


r
, ,
.
,

19. 3,6% 1984 7% 1997 (OECD, Survey on Greece 1998,


. 3) 7.7% 2005-08 ( World Deelopment Indicators 2010, Table
2.5.
20. , 1951 1981
, 1990 47%
50% . ,
, ,
, , ,
>>. . ,
, (Compendium/BBC, 1983). .
, .., . .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
58

, ,
, . , '60
(1960-73), , ,

,
(8,8%
5,1% ). , , 1972,
80%
. , 30
/,
77% !21 ,

,
(,
, )
,
.


-
, ,
, ,
-

, .
,

". ,
, ,
,
" . , ,
, ,

21. , 2006 $15,440 (


$ 20,101 ) World Development Indicators
2008, Table 2.4.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

59

, ,
.
,
.

,
, . 22,
1970-90
"
/ ,
. ,

,
, ,
.
, ,

/23. ,

,
( .. )
, .
,

. , , ,

! 24
, ,
, ,
( , )

22. vv, .., . 3.


23. " 82% 1960, 81% 1965, 54%
1977 59% 1990. vv, .., . 3.
24. 54% 77% , World
Development Indicators 2010, .., Table 4.4.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
60

.

25,
, .
, ,
,
, "
26. , ,
,
.
, 1957,

100 . , , ,
. , '
, ! , ,
, ,
. , 2008,
4 . ,
,
. , ,
" ,
! 27
,

.
,
. , , -

25. /, 25%
, 54% 61%

. ( World Development Report
2003, World Bank, Table 3.).
26.
21% 1981 34% 1985,
22,4% 23,4%!
27. & ,
, v( (31!1!2009).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

61




.
:
) (
28)
,
) .
,

,
, :

(
1974)
,
,

1981.

, ,
1980
,
1980,
(18,8% 19,6% ). ,


( 70%
1980)
. ,
.
, ,

28. 146%
1972.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
62

1981 (
, r 20 , )
r ,

29. ,
,

,

. r
1970 ,



30. , ,
r
!31


- - ,
. , ,

, r
,
,
,

.
, ,
1960 ,
, ,

29. 13% 1980 25% 1987 (OECD, Economic Surveys, 1989/90, .., . 77).
30. OECD, Economic Surveys, 1989/90, . 79.
31. 54% 77% , World
Development Indicators 2010, .., Table 4.4.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

63

r
( , a
),
r r
( ,
, ). ,
, r (

) , 2007 14% ,
32.

r
/. ,

,
,
,
.
4.


(
)
. ,
33, r
,

, , .
, , -

32. . , < 14% , (20/2/2008).


33. Takis Fotopoulos, 'conomic restructuring and the debt problem: the Greek case",
Intemational Review of Applied Economics, 6, . 1 (1992), . 38-64
( Monthly Review) . 5355, 1992.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
64




, ,


.


. 34,
,
,
. ,
10%
17% ,
( )
!35


,
/ , '80
16% , '90
28% ,
22% 6
, ,
'80
,
, .
, ,
'
, ,

34. vv, .., 15.


35. WB, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.4, 4.5 & 1.1.
36.
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

65

,

,
37. , ,
,
,
, .
5.

,
,
, ,
,
38 ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
.

. , ,
, ,
.
46,5% 1970-85,
,

, . ,
, ,

37. . Takis Fotopoulos, 'conomic restructuring and the debt problem: the Greek case",
..
38. 1987 50% 80%
, 1994 53% 83% . Eurostat, Basic Statistics
ofthe EU (1989) & (1996), Table 3.16.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
66

17%
1977-85 39, 25% (
8%!)40.
, ,
,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, r,
,
r (
),
(, ..),

. , ,
,
r, ,
,

,
.
, , r
,
.

39. -v, v v, .., . 25-6.


40.
Fedch Sclmeider, Joharmes Kepler Uniersity
of Linz. . Yoray Liberman, "Greek Wealth Is Eeywhere but Tax Forms", The New
York mes (1!5/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

v

.
,
, .
,
, ,
,
- ,

,
! ,
, ,

'80 (
!), . , 1974/5
1982/3, 9,9%,
39,4% 1!
, ,
, , ,
: , -

1. . , : , , , (, 1986).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
68

2 ,
,
. r, ,


,
3. ,
, , 1980 1985
( 5% 1980 16% 1985)
15% 1984 ,
, 3% r . ,
,
,

, . ,

. ,
, , ,
,
.
r
, , m ,
/, r :
. ,

,
r
.
, ,

2. 1981 1984, 4%
8,2% (, vv vv, ).
-
.
3. 1984 18%
, 12,6% 1980. v ,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

69


. ' ,
,
(
4),
, ,

, , .

,
,


'80 .
,



, ,

,

,
-
() .


: v

, ,
,
:

4. . .. 1986.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

70


(

),

,

.

,
1984 5:
, , , ,



,

.
,
, . ,

,
, -

-
, - ,
(, )
..
,


.
a , ,
-

5. . , v v: v , ( 1985),
, 1984.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

71

r r ,
, ,
.
,

, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,



, .. "
,
,
1980 ,
50%6. , r
, r a
( ),


, .

1980,

( - r
-
r) r ,

, ,
1981 7,

6. OECD, Economic Surveys, 1989-90, . 78.


7. 27% 1960, 34%
1970 41% 1979 , '
65% 1989!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
72

. ,

,
,
: ( 2/3)
.
,
, ..
1980,
,
8.
, ,

. ,
(
) ,
a , ,
. ,
, .
,
,

. , ,
:
,

.
15
9. ,
1980,

2,9%,

8. OECD, Economic Surveys, 1986-7, .., . 36.


9. 344.000
1974 467.000 1981 693.000 1989,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

73


10.
, ,
11,

.
,
1980
, 1970 12.
,
(
)
,
. ,
,

13. , ,
,
,
.

10. OECD, Economic Surveys, 1986-7, .., . 43.


11. , , 1980,
,
.
12. , 33%
45% 1979-80.
1986-87 48,3% 48,6%. ,
30,3% 1979-80 35,8% 1987-88,
" 44,6% 41,4%,
(OECD.) , 113%
1991 27% 1979,
5,6% 1979 35% 1985-8. Economic
Surveys, 1989-90, ..
13. ( )
93,5% 1970, 97,5% 1980 (
)
25% 18% .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
74

,
, ,
14
-

,
. , , ,

, ,
, ( ,
, ..)
1980.
, ,
, ,

. ,
,
1990 ,


( ..),
!
,

:
. ,
, ,

14. 1,9% 1960


12,3% 1970, 19% 1980.
1980 ,
,
,
. , ,
,
- , 1970, a
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

75

,
. 1980,
a
15. , 80%
. ,


( )
, . ,
a
, 1988,
" 16 .
,

,
.

1980 17.

,
, ,
18 (,
) , , .
(
)
'80 19.

15. 15,5% 1980, 22,6% 1987.


16. 1988 10%
5% , . OECD in figures, 1990, ..,
. 42-43.
17. 1%
1980, 9% 1989.
18. 21%
1981 27% 1989.
19. 2,4% 1980,
9% 1989.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
76

-
,
,
. ,
2007 5,8%
7,4% 20,
, , ,

, 57%
, 25%
, !


:
, , '80
(54%
1979 1988),
(22%)
.
,
,


,

21. , ,

.
,
1980 , , ,

20. World Development Indicators, 2010, .., Table 2.16.


21. . vvv, .., . 12

( ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

77


22.


/
'80 23. , ,

,

24
, ,
(
) , ,

, ,
1980-2000,
1,2% 1,8% 25,

(2,5% 1,8%)26!
,
, ,
. ,
, 1995 17%
, 26%
, ,
15 , . , 2008
, 19%

22. .
23. , , ,
1980 1985
15% 1984 , , 3% .
24. 12,6%
1980 18% 1984. v ,
.
25. World Development Indicators 2002, .., Table 4.10.
26. World Development Indicators 2010, .., Table 4.9.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
78

26% 27.
,
, 30%
28.
,
r,
.
r ,

, ,
r
,
.
,
r
, ,
'80
. , r, ,
,
, ,
,
.
,

, J
. , ,

(. . 14),

.

27. World Development Indicators 2010, .., Table 4.12.


28. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

79



,
,
, ,
, ,
, .

,
, -
,
,
! ,



,

.
,
,
,

. ,

( ),
,
,

.

,
, (,
, - 4
. . 6) , ,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
80

,
,
,
(
a
) (
). ,
, ,


( , ..). ,
,
,


,
-
-
:

.
, (
)
'70, '80
-

a
..- ,
,
.
41% 1979
, ' 65%
1989! ,
,

,
344.000 1974

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

81

693.000 1989, 22%


29. , ,
768.000, (
625.738)30,

- 15% 31!
, ,
-
- ,
32, , 2002, 11,4%
, 17
16%,
20% 30%. ,


. , ,
15%,
, ,
.
,

,
. ,
(
1:5, . 1
5 ), ,
,
. ! ,
,
,

29. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.2.


30. . < 768 , , 30/7/2010.
31. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.2.
32. . Heinz Handler .., The size and perfomance of public sector activities in Europe
(2005). htt://129 .3 .20.41/eps/pe/papers/0507/05 07011.pdf

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
82

,

.
, ,
, , ,
,
,
.
, ,
- -

, 20
33
, ,
(Tommaso Padoa
Schioppa), ,

- - - . ,

/ :
.
, ,



, ,
,

. ,


,
, -

33. Nicholas Papandreou, "Finance and industy: the case of Greece", Intemational Review
of Applied Economics, Vol. 5, Issue 1 (1991), p. 1-23.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

83

(, ,
..),


.
, , ,

,

.
,

,
(, , ").
, J ames Petras
34:
,

,
.

,

!
,
Amsden35,

,
. , 36,

34. J. Petras, "The contradictions of Greek socialism", New Left Review, . 163 (1987),
. 12.
35. .. Amsden, "Third world industalisation: global Fordism or a new model?", New
Left Review, . 182 (1990), . 16-21.
36. . , R. Pollin and D. Alarcon, "Debt csis, accumulation crisis and economic
restructuring in Latin Ameca", Intemational Review of Applied Economics, 2,
. 2, (1988), . 140.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
84



, ,
, ,
/ ,
,

,
37.
,

( ). , Lipietz38,

,
,
. , ,

.


, ..
, /
. ,

,
,
( ),
, .. -

39
, (

37. . . Amsden, Asia"snext giant: South Korea andJate industrialisation (Oxford University
Press, 1989), . 6.
38. . Lipietz, Miracles and mirages: the crises ofglobal Fordism (Verso, 1987), . 72-73.
39. Amsden, .., . 21-25.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

85

)
,
. , , ,
,
, (),
( )
(),

.

a .
,

. , ,
,
-

-40 ,
, .
,
, /
, ,
, ,
,
. ,

r
.
, '
r , ,
r .

,
/ .

40. . , - 10 v , .., . 2-3.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
86


( a )
(
/ ).
,
.
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

OIKONOMIKA


, / NAFTA ..,
(
) .
:

"
t ,
. r
,
1930, a
(1945 1975),

(
)
.

r
,
(
,
..),

.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
90

, (
) .
a
,
, . ,
, ,

(NAFTA) (/)
: , , , , , , ,
.
: , (

),
/ : . ,

(. , .
) ..
,
, ,
:
( , , ) .
, ,
.
,

. , ,
,
,
, (
)
,
- -
(, )
(, ), , ,
, (
) Pigs ()! , ,
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

91

, r,
, , (
), ,
r ,
,
/ .
r

,
,
,
r
.
, ,

. , ,
( r ) 1986/87 r ,
, ,
. , 30 ,

( r )
63,6% (14.000 22.000
r )1.
, r
, ,
. ,
( ) r

r . ,
r

r ,
.
, r

1. , , (11/7/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
92



, -
. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
29%

2.
,
( -
) (/)
/
,
,
..


.
,

, 1980 1989,
3.
,
,
, , 30%
! , ,
,
30 /.
, ,

2. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2008, ( ).


3. 39% 1980
41% 1989.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

93

,
. , ,
,

,
. ,

.
, /
. , ,
,
, . ,
/, ,
, ,
- ,

/4!
, ,
,
, . ,
,
,
. , ,
,
(

, ,
),
,
( ..), -

4.
, 1985,
3,2 (.
), 2,5, . 2,4,
2,2, 2,0 .o..(Eurostat: Basic Statistics ofthe EU (
).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

94

( , ,

)5.
,

,


, , .


( /)

:
1) 6 (
), , , (
).

. ,
"
() 1/1/1981, , ,
7 (
) ,
2) , ,
/
.
,
,
/
, .
5. Wolfgang nchau, "Gennany's rebound is no cause for cheer", Financial mes, 29/8/201.
6. . , u, v
v: v (, 1985), . ' .
7. , . ' .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

95

, /
, ,

. ,


. ,


. ,
,

, G7
(, ..),
, .
,
,
,
(, G7),
/. ,

, ,
,
,
( ..) ,
, ,
,
NAFTA ..
, ,

.
, ,
.
.
, ,

- - ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
96

8.
, , ,
,
, 100,
. ' , ,

(, , ,
..) ,
,
, ,
100. , ,

(,
- - , ,
.. -
!)
, ,
9,
. ,

( 30
' ),
.
,
, , ,

, (, ,
, , , ,

) (
), ,
-,

8. , - 10 v ( , 2008),
. 6.
9. , . 1.1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

97


. :

,
, ,
,
. ,



. , ,

,
- .
, ,
,
,
. , ,


, , ,
.., ,
10 .
,
, ,
,
,
(
..
.. 11)
.

10. . .. , . Fotopoulos, 's sustainable development


compatible with present globalisation? The Chinese Case", The Intemational Joumal
of Inclusive Democracy, Vol. 4, . 4 (October 2008).
http://www.inclusivedemocraq.org/joumal/vol4/vol4 no4 takis chinese case.htm
11. . . 2-3 - 10
v , ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

98


r
' . ,
,

, ,
(. . 15).

, ( -
-


)
,

,

. ,
r
. ' ,
,

, / -
r ,

r !

, ,

r
r ,
" ,
,
,

.

,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

99

(
,
),
, r
.

vv
, r
(
-
- r
r 19 / 20
21!)
12,
( )
,
, - ,
.

, r ,
,
13. 14,

, , ,

,
,
r -
- ,

12. . . , , (
, 2002), . 1.
13. . Leslie Sklair, The Transnational Capitalist Class, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), . 19.
14. . , , , .., . 1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

100

. , '
(
)
r r
-, , -
(
) 15.
,
(,
) -
,
, -.
:
(
),
r
,
r ' ,
,


, ,
,
, think tanks,
,
..


<<t>

<<t
16 . :
15. Takis Fotopoulos, "The Myth of Postmodemity", Democracy & Nature, Vol. 7, . 1
(March 2001) - . . , . 22.
16. Takis Fotopoulos, "Class Divisions Today: The Inclusive Democracy approach'',
Democracy & Nature, Vol. 6, . 2 ( 2000) - . .
, . 8-9.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

101

,
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
-,

(
,
).


. ,
,

,
(
)

.



Leslie Sklair 17, (
),
, .
-
(
)


, , a
, , -

17. Leslie Sklair, The Transnational Capitalist Class (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001 ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
102

18! ,

,
, ,
-
.
,


.

,
, ,

.
,
, , ,
..,
- ,
, Sklair,
. ,


,


. , , Sklair
,
,
.

18. . ' , . ,
: , (: -.. , 1999).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

103

v v
v v v
, 6
( )
, .
6

6 6
,
6 (..
G
6 ( !) 6
6 . 6 ,

() 6
( ). , 6
19, 6
.
, 6
6
( )
6,
6 (.. ,
, ..).

6 6
.
6
,
.
, , 6
6,
6 .. 6,

19. , - 10 v , .., . 1.1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
104


(
, ),
, .. G7 + 1 (
), G20 ..
1981,

,
,
(
),
. ,
,

. ,
1930,

,
1929. ,
, 19 ,
. .
, ,
,
/
( G7 , ,
, , , , , ),

,
,
,

,

. ,
.
,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

105

.
,
(
,
),
, .


,
.
- ,
,

, -. ,


1897
. ,
1930

1929,
.
, - ,
, '
,

, . ,
, -

(, ,
), -

,

/
,
6,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
106

, 7. ,
,
,
- ,
/ ! ,
(
), -
,
,


.
, , /


-
-
,
, ,
, a
' " r r
. ,
,

. .
,
,
!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos



v v v >>
v

1957, ,
" , , 30
"
( 1987). 300
, 1992,
, ,
.
,
( ) (,
, ) - 4 .
- ,
1992 "
- 1 1993.



, .. .
,
, ,
'50
- ,
. , ,

. ', , , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
108

1980,
() .. (, ,
, -, ),
,
"
.

a
r 1. r
,


r 21 .
, r

.
, /,
, r ,
,
.. . , ,
,
r
,
, r .. , ,
(, ..)
r
r (
r 2,
),
( )

1. ,
1979 1989,
3,5%, a 48%.
u World Development Report 1991 (World Bank), Table 14.
2. . , , vu v
(: , 2009).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

109

r , r
r
(.. , ..). , r
r,
.


,
, r
( 8,5 % 1995 4,8% !




.
r
( 3% 1995 9% !)4.
, (
)
r
r ..
made in China,
. ,
/, ,
.


( ), r
.
,
, -

. , "

3. World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.4.


4. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
110

-
(
), .
-, -
. 1992 1994 , , ,
,
, . ,
, (.
, ) ,
(.
, ,
) -
, .

, ,
,
1992,
. ,
,
,
, , ,
, , .
, -

(, , )
,
-. ,

(
). ,
,
( , a !)
,
- ,
.
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

111

. , ,
, ,
(.. -
, - ..). ,
The
challenges ahead: plan for Europeo 1979,
.
:
(,
)
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
1980,
" .
, (

, , ,

)
,
- , ,

, , ,
, ,
! , ,
,

,

,
(
)
. , ,
1992 :
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
112

r r ,

,

.
Gecchini5,
1992, ,
( !)
r , .

,
.

-
(
), ,
..
, r, r

,
,
. 5 .
, ,
2000,
, ,
,
.

. , r

.
, r
,

5. . Cecchini, et. al., The European Challenge, 1992: the benefits of a single market (Wil
dwood, 1988).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

113

,
,

- (,
). ,

,
, a
.
, ,

(
,
)


, ,
(. ).
,
, ,
, ,

.
1990 6 (
),
:
1992
1994,
,


,
-.

6. . , - - , (3/11/1990).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
114


,

. , ,
,
, -
- ,

. --
- ,

, .
, , ,
,
,
.. (

). ,

,
(

)
!
,
, , ,
, ,
- (

) ,
...
,
7!

7. . .. . , ( 1992).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

115




-
, -
>> ,
( ,
..), .

. ,
.


.
,
.
. ,
, ,

.
, ,
.
18
19
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
,
, ,
( )
.


.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
116



. , r t
, r
. ,

.

-

r ;
!

. '
r
(.
.. . ,
, r
). ,

.
r
r ,
(
) r
,
.
8 ,
,
,
, (
). , . ,

' ,

8. .. Amsden, Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialisation (Oxford, 1989).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

117


9. , ,
,

a -

. , , ,
.

,
,

. ,
,
,

. ' ,
.. (/)
.
-
-
,
, .
,

,

,
. ,
( NAFfA ..)
,
,
. , -

9. R. Pollin & D. Alarcon, "Debt crisis accumulation crisis and economic restructuring in
Latin America", Intemational Review of Applied Economics ( 1988).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

118


r ,
. r ,
,
, ,
, ( ,
..)
.

, r .
'
. ,
3
( r),
, ,

.
, ,
-,
,
'70. ,
,
. '

-
. ,
- , ,
(
- ..)
- r ,
,
,
-r.
, , ( )
:

r
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

119

,


(, , ,
) -


, ,
,
vr ,
.

,
,
. '


. ,
,
,
- , ,
(
. .
)
.

.
,

-
- ,
.. , ,
,
.

,
,
. , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
120

( )

,
. 6, 6
6
!
, 6, 6 6 6 , 6 6

,
, 6 .
. , 6 ,
6 a 6
, 6
. 6,
(6 ) 6,
6
6 6 ,
6 6 , 6 6 6 Hans ietmeyer, 6 Bundesbank10.
,
, ,
(.
), 6
,

. 6
, r , r
. 6
,

6 . ,
6 6
,

10. . Observer (8!l2/l99l).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

121

,
-

11.

, ,

,
, -

,
!
a ,

0,24% (0,25% 1979)12
(0,24% 1990) 13, (
)
0,21% 1995
0,16%! 14 ,
, ,
,
15 (1995-2008)!


, " ..,
,
. ,
.

11. . Nicholas Papandreou, "Finance and industy: the case of Greece", Intemational
Review ofApplied Economics (. 1991).
12. World Bank, World Development Report 1981, Table 8.
13. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2002, Table 4.5.
14. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.4.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
122

, r . ,
vr:
(
, ..) r
r
,

. ,
/ ,
, r
r ,
r .
,
/ , . ,
.

, ,
,
(,
..) . , ,
,

, ,
,
r .
.
,
,
, (. ),
.
r ,
,
, ...
r, , ,
, ,
(
).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

123



15 . ,

( )
,
.

( '
16
)
,
(. ).
,


. ,

( )
, . ,
, ,
,
,
/,

>>,
. , -

15. 1/3
1960-76, . Fotopoulos, 'conomic
restructuring and the debt problem: the Greek case", Intemational Review of Applied
Economics ( 1992).
16. 1980, ( ) 23%,
" 5%
. (
).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
124



.


. ,
, ..
,
,
. ,
,
. ,
.

v v v v v v
-v

,
,

-,

.
,
,
,
- - , ,

!
(!) 17,
,
-! , -

17. . . , ( (1-2 1994 ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

125

, -
15 (, ,
, )
15 ... 16 18. ,
( !),
- (
,

) .
, ,


, ,
,
-.


, ,
-.
,
, '70
,
-,
. ,
19 (
!)

, 1876! , ,


.

18. J. Bradshaw .. ( . ), Support for children, a


comparison of arrangements in 15 countries (University of York/HMSO, 1993), .
9.13a, 9.13b, 9.13e, 9.13f.
19. The Food Commission, The Guardian (1/2/1994).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
126

,

-,
. ,
London School of Economics20,

50

1990. , , , '
5%
- !
, -,
21 , ,
, .

.
! , ,


a,

. , ,
( !),

,
, , ,
!
, ,

,
. , ,
, , , -

20. . J. Hills, The Guardian (20/1/1994).


21. . , ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

127

. , r ,
,
. , ,
,
, . r
,

, ,
. , ,
, .
, r
,
, ,
-

,
" . ,
r (
, ),
. , , ,
( )
. ,


,
a-. ,
a
r (
) '

.
, ,


.
r r
r . , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
128

,
(
)
. ,
, '

-.
, ,
,
. ,
- -
(
, ), , ,
.
,
( ),
(
, )

(.
). ,
,
, ,
, (,
), .


, .. (
, )

a
"
-
,
.
t -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

129

22 1997

! 23
,
, ,
, 1990 50 . 40 .
,
. , a
. ,



-! 24
, r
,
r
,
(
), r
, ..
, ,

,
, ,

-25.

22. . (18 & 25/5/1997).


23.
/ , (. ),
(. ), v (. ..), (. ..),
, v -

(. . 12).
24. (18/5/1997).
25. (25/5/97).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
130

, 6 6 6 26,
6
,
,

. 6
6, a
, . ,
, 6 6

, , , 6 6
. ,
6 6 6 -6
. , 6 6
, 6
, 27,
6 6
. , 6
6 a 4 ,
6 6 , ,
, ' 6 ,
, .
6 6 "6
6, -6;
6
6
. , ,

.., 6

26. . . Fotopoulos, Towards


an Inclusive Democracy (London/New York: Cassellfaylor & Francis, 1997/1998)
, , , ,
(1997)
- 10 v ( , 2008), . 1.
27. . C. Hines & . Lang, The New protectionism (Eartscan, 1993).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

131

(
),

. ,
, ,

,

. ,
, r
.

,
.. , ,

, ,
,
r r ( Tobin ..)

. , ,

r .
' ,
r 1930,
,
, ,
r r . ,
a
( ),
r
- . ,
/ 1990 35,8%,
10 , 2000, 28,7%-
(, ,
20% ). ,
r ,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
132

,
1995 ( 7% 13% )28.

r
,
,

, , ,
. , 29,

r ,
-
.
, r

, '
.. 30, ,

. ,
,
,

. r
, ,
,
( ). ,


,
.
, , , -

28. World Development


Indicators 2002 (able 4.5) & World Development Indicators 2010 (able 4.4).
29. IMD(he Guardian (27/3/1997) & WEF!The Guardian (21/5/1997).
30. The Observer (1/6/1997).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

133

, ,
.
,
( , , !)

,

,
. , ,
( ) .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos


v ;

() ,
. ,
-
().
,
()
, ,
( ECU) ,
1/1/1999, r
, r r
r .

r -
ECU,

().
r -
r
2.25% .
,
, r
, r
Bretton Woods, '70.
,
, ,
,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
136

,
-
- , ,
,
, , ,

.
,
, - ,
,

.

" -
-
,
. , ,

,
, r,
(, ,
) , .
ECU,
, , ,
. ECU
, (,
Bundesbank,
Bretton Woods),

-
! , ,

(, ,
) -.

. , ,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

137

,

.
, ,

,
,
-
, -
. - ,


, ,
()
. - ,
,
,
. ,

,
,
.
, (
),
, . ,

. ,
,
( / )
, , ,

.
(, , )
, .
,
, ,
, .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
138

v v

r ,
r (), .
1992,
,
- ,

, ,
.
r
, r
,

- .
,
, ,
,
.



. r
(, ,
G/ !) -
-

, (
) , r
.
,
. '

1993,
1986
. -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

139


r 1990, .
Brady, . , 1.000 .
(15
!),

1. ,
, ,
, .
,

, (
), ,
( ,
.. ). , ,
1992,
60 .
'
( , ,
..!) ,
,
, ,
, . , ,

,
a ,
(, )

. ,

Bundesbank (
), !

,

1. The Guardian (24/9/1992).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
140

(,

) ,
, . ,

(,
,
) .
, ,
(
)
,
,
(
) ,

(
).
! , ,
, ,
,
( ,
)

. , ,
,
,
,
, '
.
,
,
, ! ,


(, , , )
, , .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

141

,
,
(
" ). , ,
. , - (
) ,
- ,
" (), , ,
.

( , ,
, !)
,

, ,
, ,
,

, ,
.
, (
!)

. , ,
. Toporowski 2,
a
,

,
. ,
, Toporowski,

,
" , -

2. The Observer (27!9/l992).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
142

,
.
, , Toporowski
,
, ,

, /
r , r
- ,

:
, !
-
-,
3%
,
!

,

1994 ,

,
,

,
6%
.

, ( !)
, , ,
. ,

,
, ,
, r -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

143

! ,

,
, ,

, , , , ,
, ,

, .
,
( ,

, .. ,
),
, '
,

. :
.
, , , ,
.
, ,

,

. ,
, ,
,

.
,
. .
, ,
,
v .
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
144

(1950 - '70),
,
(Bretton Woods)
,
. ,
/ ,
(
), (
/,
/
"),

.
,

( ) , ,
,
,
.., , ,
, ,
.
a,
,

,

. ,

, ,
.

...
, , ,
,
,
,
, , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

145

,
,
, .
, ,
,
,
,
. , ,
,
.
(
-
!)
. , , ,
,
...
, ,

.
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
1998 10% 1974,
20 .
, , a ,
, ,
, ,
,


.
'

!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

146

;


. ,
,

,
,
,
(
) ,

. , , (
) ,
(

) ( ,
..)

- .
, ,
, ,
,
.
Martin Wolf3,
( )
.

' ,
(, , ) ,
47%
,

3. Martin Wolf, "Germans are wrong: the eurozone is good for them", The Financial mes
(7/9/201 ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

147

28%4. Wolf, 2/3 ,


2000-2008, .
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
, , , a
,
( )
. , (
- - )
".

. ,
, . ,
, ,
, .

.
, a
( a!),
, ,
,
(, , , )
5% 5. ' ,
2010,
.
-

4. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.8.


5. Ralph Atkins. "Fall in German exports signals slower growth", The Financial imes
(8/9/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
148

( .. )
,

,
. ,
, .. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
( spreads),
-
.
,
,
(
) (
..),
, . '
,
,
>> , , "
,
.
, , Wolf :
( )
. , ,
( )

(...).
.
( )
Ifo Institute, Hans
Werner Sinn6:

6. Martin Wolf, "Germans arewrong: the eurozone is good forthem", ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

149


a ,
, .

,
, ,
...

v v v v v;


() , .
.


,
, ..,
- .
,
(),
,
.
: , , ,
, , 7. ,

,
, ,
(, ..)
15 8. ,
J
. ,
<<r a -

7. (19/11/1996).
8. . , , .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
150

, , ,
(, , ) ,
, ,
(, )!

a , , ,
, ,
, , ..
' ;
, ,
,

.
(
a
)
, ,
.

.
,

-
,
. , 1989 a 179
, a
341 , 1989
,
. , 56%
.


;
, ,
,
,
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

151

. , , ,

,
t
(
), (
"
).
, ,
,
,
-,

. ,

, ,
.
2000
2010, . , 1990
, ,
8 . t , 1998
9 .,
.
, ,

( ),
( )
, t
.
t ,

, ,
. ,
... r
,

t .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
152

, , . .. ,
, ,
'
. ,
,
,
. , , ,


,
.
,
, ,

. Eurostat,
,
( )
40% 9
, ,
2/3
( ). ,

2008 48%
10.

; '

. ()
,
,
..

9. Eurostat, rv v 2001. .
(25/2/2001).
10. Eurostat. . ,
, (5/12/2008).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

153



,

. , ,
,
2008 ,

, ,
(
, ,
, ..). , ,
,
(..
)
,
, ,
, ,
- ,
,
!

,
.
' , , a
()
(, )
( ),
( -) ! ,
, ,

(,
..),
, 15-20
, ( )
.
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
154

r ' ' ,
r ,
,
(
), r
, r . 13.
r <<r
, ,
, r

, .
,
,

r r
( ), ,
! ,
- ,
r, ,

, .
, , ,

, r . 5,
r,
. ,
,
,
r r - r
-
. ,
, ,

.
, ,
, ,
r 20 r

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

155

! ,

.
, ,

.

. ,
,
"
. ,

.
(),
(, )

. ,

,
,
11.
, ,
, ,

.
,

,
'
.
. '

,
( ) ' :

11. . , 0 ,
(5/4/98).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

156


,
!
' : ,
, , ,

, , <<
, , ,
. ,


,

.
,

, .

:


;

.
: . ,
()
,
. , ,
,
Will Hutton, .

"
12. , -

12. Will Hutton, The Guardian (15/11!1995).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

157

, .., ,
,
>>
, (, , )


( )


,

. ,

'
a.
NAFfA
. , ,
,
.
( ):
r
. , -

(
, )
. ,
,
, ,
, (
) ... .
,

, (,
, ) , ,
. , ,

' .
(2001) (

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

158

) 40%
, ,
, 27% ! , (
(1992) (1997)
( , ,
) -

. :

,
, ..

-.

, - ,
,
.

, ,
, -
:
.


. , ,
/ (
) -
,

, , ,
,
..-
. , ,
,
.. (
),
.

( ):
vr v v-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

159

v . , ,


, ,
,
, .. , ,
,

, ,
- .. Larry
Elliott ,
- ,
a >>13.
, ,
. ,

-,
,
.
( v ): v v
r vv ,


, ()
14. ,
, ,

. .

,
,
:

. , ,
, -

13. The Guardian (23/3/1998).


14. . , (18/6/2000).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
160

, (
)
( ),

,

. , ,
,
.. 15,

(
) ,
r
,
- 16
() 17
. , r 1980

18% 18,
21% 19,
.
:


.
.
r .

,

. ,

15. . , , (Gutenberg, 1983).


16. , , , 2000, . (19/11/2000).
17. Gini coefficient
( World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.9).
18. Eurostat, Poverty in figures 1990.
19. , 2010. . (23/6/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

161

, ,
,

. , ,
'
(), , ,
. ,

,
()
.
W. Godley20, r
, r
(..
),
, -
, -
!

( r Polanyi21)
-.



/ . , (

( , ,
) - r
. ,
,
,

. -

20. Observer (31!8/97).


21. . Karl Polanyi, The Great transformation (London: Beacon Press, 1944), . 1 & 18.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
162


r
, .
:
,

,
,
r ,
, (,
..),
. ,
,

,
, ,
( )
. , ,

()
, r
,
() .
,
,
,
.
,
,
22,
, ,
. :
,

r , r
.
22. , The Observer (3/5/1998).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

163

,
, ,
r
. ,
,
r 0,23% r
(1990) 23, r 0,16%
(2008)! 24 ,
20 ,
30%! r,
, ,
1953, r
/ 23%, r
'50, 55% 1953-55. ,

, '60 '70
38%, /

, r '80
r
, ,
r / r 42%25.
.
r
32% 2008,
24% 26 .


, (

) . , , -

23. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005, Table 4.5.


24. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.4.
25. . , vv v
v (, 1993), . 2.
26. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Tables, 4.4 & 4.5.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

164

>>

( ) ,
(
) , ,
, , ,

!
7,8%
r ... 7, 7%
27. , ,
,
, 12,1% 2010
14,3% 2011, 20%
2011 - r
1960 r ! , ,

( r ) r
,
,
, -,
-
, .
,
r , , ,
,
!
:
, r

,
. ,

, ,

27. , Table 2.5.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
..i

165

. ,
,
. ,
,

... , .

.

,
r
(


). ,


, . ,
,
,

.

,
,
, ()

.
,
, ,
, ,

,
,
.. (
), ,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
166

,
.

, .
28
...

28. . , (24-12-00).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

/

/
<<,
/
( ..)
,
. 13. , ,

,
!,

. , :

,
,

,
,

,
.


,

,
.
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
168

,
, ,

-
,


,
, ,
"

,
.
, , \
2, /
" 60
. , ,

,
, , . '
a
19
, 100 (1815-1914)3.
, ,
, ,

.
,
, :
,
, .
,
:
1. . , 25/3/2007.
2. . - ( ) 29/11/06.
3. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation, (Beacon Press, 1944) . 1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

169


. ,
a
,
,
a ( ), a
( ) 4. , ,
,
,

, ( . 5)
a .
, ,
, , (
. 6)

( , ..,
). ,
10
,
,
(, - ),

.
,
. , ,
... ,
,
,
, '
a
(
).

4. . , (, 2005),
. 2.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
1 70

,
, ,
,

5. (
,
..)
,

. , ,
,

,

, .
, ,
6 , ,

,
. .. a . ,
(
) . , ,

,
,

,

- ,
. ,
( )
,
...

5. Bemard Cassen, Le Monde diplomatique, . 2003.


6. . , , ,
, , , . (, 2007).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

1 71



/
, ,
1990
, (
) 7


,
, :
, , , (
, ..)
-
.
,
, , , a

. , ,

( ),

, (. 7)
a
(
!) .
,
/
,
-

7. ,
1993, (47%)
,
72%,
2006, 45%!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
1 72

NAFT.

( ),
, .
, ,
8, ,
(1965-80)
,
( +6,8%)9. ,
, ,
,
,
".
, ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
( )
,
10. ,
;
, , ,
a ,
( )
: !
, , -

8. 0,7%
1980-90 0,4% 1990-2000 ( 2000 Greek statistics
, ,

, !) World Bank,
World Development Report 1997, Table 15 & World Development Indicators 2010, Table
6.2.
9. World Development Report 1988, Table 11.
1.
. Espace Marx( ! ),
, 25/12/99.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

1 73

r ,
r ,

, , r
, r

(r, , )
.
r 21 ,
(
) ,
r ,
r
.
,
r ,
/, ,
, ,
' ,
, . ,
r 1979 1983 (
5 10,5 . .), 1983 1989, ...
1995 37,6 . . 11,
.
r
,
(
), - 1980 1985,
1990, 1995 41,4%12. ,
, r r
r , ,
1990, r
,

11. OECD, Economic Surveys (1996), . 4.


12. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
1 74

... ,
, , ! 13 ,

2009 ( )
553 . .14, 15
!
,
,
,

,
(

-)
. '
, ,
, ,

- , ,
. , ,


a
. ,
' .
,
.
(
-) -
, ..-

.. ( ). , ,

13. World Bank, World Development Report (1996), . 17.


14. Wikipedia, . "List of countries by extemal debt",
http:Uen.wikipedia.orvwiki/List of countries by extemal debt

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

1 75


a
-
,
. ,

( , ..),
,
, ,
. , ,
,

, , ,
a a
,
. , ,
" ,

, , - .

, (
) -

- J. ,

. , 1970-80

, 2000-2008
( )
, , , ,
70%
57% ! 15
, , (
) -

15. World Development Report 1995, Table 8 & World Development Indicators 2010, Table
4.8.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

1 76

, ,
, . ,
1996, ,

( ... ) ( ... )
' ( ...) ( ... )
,
16. ,

. ,
,


(
),

.


, (
) 17. :
, ,
, , <<to
18,
, ,
,

.

,
, ,

16. . (1 & 2/9/1996).


17. OECD, Economic Surveys/Greece (1996) & ,
( 1996).
18. OECD, Economic Surveys/Greece (1996), . 38.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

1 77

,
(
! 19. 6 ,
6 , .
,
, , 6
6 a
6,
6 20
.

6 6 ,
6 6 6
-6 a
, !-

6 6 .
, , 6
6
( 6, 6
6 -6
),
( 6 , 6
'60,
6 ) / ,
6 6 6 6 <<t
,
- 6
!
6 6 6 6,
6 6
, 6 6 6, , 6
6 , , (
-

19. , . 90.
20. , . 100.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
1 78

). , ,
,

.

..
, ,
,
, (
), .
,
,
,
( ) ,

, ..,
( ),

. ,
.
.
,
/

, ,
.



(

<<t) . ,
,
1990 (
),
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

1 79

,
, !
,
11/9,
- ( ,

Gore Vidal) ,

-
. ,

( !),
"
<<

.
, ,

.
'
/,
, (
, )
.
4 ,
,
, ,
:
1. !
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
180

1. v v /



<<, r ,
, r
. , ,
, ,
,
, '
,
r ,

,
,
.
,
,
' .
, r r,
(
r ),
(
).
, r
,
. (
)
.
, r ,
, ,
,
,
.
r .

,
r , , 1981,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

181

40% , , ,


. , ,

,
, 1981, 31% ,
7% (
) 21.
, , ,
,
( ). ,
1981 ,

2004-08 8% ,
!22 , ,
, , ,

29% 1990 2000 ( 199092 2004-08), , ,
60%, ! 23
, 2%
( )
, 12%

.
, ,
,
, . ,

(
, ), -

21. World Development Report 1988, Table 31.


22. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.3.
23. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
182

(1990-2008) ( 0,5% ),
( -2%) 24 ,
(1961-81)
2,7%!25
r , Eurostat,
,
r 83,1 ( 2000= 100)
(,
, )26
r
.

(
) , , , , . ..,


(, ,
) ,
r
r
" ,
, r
. , ,
. ,
(1974-80),

45 . . . 1981-85
254 . .,
1860 . 1997 (
). ,
27.
;

24. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.1.


25. World Bank, World Development Reports 1980 & 1995, Table 2.
26. . , , (12/3/2008).
27. . . (28/1!2005).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

183

, ,
(, ..)
,
.., >
(. )
, . ,
1980
(
, ,
..). , , ,

, , ,
( ),
,
.

.
, , ,
,
,

28, '

. ,
, -
,
-
. ,
,
,
:
. ,

.

28. . .. . "l & , (23/1!2005).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
184

,
, ,
.
,
a ,

,
,
... , ..
,
,
. "

,
-
,
,
,

.
,
( agri-business)
,
, a.
, , .
,
,
, .
,
,
(, , ).
, ,
,
, ,
..

-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

185

.
,

,
".

,
.
,
, ..,
.
,
,
, ,
, 25 ,
. ,
-
( )
-

. , ,

( , , ..)
,

: ,
,
.
, ,

.
,

. , ,

. , ,
40% -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
186

,

. , , 59
. , ,
,
a .
, ,
, ,
,
,
.., , ,
.
, ,
,
(, ,
..), . , ,

,
,
,

, ,
. ,

(, ..)

. , ,
,
,

! , ,

29.

29. . . 6, ,
, 9 ( 2005).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

187

, , ,
,

, ,
.
,

, . '


, ,

,

.
,
, ,
,
. ,
(, ..)
"
, ,
, ..,

. ,
,
,
/
.
2.


,

,
, , , . ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
188


,
,
,
,
hire and fire (
)
,
,
.



, a
,
'70
,
,
, (

),
. ,
,
,
,
- 30.
,
30 ,
,
( )
a , .
, ,
. , -

30. . , . , - 10 v
( , 2008), . 1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

189

( , ,
..)
(..
)
. ,
.
, , -
, -

,
31. r
,
- (
, ..),

( )
r r.
,
, , ,
,
.
,
a r
. , /
7,1% 1980-82, 9,8% 1998-200032
10% ( 20%
, ,
2011),
,
! ,
,
, (
) -

31. Will Hutton, The State We're In, Cape, 1995, . 103.
32. WB, World Development Indicators 2()()2, Table 2.4.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
190

(1945-75),
, ,
.
,
,

.
,
,
. , ,
a
. .

( )
.
. 33, ,
. ,
. 1979 1995 43 .
,
, 35%
. , 25 ,

.

1930.
-
: ,
. , , 1993, 36%
56% 1975 34,
,
1993-96 38% ,
, ..35.

33. Louis Uchitelle and N.R. leinfield, Intemational Herald Tribune 6/3/96.
34. Will Hutton, vv, 3/4/95.
35. The Guardian, 19/3/97.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

191

,

.
, , , NAFTA
,
.
, , ,
, 1,6 . (5,4%) ,

( ),
4 ., . 13,7%36
,
,
,
( ) . ,
, v
, 30%
48 .
. , S. Fleetwood,
,
, 37. ( )
, ,
,
38.
, ,
,
35 ( ,
, <<
)39,
, , ,

36. Industrial Society/The Guardian (13/10/2000).


37. The Guardian (13/9/1999).
38. R. Marris, The Observer (23/5/1999).
39. . .. . , v( (19/10/1997).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
192

. ,
,
.
, ,
,
(,
..) . , 20 ,
,
: 140 7
40. , , ILO
() 2000
,
, ,
,
,
.
,
1984 1997 ( 3,6% 7%) ,
1990 41,
.
, , ,

.
a a ,
, , a
42 ,

( ) -
- .

,
, -

40. J. Vidal, The Guardian (28/8/2000).


41. OECD Survey on Greece 1998, . 3.
42. . , (19/3/2000).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

193

,
. ,
,
,
,
6 (
6 6%, 17%
)43 6 6.
6 6, 6
6 ,
,
6
, a 6 6 (
20% ) 6,
.
, 6, 6 6
6 6
6 , 6
, 6
44 .. ,
, 6 1990,
6
6 6, 6
. 6,
, 6 - 6 ,
6
, 6 6,

. , ,
,
6 .
, 6 , -

43. .
44. . . , , ,
3/10/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
194

> ,
,

. , /
,
,
: ! ,
, .
,
20 30

45,
,

. ,
- - ,
a
, ,

,
.
,
(
, ..),
ru
. ,
( ,
, a ,
..) ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
-

45. . , v, 22/2/2006.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

195


- . '
, .. a
'80,
,
,
.
, , ,
.

,

,
. ,

,
,
,
! ,
,
,
,
( ,
),
.
, , , ,

,
, . ,
,
, , ,
. '
..
, , , (
, ..)
. ,
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
196


,
,

, . , ,

,
.
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
, , 1998 46 , ,

, ,

:
;,
a
,
,


.


. ,
, ,
/ , -

46. . 20/6/1998 0
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

197

/
. /,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
,
!

,
(
), ... , ,

,
,
... . , ,
,

, , ..

: ,
, .
, , .
1990-1995 ,
55.000 90.000 , 1995
21,8%
47. ,
,
(21,8%) 10,6% !)48.
,
,
. ,

47. . , : (, 1997).
48. WB, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.5.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
198

,

,
. ,
.
,
35%
62% 49.
,
:
,
"
.. ,
,
, ,
,
, ,
a ,
<< ,
,
,

(, , ..) ...
3. v vv

,
( ..)
,
- /,
, , .. ,
, ,
, ,
(

49. . Fawcett & . Papadopoulos. "Social exclusion social citizenship and de-commodification'',
Centre for European Studies, Oxford Discussion paper, 1996.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

199

!) :
>>.
,
, ,

,
'
,
.


, ,

. ,
.
,
, , .., ,
.
,
. , ,

,
,
.
,
. , ,
, '
, , ,
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

; ' ,
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
200

, . .

,
, ,

, (
!)
.

,
> , (
,
, , ..),
(

),

. ,
( )

. ,

. ,
.

, 5,
, ,
.

,
. ,
(
, ..)
( ,

50. OECD, OECD Economic Surveys, Greece 1997.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

201

-
!),

,
, .
. ,

24 .
, , ,
, '
. ,
,
(
) ,
40%. ,
,
( , , ,
) - 50%
60%51.
,
!)
:
30
, ,

52,
15 ,
,
53 , ,

( 54, -

51. WB, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 5.6.


52. UN, Human Development Report 1997, . 35.
53. Eurostat, Basic Statistics ofthe EU, 1996, . 3.31.
54. . Papadopoulos, Social Insurance in Europe, ed. J. Clasen (Policy Press,
1997), . 186.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

202

46%
( 27% ).
m,

" (15%
11% 55)
.
, ,
,
,
,
,

!

,
, .
,
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
( ). , , m
,
,

, , , ,
(
), .. ,

m
; m
-

55. OECD, .. . 46-7.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

203


,
;

,
,
-
r
,
! ,
r r,
r. r
- -
,
r ,
,
( ), ..,
. , ,
,
,
,
.

,
r (
)
r
.
r

.
,
r
, - ,
,
(.. ,
..).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
204

, ,
a
,
.
,
NAFTA.
" ,
. , (
)

- .
, ,
. .

.
,
, ,
,
,
. '

,
.
, ,
.
,
,
,
. ,
,

. ,
( )
,
a ( ) .
,
(-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

205

)
..
,
,
,
, ,
( ),
,
,

.
, , ,
, ,
a .

,
,
,
,
.
, .. ,

(.. 2.000) ,
30 .
.

:
(.. 5%)
.
,
, ..

,

.

; -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
206

. ,
:
a

.
,
a ,
- - -


, .., -
. ,


a ,

, ..,
- .


,
,
. ,
, -


,
(, ,
, ..). ,

,
,
,
..
, ,
,
, , ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

207

.. ,
(.. ) (..
) ,
, .
, ,
,

:

.


(
) ,

...
4.
v


,
, -
-
, .

, ,
.
-
- ,
-
.., <<t

. , ,
,

, , 9/11 (
).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
208


10 ,

, ,
: ,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
. , 27%
,
48,5%, 40,6%, 43, 7%, 36,7%
34%56.

() . , , 1996,
:

. .


,
, 57.
, ,
,
, , a
.
,
. ,

56. WB, World Development Indicators 2008, Table 2.10.


57. . , v v , . ,
1996, . 138.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

209

: ,
,
.


. ,
,
1998-99 69.752, 2000-2001
100.000 -
,
43% 58.

,
,
. , ,
, , ,
,
180
,
. 59:
, , ,
' ,
.
,

,
a
,
.

.

58. , ,
, 02!09!2001.
59. . ' : '
3/3/2007.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

210

,

. , , ,
,
.
,


. , , ( )


( )
. ,
,
, .
.

, ( ),
,
( , ..)

! .

, .
,
2001,

, :



.


,
.
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

211


, ,
. ,
,
, ,

( '
). , /
,
,
,
, ,
.

r r

r ,
r r
a (F)
. , ,

,
a
-
, , r

. ,


.
,

, .
, , ,
,
.
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
212


.
-
, ,

- ..
, , ..,
, (,
, , ..).
,
,

.
:
, ,
,
,
,

, ,
,
,


,
( ,
..)
-
-
, .

,
, ,

[] .

,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

213


,
, .
, ,

. ,
, ,
( )
a ,

( ), ,
, , , ..
--

,
<<to
!
,

.

,
,
.
:


(


, - -

!).


(

! , Cosco

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

214

Coca- Cola
,
, .) .

'

,
( ... )
..

- (
-
,
!).

,

,


..



-
-
,
( ), (..
) - (..
). , ,
,
,


,
.
,
,
. , ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

215

,
,
. -
- ,
r ,
r ,

. , ,

-
.

, . a ,

,
,
, r
- , r
60. ,
, ,
,
r
. ,

,
- r r

, (
)

r. , , ,
r,
,

60. . . , () ,
, . 10, 11, 13.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
216

,
,
. , ,
r
.

(
),

.


,
. , ,
,
,

, , ,

r ,
61. ,
( )

,

, ,
.
,

, ,
.
, ,
. , r
, -

61. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

21 7

,
r
r r
r.

r
,
r, 8,4%
62,
, 8,5%
,
, , 11%63
r

. , r

r,

.

,

,
( ),
27, r 25,5%
15-24 64.
,

r '80,

, ,
, -

62. . (26/09/2005).
63. WB, World Development Indicators 2008, Table 2.10.
64. . (3/05/2007).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

218

, ,
,
.
, , ,
'60 ,
,
, -
- .
2,2%
, 3,5%
, 65. ,
, ,
.

-
, , ,
, ,
(),
,
. ,


.
, ,
,

, :


,
, ,


.
,

65. . (13/3/2007).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

219

, ,
,
.. ,

,

r.
r - r,
,
, r
r (
- ,

- r ..)
r. ,
,
, , ,

, a
, a
- -
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,

r , (.

), ,
. , ,
r ,
r,
'68,
r
. ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
220

, ,
,


.


.
,
,
,
, .
,
,

,

. ,
,


, (
),
- -
,
66 . , ,


, ..,
-
, ,
: ,
.
, -

66. Will Woodward, 'Students are the new poor', The Guardian (27/6/2001).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

221


, ,

,
, ,
.
,

. , ,
,
,
,
- , ,
. ,
, ,

, , (,
, ..) !
,

,
. , ,
,
,
,
67.
, , ,
,
,
,
..

. , -

67. . ..
, . 10, 11 & 13.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
222

r ,
,
, ,
( ),
,

.

.
, r >, ,

, , ,
r ,

r . ,

,
r

,
- ( , ,
),
, r

r
- .
, , , r
(
,
.. r),
,
r .



.
, , r

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

223

,
.
, , ,

,
,

.
, ,
!
, ,
,
-
! , <<t
, ,
,
,

, , ..,


, . , "

: , , , ,
.
5.

15

,
: ,
, ..
, ,
,
, ,
..,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
224

. / ' ,
, .
.


(
- ,
,
) ,
,
r (
) , ,

. ,
,
(
r ,
).
,
( r
,
) r
.
, ,
,
r r,

! ,
( )
<<t ,
-
,
(
-a (slots)
) .. ,
-
, , , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

225

! ,
,
(
..),
,
,
..,
,
.
,
/ ,
;
,
, 68


.
,
/ t ( )

. '

69. ' r r r
70:


.

, ,
, ,
. ,

68. . . , vvv v v
v ( 1993), . 4.
69. , . 78.
70. , . 81.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
226

,
, .


. , , ,
, 6%
98% 71.
,

72:
,
73,
[ ... ]
[ ... ] ( )
, . ,
,

,
,
, , .
( ),

,
, ,
. , , ,

.
( )
,
, .

71. J.A. Kay & D.J. Thompson, Privatisation: a policy search of a rationale, Economic
Joumal, 96, ( 1986), . 3.
72. . , vvv v vv,
.. . 82.
73. Cento Velj anovski, Selling the State, (1987), Wedenfeld & Nicolson, . 206.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

227

,
,
, , ,
50%74. ,
,


- ! ,
!
, ,

,
. ,
,
..,
, ( )
.. ,
,
. ,
,
,
('
).

,
, , ,
,
!
,
, ,
.
, , /
. , ,

74. . . , v (, 1997), . 70-75.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
228

:

75. ,
,
,
. 76, ,
,
,


.
,
,
,

.
,

- ,
- -
,

.
, , /
, , , ,
, , ,
, , 2003,
-
a ,
, ,

. , Terry Macalister 77, -

75. Polly Ghazi, "Water chief tells BR to 'emasculate' unions", The Observer (13/8/1995).
76. . . , - 10 , 6.. . 7.
77. Terry Macalister, "Why the lights go out", The Guardian, 29/9/2003.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

229



,
,
,
. , ,
30% 1993-2003,
15%. ,

, ,
,
2001,
78. , ,
,
, ( ,
, ) ,
,
, .

(, , ..)
.
,
,
, -


79.

. , ,

,
80. , -

78. Paul rugman, "The Power Perplex", New York mes, 26/2!2002.
79. Tim Webb Alistair Buchanan, 'nly state inteention can keep the lights on, says Of
gem", The Guardian, 9/9/2010.
80. Tony Grayling, ''Back on track again", The Guardian, 8/1/2002.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
230


! 81 ,
. Transco,
,
, , 1.000
,
1.000
, 82.
,
. , , ,
, ,
,
,
( !).
, ,
2008 500%83.
,
2008/9,
49% 10.000
84. ,
,
- ! 85
, ,
, ,
.. , , ,

81. Dan Milmo "Btain's railways named as Europe's most expensive", The Guardian,
9/9/2010.
82. Felicity Lawrence, "Running up a profit", The Guardian, 17/5/2001.
83. Martin Hickman, "Calls for inquiry into alleged 'profiteeng' of energy giants", The
Guardian, 21/2/2008.
84. Martin Hickman, "Coalition tums down heat under energy suppliers", The Guardian,
18/08/2010.
85. Richard Wachman and Tim Webb. 'ave we reached the end of the line forprivatis ation?",
The Guardian, 5/2009.86. Franck Poupeau, "Commoduying rain", Le Monde diplomatique,
2002.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

231

, . ,

, ,
,
. ,


. ,
,
Vivendi-Generale des eaux and Suez-Lyonnaise des eaux
40% ,
, 110 .
- Vivendi 100 Lyonnaise 130 86.
, ,
,

( , , ,
!) , ..,

. , , ,
,

a ,
,
.
6.

/
-
,
-
.

,

86. Franck Poupeau, "Commodifying rain", Le Monde diplomatique, 2002.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
232

( )


, (
). ,
,

, . , ,
350
40% 87, 500
, 5% ,
25% 88.
89:
,
, NAFTA .
,
.
,
,

.


.
, 1990, ,

,
. Raymond Torres,
, 90:

87. UN, Human Development Report 1997, Oxford Univ. Press, . 92.
88. Jolm Vidal, McLibel, (MacMillan, 1997).
89. Jolm Vidal, 'mpire of burgers", Guardian, 20/6/97.
90. ILO, World of Work Report: Income mequalities m the age of financial globalisation
(Geneva: Intemational Labour Office, 2008).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

233


1990 ( ... ).

r
r.

,
.
, , 1990 2005,

, 10%
10%
70% r.
,

: 2003, (CEOs)
15 360
. 2007 520 !
(
1% ) 2,9%
1985 5% 1995, 7,5% 2005,
(7,6%) 1929! 9 1
,

, r ,
r t 51,6% 2006 -r
r 1929- 54,9% 2000 92.

,
. , , ,

91. Jacques Sapir, " ' ", Le nde/v


u, 22!03!2009.
92. , & Aviva Aron-Dine
Isaac Shapiro, Share ofnational income going to wages and salaries at record Jow
in 2006, (: Center on Budget and Policy Porities, 29 2007).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
234

-
-
.
,

,
, ..
93 9 ,
1980, (
)
2000 (
) 94
,
20 , ,
,
. , Gini coefficient
( ,
), 9 " 26,9
31,5 ,
17%!
( )
,
(, ),
, .
, ' ...
.
,
( /)
,
32,7 1993 95 (
), 2000 (
) 34,3 ( -

93. OECD, Income Distribution in OECD Countries (Paris, 1995) Table 4.4.
94. WB, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.9.
95. WB, World Development Indicators 2002, Table 2.8.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

235

). , 7
5%!


(, , !)
,

,
. , 10%
25% (
27% ), 10% 2%! 96

. , Gini 1 1
31,7
" (34,3)97. , ,

:
. , ,
, 20%
,
20 . ,
40%
,
! 98
, ,
, ,
30 /,
. ,

2005, 14% ,
18 , ,
27

96. Eurostat, Statistics in focus, 1997/6.


97. WB, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.9.
98. Forbes/he Guardian (1/7/1996).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
236

( 6 8% )! 99 , ,
6 6 6 6 , 6
6 6.
, , 6,
( ,
6 , 6
6!) 6
- 6
, 6
, 6 6
.
6,
(, , 6
..)
6. 6, 6 ( ,
, ..) 6
6 6 6
, 6 , . ,
6 ,

6,
, 6 6
6 6

(, , . ..).
6 6
6
6, 6 6
6, .. 6 6
, 6
, 6 6 6 , 6 ( )
! 100 , ,
.

99. . , , vw(, 7/10/2008.


100. . . , vw(, 27/03/2005.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
/

237

r,
r ,
, r
-
- r

m
, .
, ,
.
,
. , ,

( )
,
. ,
. ' ,
,

,
. r, ,
, John Rawls

.
, r

,
. , ,
,
,
r 101. ,
' , , .
r (!) 102
-

101. Will Hutton, Observer, 20/5/2001.


102. . , , 8!3!98.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
238


, , .
,
,
,
. ,

, ,
, . ,
r ,
r
25 103,
/
-
,
, , ,

...

103. . . , , (
, 2002) . 1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

:
2009
2008,


( ..) ,
.

( ,
..), ,
,

. 2008

,

,

. ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,

,
,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
242

, ,
,
, , (
, )
.

( ) -
, , ..
!

. , ,
-
--
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ... ,
a , (
,

), -

- -

, ( ),

!
4 2009,
,

. , , ,
( ...
!)

.
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

243

,
,
6
. 6 6
-
- 6 6
,
6 ( 6 6
6) ,
, ,
6 !
, ,
, 6
( ) 6
6 10% ( 6,
15% 6 !), , 6
, 6 6 6
, 6
. 6
6, , 6 6
, 6 ,
6 . ,

6 (
6 6
6 , ..) 6
. 6 6
, 6 (
6 ) ,
, - 6
.
6 6
(
/, ) 6
. , , 6
6
6 -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
244

(, -
- ..).
, ,
.
85%
67%
, ,
,
. .
, ,
30% 23%,
, . , ,
//,
, ,
14% 2004 2007, 11% 2007
2009, 32%,
20%
! , , ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
, 13% ,

. ,

,
! .
, ,
,


( -
... ).

,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

245

.


,
, a
,
,
.

:

2010,

. ,
, ,



, 2010 .
( spreads)
,
.
(-
!)
,
1. ,

. ,


,
, , -

1. . .. "Wolfgang Minchau, Europe has resolved nothing over Greece", The Financial
mes 28/3/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
246

, a
,
, (
28%). ,
,


( ) !
, , (
, , hedge funds,
..) - -
,
, :

..
. , ,

,
, ,
, ,
(
!)
.
, ,
( ,
), ...
,
. , (
)
, ! ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
, ,
. a , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

247

,
,
,
,
, ..
, , ,
, ( )
( ), .
, ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
,
. ,
2

,
.

,
. , ,
(, ..)
( )
!


, ,
,
, ,
( !),
, ,
1960. ,
2. . .. . , 0 , vv, 26!3!2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
248

,
r r
, . ,

( r )
, , r
r
, (
)
. ,
,
, .
,
,

(
),
r
r , ,
()
. , ,

,
.. , ,
,
,
( , ,
) ,
.
, , , r,

,
,
, r
!
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

249

1980,
3. , 6
6 6 6
, 6
,
,
6 6 6, , ,
6 6, .
6 6 6 , 1980,
6
- 6. , 6
(
), 6
, ( 6 6 6),
6 . , ,
, 6
, ,
!
, 6 10 6 , 6
8% 1979 33% 1989 , ,
6 6 , (6 6) 6 13% 38%.
6 6 6 6
28,6% 1970, 44,3% 1980,
6 6 6
, 6 6
6 4. , Deutsche Bank,
6 135% 6 6
150%! 5 , 6
2009 6
6. , 6 5% ( 6
'80) 6

3. . . Fotopoulos, 'conomic restructuring and the debt problem", Intemational Review


off Applied Economics (vol. 6, no 1, 1992).
4. , . 1.
5. Wolfgang Minchau, "Greece can expect no gifts from Brussels", Financial mes, 30/11/2009.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
250

!
, ,
, ,

,
,
,
,

( ) 20%6 , ,
,
,
, '
,
. , r
,
1988, ,
50% 7,
66% -
! 8 , ,
,
20%
7% , 20%
42% a
,
9.
,
1980,
,
,

. -

6. Financial imes, 25/11/2009.


7. OECD, Economic Surveys: Greece (1990).
8. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2008, . 2.10 & 2.15.
9. , . 2.8.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

251


,
.
. , ,

.
,
,
,
,
" ,

. ,
,
. ,
() 10
11, , ,
(
) -
, ,
...

v v
,
, ,
(
!) ,
, , ,

, :
* ,
( ),
10. Wilhelm Hankel .., ' euro exit is the only way out for Greece", The Fmancial mes
25/3/2010.
11. Wolfgang Minchau, "Greece will default, but not thisyear'', The Fmancial mes (4/4/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
252

* (
),
* ( ,
..),
*

* , , , ..
(
).
: ,
, ,

<< ,
!
,
(
) , ,
,
...
, , ,
. ,
,


. - -

. ,

.
a
/,
,



, .
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

253

,
,

.
,
. , ,
,
-

-
.

(
), :

( ),
( - ),

( , ..),


(.. 40% ,
10
..)


( )
,
- - 40%,
60%
() 50% (, , )

(43%)! 12
-

12. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, . 5.6.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
254

,
.
,


..
, -
' -
, ,

, ,

,
. , ,

<<
:
1980 - 1994 2,2%13. , ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
,
. , , I

, ,
14. , ,
,
( )! ,

13. Ralph Bryant, . , . (.), Greece's economicperformance and


prospects, ( & Brookings institution, 2001).
14. Angelique Chrysalis, "Celtic Tiger roars again - but not for the poor", The Guardian
(7/10/2004).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

255

r ,
r r
-
(.. , r),


r (Palco ..).
( )
, ( )
! 15 , ,


16.



2010,
(, ,
!),
,
, (
, ..)
. , , r
r
,
-
- r . ,

, , ,
5

15. . , 10 , (30/04/2004).
16. . ,
!,
(25/07/2004).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
256

r 2010
, r 60 . ! 17
, , ,

-
,
r ,
( !)
. ,

, , ..
a
30 .

:
: .


r

, ,
. ,
( -
, ) r

.
:
. ,

,

, , ( ), ,
. , ,
r
... . ,

17. Hugh Williamson and Kerin Hope, "Greece set to cut chief executives' pay," The Financial
mes (9/2/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

257

r :
,

.
: r
.

r -

, . ..
! ,
,
r
r ,
, , r
. , ,
,
. ,
, , ,
r ,
(113% 12,7% r) 18,

150 300 . r
( ),

! 19 , r
,
,
, , ' ,
, r
, -
, , ... r
, ,
!

18. : Fitch; Olivetree secuties, The Independent (6/2/2010).


19. . . , (30/1/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
258

:
/. ,

,
, ..,
. 6, 6 6
20 ( , , 6 6 6
,
), - , 6
, 6-
6 "6 , , 6 6 . ,
6, ,
6 6
,
. ,
, 6 ,
1% 2000,
6 7% , , ,
6 6:
6
(6 8% 16% ), 6
(6 3% 11%) .. 21. , , 6 6
6 6 6 6 6,
, 6 6 450
740 2000 22, 6
6 6 6
, 6 , (
), 6
6, 6 6
6 6 (6 ..

20. . . Arestis & Pelagidis, The Guardian (1/2/2010). . ,


(29/1/2010) ..
21. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2002 & 2010, Tables 4.15 & 1.1.
22. . , " ,
, 17/1/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

259

)! ,
, a
,
, / (
) ,
, (
).
, , 42%
1980-84. 20 , 1995-99,
38% 23 , ,
,
,
.

,
.
: ,
r .

,
, (
!) .

.

, ,
,
, ,
,
" ,

> .

23. World Development Indicators 2002, Tble 2.5.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
260

v v v
v

2010 - -

,
- ,
,
!

,
,
a
,
, !
,

. ,

" , " ,

, . 24:
, a
- a
(, -
..)-
. (
)
( )
. , ,

24. . , , ' ,
, 26!9!2009.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

261

,
, ,
. ,
r , , ,
r
,
... , , ,
- ,
,
. , ,
r r
: ()
,
,

,

.
, (


, ,
),
r
,
. (

, )

, 25
!
,

25. 6
,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
262

, ,
,

, ,
. :
(
- - ,
26,
,
() " -
, "
,
93% ! , ,


... ,
,
... ,
F!
, ,

, ( )
' (
!).
,
,

, ,

26. ,
. ,
. , ,
2009 ( !)
.
(Peer Steinbriick, Unterm Strich, (,
2010) . vv, 6/10/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

263

>27
,
6 ,
6
, . 6
6 6 6
6 I
:
, ,
, ,
() 6 6
.
, 6 ,
/0, 6 6
6 6 6 ,
r6 6 6 6 6 . 6 ,
6
, 6 6 6,
.
( 6),
r 6 6 , 6
6
( 6 6
), 6 r
6 . 6 , , 6 <<to
6 6 6 ()
, 6
, 6 -

27.
,
, ,
( ),
, '
, (
) .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
264

28,
, ,
, ..! , ,
, a

, , , <<
, , .
, ,
,
, , (
)

.
,
, , ,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
, ,

-
.
,

,
, ,
. , -
1960,
,

, , ,

,

28. . .. . , vv (5/3/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

265

'60, ,

.
'50,
'70

, :f.. ( - !)
.
,

, , . , ,
,
,
( ),
, -


, , -
(. 5).
" , ,
,
,
,
(
) .

,

,
Financial mes .
,
,
'50, ,
,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
266


( )

. ,


,
(
>>), !
, ( ) ,

,

(

)
.
,
,

,
,
. ( !)

, .



( - think tank )
,
,
--
--
.
2008
,
... ew ork imes.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

267

,
,
(
) 29 -
.



,



,
,

, ,
!
,

- ,
..!

29. . . , , ""
, , . 20-21 ( 2009 2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

10



( )
r

- r
.
:
- " 2009
,
r ,
/
,

. , ,
,
,
.
-
,
, r,
. ,
,
r (, ,
- .. Eurobank
! 1)
1. Izabella Kaminska, "Greek tycoons and EU commissioners", F Alphaville, The Financial
mes (29/4/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
270


, , !
- 6 ,
,
(
)
6 ,
6 ... 6
. , 6
( )
, 6 ,
6 , ..

, 6
. , 6 6
(BBC, AUazeera ..)
, 6
, ...
6
. 6, 6
6 6
6
( , 6
6
... ' 6 !). 6
6 (6,
) ' 6 !
- -
6 , 6
.. 6, 6, - 6
6 ,

,
. 6 5 ,
a ( ) ,
6 6 6
, 6 - '

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

271

:

...
-
,
, ,
-
. ,


,
.
,
,
. ,
- !-

.
2 ,
" ,
,
. ,
()
,
,
. ,
()
(/)
1980 () ,
3.

2. George Irvin, "Greece still has a choice", The Guardian (3/5/2010).


3. Martin Wolf, ' bail-out for Greece is just the begirming", The Financial Times (4/5/201 ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

272

v
,
,
,
(
!) ,
' ,
, ,
,
: . , ,
... ,
4. ,
,

,
, ,


.
, ,
,
( 5)
:
- , ,
<<. ,

,
,
,
, -

4. . .. Press (20/4/2010).
5. . .. . , ,
(18/4/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

273

6 . , 6
6
: . ,
6 , ,
6 ,
(.. ) -
- 6
, ( ,
... ) 6
,
6 6 6.
, 6 6 , 6
, 6 6
-
, 6
6 10 .
,
. 6 7,
6
. 6,

, 6
- 6 6
'6 ... 8 6

! , ,

, .

6. , ,
, ,

, a a ,
.
7. . , (18/4/2010).
8. . () (
, ) Press, ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
274

, ,
,
,


(5%)
! 9,
,
...
! 10 , ,

(
) 2014
150% ( 120% ) - ,
,
240 . , ! 11
Reuters,
,
Daniel Gros, ,

12.
, ,


() ,
. , 'spreads'
,
, 10
12% (

9. . .. Wolfgang Minchau, "Greece's bail-out only delays the inevitable", & Alan
Beattie, "Greek bail-out teams face hard balancing act", Financial mes (18/4/2010).
10. . () " ", (20/4/2010).
11. . Sakoui & . Hope, "Markets gear up for Greek debt restructuring", Financial mes
(21/4/2010).
12. R. Atkins & . Hope, "Greece faces risk of spiralling into default", Financial mes
(22/4/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

275

)
2 ( 10%,
,
),
... !
,
,

... , spreads
,
.
, (
) , (
) -
13.
, ,
. :
,


,

. ,
-,
.., '
,

,
,
,

, . ,
( )
, ( ( )
.

13. James Mackintosh, "Greeceunlikely to default innexttwoyears", Financial mes (8/9/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

276

),
(
, a ) ,
,
14.

' v
v
,
,
, '
,

-
.

, ,
' , ,
, ,
,
. ,

, , ,
, ,
,
(
,
,
!),
.
, ,

- -

14. . , vu v, (, 2009),
. 14.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

277

. ,
,
2008 (
, <<
),
,
r ,
.

,
. ,
(
,
-, ..
' ) r
r . ,
, r ,

,
. ,

r, ,
,

,
>>
-
1984
! , ,

,
r ,
.

( )
(
) ,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

278


- ,
( ),
(
!) , (
) , 15.

,
( )
,
. ,
,

,
. , , ,
,
,
,
, .
,

. ,

, ,
,
a
, , -
..
, ,

,
'
,
,
. , ,

15. Wolfang Munchau, "Shrink the eurozone, or create a fiscal union", The Financial mes
(14/3/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

279

(,
..), ,
, , .. r r ,
, r .
,
,
.
,
,
' . , ,
,
r
,
, (

)

. ,
(

),
! , ,
,

,
, ,
, , r
...
, , ,

, r . ,
,
, , .. ( ) ,
, ,
, ( ),

. (

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
280


)
, , (
.., , ,
)
.

, -
,
,
(, ) (,
, -,
)
. ,
,
(


,
!). , , (,
) John Whittakero
Lancaster University,
[
] ,

16.
Hans-Werner Sinn (
Ifo, think tank
),
,

, 17

16. Dr John Whittaker, "Leaving euro may be more attractive", The Financial mes (30/8/2010).
17. Martin Wolf, "Germans are wrong: the eurozone is good forthem", The Financial mes
(7/9/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

281


18, (
, !).
, ,
, :

. ,

2005-08 8%
(
) 19,
2009 9,5%,
12,1% 2011 14,3%. ,
, .
, ,
, 2009 2011
20% ( ) - 1
. - 1960 (
),

. ,
. 20,
70%,
. ,
,
, , 600.000

15 , 250.000 ,

1 5
. , , 7 10
22-35 , ,

18. . . : ,
(6/9/2010).
19. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 2.5.
20. Corinna Jessen, 'ntering a Death Spiral?", Spiegel (18/8/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

282

6 21,
6 6 6
'60, 6
6 6
6 6
>>: .
. 6 6 22 , 25% 6 6
2000-2009,
6 6, 6
6 6. 6, 6 6 ,

, (6 77%
)
- 6
, 6
( 6 )
. , 6 71% 6
( 6 6 !)
6 (2000-08) 6
3,9% ( 1,5% )23. 6 6
6 20%
, 6 () -
6 -
6 (
6 4% )!)
.
,
, 6 6 (
17%
J

21. Niki Kitsantonis, 'oung Greeks Seek Options Elsewhere", New York mes, 14/9/2010.
22. . v vv y2010 (vv, 16/9/2010).
23. World Development Indicators 2010, Tables 4.1, 4.2, 4.8, 4.9.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

283

6 r 24), 6
r (..
6 6 100
), , , 6
100.000 6,
r .
6 , 6
6 6. ,

r6, r
. , 6
(. 6), 6 6 20 6 (1990-2008), r
6, 6 6 ,
30%!
, 6 2010
6 ,
r 6 6,
6 6,
r6 6 (
Financial imes >25)
, 6
...


v -<< v
r ,
6 6
. 6
r , 6 .
6
(6 , , ..) r
6 , 6

24. . (), (9/10/2010).


25. Ines Zottl, "Unser Mann in Athen", Financial mes Deutschland (13/8/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
284

. , "
, ,

. , (
)
- -

, t

!

.
( !)


- ...
,
, ,
.
, a
,
, ,
.. ,

( ... ).

( , ,
, /
..). , ,
, ,
, ,

,
, ,

, .. ,
, (. . 7),

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

285

, r
.
, , ,

r,
r , '
, ... .
,
(, ,
, . .. ).
, r
,
,
!
, ,
, r r
,
:
I. (

r
),
, ,
. (
!) ,

,
,
..,
. (
)
,
,
, .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
286

,
. :
.


.
,
( , ,
)26,
,
,
!
. ,


. ,
4

, ,

'
(. ).
,

, /
:
1.

, '

'
, ,

26. . .. Martin Feldstein, Let Greece take a eurozone 'holiday', The Fmancial mes
(16/2/2010) & Erik Jones, The Financial mes (11!3/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

287


, .
2.
.. 30% -
"
,
-

.
( "
),
,

.

,
.
3. /
,
,
,
,
,
.
4.
(
"
)
.
5. ,
,

.
6. , ,
, (
),

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
288


(.. 50%).

,

,


, ,
!
7.

(.. 1 . ,
,
,
),
,
, (
), r r

10 27, .

, , ,
! ,

,
,
" r, . ,


,

(. ).

27. Helena Smith, "Super-rich move billions out as debt crisis ovewhelms Greece", The
Observer (7/2/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

289

v v v
;
6 , , ,
6 ,
, 6 , 6
.
6 6 6:
- 6 : 6
. 6,
, , ..,
, 6 ,
6 a

, .
6 6,
- , '
,
6 ,
, . 6

. 6 (6
) 6
(.. 1 6 1.000 )

.
6 6 (

6 6 6 6
6) 6 6
6 ,
. 6 , 6
6
, '
6 . , 6
6,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

290

, , ,
(, , , ),

, ,
, ..
'

, , ,
,
.

,

(
, '
) :
.
& ,
.
,
a
, ( ... ),

.
, , ,
;
,
, ,
,
,

,
, ,
, ,
. ,
-
- .
. -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

291

:
. , ,


( ),
, , '


a
.
-


,
(,
, ..) , ,
- a
(, ..)
( , lETS ..) ,

, ,

28,
!

,
,

,
,

!

28. . , w, 12/10/2010 &


2010
, w, 9/9/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
292

,
,

,
, .

, ,
.

v v
,
,

, .
' 2001 ,

,

. , ,
,
.
,
1983 30.000 ,
,
,
,

. ,
,

,
, .. ,

,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

293

30%,
( 18,4%)
38% . ,
,
(
8 . 46 .)

( ) -
.
2001
100.000 ,
300 , 29
,
,

(. ,
..),
.
, ,
, 2001
,

160 . . ,
,
30 .

,
, , 30%
,
. , ,
( )
, ,
.
, -

29. James Petras, Monthly Review, , 2002.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
294

,
,
,
r :
,
r ..
, ,
, ( a
),

.
, ,
r ,
. ,
150
r,

a ,
a
r. , r

r :
r>
,
,
.
68 ,
.

140 70
, 30,
, ,
(, ..)

30. Guido Galafassi, 'rgentina on fire", Democracy & Nature, . 8, . 2, , 2002


- . . 5, ( 2003) .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
. .

295

.
,
, ( a
),

,
.
, ,
,
.
.
,
, -
r - r
r . , ,

,
,
(

)
31.
,
r , ,

32 - , ,
...

31. . Fotopoulos, "Transitional strategies and the Inclusive Democracy project", Democracy
& Nature, . 8 . 1 ( 2002)
, . 6-7 ( - 2004).
32. 'rgentina: first hand accomt" UK indymedia, 2/1/2002.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

1 1

,



, ,
, , ,

, ,
-
-
. ,

,

.

,
\

,
,
,
, -

1. . .. . , , v, 27/6/2010)

6 6 - ,
6 ,
6
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
300


-
v !
,


,


, , ,
'60,
, , ,
, , ,
,
, ( !)
.

(
)
, , .
, , ,

-

- ,
, .
,
2,
,
-

2. , 6,
, , 2014
150% (6 120% ) - 6 6
6 240 ., 6 6
! (. A.S akoul & . Hope, "Markets gear up for Greek debt restructuring", Financial
mes (21/4/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
,

301


.
u ,
, r
, :

, ,
r
, ,
,

,

,
( 4
r), ,

r.

,
,



. ,
,
( - .
- . . ,
, ,
, ,
r (
)
, , ,

,

. , ru ,
a,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

302

, ,
,

, /.


, , ,
, ,
, ,

,
3 -
( )
. ,

, , (
), ,
. ,
,
,

,
1930 ,
,

... New Deal, a
! , ,

,
,

, " >>...
, 3. . , , 17 20/5/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
,

303

( '

)
, ,
..,
,
. ,


4 ,
( )
, , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
<<to

4.
-
-
,
( ) 4
, ! 5
, , ( !)
, ,
,

, , .. ,

4. Tony Barber, "Greece wins plaudits for its reforms", The Financial mes, 7/7/2010.
5.
(. .
, : ,
, v, 11/7/2010),
, (a
4 !)
( !).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
304

, ,
.


;
, , ,
'
,
, ,
,
. ,

(

,
)

, , .
, 6
,
,
, ,
1898,
,
! , ,
,
,
,
7...

6. . .. . , , , 14/7/2010.
, a,
, , 22/9/2010),
180 .
7. , . !,
, 11/9/201 .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
,

305

, ..
45 ,

.

(
) , -
a
(
),
, ,

,
! , , ,
(
)
... []
,
( )
8 (sic!). , ,
, New ork imes,

9,
protege !
, ,
,
, .
, ' .
,
,
.
,

8. , vw, 23/9/2010.
9. Suzanne Daley, "Greek Leader Finds Balm for Deficit: Straight Talk", New York mes
(15/6/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
306

. , ( )
,
"
.
,
,
( , , -
..) ,

! (
) <<


,
, ,
! ,
,
, ,
(
, , ... )
,
,
,
(, , -
> ..),
(
!) ,
, , . ,
,
Marfin (. . 1),
,
. ,
10 (
) ..

10. Marfin ,
, 24/9/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
,

307

,
r
,

. , ,
,

, . , ,
,
, ,
,
,
-
.
, ,
r
(. 1). ,
r.
, ,

, ,
.
, ,
a ,
, ,
r


:

...
,
r (
) - -
,
( <<r
-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
308

- . ),
. ,

( ,
, ,
...) , ,
,
-
-
.
,
- , 11,
,
>> 12,
( ),

,
.. ,
,

, ,

( ) . r
"
, ( )
,
.
...
, , -
-
,
, -

11. , , vv ,
(, 2009), . 14.
12. . . , , , 22/9/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
,

309

( ),

,
, , .. , ,
,
,

,
.

,
,
' ,
,

,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

12





, , ,
;
, , , . ,

( a) .

(
),
. , , 1,


.
, ,

,
(.. ),

(
),
(, , ,

1. . Fotopoulos "Transitional strategies and the Inclusive Democracy project", DEMO


CRACY & NATURE, vol. 8, no. 1, (March 2002) (
, . 6 & 7 (2004).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
312

..). ,
,

,
,

. , ,

,

20 .
,
. ,
,
,
, ,
.

,
,

(
!)
(
). , ,
,
,
. ,
, ...

,
,
, 2,
, ..

2. . , , , 12/9/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

313

,


( ), ... , "New Deal"

,
.

v v -


- ,

, '
a,
-
-
(!),
3.
( )


(
,
, ), .
, , <<
-,
, ,


( ,
, !)

3. . . , < , v(, 24/11/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

314

a
!
-

-
r, .

. ,
r
r , ,
,
.. (
, , )
! , ,
,
,
( ,
, ,
) t
. , , r -
, r , r
4.
r
:

: ,

.
, 5, (
,
, )
, . ,

4. . . , - 10 v ( , 2008)
. 8.
5. . . , , , (
, 2002) . 1 - 10 v (
, 2008) . 1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

315

.
, , ,
,
,
, ,
, ,

. , ,

,

,

,
!

r:
,


. ,

,
6 ,
,
a ,
30, ,
, !
,
r ,
a
, ..
. ,
r r
. -

6. Costas Douzinas, 'urope or the end of politics", Greek Left Review, 16/8/2010.
http:ijgreekleftreview.wordpress.com/2010/08/16/europe-or-the-end-of-politics/

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

316



'70 a ,
.


,

.
,
, , ,
.
(
)
.
,
, -
,
,
,
.


,
,

.

:

1930,

. , a
, 1930
. 1930

. '

, . ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

31 7


,
.

,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
.
.

: r v
v v .

, (
) , ,

, 7
, ,
r
,
, ,
. , ,
, r
r,
! 8 , ,
,
16%
73% 9.

: r v v-

7. . .. . Hirst & G. Thompson, Globalisation in Question (Polity Press, 1996), . 16264.


8. Pascal Lamy, ,
13,5% 2010 1950!
(Hamish McRae Securing a recovery is the least of our woes, Independent, 22/9/2010).
9. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 1.1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
318

vvJ
. , ,

1930,
r
,( 1999) 10
, r
,

( , ,
-, ..)
. ,

r
,
Richard Wolf11 (
- ), , ...
,

30 ,
,
1980
>>.
,
, 1990
! , ,
r , ,

( ),

( )
. ,
a, -

10. . , vv, 9/10/1999.


11. Interview with US professor Richard Wolff, Greek Left Review, 16/8/2010 (
Wolff Avy 2010,
. ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

319

, , ( )


.

( ) 12
,
. , ,
( ,
.. 1999 ,
)

,
,
a
(, ,
, !). ,
,

. ,
.
, ,
, .
,

,
.
,

,
, (

),
, ,

12. . , : (v, 1999).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
320

.
, ,
,
, . ,


!
, ,

, ..
13.
, ,
,

... .
,
,
... 19 14,

,
. ,
,

-
'
-
,
15, , ,
, .
,
(
!), -

13. .. . a <
, (14/2/2010).
14. . .. Leslie Sklair, The Transnational Capitalist Class (Blackwell, 2001 ) .
15. . , .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

321

(

!),
,
(
) ..

, ,
, ,
. , ,

,

,
a .
,
,
,
,
, ,
.

v v
,
(
a )
21 ,
... .
,
- ,
,
,
!
( )

, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
322

, ,
, <<t

, , a
. , <<
.. ,
, (
)
. , '
16 , ,

- (, ..),
,

,
.
,
(, , ...)
,
.
, ,
<<t
(,
, , ,
), ,
,
a , ,
,
,
,
.
,
, ,

16. . Fotopoulos, 'ass Divisions Today: The Inclusive Democracy Approach", Democracy
& Nature, Vol. 6, . 2 (July 2000) - . , . 9,
2005.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

323

, , , r
. '
r , ,

- , r ,
!
, r r
r , r

( CADTM) ,


,
,
r ,
. , ,
r , 17
r ( ,
, ,
)

( ) ,
.
,
,
a
( ,
, ), 10 ,
, , ,
r ...

v ..
, ,

17. , ..
http://thenetwar.com/2010/08/elliniki-epitropi-enantia-sto-chreos/

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
324

r r r,
, ,

, , -
r - , ,
... ,
' ,
!
, , , ,
r a
. , ,
(r )

, ,
,

, ,
.
) vv v

r


.


r r
, ,

. ,
2010 18:
r, ,
, , ,
,
,

18. ,
, 17/2/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

325

,
.

. ,
,
, " ,
" , .
, , 2010,
,
, : 19

'40 - '49.
,
, ' ,
...
'

.
, ,
" .
,

, , ,
,

.

, ()
( , , 1980

" ),
, ,
. ,
,
,

19. , ;, r, 27/6/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
326

,
,
,
. , , r
, t r ,
- ( ,
)

, ,
. , ,

,
- 19 r 20
-
. ,

,
r r
, r ,
20.
,
, ,
r,
r 19- 20
, . ,
( )

r ,
r -
! ,

,
r .

20. . . Fotopoulos, "Transitional strategies and the Inclusive Democracy project",


DEMOCRACY & NATURE, 6.. ,
6 . 6 & 7 (2004 ).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

327

, ,
:

, ,

,
,
"
,
-
-
.
,
,
,



.
,
. ,
(.. ),

, ,
,
. ,
(, , ..)
( ,
, , , ..),
.
, , ,

, . , ,
,
,
:
, , .., (,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
328

..) !
(
) , ,

, ,
! ,

, , - -


,
/ 21. '

,
(
) a
( ).
, , , ,


( )
4 , (
) , ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
,
, ..
,
,
,
21. . , v vv, v (, 1985).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

329


,
...
) v

, r , ,
,
r, ,
,
r ... r .
, , ,

,
,
-
!

r . ,
22:
r

r (, . 66):
.

,
.


, a ( ) r
23,
Znet

22. . , , vv
http://www.babylonmedia.gr/index.php?option=com content&task=view&id=l983&Itemid=
23. .
, . 20-21 (
2009 - 2010), . 137-206.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
330


! 24 ,
,

25.

2010
, ,

( ),
,
..,
, , ,
, .., -
,
( Znet)
,
,
,
! 26
- (

,

27),

: ,

24. . (v, . 46).


25. . . , ,
, (, 2004).
26. . , Peter Bohmer
:
http://w.ww babylonia.gr/index.php?option =com k2&view= item&id = 1266: fest --
--1-&lang= el
27. . - S. Latouche & . (
, . 20-21, - 2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

331

, ,
, Michael
Albert 28
, ,
- , ,


( / ..),
.
, , (
)
, -
(
-
10 ,
!) 29
,
, , ,
,
,
,

a ! 30

28. . . , v , v ,
..
29. . Fedeco Demaria, Peter Bohmer
:
http://www.babylonia.gr/index.php?option=com content&view=article&id=l942%3A201009-1 0-00-3 7-29&catid = 87%3 Akoinonikes antistaseis&lan= el
30. . Juan Manuel Sanchez Gordillo,
Marc Tomsin Raoul V aneigem
:zh
. ttp://wbww. abylonia.gr/index.php? option= com content&view= article&id= 1943%3A3-q-q&catid = 87%3 Akoinonikesantist aseis&lang= el

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
332

v v v
(, ) v

r ,

, ( -
: - 31)
, ,
.. ( ) (r
)32
, , , ,
,
( , ,
) .
, r ,
(, ,
..) 33, (34
.)
. , ,
,
r ,
, ! ,
, r
(, )
, (,
..)! , ,

r,
, ( -

31. , , .. (15/5/2010). http:/vwwnomoneynodebt.gr/details.php?id=38


32. , , .. (6/7/2010)
http://aristerovima.gr/
33. -: -
(15/5/2010). http:Uwww.nomoneynodebt.gr/
34. . <{ , (19/5/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

333

- , , !-
,

),
...
, ,

,
,
,
, , , ,

, , . ,


",
. ,
35:
, ,
.

.

.
, ,
, ,
,
, ,

!
, ,
,

35. . , (, 19/5/2010.
. C. Lapavitsas, "Germany, a eurolaggard", Guardian, 22/3/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
334

, ,
,
, t ! ,

, r
,
, ,
- . ,

2010
, ,
,
,

,
!
, , ,
( ),

( ),

( ).
<<t ,
, ..
:
, , ..
,
36
,
r ,

!
, ,

36. . , , , 10/1!2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

335


4 ,

. , ,

.


-
-
! ( )

(
), (
,
, ),
,
- , , - -
,
! .. ,
, ,

, ,
, , ,
.. , ,

, 4 !
, ,

,
,
,
( ,
..) , ,
,
. '
<<t ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
336

. ,
, ,
(
,
..), , 4
, , !
, ,

,
,
,
,
:
.
, .
37.
, ,
, 2-3 ,

. , ,
, , /

, (,
)
, , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
a .
, ,

,
.

37. . , vv, 19/5/2010.


. C. Lapavitsas, "Germany, a eurolaggard", Guardian, 22/3/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

337

,
a,
, (
),
( ) ,
, . , , ,
, (

),
, ! ,
, ,
-

- Peer Steinbrck,
, 38:

. .
,
,
,
''.
,

.
, , ,
, 39:

(, , ),
, ,
,

38. Peer Steinbriick, Untenn Strich ("The bottom line") (, 2010)


Ralph Atkins "Steinbriick sees Greece rescheduling", Financial mes,
14/9/2010.
39. . ,
http://aristerovima.gr/details.php?id=3

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
338


,
,
.
,

. ' ,
( , ,
), r
, ,
r
r, ,

, ,

.
, ,

,
,
( ,
), r
t,
, r
!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

13



: - .

: .
, ,
-,
,
, ,
1960 1970,
,
...
.
, ,
.
,
,

, ,
,
,
,

.


,
,
, ,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
340

- v, v v
. . . v

- (

), -,
.
,
, ,
,
- -
, ,
: U
.., ,
1. , ,
( ,

a
, , ' ,
!)
- , ,
-,

.
, -
2:
, .
,
, ,
, . .
1,5% ,

1. . . , , , (
,2002) . 6 .
2. , , 25/4/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

341

5%. , , . ,
,
- , (
!)
>> ! : , ,
"
; :
,
.

.

...
,
-,
, , ,
,
!
a ,
, -
,
-
!
, ,
a
. ,

"
,
(,
, , ..) (
) ,
, ", . ..
. , ,
,
( ) (
..),

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
342

,
-,
, !
,
( )
...
, , ,
, ,
, (Greenpeace ..), ...
, .

, ! ,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,

,
. , ,


, 3, , , , (,


),

, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
(..
),
/, ( -

3. Tey Macalister, "Greenjobs revolution is a myth, says industry", The Guardian (4/1/2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

343

,
, ..)
.
, ,

,
,
. , ,
,
:
(
2013)
!
, ,
", (
!)
4. , ,
, , ,

.
,
, , , ,
, ,
. ,

5,
6 ,
,
, ,

4. . , ", , 2/9/2010.
5. . . Fotopoulos, 's sustainable development compatible with present globalisation?",
The IntemationalJoumal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY, Vol. 4, . 4 (October 2008);
. S. Goldenberg, Worldwide spread of US greed culture 'threatens man's future',
The Guardian (13/1!2010).
6. . Trainer, Renewable Energy Cannot Sustain Consumer Society (Springer, 2007).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

344

, ,
" ,
, , , ,
r , ,
, ->, , ,
a ! 7


r
, , r
,
-,
( )
. r ,

, <<t
,
, (,
, ) . ,

, , ,
,
, (, ,
) ..,
,

,
( )
,
,
.

7. . , -
;, , . 20-21, (- 2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

345

1. vv


1990
, . ,
r, r ,
.

,
, .
,

humanitas, r ,
( , ,
), ,
(
a).
- , .. ,

.
, ,
,
(
) (
).
, ,
, ,
a
,

.

8, -

8. . . , y, , (
2002) . 6.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

346

,

, "
,
. ,

,
.
, (

,
, ,
!),
( , -
..).

,


, 9 ,

,

, ,
. , ,

, ,
,
, ,

( , )

-

9. David Goodhart, "Progressive nationalism isn't


27/5/06.

an

oxymoron, it's a necessity, Guardian,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

347

, , ,
, ,
,
..
,
,
,
.
'
, , ..,
,
<<r
, ,
10. , ,
,
a
- - ,
,
!
,
(
)
(
)!
2.

, , ,
,
,
,
... -
. ,

10. . - (29/11/2006)
http:l/www.ananeotiki.gr/readText.asp?textiD 1706
=

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
348

(,
),

,
a. ,
, ,
,
11:

,
.
, ,
,
,
!

, ,
(
" ) a
( ),

,

.

.
. , ,
, , <<-
,
,
.
,

11. . , Fotopoulos, "The myth of postmodemity", Democracy & Nature, (vol. 7 no. 1,
March 2001) - . . , . 22 (
2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

349

r .

. ,
- (
),
,
.
,

.
-
- (
): ,
12.
,

,
. , ,
.
,
, , ,
. :


. -
- ,
(
).


.
vv

-

12. . , , v, . 1 ( 1996).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
350


.
, , (

,
- )
, , ,
,
.
,
, ,

,
,

. , ,

, (, ,
a)
,
,
.
,
,
,
, ! ,

,
, ,
, (

),
. 7, - , ,


: , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

351

,
!
.
3.



'70,
13, a
,
.

,
,
. , ,

. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,

. ,
14
,



,
(
'
), . r,

13. . . , v , (, 1997) . 11.


14. . .. . , , 25/6/00.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
352

, ,
, a
! 15
/,
,
,
, ( ),
, ( ,
..). , ,

a,
. ,

(, DVD, CD ..) ,
() ..
,

( )

.
,
, ,
-

'' (
),
,
. ,
,
- -


,
()

15. . .. v, '97, - '98 ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

353

,
16.

, ,
, ,
.
,
,

. , ,
,
,
,
.
,

, .
(
),
,

, ( )
. , >>
,
, ,
,
17 ,
,

, ,
,
. ,

( , ,

16. . . , , 9/6/2000.
17. . .. UN, Human Development Report 1999.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
354

..)
-
.
,
,

, .
, ..
,
..,
,
,
. ,
(
),
, ,

. ,
>>

(, , ),
(<<t )

.
,
.

, ,
.., ,
, .
,
-
- , ,
.
,
(. ..
, .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

355

.. , ,

,
,
,
.
, ,


,
. , ,
,
,
r
, "
.
, ,
, ( -

)
,
,
. ,

,
-
. ,
(
, ) ,

,

. , ,
,
(, ,
..) ( , -,
-) -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

356

-.
- , ,
,
, -

.

,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
- -
,
,
r .
(,
, -
). , r
, , , ,

. ,
( ),

. , ,
,

.
4.

, r
, ,
.
r 18,

18. . , v (, 1997).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

357

, (
) ! ,
(
!)
, , ...
19. ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
,
() . ,
a
20,

. ,

,
,
. ,

. , ,

. ,
, :
( 2008
. . 83 94 ,
199,
103!) 21.
,

19. . . . v (1/2/98).
20. , . 386.
21. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 1.1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
358

: take
off 622.
, 6 (6 )
19 ,
,
6
6 . , 6
'6 6 ,
"6 ,
6 1980 ,
6 6 6
(36% 31%)23. 6,
, 6
"6 10% 18%
, 6 "6
20% 28% 24. ,
, 6,
6 take off,
,
- 6 6 6 ,
! 6 6, 6
, 6 6
6 6 , 6
...
, 6
6 , 6 6 6,
, 6 6
, 6
. , 6, 6
, 6 6 ,
, 6 6.

22. . , . 388.
23. World Bank, World Development Report 1997, Table 12.
24. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.2.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

359

,
.
,
1980 1995 25, 2008 26
,
,
. , 1, 4%
3,2% 1995, 2008
6% 16% 27. , 13
,
!
,
( ),
1980 80% 1995
40%28. ,
, 58% 1980
55% 1995 29 , ,
,
, ,
, . '
,
a, . , ,

.
1995
! 30 , ,

, 120
!

25. World Bank, World Development Report 1997, Table 16.


26. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Table 4.15.
27. v : World Bank, World Development Report 1997, Tables
16 & 12 World Development Indicators 2010, Tables 4.15 & 1.1.
28. . , . 399.
29. World Bank, World Development Report 1997, Table 12.
30. World Development Indicators 2010, Table 1.1.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
360

, ,
, ,
( a
, .,)

. , ,

, , ,

,
,
. , ,

,
,
, ,
60 , !
,
,
- ,
,
.
31, ,

,

(
t)32
, ,
70-130 ,
-

31. , {v vw, ( 1985 & 1987),


. 1.
32. . vw( 17/1/1998
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

361

r r . , ,
,

,
! , ,

,
, ,
,
,
. , ,
, ,
,

, ,
!
5.

, ,
. , ,
- . 33, ,
, '
'' r
, r ' '.
, ,
( r

): <<ro '' r
(

33.
, ,
, - ,
!

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
362

),
34
, 6
, 6
. ,
35:
6
6 6, 6 6,
, ,
.
6 , 6
, "
, 6 6
.
, 6 6 6 6
6 6 (6 )
6 6
( 6 !),
,
6 6
6 ( , ,
6 !), 6
, 6
6 . , ,
6 6 6 6 6
,
6 ( 6 ,
a )

34. , , v,
5/9/2010.
- (
!)- ...
..
35. (. ), , v, . 81 (
- 2010).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

363

r
-
, !
, , ,
(
' !) ,
: r
(
r r ,
) ,
.

1974, r
<<r ...

, -
- r , r
r, .
, r :
,
,
,
, .
, r
r r
, ,

...
,
,
,
.
, , r
, ,
,
, , ,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
364

, ,
, , r
,
,
,
... . , ,
r
,
,
r ,

(, ..)
( ),
,
. , , ...
, "
,
a ,
-
!
, , ,
-

-
.
, , (
,
, ),

: ,
r
. ,
, ,
! , , r
,

, , ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.
.

365


! , ,
,
(
),
, "
, ,
.
, ,
, a

, , ..,
. :
,

.
-a
, ,
,
,
- , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , ,

.
. , " ,
,
"
,
, .


( ,
,
, , -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
366

.., r ' , ,
.

,
,
.

,
,
.
, ( ) :
, ,
.

r
. ,
. , r ,
r , ,
.
, ,
.

. , ,
,
.. ,

. ,
, .
, , ,
, r
' - . ,

,
, ,
, ,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

367

' ,

. , ,

, , "


, .
, , :
,

,
!
-
, , ,
, ,
,

...
,
.

, ,
,
,

.
, ,
,
(
)
.
,
" ,

.
: , ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

368


! ,
,
:
a
,
- , , ,
,
.

<<r ,
, , ( )
,

! , ,


. ,


!
(
) ,

, .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
a- .
, ,
, (,
, ,
!)
. ,
,
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

369

( )
. , ,
,
,
, r
,

,
, .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

14


;
;

, .

Cocoyoc
, a ,

1. ,
,
.
,
/,

-
,
,
. ,
,
.

,
, :

1. Paul Ekins, rade for Mutual Self-Reliance (London: TOES publication),


1989, . 13.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

3 74

,
, ,

(
) ,
10%
( , ,
, ,
, ) ,
,
, 1
2 ,
,
(
), (
, ..). ,
,
,

.
GA, 1995
,
,

,

-
-
. ,

,
-
- .
,

2. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010,Tab1e, 2.20.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

3 75

, .
,
,

,
.
,
,

,

3, ,
, 2007,
(, )
.
, ,
( )
a .


,
, .
, ,
-
4. ,

, . ,

.
, , ,
,

3. ., .., Paul Ekins, Trade for Mutual Self-reliance, . 9.


4.
( !), ., .., Paul
Ekins, Local Economic Self-reliance (London: TOES publication, 1988).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
3 76

,
r
. , ,
,
.


. , r
r

.
.
, (
, ,
),

. ,
r
, r , r
,
, .
,

. (
", ),
,
,
(, ..)
.

>>, (
,
!), ,
,

.
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

377


,
(
). ,
,
.
,

,

, 5. a, ,
,
, , ,


6

/.

,
r
a .
, r
,
( -
, ),
r ,
-
.
,
, ,
, .

5. . . , - 10 v ( , 2008,
. 1).
6. . . , v vv: v (, ,
1985 1987), . .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

3 78

,
,
:

,
,

,
,
,
.

a
,
.

, , (.. , ,
, , )
,
, ,
,
,
(
) .

, ,
, ,
. ,
,

. , ,
:
. 5, (
) (,
-
,
). ,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

3 79

,
.
, ,
, <<t ;
, ,


( , ,
!)
a !
,
,

,
,
. -
, ,
. , ,
(
)
- -


" .
, , ,

,
,

!
,
",

,
(
- ),
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
380

: (
,
) 7. , ,

-, , 8,
,


!
,
,
,
( )
-
, ,
.. , ,

.
,

,
,
(
),
( , .. )
,

.
, ,
,

7. . Michael McCarthy "Localism s globalism: two world views collide", Independent,


25/9/2010 .
8. . - -
, . 20-21, - 2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

381

,
,
. , ,
.

;
, (
, ),
. ,
, ,
, ,
, Stephen Hawking
Martin Rees ( Royal Society)
50% 21
! 9
,
, .


: . , ,

19 ( , ,
), ,
r,
,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
,
,
.

9. Martin Rees, The Independent, 27/9/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
382

<< , , ..,
r ,
,
,
, ( )


.
10
3 , r
"
5 !. ,

,
. , ,
,
,
(
)
r. , ,
( )
. ,

..
, , ,
. ,
20,
" , ,

, ,
,
- ! , ,

30 .

10. . Michael McCarthy "Localism vs globalism: two world views collide", ..

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

383

,
, ,
,
( )
,
.
, , 20,

,
,
, .. , ,
Christine Lagarde, .

,
>11. , ,
,
, (
),
,
, , .., ,
, , ,

, ,
, a !
, , ,
, ,
. :

, ,
,


, ,
.

11. Chs Giles and Christian Oliver, "G20 drops support for fiscal stimulus", Financial
mes, 5/6/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
384

, ,
,
,
, , ,
, 6

6 ( 6 6 6
) 6 6
' . 6
, , 6
6
, 6
6
6
6 6 , 6
! 12
, , 6,
6
a 6 ,
,
(.. ),
, 6 6
6
6 ,
6
(, ..) 6
. 6
;

12. Pascal Lamy, ,


13,5% 2010,
1950 ! Hamish McRae, "Securing a
recovery is the least of ourwoes", Independent, 22/9.2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

385

v v
r
,
, ,
:
1)

2)

3)
.

r
.

.
, r
. ' , ,
.


. ,

, r

4% 13. (
2,5% 3,7%
14)
r , ,
.
,

13. World Bank, World Development Indicators 2010, Tables 4.15 & 1.1.
14. .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

386

r , .

( / r)

.
. ,
,

, ,
.
1.

, , , ,
/ ,
, .

,
. , ,
,

, , . ,
/ ,
r , ..

... , ..,

!

, ,
,
, , ,

. :

,

, r

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

387

, ,
,

,
.

, ,
, ,
.

,

70% (
)
40% ! ,

,


, ,
. , /
(
), , ,
. ,
,
.

2.

,

.

,
,
( <<t )
(

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
388

).
. ,
/ ,

, ,
. ,
, r
, 15,

, ,
, ,
,
r
. ,


, .

; /
, r
,
, . , ,
,
.
,
u ,
,

( )
(
, ,
).
, , -

15. . . , - 10 v , .. . 6-7.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

389

,
,
,
,

. , ,
"

, ,

30-50.000 .

, /

. ,
,
. , ,


, .. ,
, /
,
, ,
<<t ..,
, , , !
, ,
/ ,

, . ,


. , /
,

. ,

, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
390

/ , r (
)
,
.


.

-
- , , (
/ ) , ,
, , , ,
,
. , ,
r
. , /. ,
. , .
/ r
. ,
r ,
.
,
r
. ,
. r
,

.
. ,
(,
..). , ,
(
), /
,
.

-

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

391


.
, , ,
,
,
.

. , ,
, ,
(.
)
(,
..)
.

,
, ( '
)
, .
,

, ,
, (

),
(, , )
, (
a,

a ). ,
, , .
,
r
,
, .

, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
392

,
. ,

,
.

,
,
, ,
. , , ,
,
, .
, , ( /
)
,
,

(..
, ..).
.
,
, '
16
.
, ,

, -
/, -
. ,
. ,

.

,
16. . - 10 , .. . 6-7.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

393

(, , )
. ' ,
,
(, ), / , ( ),
().
, ,
(, ,
..) , ,
,

. ,

. "
, ,
..
( ) ,
,

,
-
. ,

,
(, ..)
.
, (
) , ,
, .. , ,
,
,
. , ,
...
, ,
,
,
,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

15



. 11, ,
. ,

, (

) humanitas. ,
,

(
). ,
,
,
,
,
,
" , <<r , ,
1.
,
, -

1. . - (29/11/2006)
http://www. ananeotiki. gr/readText. asp?textiD 1706
=

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

396

, ,

, . ,
:


,





,


.., (

), , ,
, , ,


,
,
.., ,

.

, ,

. , ,
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
-
, ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

397

. ,
,
,
. ,

(, ,
<< )

, ,


,
, ,
.
,
, ,
.
a ,
,

.

v v v v
,
,
, /
,
,
.
, ,
( ) ,
,
,
.
:
- ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
398

.; (
)
.; .
, , ,

. ,
,
. ,
, , ,

, ,
, .

,
. ,
,
,


.
,
.

, .

,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
, , (
),
(
- ,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

399

.. 2),
. ,

( ),
,

. , , r
.

r
,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

.

,
/
.
r
.
, ,

.

(,
, ..).
, ,

.

. ,

2. . .. David Prosser, "Fairtrade is booming - but is it still a fair deal?", Independent,


24/2/2007.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
400

r
, .


,

, r-
-
. ,

, a
a ,
, . , ,

, ,
, ,
, ,

, ,
.
, ,

,
.


v
,
,
,
, , ,

,
. ,
r
r ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

401

, ,
,
.
,
, (,
, , )
,
, ,
,
.
, 3,
,
( )
.
,
/ .


, , '

.
:

( )

,
(
)
( ) ,
,
.
,
,
,

.

3. 6,
- 10 'v , ( , 2008 . 5-6).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

402

r ,


(.. , ,
..) ,
, r

,
,
, ,
, ...

, ,

.

r


, , , , , r
.
r
,
, r

. , ,

,
, r
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
,
( ) , ,
, .
,
,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

403

, a r
, ,
. , ,
,
,
r ( r
) (
), ,
(.. ).
, , a
( ) a,
(r r). ,
, ,
, ,
(
, , ..).
,

,
r ,
,

4 r. ' ,
r ,
, r
, - , , 5.
, , Bookchin 6
7 , -

4. ., .., Anthony Giddens, The Third Way (Oxford: Polity Press, 1998).
5. ., .., Erik Olin Wright, Classes (London: Verso, 1985/1997), D. Ames Curtis, '
the Bookchin/Biehl resignations and the creation of a new liberatoy project", Democracy
& Nature, Vol. 5, . 1 ( 1999), . 163-74.
6. . Bookchin, Post-scarcity anarchism (London: Wildwood House, 1974), . 19.
7. C. Castoriadis' introductory interview The Castoriadis Reader, . David Ames
Curtis (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997) . 26-27.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
404

,
, ,
( ) ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
,

, , ,

8.
,
<<t ,

(,
..),
,
/
.


(, ,
... ),
,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
,
,
/ ,

8. Ellen Meiksins Wood, Democracy Against Capitalism (Cambdge: Cambridge University


Press, 1995), . 262.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

405

. ,

,
, , ,
,
.
,
,
,

9.
, ,
( -, .. LETS
, ..),

, (.. ..)

,
.
,

,
,
, .

,
(, , )
.
,
, ,
, , ,
,

9. , - 10
v , .. . 7.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
406

,
, .
,
,
,


,
.
(
)
, -,
(..
-
,
) 10. ,
, v
,

. ,

.
,
, , "
,
, , ,

.



- ,
, -

10. . , ,
, (, 2004).

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

407


. ,
, ,

, , ,

.
, ,
,

. ,
,
,

. ,
,
,

, ,

. , r ,
,
, , ,
,
.
,
r .
, ,

,
r , , ,
,
a ,
.
, r,
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
w
vv.in:lusive,detocra,cy .org/fotooulos

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos


-
,
, ,

(, )
- ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
.

,
(. ),


. ,
, ,

30

, " .
,
,
,

.
,
,
, -

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
410

-
-
. , ,
Financial
imes 1 ...

,
,
a,
, .
, ,
,
,
,
.
,


,

()
( )
.
, ,
() ,
,
( ..),
-
.
- -
,
(, , ,
!).

1. Gideon Rachman, "Defiant France ignores the abyss", Financial Times, 18/10/2010.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
.

411

, ,
,
,

,
r ,
!

, r ,
r
r, r
( ),
( )

, .


,
, zero
sum game,
.
r ,



.
a ..
, ,
r


. , ,
( ) ,

( )

. r , ,

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
412

, ,
,

.
,
" -

,
, " r
/,
-

. , ,
,
,
(,
),
r ,
r
.
, , ,
a ,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
,
. ,


, " r,
r

.
.

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos
n n n
Clarity Press [www claritypress

com] n n

n
n .

R fD fSI GNING
f I lf
s

rnAnM
"RPJOLUIIONS",
COUNERRPJOLUIION
IN IRANAND
REGIME CHANGE

REDES I G N I N G M I D DLE EAST


The Arab ReoLutions, Counter ReoLution i n l ra n a n d Reg i m e
Change
Takis FotopouLos
Th is book demonstrates that the u lt i mate a i m in a ll the cases of
the Ara b "reo lutions" has been to secu re the fu ll i nteg ration of all
Ara b reg i mes i nto the i nternationalised m a rket eco n o my ['neolibera l
g lobalisatio n ' ] , e i t h e r t h ro u g h a pseudo-democratisation of exist i n g
client reg i mes [Tu n isia, Egypt] o r t h ro u g h reg i m e-change, following a
attack [Libya] , with a s i m i la r fate clea rly prescri bed for Syria a n d
l ra n .

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos

nn n n n
[] n
n n n

, nn n .
n n n
n n n n
. nnn n
, , ..
nn
1. n n n n n
n nn n n n
n . n
n n
,
n, nn, n, ,
.. , ,
.
2. n n nn/n
n n. n n n
n , '
n / .
3. n [PayPa] n
n . fi n.
n n n nn n
n n
n . n n !

PayPa [ editors i ncusiedemocracy.org]:


www. incusiedemocracv.org/pd/stiriksi.htm
:
n n
. : 211/636454-31
I BAN : GR95011 02110000021163645431
. SWF [BIC]: ETHNGRAA

www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos