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## Aplicaciones de la Fotnica de Microondas

Departamento de Comunicaciones Curso de Doctorado 2004-2005

Contents
Fundamental concepts Filters operation Implementations:
A little history Filters based on a single source Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources Filters based on broadband sources

Fundamental Concepts
Transfer functions for RF filters
Time Impulse
h(n) =

Filter

## h[2] h[0]h[1] h[3]

0

h[N]

h [ k ] ( t kT )

k =0

2 3
N

h(t ) = a r (t rT )
r =0

## a) If N is finite: Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter

H ( z ) = ak z k
k =0

z =T
b) If N is infinite: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter

H ( z) =

a z
k =0 M k r =1

1 br z r

## Filter Frequency Response

H () = a r e jrT
r =0

Fundamental Concepts
Transfer functions for RF filters
The filter transfer function is always periodic in the frequency domain
FSR
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0

MSSR

-3dB

Resonance order 0

Resonance order 1
1 2

Resonance order 2
3 4 5 6

fr0

fr1

f(Ghz)

fr2

FSR [Hz]: Free Spectral Range or Spectral period FSR=1/ f [Hz]: 3 dB Resonance bandwidth (same for all resonance orders) Q factor: Quality factor Q=frk/f (depends on the resonance) F: Finesse: F=FSR/f (indepndent of the resonance) MSSR [dB]: Main to secondary sidelobe ratio

Fundamental Concepts
Transfer functions for RF filters General Layout Input Output electric field
RF Signal
si (t )
12
0

E0 (t ) = [ar si (t rT )] e j ( w (t rT )+ (t rT ))

T 2T

CW laser Source

modulator

## Optical signal tapping element

1/2 o

a21/2
NT

aN1/2

Signal taps Optical delay lines Optical weights Signal combination (couplers, stars, etc.)
Input electric field

## Delay line weight

[s (t )]
i

12

e j ( w t + (t ))
o

Output RF Signal
s0 (t ) = E0 (t ) = ar si (t rT )
2

Fundamental Concepts
Practical realization of RF filters
Source coherence Polarization Positive coefficients Limited Spectral period or FSR (Free Spectral Range) Noise Reconfigurability Tunability

Fundamental Concepts
Required photonics components
1) Optical signal tapping: Lasers, sliced broadband sources, FBGs 2) Optical signal weighting: EDFAs, SOAs, EOMs, EAMs, VCs, VOAS 3) Optical delay lines: Standard and HD fiber coils, LC-FBGs

## 4) Optical signal combiners and switches

Fundamental Concepts
Example: 3 tap transversal filter using fiber Coil delay lines
RF signal Delayed &Weighted RF signals

ao CW optical source

T 1x3
a1

3x1 2T
y (t ) = ar x(t rT )
r =0 2

a2

## Delayed &Weighted optical signals

Fundamental Concepts
Example: 3 tap transversal filter using Dispersive Delay Line
CW optical source

Po
RF signal

to+2T to+T to

## Delayed &Weighted RF signals

CW optical source

P1

Dispersive element
y (t ) =
2 r =0

a x (t
r

rT )

CW optical source

P2
Weighted Optical signals

## Delayed &Weighted optical signals

Filter Operation
Filter Tunability
The possibility to tune the RF bandpass position in a sufficiently fast way either discretely or continuously To tune the RF response of the filter, the FSR has to be modified and therefore also the basic time delay T between samples or taps. FSR
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0

FSR1

fr0

f(Ghz)

fr1

Filter Operation
Filter Tunability
A number of techniques to produce true time delays T have been proposed:
Switched propagation paths (switched delay lines): Different paths providing different basic propagation delays (that is different values of T) can be chosen by means of an optical space switch. It allows only step by step tunability, with the tuning speed being limited by the switching time (1-10ms). Wavelength tuning of one or multiple sources combined with dispersive optical devices: based on tuneable sources and dispersive devices (Standard Fibre, High dispersive (dispersion compensating) fibre, Linearly Chirped Fibre Bragg Gratings (LCFBG)).Can provide continuous or step tunability at high speed, limited by the tuning speed of the sources (depending on the tuneable source technology from 100ns to >100ms).

Filter Operation
Filter Tunability A number of techniques to produce true time delays T have been proposed:
Fixed wavelength multiple sources or sliced broadband sources combined with tuneable dispersive devices: Based on novel devices and tuneable dispersion properties as Special Chirped FBGs with actuators to change their dispersion properties. It can provide continuous and step tunability but in this case the time and accuracy to perform a dispersion change on the fibre device is not so well controlled (100 ms1s).

Filter Operation
Filter Reconfigurability
Brings the possibility of changing dynamically the values of the filter taps (ak, br coefficients) to reshape its spectral response: The windowing / weighting or apodisation of the amplitude of the filter taps is also a fundamental aspect to ensure enough rejection of the avoided bands. Different apodisation functions have been demonstrated for MSLR improvement:
By adjusting the power of the optical sources By controlling the attenuation/gain suffered by the taps when they travel though the optical processor

## Implementations: a little history

Fiber optic delay lines for microwave signal processing
Optical Optical fiber fiber as as a a delay delay medium medium for for signal signal processing processing applications applications was was proposed proposed by by Wilner Wilner and and van van den den Heuvel Heuvel (1976). (1976). Ohlhaber Ohlhaber and and Wilner Wilner (1977) (1977) reported reported an an experimental experimental demonstration demonstration of of an an optical optical fiber fiber transversal transversal filter filter based based on on three three multimode multimode fiber fiber delay delay paths paths to to generate generate and and correlate correlate a a 44bit, bit, 88-Mb/s 88-Mb/s coded coded sequence. sequence. An An optical optical fiber fiber frequency frequency filter filter was was demonstrated demonstrated by by Chang, Chang, Cassaboom, Cassaboom, and and Taylor Taylor (1977), (1977), who who illuminated illuminated a a bundle bundle of of fifteen fifteen multimode multimode fibers fibers that that provided provided fifteen fifteen different different delays delays spaced spaced by by 5.2 5.2 ns ns yielding yielding a a filter filter with with a a transfer transfer function function having having a a fundamental fundamental passband passband at at 193 193 MHz. MHz.
K.P.Jackson et al., IEEE Trans. MTT, 33, pp. 193-210 (1985)
FSR=740 MHz

Implementation Implementation of of single-mode single-mode fiber fiber delay-line delay-line networks networks capable capable of of synthesizing synthesizing many many sophisticated sophisticated timetime- and and frequency-domain frequency-domain filtering filtering operations operations (tapping (tapping mechanisms, mechanisms, basic basic signal signal processing, processing, etc.) etc.)

Implementations
A little history
Fiber-grating-based optical processors
G1 Wavelength tunable fiber laser LiNO3 Modulator 3 dB coupler G2 G3 G4 G5 G6

1m

1m

1m

1m

1m

Signal generator

Detector

Digitizing oscilloscope

## Ball et al, PTL pp.741-743 (1994)

50 50 ns ns true true time time delay delay in in discrete discrete 10 10 ns ns intervals intervals Grating Grating spacing spacing set set to to yield yield the the desired desired delay delay

Implementations
Filters based on a single source
Tunable RF transversal filters by using chirped FBGs
Chirped fibre grating coupler

Network analyser

## Zhang et al.,EL, pp. 1770-1772 (1998)

Linear Linear and and continuous continuous tuning. tuning. The The time time delay delay introduced introduced by by the the grating grating is is wavelength wavelength dependent. dependent.

Implementations
Filters based on a single source
Tunable bandpass transversal filters
LCA OC 1x8 splitter ... 4

1 l1 l4

## Zhang et al.,EL, pp. 1708-1710 (2000)

Changing Changing the the wavelength wavelength of of the the tunable tunable laser laser selects selects operating operating gratings gratings Each Each grating grating array array gives gives a a filtering filtering frequency frequency Possibility Possibility of of designing designing the the filter filter response response (Hamming (Hamming window) window) A A Mach-Zehnder Mach-Zehnder section section doubles doubles the the number number of of taps taps (so (so does does Q Q factor) factor)

Implementations
Filters based on a single source
Notch filter by using an optical fiber recirculating line
1 2 3 4

MZ EOM Laser

2 1

3 4

## Zhang et al., IEEE MWCL, pp. 217-219 (2001)

The The frequency frequency response response is is controlled controlled by by the the coupling coupling coefficient coefficient of of the the coupler and the length of the recirculating loop. coupler and the length of the recirculating loop. The The fiber fiber grating grating array array enables enables to to get get a a tunable tunable FSR. FSR. Continuous Continuous tunability tunability can can be be achieved achieved by by using using a a chirped chirped fiber fiber grating grating

Implementations
Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources
Tunable and reconfigurable filter based on0a laser array and a LCFBG4
Group Delay(ns)

## Sample amplitudes are controlled by laser output powers (reconfigurability)

Tunable source 1 Tunable source 2 Tunable source 3 Tunable source 4 DFB laser Vectorial Network Analyser 2.125 GHz
0 -5 -1 0

Reflectivity(dB)

## -10 -20 -30 -40

1 0

3 2 1 0

5x1 Coupler

Electro-Optical Modulator

2x2 Coupler

1547

1548

1549

1550

1551

## Wavelength (nm) Fiber Grating

12dB

Modulus(dB)

The linear chirp provides a variable delay with wavelength: Each sample is carried using a different wavelength (= 0.533nm) The basic delay T is set by the spectral separation of adjacent wavelengths. Thus T can be changed (tunability)

-1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 -3 5 -4 0 -4 5 -5 0 0 1 2

3 4 5 6

Frequency (GHz)

## D. Pastor, J. Capmany and B. Ortega, OFC99 (1999)

Implementations
Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources
Tunable and reconfigurable filter based on a laser array and a LCFBG
APODISATION APODISATION
Modulus(dB)
0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 -3 5 -4 0 -4 5 -5 0 0 0 .5 0.5 1 1 .5 2 2 .5 3 3 .5 3.5 4

By By the the proper proper weighting weighting of of the the tap tap contributions contributions controlling controlling the the output output power power of of the the lasers lasers in in the the array, array, the the secondary secondary to to main main lobe lobe ratio ratio can can be be increased. increased. The The figure figure shows shows a a Gaussian Gaussian apodisation apodisation as as (0.5 (0.5 0.8 0.8 1 1 0.8 0.8 0.5) 0.5) that that reduces reduces the the main main to to secondary secondary sidelobe sidelobe ratio ratio up up to to -20 -20 dB. dB.
Laser 5 is switched off
0

Frequency (GHz)

## Laser 1 and 5 are switched off

0 -5

RECONFIGURABILITY By switching off one or more lasers. Bandpass positions are maintained.

-10

Modulus(dB)

Modulus(dB)

-20

-30

-40

-50

4 Taps
0 1 2 3

-60

## Experimental result Theoretical result

4 5 6

-45 -50 0

3 Taps
1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency (GHz)

Frequency (GHz)

10

Implementations
Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources
Tunable and reconfigurable filter based on a laser array and a LCFBG
TUNABILITY By By adjusting adjusting of of spectral spectral spacing spacing between between sources sources to to 0.266 0.266 nm nm (half (half of of the the previous) previous) the the resonance resonance separation separation increases increases up up to to 4.25GHz. 4.25GHz. The The figure figure shows shows results results extended extended up up to to 10 10 GHz, GHz, and and the the CSE CSE is is observed. observed. The The first first notch notch is is at at 8.5 8.5 GHz GHz for for the the dispersion dispersion parameter parameter of of the the grating. grating.
0 -5 -1 0

Carrier Suppression Effect 4.25 GHz The third main lobe is just cancelled with this particular parameters.

Modulus(dB)

-1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 -3 5 -4 0 -4 5 0 2

## Experimental result Theoretical result

4 6 8 10

Frequency (GHz)

To To overcome overcome the the CSE CSE SSB SSB modulation modulation was was employed employed and and operation operation up up to to 20GHz 20GHz with with 3 3 taps taps was was demonstrated. demonstrated.

## D. Pastor and J. Capmany, EL 34, pp 1684-1685 (1998)

Implementations
Multiwavelength source with tunable chirped grating
Circulator Multiwavelength source EOM Uniform FBG
0

## Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources

REFLECTIVITY (dB)

0A

## -5 -10 -15 -20 -25

Network Analyser
REFLECTIVITY (dB)

100 80 60 40 20

MAGNETIC FIELD

6.36GHz

## 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25

5A

2A

REFLECTIVITY (dB)

3A

00

8.14GHz

## 1544.7 1545.0 1545.3 WAVELENGTH (nm)

1545.6

REFLECTIVITY (dB)

4A

Current

## Bandwidth Delay slope

3A 5A

0.39nm 0.56nm

916ps/nm 475ps/nm

9.39GHz
9 12 15

FREQUENCY (GHz)

11

Implementations
Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources
Multiwavelength source with tunable chirped grating
M agnetic Field

## SWITCHED SWITCHED DELAY DELAY LINE LINE

(a)

(a)

14
(ns)

1.0 0.5

BS CS

12

FSR (GHz)

10 8 6 4 0

0.0 1543
(nm )

Multiwavelength Source

1544

## EOM z axis RF input Coils I1

LCA
Out to LCA (bar) Y-junction Out to LCA (cross) Coupler

z axis I2
Optical switch

I (A)
TFBG
0
Group Delay Tim e (ns)
-10 -20 -30 -40 1542 1543 1544

(a)

Reflectivity (dBm )

(b)

H (dB)

## LARGER LARGER TUNABILITY TUNABILITY

(b)

(nm )

(ps/nm) (ps/nm) 0 0A A 2 2A A 4 4A A BAR BAR 351 351 297 297 230 230

H (dB)

f (GHz)

## J. Mora et al., EL, 39, p. 1799-1800 (2003)

Implementations
Filters based on multiwavelength narrow sources
Current Injection in multimode lasers
140

## Linear Arbitrary Units

Dispersive element. 46 km SSMF Fabry- Perot Laser near the threshold current Isolator EOM EDFA

## Increasing the Bias current

Ibias Input
0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 | H(f) | dB -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 -3 5

1542

1544

1546

1548

1550

1552

1554

1556

Wavelength (nm)

A Fabry-Perot laser was employed to provide a CW multi-wavelength source The entire optical signal is RF modulated and applied to a dispersive media (46 km SSMF). The bias current of the FP laser was controlled near the threshold to provide different weighing profiles and therefore also different MSLR and 3dB BW values.
D.Pastor, et al. IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 1224-1226, (2001)

F re c u e n c y (G H z) Frequency (GHz)

12

Implementations
Optical Power
-40

0

R (dB)

## -50 -60 -70

|H| (d B) |H| (d B)

## -15 -30 -45

Wavelength

OSA
10 90/10 Coupler 90

-40

R (dB)

## -60 -70 1542

EOM
fiber length

1543
(nm)

1544

-50

Wavelength

f (G Hz)

Tapping Element
Tap Power

The The interaction interaction between between a a longitudinal longitudinal acoustic acoustic wave wave and and a a strong strong FBG FBG can can generate generate a a fiber fiber Bragg Bragg grating grating array array suitable suitable for for RF RF applications. applications. Tunability Tunability and and reconfigurability reconfigurability of of the the device device are are demonstrated. demonstrated.
1.5

Wavelength

LCA
FBG

Reflectivity (dB)

(a)
W avelength shift (nm)

-10

## 1.0 0.5 0.0

Transducer

(a)
0 1 2 3 fs (MHz) 4 5 6

-20

Reflectivity (dB)

Reflectivity (dB)

1,00

## 0,75 0,50 0,25 0,00 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5

Horn

(b)

-10

2,0

-20

-2

-1

- B /

RF supply

PS (mW)

Implementations
Multitap filter using in-fiber Bragg grating arrays
Isolator WDM 15m Erbium doped fiber

## Network analyser and display

RF oscillator

Photodetector

Electro-optic modulator

3 dB coupler

Grating sets

Hunter et al.,IEEE MGWL, pp. 103-105 (1996) Spectral Spectral slicing slicing of of a a broadband broadband source source Bragg Bragg gratings gratings equispaced equispaced in in time time Possibility Possibility of of designing designing the the filter filter response response (Kaiser (Kaiser window) window)

13

Implementations
LED sliced by tunable gratings
Reflected signals UFBGs SLED
0 L2 1 2 3
1549 1548

N = init (1 pe )L LN
N

Mechanical stage

N N L, LN = L N
3 2 1 0
0 50

RF signal

glue
1545

OSA OSA
6 1.0

(nm) N

1547 1546

L ( m)

100

150

23 km fiber

R (a.u.)
5 4 3 2 1

0.5

0.0

1545

(nm)

1546

0 0.0

0.5

-1 -1 (nm )

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

## J. Mora et al., Opt. Express 10, 1291-1298 (2002).

Implementations
LED sliced by tunable gratings
Reflected signals From LED 4x4 coupler UFBGs
2 1
0

## Sidelobe Supressed Filters

(a)

Mechanical stage
H (dB)

-10

L2

3 0

-20

To modulator

AT Variable attenuator
-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30

-30

(b)

glue
H (dB)

-10

-20

MSLR (dB)

P (a.u.)

-30

H (dB)

0 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 0 2 4
f (G H z )

(c)

P (a.u.)

-1 0 1 2 3

-3

-2

AT (dB)

10

14

Implementations
SLED
EDFA

Two Combined BB sources are spectrally sliced by means of a pair of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) AWG are standard ITU for DWDM applic (0.8 nm channel spacing and 0.4nm channel BW) Switches and/or Variable attenuators between AWGs provides weighing and tuneability features. A dispersive media (SSMF) is used to imprint the proper time delay to each slice (sample) after the modulation of the RF signal over the entire spectrum at the EOM 12 slices (channels) spaced 2 x 0.8 nm = 1.6 nm Uniform weighing Dispersive Med: 400ps/nm RF response: FSR=1.56 GHz 3dB BW=125 MHz MSLR=15 dB
D. Pastor et al, Opt. Lett. 2003, 28, pp. 18021804.

1X40 AWG

1X40 AWG

SOA
EOM

23 km SSMF

## Array of: Switches Variable attenuators.

0 -5 -10 -15 Am plitude(dB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

-20 -22 -24 -26 A m p litu d e (d B ) -28 -30 -32 -34 -36 -38 -40 1540

Network Analyser

1545

1560

1565

-5

Am plitude(dB)

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30 1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.7

1.8

1.9

## 0 Hz lobe out -50 of measure 0 >130MHz

-45

4 6 Frequency (GHz)

10

Implementations
0 -5 -10 -15
1540 1545

## Examples of Tuneability and Apodization

Wavelength(nm)
1550 1555 1560 1565

## -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50

6 slices (channels) spaced 4 x 0.8 nm = 3.2 nm Apodized samples Dispersive Med: 400ps/nm RF response: FSR= 780 MHz 3dB BW=200 MHz MSLR=15 dB (with half samples as previous)

Am plitude(dB)

4 5 6 Frequency (GHz)

10

0 -5 -10 -15 Am plitude(dB) -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50

1540

## 1550 1560 Wavelength(nm)

24 slices (channels) spaced 0.8 nm Uniform weighing (aprox) Dispersive Med: 400ps/nm RF response: FSR=3.1 GHz 3dB BW=125 MHz (aprox) MSLR=14 dB

4 5 6 Frequency (GHz)

10

15

Implementations
Practical Limits Intrinsic to the Slicing approach: 1. Spectral power inefficiency if the ratio SliceBW / SliceSpacing is low or/and the Bandwidth of the BB source is larger than slices range. 2. RF decaying envelope due to the low pass filtering effect produced by the Slice bandwidth and the dispersive media. We can appreciate in the simulation as the product (GVD) determinates the 3dB bandwidth of the decaying slope in RF domain. (1) and (2) move in opposite directions Extrinsic to the Slicing approach: 1. Precise amplitude control of each tap was difficult due to the PDL of the AWG and EOM (mainliy the EOM) devices in combination with a polarized source like it was the SLED.

Implementations
Broadband source sliced by a MZI

J. Mora et al., Intl. Topical Meeting on MWP, pp. 251-254 (2003). A A single single bandpass bandpass RF RF filter filter based based on on a a MZI MZI illuminated illuminated with with a a broadband broadband source. source. A A tuning tuning range range of of several several tens tens of of GHz GHz is is achieved achieved by by changing changing the the optical optical paths paths of of the the MZI MZI and and the the dispersion. dispersion. The The bandwidth bandwidth of of the the RF RF filter filter is is kept kept constant constant along along the the RF RF range, range, when when the the dispersion dispersion in in the the system system is is invariant. invariant. Potential Potential high high Q Q values values can can be be achieved achieved by by choosing choosing the the appropriate appropriate broadband broadband source. source.

16

Implementations
FABRY-PEROT FILTER EDFA 1 1 Electro-Optical Modulator 70 km SSMF EDFA 2

## vectorial network analyser

A fibre based Fabry-Perot filter of 35 GHz of FSR and high Finesse was employed to slice the 1530 nm peak of ASE noise from an EDFA. Almost 35 naturally aposized resonances (samples) can be distinguished over the noise floor at the receiver input.
80

3dB BW=250MHz
-10 Normalised Modulus of H(f), dB

(a)

## 60 40 20 0 1526 1 1528 1530

(b)

-20

>35dB

1532

1534

1536

1538

-30

(nm)
(a)-(b)

-40
Normalised Weights 0.5

-50

-60 0

3 Frequency (GHz)

0 1526

1528

1530

1532

1534

1536

1538

(nm)

17