You are on page 1of 30


Teradata is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that drives a company's data warehouse. Teradata provides the oundation to give a company the power to grow! to compete in today's dynamic mar"etplace! to achieve the goal o #Trans orming Transactions into Relationships# and to evolve the business by getting answers to a new generation o $uestions. Teradata's scalability allows the system to grow as the business grows! rom gigabytes to terabytes and beyond. Teradata's uni$ue technology has been proven at customer sites across industries and around the world. Teradata is an open system! compliant with %&S' standards. 't is currently available on (&') M*+R%S and ,indows -... operating systems. Teradata is a large database server that accommodates multiple client applications ma"ing in$uiries against it concurrently. /arious client plat orms access the database through a T0*+'* connection across an 'BM main rame channel connection. The ability to manage large amounts o data is accomplished using the concept o parallelism! wherein many individual processors per orm smaller tas"s concurrently to accomplish an operation against a huge repository o data. To date! only parallel architectures can handle databases o this si1e.

2. What is Teradata ?
Teradata is a relational database management system initially created by the irm with the same name! ounded in 2343. Teradata is part o the &0R 0orporation which ac$uired the Teradata company on 5ebruary -6! 2332. 't is a massively parallel processing system running a shared nothing architecture. The main point with the Teradata DBMS is that it's linearly and predictably scalable in all dimensions o a database system wor"load (data volume! breadth! number o users! comple7ity o $ueries)! e7plaining its popularity or enterprise data warehousing applications. Teradata is o ered on 'ntel servers interconnected by the B8&9T messaging abric. Teradata systems are o ered with either 9ngenio or 9M0 dis" arrays or database storage.

Teradata offers a choice of several operating syste s &0R (&') S/R: M*+R%S! a variant o System / (&') rom %T;T Microso t ,indows -... and ,indows Server -..< S(S9 =inu7 on >:+bit 'ntel servers has been pre+announced or -..>. Teradata 9nterprise Data ,arehouses are o ten accessed via ?DB0 or @DB0 by applications running on operating system such as Microso t ,indows or lavors o (&'). The warehouse typically sources data rom operational systems via a combination o batch and tric"le loads. The largest and most prominent customer o this DBMS is ,al+Mart! which runs its central inventory and other inancial systems on Teradata. ,al+Mart's Teradata Data ,arehouse is generally regarded by the DBS industry as being the largest data warehouse in the world. ?ther Teradata customers include companies li"e %T;T ( ormerly SB0)! Dell! 0ontinental %irlines! &ational %ustralia Ban"! 5ed97! /oda one! Aap 'nc! Sa eway 'nc! eBay and Baiser *ermanente. Teradata's main competitors are other high+end solutions such as ?racle and 'BM's DB-.

!. Why Teradata?
Teradata is the world's leading 9nterprise Data ,arehousing solutions provider . Today! more than >.C o the world's most admired global companies use Teradata technology! includingD

3.C o the Top Alobal Telecommunications 0ompanies E.C o the Top Alobal Retailers 4.C o the Top Alobal %irlines >.C o the Top Alobal Transportation =ogistics 0ompanies :.C o the Top Alobal 0ommercial and Savings Ban"s %long with our proven! time+tested leadership in data warehousing! Teradata

o ers a wide variety o solutions or 0ustomer Relationship Management! Supply and Demand 0hain Management! 5inancial Services! 9nterprise Ris" Management and much more. %dd accolades and awards rom Aartner! 'ntelligent 9nterprise! DM Review and many other industry e7perts! and Teradata is clearly the best choice.

". #dvantages $ Disadvantages #dvantages

2) Teradata data%ase is &inearly scala%le ' ,e can e7pand the database capacity by Fust adding more nodes to the e7isting database. ' the data volume grows we can add more hardware and e7pand the database capacity. -) ()tensive parallel processing ' Teradata has a e7tensive parallel processing capacity! it can handle multiple adhoc re$uests and many concurrent users. <) *hared nothing architect+re ' Teradata database has shared nothing architecture! it has high ault tolerance and data protection. Single /ersion o Truth! *arallel aware optimi1er! reduces DB% activities and Aood warehouse incase o huge data. Maintain as D, is not so easy in terms o cost.


Teradata development and DB% resources are harder to come by and there ore more e7pensive. Teradata is not as open as ?racle in Tech. Maintain as D, is not so easy in terms o cost. Many "ey tech is still under the control o Teradata *S Teradata is or enterprise application! not as widely used as ?racle or Sybase 't is not suitable or small transaction ?=T* databases 't's not really a consideration or enterprise so tware. Teradata is designed

or very high data volumes. ' you tried that on ?racle with a G-. ?racle DB% or someone Fust out o a training course they would be completely at sea. They Fust wouldn't "now how to optimise it or high data volume loads and intense user $uery. 5or a database o this si1e the e7perienced DB%s or ?racle or DB- may be as e7pensive as the DB%s or Teradata although probably more numerous. 0ompanies are choosing Teradata because they perceive it to be better at high volume data warehouse wor" than the RDBMS products such as ?racle and DB-. Teradata have designed a D, database or ast loading o huge data volumes and ast SH= $uerying. 't is more specialised or D, than ?racle or DB-.


,. *cala%ility

-ig+re ' 1 *cala%ility #=inear scalability# means that as you add components to the system! the per ormance increase is linear. %dding components allows the system to accommodate increased wor"load without decreased throughput. Teradata was the irst commercial database system to scale to and support a trillion bytes o data. The origin o the name Teradata is #tera+!# which is derived rom Aree" and means #trillion.# The chart below lists the meaning o the pre i7esD .refi) "ilo+ mega+ giga+ tera' peta+ e7a+ ()ponent 2. 2. 10 2.

/eaning 2!... (thousand) 2!...!... (million) 2!...!...!... (billion) 11000100010001000 2trillion3 2!...!...!...!...!... ($uadrillion) 2!...!...!...!...!...!... ($uintillion) Table D 2

3 12


Teradata can scale rom 2.. gigabytes to over 2.. terabytes o data on a single system without losing any per ormance capability. Teradata's scalability provides invest ent protection or customer's growth and application development. Teradata is the only database that is tr+ly scala%le! and this e7tends to data loading with the use o parallel loading utilities. Teradata is scalable in multiple ways! including hardware! comple7ity! and concurrent users. 4ard5are

Arowth is a undamental goal o business. % Teradata M** system easily accommodates that growth whenever it happens. The Teradata Database runs on highly optimi1ed &0R servers in the ollowing con igurationsD

*/. + Symmetric multiprocessing plat orms manage gigabytes o data to support an entry+level data warehousing system. /.. + Massively parallel processing systems can manage hundreds o terabytes o data. 8ou can start small with a couple o nodes! and later e7pand the system as your business grows.

,ith Teradata! you can increase the si1e o your system without replacingD

Data%ases ' ,hen you e7pand your system! the data is automatically redistributed through the recon iguration process! without manual interventions such as sorting! unloading and reloading! or partitioning.

.latfor s ' Teradata's modular structure allows you to add components to your e7isting system. Data odel ' The physical and logical data models remain the same regardless o

data volume. #pplications %pplications you develop or Teradata con igurations will continue to wor" as the system grows! protecting your investment in application development Co ple)ity Teradata is adept at comple7 data models that satis y the in ormation needs throughout an enterprise. Teradata e iciently processes increasingly sophisticated business $uestions as users reali1e the value o the answers they are getting. 't has the ability to per orm large aggregations during $uery run time and can per orm up to >: Foins in a single $uery.

Conc+rrent Users

%s is proven in every benchmar" Teradata per orms! Teradata can handle the most concurrent users! who are o ten running +ltiple1 co ple) 6+eries. Teradata has the proven ability to handle rom hundreds to thousands o users on the system simultaneously. %dding many concurrent users typically reduces system per ormance. Iowever! adding more components can enable the system to accommodate the new users with e$ual or even better per ormance.

7. Teradata /anagea%ility


?ne o the "ey bene its o Teradata is its manageability. The list o tas"s that Teradata Database %dministrators do not have to do is long! and illustrates why the Teradata system is so easy to manage and maintain compared to other databases. Things Teradata Data%ase #d inistrators Never 4ave to Do Teradata DB%s never have to do the ollowing tas"sD

Reorgani1e data or inde7 space. *re+allocate tableJinde7 space and ormat partitioning. ,hile it is possible to have partitioned inde7es in Teradata! they are not re$uired. *re+prepare data or loading (convert! sort! split! etc.). (nloadJreload data spaces due to e7pansion. ,ith Teradata! the data can be redistributed on the larger con iguration with no o loading and reloading re$uired. ,rite or run programs to split input source iles into partitions or loading. ,ith Teradata! the wor"load or creating a table o 2.. rows is the same as

creating a table with 2!...!...!... rows. Teradata DB%s "now that i data doubles! the system can e7pand easily to accommodate it. Teradata provides huge cost advantages! especially when it comes to sta ing Database %dministrators. 0ustomers tell us that their DB% sta higher. 4o5 Other Data%ases *tore Ro5s and /anage Data 9ven data distribution is not easy or most databases to do. Many databases use range distri%+tion! which creates intensive maintenance tas"s or the DB%. ?thers may use inde)es as a way to select a small amount o data to return the answer to a $uery. They use them to avoid accessing the underlying tables i possible. The assumption is that the inde7 will be smaller than the tables so they will ta"e less time to read. Because they scan inde7es and use only part o the data in the inde7 to search or answers to a $uery! they can carry e7tra data in the inde7es! duplicating data in the tables. This way they do not have to read the table at all in some cases. %s you will see! this is not nearly as e icient as Teradata's method o data storage and access. ?ther DB%s have to as" themselves $uestions li"eD

re$uirements or administering non+Teradata databases are three to 2. times

Iow should ' partition the dataK 4

Iow large should ' ma"e the partitionsK ,here do ' have data contentionK Iow are the users accessing the dataK Many other databases re$uire the DB%s to an+ally partition the data.

They might place an entire table in a single partition. The disadvantage o this approach is it creates a bottlenec" or all $ueries against that data. 't is not the most e icient way to either store or access data rows. ,ith other databases! adding! updating and deleting data a ects manual data distribution schemes thereby reducing $uery per ormance and re$uiring reorgani1ation. % Teradata system provides high per ormance because it distributes the data evenly across the %M*s or parallel processing. No partitioning or data re'organi8ations are needed. ,ith Teradata! your DB% can spend more time with users developing strategic applications to beat your competition

9. Unconditional .arallelis

-ig+re '2 Unconditional .arallelis

Teradata provides e7ceptional per ormance using parallelism to achieve a single answer aster than a non+parallel system. *arallelism uses multiple processors wor"ing together to accomplish a tas" $uic"ly. %n e7ample o parallelism can be seen at an amusement par"! as guests stand in line or an attraction such as a roller coaster. %s the line approaches the boarding plat orm! it typically will split into multiple! parallel lines. That way! groups o people can step into their seats simultaneously. The line moves aster than i the guests step onto the attraction one at a time. %t the biggest amusement par"s! the parallel loading o the rides becomes essential to their success ul operation. *arallelism is evident throughout a Teradata system! rom the architecture to data loading to comple7 re$uest processing. Teradata processes re$uests in parallel without mandatory $uery tuning. Teradata's parallelism does not depend on limited data $uantity! column range constraints! or speciali1ed data models ++ Teradata has :+nconditional parallelis .:

;. #%ility to /odel the <+siness

-ig+re ' ! % data warehouse built on a business model contains in ormation rom across the enterprise. 'ndividual departments can use their own assumptions and views o the data or analysis! yet these varying perspectives have a common basis or a #single version o the truth.# ,ith Teradata's centrally located! logical architecture! companies can get a cohesive view o their operations across unctional areas toD

5ind out which divisions share customers. Trac" products throughout the supply chain! rom initial manu acture! to inventory! to sale! to delivery! to maintenance! to customer satis action. %naly1e relationships between results o di erent departments. Determine i a customer on the phone has used the company's website. /ary levels o service based on a customer's pro itability. 8ou get consistent answers rom the di erent viewpoints above using a

single business model! not unctional models or di erent departments. 'n a unctional model! data is organi1ed according to what is done with it. But what happens i users later want to do some analysis that has never been done be oreK ,hen a system is optimi1ed or one department's unction! the other departments' needs (and uture needs) may not be met. % Teradata system allows the data to represent a business model! with data organi1ed according to what it represents! not how it is accessed! so it is easy to understand. The data model should be designed with regard to usage and be the same regardless o data volume. ,ith Teradata as the enterprise data warehouse! users can as" new $uestions o the


data that were never anticipated! throughout the business cycle and even through changes in the business environment. % "ey Teradata strength is its ability to model the customer's business. Teradata's business modelsare truly normali1ed! avoiding the costly star schema and snow la"e implementations that many other database vendors use. Teradata can do Star Schema and other types o relational modeling! but Third &ormal 5orm is the methodology Teradata recommends to customers. Teradata's competitors typically implement Star Schema or Snow la"e models either because they are implementing a set o "nown $ueries in a transaction processing environment! or because their architecture limits them to that type o model. &ormali1ation is the process o reducing a comple7 data structure into a simple! stable one. Aenerally this process involves removing redundant attributes! "eys! and relationships rom the conceptual data model. Teradata supports normali1ed logical models because Teradata is able to per orm 7" ta%le =oins and large aggregations during $ueries. /at+re1 .arallel'#5are Opti i8er Teradata's ?ptimi1er is the most robust in the industry! able to handleD

Multiple comple7 $ueries @oins per $uery (nlimited ad+hoc processing The ?ptimi1er is parallel+aware! meaning that it has "nowledge o system

components (how many nodes! vprocs! etc.). 't determines the least e)pensive plan 2ti e' 5ise3 to process $ueries ast and in parallel. (vol+tion to #ctive Data Wareho+sing> Data Wareho+se Usage (vol+tion D There is an in ormation evolution happening in the data warehouse environment today. 0hanging business re$uirements have placed demands on data warehousing technology to do more things aster. Data warehouses have moved rom bac" room strategic decision support systems to operational! business+critical components o the enterprise. %s your company evolves in its use o the data warehouse! what you need rom the data warehouse evolves! too.


-ig+re ' " *tage 1 Reporting> The initial stage typically ocuses on reporting rom a single source o truth to drive decision+ma"ing across unctional andJor product boundaries. Huestions are usually "nown in advance! such as a wee"ly sales report. *tage 2 #naly8ing> 5ocus on why something happened! such as why sales went down or discovering patterns in customer buying habits. (sers per orm ad+hoc analysis! slicing and dicing the data at a detail level! and $uestions are not "nown in advance. *tage ! .redicting> Sophisticated analysts heavily utili1e the system to leverage in ormation to predict what will happen ne7t in the business to proactively manage the organi1ation's strategy. This stage re$uires data mining tools and building predictive models using historical detail. %s an e7ample! users can model customer demographics or target mar"eting. *tage " Operationali8ing> *roviding access to in ormation or immediate decision+ma"ing in the ield enters the realm o active data warehousing. Stages 2 to < ocus on strategic decision+ma"ing within an organi1ation. Stage : ocuses on tactical decision support.. Tactical decision support is not ocused on developing corporate strategy! but rather on supporting the people in the ield who e7ecute it. 97amplesD 2) 'nventory management with Fust+in+time replenishment! -) Scheduling and routing or pac"age delivery. <) %ltering a campaign based on current results.


*tage , #ctive Wareho+sing> The larger the role an %D, plays in the operational aspects o decision support! the more incentive the business has to automate the decision processes. 8ou can automate decision+ma"ing when a customer interacts with a web site. 'nteractive customer relationship management (0RM) on a web site or at an %TM is about ma"ing decisions to optimi1e the customer relationship through individuali1ed product o ers! pricing! content delivery and so on. %s technology evolves! more and more decisions become e7ecuted with event+driven triggers to initiate ully automated decision processes. 97ampleD determine the best o er or a speci ic customer based on a real+time event! such as a signi icant %TM deposit #ctive Data Wareho+se Data warehouses are beginning to ta"e on mission+critical roles supporting 0RM! one+to+one mar"eting! and minute+to+minute decision+ma"ing. Data warehousing re$uirements have evolved to demand a decision capability that is not Fust oriented toward corporate sta and upper management! but actionable on a day+to+day basis. Decisions such as when to replenish Barbie dolls at a particular retail outlet may not be strategic at the level o customer segmentation or long+term pricing strategies! but when e7ecuted properly! they ma"e a big di erence to the bottom line. ,e re er to this capability as #tactical# decision support. Tactical decisions are the drivers or day+to+day management o the business. Businesses today want more than Fust strategic insight rom their data warehouse implementations+they want better e7ecution in running the business through more e ective use o in ormation or the decisions that get made thousands o times per day. The origin o the active data warehouse is the timely! integrated store o detail data available or analytic business decision+ma"ing. 't is only rom that source that the additional traits needed by the active data warehouse can evolve. These new #active# traits are supplemental to data warehouse unctionality. 5or e7ample! the wor" mi7 in the database still includes comple7 decision support $ueries! but e7pands to ta"e on short! tactical $ueries! bac"ground data eeds! and possibly event+driven updates all at the same time. Data volumes and user concurrency levels may e7plode upward beyond e7pectation. Restraints may need to be placed on the longer! analytical $ueries in order to guarantee tactical wor" throughput. ,hile accessing the detail data directly remains an important opportunity or analytical wor"! tactical wor" may thrive on shortcuts and summaries! such 2<

as operational data store 2OD*3 level infor ation. %nd or %oth strategic and tactical decisions to be use ul to the business! today's data! this hour's data! even this minute's data has to be at hand. Teradata is positioned e7ceptionally well or stepping up to the challenges related to high availability! large multi+user wor"loads! and handling co ple) 6+eries that are re$uired or an active data warehouse implementation. Teradata technology supports the evolving business re$uirements by providing high perfor ance and scala%ility orD

Mi7ed wor"loads (both tactical and strategic $ueries) applications =arge amounts o detail data 0oncurrent users

or mission critical

Teradata provides 9)2" availa%ility and relia%ility! as well as continuous updating o in ormation so data is al5ays fresh and acc+rate


?. Teradata #rchitect+re

-ig+re> , #rchitect+re of Teradata

*ingle Data *tore

-ig+re> 7 *ingle Data *tore


Teradata acts as a single data store! with multiple client applications ma"ing in$uiries against it concurrently. 'nstead o replicating a database or di erent purposes! with Teradata you store the data once and use it or all clients. Teradata provides the same connectivity or an entry+level system as it does or a massive enterprise data warehouse.

10. Teradata *yste

% Teradata system contains one or more nodes. % node is a term or a processing unit under the control o a single operating system. The node is where the processing occurs or the Teradata Database. There are two types o Teradata systemsD

Symmetric multiprocessing (SM*) + %n SM* Teradata system has a single node that contains multiple 0*(s sharing a memory pool. Massively parallel processing (M**) + Multiple SM* nodes wor"ing together comprise a larger! M** implementation o Teradata. The nodes are connected using the B8&9T! which allows multiple virtual processors on multiple nodes to communicate with each other.

-ig+re ' 9 Teardata *yste To manage a Teradata system! you useD

SM* systemD System 0onsole ("eyboard and monitor) attached directly to the SM* node M** systemD %dministration ,or"station (%,S)


To access a Teradata system! a user typically logs on through one o multiple client plat orms (channel+attached main rames or networ"+attached wor"stations). 0lient access is discussed in the ne7t module. Node Co ponents % node is a basic building bloc" o a Teradata system! and contains a large number o hardware and so tware components. % conceptual diagram o a node and its maFor components is shown below. Iardware components are shown on the le t side o the node and so tware components are shown on the right side.

-ig+re @ ; Node Co ponent

*hared Nothing #rchitect+re The Teradata vprocs (which are the *9s and %M*s) share the components o the nodes (memory and cpu). The main component o the #shared+nothing# architecture is that each %M* manages its own dedicated portion o the system's dis" space (called the vdis") and this space is not shared with other %M*s. 9ach %M* uses system resources independently o the other %M*s so they can all wor" in parallel or high system per ormance overall.


Using the <AN(T The B8&9T (pronounced! #bye+net#) is a high+speed interconnect (networ") that enables multiple nodes in the system to communicate. 't has several uni$ue eaturesD

*cala%le> %s you add more nodes to the system! the overall networ" bandwidth scales linearly. This linear scalability means you can increase system si1e without per ormance penalty ++ and sometimes even increase per ormance.

4igh perfor ance> %n M** system typically has two B8&9T networ"s (B8&9T . and B8&9T 2). Because both networ"s in a system are active! the system bene its rom having ull use o the aggregate bandwidth o both the networ"s.

-a+lt tolerant> 9ach networ" has multiple connection paths. ' the B8&9T detects an unusable path in either networ"! it will automatically recon igure that networ" so all messages avoid the unusable path. %dditionally! in the rare case that B8&9T . cannot be recon igured! hardware on B8&9T . is disabled and messages are re+ routed to B8&9T 2.

&oad %alanced> Tra ic is automatically and dynamically distributed between both B8&9Ts.


11. Teradata *oft5are

.arsing (ngine % *arsing 9ngine is a vproc that manages the dialogue between a client application and the Teradata Database! once a valid session has been established. 9ach *9 can support a ma7imum o 120 sessions. #/. The %M* is a vproc that controls its portion o the data on the system. The %M*s wor" in parallel! each %M* anaging the data ro5s stored on its vdisB. %M*s are involved in data distribution and data access in di erent ways. Channel Driver 0hannel Driver so tware is the means o communication between an application and the *9s assigned to channel+attached clients. There is one 0hannel Driver per node. Teradata Cate5ay Teradata Aateway so tware is the means o communication between an application and the *9s assigned to networ"+attached clients. There is one Teradata Aateway per node.


12. Teradata Wareho+se <+ilder

Teradata ,arehouse Builder (T,B) is a data warehouse loading tool that enables data e7traction! trans ormation and loading processes common to all data warehouses. (sing %+ilt'in operators! Teradata ,arehouse Builder combines the unctionality o the Teradata utilities (5ast=oad! Multi=oad! 5ast97port! and T*ump) in a single parallel environ ent. 'ts e7tensible environment supports 5ast=oad '&M?Ds! 5ast97port ?(TM?Ds! and %ccess Modules to provide access to all the data sources you use today. There is a set o open %*'s (%pplication *rogammer 'nter ace) to add third party or custom data trans ormation to Teradata ,arehouse Builder scripts. (sing multiple! parallel tas"s! a single Teradata ,arehouse Builder script can load data rom disparate sources into the Teradata Database in the same Fob. Teradata ,arehouse Builder is scalable and enables end+to+end parallelism. The previous versions o utilities (li"e 5ast=oad) allow you to load data into Teradata in parallel! but with a single input stream. Teradata ,arehouse Builder allows you to run multiple instances o the e7tract! optional trans ormation! and load operators. 8ou can have as many loads as you have sources in the same Fob. ,ith multiple sources o data coming rom multiple plat orms integration is important in a parallel environment. Teradata ,arehouse Builder eliminates the need or persistent storage. 't stores data into data bu ers so you no longer need to write data into a lat ile. Since you don't need lat iles! there is no longer a -AB ile limit. Teradata ,arehouse Builder provides a single! SH=+li"e scripting language! as well as a A(' to ma"e scripting aster and easier. 8ou can do the e7tract! some trans ormation! and loads all in one SH=+li"e scripting language. ?nce the dynamics o the language are learned! you can per orm multiple tas"s with a single script. 8ou can use script converters to convert scripts on e7isting systems or utilities (5ast=oad! Multi=oad! 5ast97port! and T*ump) to Teradata ,arehouse Builder scripts.


-ig+re @ ? Teradata Wareho+se


1!. What Is *D&?

-ig+re @ 10 #ccessing of Teradata

Teradata is accessed using SH= (Structured Huery =anguage). SH= is the industry standard access language or communicating with a relational database. SH= is a set+oriented language or relational database management. % user or application can use SH= statements to per orm operations on the data and de ine how an answer set should be returned rom an RDBMS. Teradata supports two types o SH=D

#N*I *D&> Teradata SH= is compliant with %&S' standards (an industry standard). Teradata *D& ()tensions> &0R has added Teradata SH= e7tensions above and beyond standard SH= capabilities! including one+step SH= statements or comple7 administrative operations.

Teradata *D& <enefits Teradata SH= is the set o SH= commands used with the Teradata Database. Some bene its o Teradata SH= areD

.arallel ()ec+tion ' The ?ptimi1er brea"s up an SH= statement into tas"s that can be e7ecuted in parallel to minimi1e resource contention. The design o the Teradata


Database! along with its automatic data distribution! balances the wor"load and reduces bottlenec"s.

#N*I Co pliant ' Teradata SH= is compliant with %&S' standards. ' you have programs already written with %&S'+compliant SH= or a di erent relational database! you can run them with Teradata! as well.

4igh'.erfor ance ()tensions ' &0R has added Teradata SH= e7tensions that are above and beyond the standard SH= capabilities! including one+step SH= statements or comple7 administrative operations.

User #ssistance *tate ents and /odifiers SH= user assistance statements (and modi iers) vary widely rom database vendor to database vendor. Teradata's user assistance statements are commonly called Teradata e7tensions. These Teradata e7tensions are additions to the DD=! DM=! and D0= statements in standard SH=! and ma"e some operations less time consuming. This page discusses the ollowing Teradata SH= user assistance commandsD

I9=* I9=* S9SS'?& SI?,

This page also discusses the statement modi ierD


The 4(&. *tate ent The I9=* statement is used to display in ormation about database obFects. 8ou can get help on the ollowingD I9=* D%T%B%S9 I9=* (S9R I9=* T%B=9 I9=* /'9, I9=* M%0R? I9=* TR'AA9R


I9=* *R?09D(R9 I9=* 0?=(M& I9=* '&D9) I9=* ST%T'ST'0S . . . and much moreL ()a ple> I9=* D%T%B%S9 databasename Displays all the obFects in the speci ied database. The 4(&. *(**ION *tate ent (se the I9=* S9SS'?& statement to see speci ic in ormation about your SH= session. ()a ple> I9=* S9SS'?&M Displays the user name with which you logged in! the log+on date and time! your de ault database! and other in ormation related to your current session. The *4OW *tate ent (se the SI?, statement to display the data de inition language (DD=) associated with database obFects (tables! views! macros! triggers! or stored procedures). 8ou can show the DD= or the ollowingD SI?, T%B=9 SI?, /'9, SI?, M%0R? SI?, TR'AA9R SI?, *R?09D(R9 SI?, @?'& '&D9)


()a ple> SI?, T%B=9 tablename Displays the 0R9%T9 T%B=9 statement that was used to create the speci ied table. The (E.&#IN /odifier The 9)*=%'& modi ier allows you to preview how Teradata will e7ecute an SH= re$uest. 't is a good way to see what database resources will be used in processing the re$uest. (se the 9)*=%'& modi ier preceding any SH= statement to see a plan withD

9nglish te7t describing a plan or how the statement will be processed. %n estimate o the number o rows involved. % relative cost o the re$uest. The relative cost is shown in units o time! and should not be used to predict

actual response time or an SH= re$uest. This time estimate can be used to compare the duration o re$uest processing relative to other plans. ,hen you e7ecute a re$uest preceded by the 9)*=%'& modi ier! the re$uest is not e7ecuted. 'nstead! the systemD

5ully parses the re$uest. ?ptimi1es the re$uest. Reports the complete plan or e7ecuting the re$uest in readable 9nglish.

()a ple> 9)*=%'& S9=90T N 5R?M tablenameM Displays the steps involved in processing the re$uest! S9=90T N 5R?M the speci ied table.

1". # Teradata Data%ase


'n Teradata systems! the words #database# and #user# have speci ic de initions. Data%ase> The Teradata Definition 'n Teradata! a #database# provides a logical grouping o in ormation. % Teradata Database also provides a "ey role in space allocation and access control. % Teradata Database is a de ined! logical repository that can contain obFects! includingD

Data%ases> % de ined obFect that may contain a collection o Teradata obFects. Users> Databases that each have a logon 'D and password or logging on to Teradata. Ta%les> Two+dimensional structures o columns and rows o data stored on the dis" drives. Fie5s> % virtual #window# to subsets o one or more tables or other views! pre+ de ined using a single S9=90T statement. /acros> De initions o commands. one or more Teradata SH= and report ormatting

Triggers> ?ne or more Teradata SH= statements associated with a table and e7ecuted when speci ied conditions are met. *tored .roced+res> 0ombinations o procedural and non+procedural statements run using a single 0%== statement

Note> % Database 5ith no .er tables or stored procedures.

*pace can have views! macros! and triggers! but no

These Teradata obFects are created! maintained! and deleted using SH=! and are described in urther detail in this section. User> # *pecial Gind of Data%ase % (ser can be thought o as a colllection o tables! views! macros! triggers! and stored procedures. % (ser is a speci ic type o Database! and has attributes in addition to the ones listed aboveD

=ogon 'D *assword


So! a (ser is the same as a Database e7cept that a (ser can actually log on to the RDBMS. To log on to Teradata! you need to speci y a (ser to log on to (which is simply a Database with a password). 8ou cannot log on to a Database because it has no password.

5igure D22 Creating Data%ases and Users 'n Teradata! Databases (including that special category o Databases called (sers) have attributes assigned to themD

#ccess Rights> *rivileges that allow a (ser to per orm operations (such as 0R9%T9! DR?*! and S9=90T) against database obFects. % (ser must have the correct access rights to a database obFect in order to access it.


*pace> The ma7imum amount o *ermanent Space assigned and available to *pace or Databases and (sers when they

a (ser or Database to store tables. (nli"e some other relational databases! Teradata does not physically pre'allocate .er are de ined during obFect de inition time. ?nly the *ermanent Space limit is de ined! then the space is consumed dynamically as needed. #ll Data%ases have a defined +pper li it o *ermanent Space.

*pool *pace> The amount o space assigned and available to a (ser or Database to gather answer sets. 5or e7ample! when e7ecuting a conditional $uery! $uali ying rows are temporarily stored using Spool Space. Depending on how the system is set


up! a single $uery could temporarily use all available System Space to store its result in spool. *ermanent Space not being used or tables is available or Spool Space.

Te p *pace> The amount o space used or global temporary tables! and these results remain available to the user until the session is terminated. Tables created in Temp Space will survive a restart. *ermanent Space not being used or tables is available or Temp Space as well as Spool Space.

1,. .rotecting Data

Several types o data protection are available with Teradata. Some o them are +

Red+ndant #rray of Ine)pensive DisBs 2R#ID3 is a storage technology that provides data protection at the dis" drive level. -all%acB is a Teradata eature that protects data against %M* ailure. %s shown later in this module! 5allbac" uses groups o %M*s that provide or data availability and consistency i an %M* is unavailable.

&ocBing prevents multiple users who are trying to access or change the same data simultaneously rom violating data integrity. This concurrency control is implemented by loc"ing the target data. =oc"s are automatically ac$uired during the processing o a re$uest and released when the re$uest is terminated. =oc"s may be applied at three levelsD Data%ase &ocBs> %pply to all tables and views in the database. Ta%le &ocBs> %pply to all rows in the table. Ro5 4ash &ocBs> %pply to a group o one or more rows in a table

Temporary loc"s can be placed on data to prevent multiple users simultaneously changing itD


97clusive =oc" =oc" =oc" =oc"

,rite Read



Ho+rnals can be used or speci ic types o data or process recoveryD

*ermanent @ournals Recovery @ournals Transient @ournal

*ermanent @ournals are an optional eature o Teradata to provide an additional level o data protection. 8ou speci y the use o *ermanent @ournals at the table level. 't provides ull+table recovery to a speci ic point in time. 't also can reduce the need or costly and time+consuming ull+table bac"ups. *ermanent @ournals are tables stored on dis" arrays li"e user data is! so they ta"e up additional dis" space on the system. The Teradata DB% (Database %dministrator) maintains the *ermanent @ournal entries (deleting! archiving! and so on.) The Teradata Database uses Recovery @ournals to automatically maintain data integrity in the case o D

%n interrupted transaction 2Transient Ho+rnal3 %n %M* ailure 2Do5n'#/. Recovery Ho+rnal3 Recovery @ournals are created! maintained! and purged by the system

automatically! so no DB% intervention is re$uired. Recovery @ournals are tables stored on dis" arrays li"e user data is! so they ta"e up additional dis" space on the system. % Transient @ournal maintains data integrity when in+ light transactions are interrupted (due to aborted transactions! system restarts! and so on). Data is ret+rned to its original state a ter transaction ailure. % Transient @ournal is used during normal system operation to "eep #be ore images# o changed rows so the data can be restored to its previous state i the transaction is not completed. This happens on each #/. as changes occur. ,hen a transaction is started! the system a+to atically stores a copy o all the rows a ected by the transaction in the Transient @ournal until the transaction is committed (completed). ?nce the transaction is complete! the #be ore images# are purged. 'n the event o a transaction ailure! the #be ore images# are reapplied to the a ected tables and deleted rom the Fournal! and the #rollbac"# operation is completed.


17. Concl+sion
Teradata is the uture o the Data Mining. 'n uture everyone we start using Teradata Database. &ow it is costly! wor"s are going on to reduce its cost. So! it will reach to small business people also.

2. -. www.wi"