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Electronic Journal of Dierential Equations, Vol. 1999(1999), No. 41, pp. 111. ISSN: 1072-6691. URL: http://ejde.math.swt.edu or http://ejde.math.unt.

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HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS WITH TRACTION CONDITION IN PERFORATED DOMAINS


MOHAMED EL HAJJI Abstract. In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the linearized elasticity system with nonhomogeneous traction condition in perforated do0 -convergence introduced by M. El Hajji in mains. To do that, we use the He [4] which generalizes - in the case of the linearized elasticity system - the notion of H 0 -convergence introduced by M. Briane, A. Damlamian and P. Donato in [1]. We give then some examples to illustrate this result.

1. Introduction
0 -convergence was introduced by M. El Hajji in [4] for the The notion of He study of the asymptotic behavior of the linearized elasticity system with homogeneous traction condition in perforated domains. It translates the notion of H 0 convergence introduced by M. Briane, A. Damlamian and P. Donato in [1] for the study of the diusion system problem with homogeneous Neumann condition in perforated domains which generalizes in the case of perforated domains the H convergence introduced by F. Murat and L. Tartar in [13], and the G-convergence for the symmetric operator introduced by S. Spagnolo in [14]. 0 This paper is devoted to giving an application of the He - convergence to study the asymptotic behavior of the linearized elasticity system with nonhomogeneous traction condition in perforated domains by using the convergence of a distribution dened from data on the boundaries of the holes. This result is the analogue for the linearized elasticity of Theorem 1 given by P. Donato and M. El Hajji in [3] as an application of the H 0 -convergence to the study of the nonhomogeneous Neumann problem. 0 In Section 2, we recall the denition of He -convergence introducing a denition of e-admissible set similar to that given by M. Briane, A. Damlamian and P. Donato in [1] for the H 0 -convergence and by F. Murat and L. Tartar in [13] for the H convergence. In Section 3, we introduce the linearized elasticity problem and we give the main result. We establish then the proof making use of some preliminary results. In Section 4, we give some applications of this result - rst for the case of periodic perforated domains by holes of size r = where we use the results given by F. Lene in [11] and D. Cioranescu and P. Donato in [2]. Then we apply the results of section 3 and those of C. Georgelin in [8] and S. Kaizu in [10] when

1991 Mathematics Subject Classication. 73C02, 35B27, 37B27, 35J55, 35J67. 0 -convergence, Double periodicity. Key words and phrases. Homogenization, Elasticity, He c 1999 Southwest Texas State University and University of North Texas. Submitted April 6, 1999. Published October 11, 1999.
1

MOHAMED EL HAJJI

EJDE1999/41

r . Finally, we apply section 3 to the case of a perforated domain with double periodicity (introduced by T. Levy in [12]) using the results given by M. El Hajji in [9] and P. Donato and M. El Hajji in [3].
0 2. Recall of He -convergence 0 -convergence introduced in [4]. First In this section, we recall the denition of He let us introduce the following notations. Let be a bounded open subset of RN , the general term of a positive sequence, and c dierent positive constants independent of . We introduce the following sets:

Ms = {symmetric linear operators l : RN RN }, L(Ms ) = {linear operators p : Ms Ms }, Ls (Ms ) = {symmetric operators p L(Ms )}, Me (, ; ) = A L (, Ls (Ms )), A(x) | |2 , A1 (x) | |2 , Ls (Ms ), x a.e. . In what follows, we use the Einstein summation convention, that is, we sum over repeated indices. We denote by e() the symmetric tensor of elasticity dened by e(u) = (eij (u))ij where eij = 1 2 uj ui + xj xi .

We denote by S a compact subset of . We denote the perforated domain by = \ S . We denote by the characteristic function of and we set V = v [H 1 ( )]N , v | = 0 ,
1

(1)

which equipped with the H -norm forms a Hilbert space. Denition 1 (e-admissible set). The set S is said to be admissible (in ) for the linearized elasticity if every function in L () weak of is positive almost everywhere in ,
1 [H0 ()]N

(2)

and for each there is an extension operator P from V to exists a real positive C such that
1 ()]N , i) P L V , [H0

and there

ii) (P v ) | = v, iii) e(P v )

v V , C e(v )
[(L2 ( )]N 2 ,

(3) v V .

[(L2 ()]N 2

Remark 1. 1) As an example of an e-admissible set, one can consider the case of a periodic function on a perforated domain by holes of size or r (see F. Lene [11] and C. Georgelin [8]). One can consider also a perforated domain with double periodicity introduced by T. Levy in [12] (see also M. El Hajji [9]). 2). Observe that if S is admissible in the sense of denition 1, then we have a Korn inequality in independent of , i.e., v v
[L2 ( )]N 2

C () e(v ) (P v )

[L2 ()]N 2 ,

v V .

Indeed, from the Korn inequality in and (3 iii) one has


[L2 ( )]N 2 [L2 ()]N 2 [L2 ()]N 2

c() e(P v ) C () e(v )

[L2 ()]N 2 ,

v V .

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HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS

0 To give the denition of He -convergence, we introduce the adjoint operator P 1 N of P dened from [H ()] to V by

P f, v

V ,V

= f, P v
N

1 ()]N [H 1 ()]N ,[H0

=
i=1

fi , (P v )i

1 () , H 1 (),H0

v V .

Denition 2. Let A Me (, ; ) and S be e-admissible in . One says that the pair (A , S ) H 0 -converges to A0 (in the sense of the linearized elasticity) and we 0 denote this (A , S ) He A0 if for each function f in [H 1 ()]N , the solution u of div (A e(u )) = P f in , (A (x)e(u )) n = 0 on S , u =0 satises P u A e(u )

(4)

on ,

1 u weakly in [H0 ()]N ,

A0 e(u) weakly in L2 () div A0 e(u) = f in , u = 0 on ,

N2

(5) ,

where u is the solution of the problem (6)

and v is the extension by zero to of the function v dened in . 0 Remark 2. 1) If S is empty, the He -convergence reduces to the notion of H convergence in elasticity introduced by G.A. Francfort and F. Murat in [7]. 2). The system (4) is equivalent to the system (u ) = (P f )i in yj ij ij (u ) nj = 0 on S , u = 0 = where written as: Find
(u ) ij A ijkh ekh (u ), A = u V such that

on , and whose variational formulation is .

(A ijkh ),

ij (u )eij (v )dx = P f, v

V ,V

We can rewrite this problem in the form: Find u V such that

A e(u )e(v )dx = P f, v

V ,V .

Some examples will be given in section 4, when we apply the main result of this paper. 3. The main result
0 -convergence, and apply it to In this section, we establish a property of the He the study of the asymptotic behavior of the linearized elasticity system with nonhomogeneous traction condition. This result is analogous to the linearized elasticity of Theorem 1 in [9] given as an application of the H 0 -convergence to the study of

MOHAMED EL HAJJI

EJDE1999/41

the nonhomogeneous Neumann problem. We then give some examples to illustrate this result. Let A = (a ijkh ) Me (, ; ) and let S be e-admissible in such that S has boundary S of class C 1 . We consider the linearized elasticity system div (A e(u )) = 0 in , (A (x)e(u )) n = g u =0 where g [H 1/2 (S )]N . (9) It is well known that (8) has a unique solution. Our aim is to study the asymptotic behavior of the solution u as approaches zero. To do that, we introduce a dened in by vectorial distribution g
1 [H0 ()]N . (10) as an element of [H 1 ()]N , and if It is easy to check that this denes g [L2 ()]N , we deduce from the Riesz Theorem that g is a measure. The g 0 following theorem shows that the convergence of u can be deduced from the He 1 N convergence of (A , S ) and the convergence of g in [H ()] .
1 ()]N [H 1 ()]N , [H0

(7)

on S ,

(8)

on ,

g ,

= g,

[H 1/2 (S )]N , [H 1/2 (S )]N ,

Theorem 1. Let {u } be the sequence of the solutions of (8). Suppose that (7) is satised and that i) ii) Then i) ii) (A , S )
0 He

A0 , strongly in [H 1 ()]N .

there exists [H 1 ()]N such that g

(11)

P u

1 weakly in [H0 ()]N ,

A e(u )

A0 e(u)

weakly in L2 () in ,

N2

(12) ,

where u is the solution of the problem div A0 e(u) = u=0 g, v on . (13)

Proof. Observe rst, by using (3 ii) and (10), that


[H 1/2 (S )]N , [H 1/2 (S )]N = g , P v
1 ()]N , [H 1 ()]N , [H0

v V .

Hence, problem (8) is equivalent to the problem


g div (A e(u )) = P

in ,

(A (x)e(u )) n = 0 on S , u = 0 on , since both of the two systems have the variational formulation: Find u V such that
A e(v )e(v )dx = g , P v V ,V ,

v V .

(14)

EJDE1999/41

HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS

Let us show that there exist c independent of such that P u


1 ()]N [H0

c.

(15)

By taking u as a test function in the variational formulation of (14) one obtains


A e(u )e(v )dx = g , P u V ,V .

From (3 iii) and the fact that A Me (, , ) one deduces that e (P u )


2 [L2 ()]N 2

C C

e (u ) e(u )dx

A e(u )e(u )dx


g [H 1 ()]N

c P u

e (P v )

[L2 ()]N 2

Hence (15) gives (11 ii). One may deduce (up to a subsequence) that u
1 weakly in [H0 ()]N .

(16)

Consider now the solution v of the problem div (A e(v )) = P (A (x)e(v )) n = 0


in , on S , (17)

v = 0 on . From (11 i), one deduces that i) P v v


1 weakly in [H0 ()]N ,

ii) A e(v )

A0 e(v ) weakly in L2 ()

N2

(18) ,

where v is the solution to (13). On the other hand, w = u v is the solution to


g div (A e(w )) = P

in , (19)

(A (x)e(w )) n = 0 on S , w =0

on .

By choosing w as a test function in the variational formulation of (19) and (3) and the fact that A Me (, , ), one has (P w )
2 [L2 ()]N 2

C e(w )

2 [L2 ( )]N 2

C A e(w )e(w )dx 1 ()]N . =c g , P w [H 1 ()]N ,[H0


1 ()]N , one deduces from (12 ii) that Since P w is bounded in [H0 g , P w
1 ()]N [H 1 ()]N ,[H0

0, (20)

1 ()]N . P w 0 strongly in [H0 This, with (18) proves that in (16) one has u = u. Finally, one deduces from (20) and the fact that A Me (, , ) that

which implies that

A e(w )

[L2 ()]N 2

c e(w )

[L2 ( )]N 2

c e(P w )

[L2 ()]N 2

0.

MOHAMED EL HAJJI

EJDE1999/41

       

r S            
       

                                                                       

Figure 1. A periodic perforated domain With the convergence (18 ii), it follows then that (12 ii) holds. Remark 3. As in the case of Theorem 1 of [9], from the linearity of the equation and 0 - convergence, the choice of an nonhomogeneous right-hand the denition of the He side of the equation (8) is not restrictive. 4. Some applications of the main result The case of a periodic perforated domain. Let Y = [0, l1 [.. [0, lN [ be the representative cell, S an open set of Y with smooth boundary S such that S Y . Let r be the general term of a positive sequence which converge to zero and satisfying r . One denote by (r S ) the set of all the translated of r S of the form (kl + r S ), k Z N , kl = (k1 l1 , .., kN lN ). It represents the holes in RN . One suppose that the holes (r S ) do not intersect the boundary . If S design the holes contained in , it follows that S is a nite union of the holes, i.e S = kK r (kl + S ). Set = \ S , by this construction, is a periodic perforated domain by holes of size r (see Figure 1) We propose to study the asymptotic behavior of the solution v of the system div (A e(v )) = 0 in , (A (x)e(v )) n = h

on S ,

(21)

v = 0 on , where We suppose that


0

x h (x) = h( ), h [L2 (S )]N lim N


N 2 r

Y-periodic.

(22)

= 0,

(23)

and that A = (a ijkh ) satises

x (24) a ijkh (x) = aijkh ( ), aijkh Me (, ; Y ). In this case of a periodic perforated domain, the homogenization of system (21) has been studied by F. Lene in [11] for the case r = , and C. Georgelin in [8] for the case r . The results obtained allow us to deduce that (A , S )
0 He

A0 ,

(25)

EJDE1999/41

HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS

where A0 = (a0 ijkh ) is dened by A0 ijkh = 1 |Y |


Y \S

Aijkh ekh (kh P kh )eij (ij P ij )dy,

(26)

where P ij is the vector all of whose components are equal to zero except the ith one, i.e., (P ij )k = yj ki , and for all k, h = 1, .., N , kh [H 1 (Y \ S )]N Y-periodic, and is a solutin to div(Ae(kh P kh )) = 0 (Ae( if r = and A0 ijkh = 1 |Y |
Y kh

in Y \ S,

kh

)) n = 0 on S,

aijkh ekh (kh P kh )eij (ij P ij )dy,

(27)

where P ij is the vector all of whose components are equal to zero except the ith one which is equal to yj , i.e., (P ij )k = yj ki , and for any k, h = 1, .., N , kh [H 1 (Y )]N Y-periodic is a solution to div(Ae(kh P kh )) = 0 in Y, if r . On the other hand, from the results obtain by D. Cioranescu and P. Donato in [2] for the case r = , and S. Kaizu in [10] for the case r , we can deduce the following lemma.
be dened by (10). We suppose that (23) is satised Lemma 1 ([2],[10]). Let h and that the reference hole S is star-shaped if r . Then

N
N 1 r

in H 1 () strongly,
1 v H0 (),

(28)

with , v and Ih =
1 |Y | S
1 () H 1 (),H0

= Ih

v dx

(29)

h ds.

N 1 N 1 and g = N h /r Consequently, we can apply Theorem 1 to u = N v /r to obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 2. Let v be a solution of (21). Suppose that (22) and (23) are satised and that S is star-shaped if r . Then there exists P an extension operator satisfying (3) such that
N 1 r N A e( N 1 v ) r

P (

v )

v0

1 weakly in [H0 ()]N ,

A0 e(v 0 )

weakly in L2 ()

N2

where v 0 is the solution to div A0 e(v 0 ) = v =0 with dened by (29).


0

in ,

on ,

(30)

MOHAMED EL HAJJI

EJDE1999/41

 : 
   3  

 

r (S + kz 0 )/

,  ,  ,  , 

, 

F
, 

,    , 

, ,   i ,P  P,  P  P   , 

PP

r (Z + kz 0 )/

Figure 2. The reference cell 4.1. The case of a perforated domain with double periodicity. We consider the perforated domain dened as = \ S , where S is a set with a double periodicity dened below. We adopt here the geometrical framework introduced in [5] and [6]. Assume that Y and Z are two xed reference cells,
o o Y =]0, y1 [...]0, yN [, o o Z =]0, z1 [...]0, zN [.

(31)

We set

o o o o y 0 = (y1 , .., yN ), z 0 = (z1 , ..., zN ). (32) Let F Y and S Z be two closed subsets with smooth boundaries and nonempty interiors. Suppose that r and are the general term of two positive sequences such that r < and r = 0. (33) lim 0 We assume that for each > 0 there exists a ne K Z N , such that r (Z + kz 0 ) = Y, (34) k K

and that (F ) (
k K

r (S + kz 0 )) = .

This means that for any the sets Y and Y \ F are exactly covered by a nite number of translated cells of r Z and r S respectively. Denote r (S + kz 0 )) = (Y \ F ) ( SY
k K

and Y = Y \ that

SY

. From (34) it follows that there exist a nite set K Z N such


SY = kK

r (S + kz 0 ).

is a subset of Y \ F of closed sets (inclusions) periodically distributed Hence with periodicity r / and of the same size as the period (see Figure 2). We also assume that for each > 0, there exists a nite set H Z N such that
(SY + hy 0 ) = h Z N hH (SY + hy 0 ). hH (SY + hy 0 )

SY

and we set S =

EJDE1999/41

HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS

r (S + hy o ) r (Z + hy 0 ) , , , , ,  A,    , , ,  A        U A  ,  , , ,    F       ,  ,
            ,  ,  ,  ,  ,      ,  ,  ,  ,    ,    ,  ,             ,  ,  ,  ,   ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,     

,    ,  ,    , 

,  , 

           

,  , 

 

, 

, 

,  ,    ,  ,  ,    , 

,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 

, 

,    ,  ,    , 

,  , 

           

,  ,  ,  ,  ,  , 

,  , 

   

,  , 

, 

Figure 3. The perforated domain Hence, > 0, and are exactly covered by a nite number of translated cells respectively. Consequently, the structure of presents a double of Y and SY periodicity ( and r ). The zones in which the inclusions are concentrated are periodic and of size . The inclusions in each zone are r -periodic and of size r (see Figure 3). Our aim is to apply Theorem 1 to this case of double periodicity with a matrix A = (a ijkh ) dened in (21) and satisfying x x a ) ijkh (x) = aijkh ( , r i) aijkh Y Z periodic (35) ii) aijkh L (Z, C 0 (Y )) or aijkh L Y, C 0 (Z ) iii) aijkh = aijhk = ajikh iv ) > 0 s.t. aijkh (y, z )ekh eij eij eij , a.e. (y, z ) Y Z for any symmetric tensor eij , and h is dened by h = (F Q )h, h, 1 h H 1/2 (S ) = 0. (36) where h is Z -periodic, h H 1/2 (S ), and
H 1/2 (S ),H 1/2 (S

(37)

The operator Q L H 1/2 (S ) , H 1/2 (SY ) is dened by r 1 ), H 1/2 (S ) = ( )N 1 z, v Q z, v H 1/2 (SY H 1/2 (S +kz 0 ), H 1/2 (S +kz 0 ) , Y kK

(38)
), H 1/2 (S )) is dened by and the operator F L(H 1/2 (SY

F u,

H 1/2 (S ), H 1/2 (S )

=
hH

1 ()N 1 u,

+hy 0 ), H 1/2 (S +hy 0 ) , H 1/2 (SY Y

(39) where and are the homotheties : x x, r (A , S ) : x x . (40)

From the result obtained in [9], we deduce that


0 He

A0 ,

(41)

10

MOHAMED EL HAJJI

EJDE1999/41

where A0 = (a0 ijkh ) is dened as follows: set dijkh (y, z ) = F (y ) + Y \F (y )Z \S (z ) aijkh (y, z ), and for l, m = 1, .., N, let R
lm

(42)

lm Rk k=1,..,N lm Rk = zm kl .

be the vector dened by

We denote by lm = lm (y, .) the unique function in [H 1 (Z \ S )]N Z -periodic which is a solution to lm [dijkh ez lm )] = 0 in Z \ S kh (R zj (43)
lm lm ) nj = 0 dijkh ez kh (R

on S.

We set qijkh =

1 |Z |

Z \S

kh dijrs ez kh )dz. rs (R

lm lm be the vector dened by Pk = ym kl , and let lm in Let P lm = Pk k=1,..,N 1 N [H (F )] Y -periodic, which is a solution to

lm [qijkh ey lm )] = 0 kh (P yj

in F,

(44)

lm qijkh ey lm ) nj = 0 on F \ Y . kh (P

We dene the homogenizated coecients by 1 kh qijrs ey kh )dy, a0 ijkh = rs (P |Y | Y

(45)

where y = (yi )i=1,..,N and z = (zi )i=1,..,N . Observe that the coecients (a0 ijkh ) are obtained by applying the homogenization process twice (see the classical methods of homogenization introduced by F. Murat and L. Tartar in [13] and S. Spagnolo in [14]). Indeed, rst starting with the tensor (dijkh ) and homogenizing with respect to Z , we obtain the tensor (qijkh ). Then starting with (qijkh ) and homogenizing with respect to Y , we obtain the tensor (a0 ijkh ). On the other hand, using the results obtain by P. Donato and M. El Hajji in [4], we obtain
h be dened by (10), suppose that h, 1 Lemma 2. Let and that (33) is satised. Then r h H 1/2 (S ),H 1/2 (S )

= 0,

strongly in H 1 (),
1 H0 (),

where is given by , with = and is dened by =


1 () H 1 (),H0

= Ih

dx

(46)

|Y Z | |S | |Y F |

Ih = h, 1

H 1/2 (S ),H 1/2 (S ) ,

(47)

|F | |Y \ F | |Z \ S | + . |Y | |Y | |Z |

Hence, we can apply Theorem 1 to u = r u and obtain

EJDE1999/41

HOMOGENIZATION OF LINEARIZED ELASTICITY SYSTEMS

11

Theorem 3. Let v be the solution of (21). Then there exists P an extension operator satisfying (3) such that P (r v ) A e(r v )
0

u0

1 weakly in [H0 ()]N ,

A0 e(u0 )

weakly in L2 () in ,

N2

where v is the solution of the problem div A0 e(v 0 ) = v =0


0

on ,

(48)

where A0 = (a0 ijkh ) is given by (43)-(45), and dened by (46), (47). Acknowledgments. It is a pleasure for the author to acknowledge his indebtedness to Patrizia Donato for her help and friendly suggestions throughout this work. References
[1] Briane M., A. Damlamian & Donato P., H-convergence in perforated domains, Nonlinear Partial Dierential Equations & Their Applications, Vol. 13, Coll` ege de France seminar, Editors: H. Br ezis & J.-L. Lions, Longman, New York, ` a paraitre [2] Cioranescu D. & Donato P., Homog en eisation du probl` eme de Neumann non homog` ene dans des ouverts perfor es, Asymptotic Analysis, Vol.1 (1988), 115138 [3] Donato P. & El Hajji M., An application of the H 0 -convergence to some nonhomogeneous Neumann problems, Gakuto International Series, Math. Sc. and Appl., Gakkotosho, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 9 (1997), 137156. [4] Donato P. & El Hajji M., H 0 -convergence for the linearized elasticity system. Journal of Elasticity, to appear. [5] Donato P. & Saint Jean Paulin J., Homogenization of Poisson equation in a porous medium with double periodicity, Japan J. Industr. Appl. Math., Vol. 10 (1993), 333349. [6] Donato P. & Saint Jean Paulin J., Stokes Flow in a Porous Medium with Double Periodicity, Progress in Partial Dierential Equations: the Metz Surveys 3, Pitman Research Notes in Math. Longman, New York, Vol. 314 (1994), 116129. [7] Francfort G.A. & Murat F., Homogenization and Optimal bounds in Linear Elasticity, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., Vol. 94 (1986), 307334. [8] Georgelin C., Contribution a ` l etude de quelques probl` emes en elasticit e tridimensionnelle, Th` ese de Doctorat, Universit e de Paris IV, 1989 [9] El Hajji M., Homogenization of the linearized elasticity system in a perforated domain with double periodicity, Revista de Matematicas Aplicadas, to appear. [10] Kaizu S., The Poisson equation with nonautonomous semilinear doundary conditions in domains with many tiny holes, Japan. Soc. for Industr. & Appl. Math., Vol. 22 (1991), 1222 1245. [11] Lene F., Comportement macroscopique de mat eriaux elastiques comportant des inclusions rigides ou des trous r epartis p eriodiquement, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, I, Vol. 292 (1981), 7578. [12] Levy T., Filtration in a porous ssured rock: inuence of the ssures connexity, Eur. J. Mech, B/Fluids, Vol. 4(9) (1990), 309327. [13] Murat F. & Tartar T., H-convergence in Topics in the mathematical modeling of composite materials, Editor: R.V. Kohn, Progress in Nonlinear Dierential Equations and their Applications, 1997, 2143. [14] Spagnolo S., Sulla convergenza di soluzioni di equazioni paraboliche ed ellittiche, Ann. Sc. Norm. Sup. Pisa, Vol. 22 (1968), 571597. Mohamed El Hajji de Rouen, UFR des Sciences Universite UPRES-A 60 85 (Labo de Math.) 76821 Mont Saint Aignan, France E-mail address : Mohamed.Elhajjiuniv-rouen.fr