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IMPROVING STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY

BY USING ROLE PLAY


(A Classroom Action Research at VI I Grade of SMPN 251 J akarta).
A Skripsi
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (S.Pd) in English Language Education











By:
NURINA PERMATA SARI
106014000418


DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2011
I
F
i
IMPROVING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITY
BY USING ROLE PLAY
(A Classroom Action Research at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)
A "Skripsi"
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher's Training in a Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Strata 1 (Bachelor of Art) in
English Language Education
By:
Nurina Permata Sari
NIM: 106014000418
Approved by
Advisor
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS' TRAINII\G
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
20ll
ENDORSEMENT SHEET
The Examination Committee of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training
certifies that the Paper entitled,
"Improving
Students' Speaking Ability by
Using Role Playo'(A ClussroomAction Research at WI Grude of SMPN 251
Jakarta-Timur) writtenby Nurina Permata Sari, student's registration number :
106014000418, was examined by the committee on27 Juni 2011, and was
declared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the
academic title of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education at The
Department of English Education.
Jakarta,2T Juni2}ll
EXAMINATION COMMITTEE
CHAIRMAN :
SECRETARY :
EXAMINERS :
Drs. Syauki M.Pd.
NrP. 19641212199103 r 002
Neneng Sunengsih" S.Pd.
NrP. 1973062s 199903 2 00r
1. Dr. Atiq Susilo" MA
NIP. 19491122 197803 | 00r
2. Dr. M. Farkhan. M.Pd
NrP. 19650919 200003 r 002
Acknowledged bY:
Dean of Tarbiyah and Teachers' Training Faculty
KEMENTERIAN AGAMA
UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI (UIN)
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA
FAKULTAS ILMU TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN
slimrf r;r:;i;r ;i;;i ;1.#rlr
Jl . I r. H. HuandaNo. 95
Ciputat 15142
Telp: ( 62-21) 7443328,7401925
Email: uinikt(?cabi.net.id
Kepada Yth.
Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd
Di Tempat
Jakarta,2S Juni 2011
Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:
Nama : Nurina Permata Sari
NI M : 106014000418
Fakultas/Jurusan: Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan/Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Bermaksud merubah
judul
skripsi saya yang pada awalnya berjudul:
DEVELOPING STUDENTS' SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE
PLAY (Classroom Action Research at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-
Timur)
Karena terdapat suatu permasalahan pada judul
tersebut, maka saya merubah
judul
saya menjadi:
IMPROVING STUDENTSO SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING ROLE PLAY
(Classroom Action Research at at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)
Mengetahui,
asibuan, M.Ed.
KEMENTERIAN AGAMA
UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI (UIN)
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA
FAKULTAS ILMU TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN
&y hV.lF rll*ilil ttt tt. t. A,t4 3 '{AAI k
Jl. Ir. H. Huanda No. 95
Cioutat 15142
T elp : ( 62-2r) 7 443328, 7 40 1925
Email : uin ikt(ilabi.ryLjd
Nama
TempatiTanggal lahir
NIM/ Angkatan
Program Studi
Judul Skripsi
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI
Saya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:
Dosen Pembimbins
Nurina Permata Sari
Denpasar, 6 April 1988
1060140004181 2006
Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
6olmproving
Studentsn Speaking Ability by
Using Role Play" (A Classroom Action Research
at VII Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur)
Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan. M. Ed
Menerangkan dengan sungguh- sungguh bahwa:
1. Skripsi yang segera diujikan ini adalah benar-benar hasil penelitian sendiri
(bukan barang
j
ipl akan/ plagiat)
2. Apabila dikemudian hari terbuktil dapat dibuktikan skripsi ini hasil
jiplakan/ plagiat, maka saya akan menanggung resiko diperkarakan oleh
Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Syarif HidayatullahJakarta.
Jakarta, 7 Juni20II
i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


I n the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Praised be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, who has given the writer His love
and compassion to finish the last assignment in her study. Peace and salutation be
upon to the prophet Muhammad SAW, his family, his companion, and his
adherence.
This paper is written to fulfill one of the requirements to obtain the sarjana
degree at the English Department of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training,
State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
First of all, the writer would like to express her gratitude to her honorable
advisor; Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M.Ed who always gives advices, pray,
motivation and his time to finish this paper, hopefully Allah always bless him
with his family, he is always healthy and May Allah grant all of his wishes.
Besides, the writer would also deliver special thanks to:
1. All lecturers in the English Department, for teaching precious knowledge,
sharing Philosophy of like and for giving wonderful study experience.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd. and Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. as Head and Secretary of
the English Department.
3. Prof. DR. Dede Rosyada, MA. As the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and
Teachers Training.
4. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud M.Pd. who accept my paper title.
5. Her best gratitude to her beloved father, Mr. Dudung.Bsc and her Great
Mother Mrs. I.Surtika Wati, and her beloved brother&sister Imam & Linda,
who always prayed, give supports, motivations and moral encouragements to
finish this research paper. Thanks on your motivation and love. She is nothing
without you.
6. Mrs. Pudji Rahayu, M. Pd as the headmaster of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who
has allowed the writer to conduct this research in SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur,
and All teachers and administration staffs of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who
have helped and supported the writer in finishing this research.
ii

7. Mrs. Nurminda, S. Pd, the English teacher of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur who
has given her ideas and times and also has guided, advised, and supported the
writer in the process of doing this research.
8. Her big family who survive together.
9. Mr.Nana Suryana and his wife who always give supports.
10. Her close friend, Mardani who had prayed and motivated her, thank you for
your help and your patient.
11. For all my friends in the English Department academic year 2006 of C class
especially Nci, Riri, Mumut, Nia, and other friends especially lutfiyah, ando,
syfa, etc who help finished my skripsi. thanks for giving more spirit.
12. Last, but not least thank to all the writers friends in Cijantung, Ciputat, and
Tasikmalaya, and the writers teachers whom the writer cannot write all their
names.
The writer does realize that this skripsi cannot be considered perfect
without critiques and suggestions. Therefore, it is such a pleasure for her to get
critiques and suggestions to make this skripsi better. Hopefully, this skripsi can
give usefulness for the development of English teaching-learning.



Jakarta, June 7
th
2011

The Writer








iii

ABSTRACT

Nurina P.S, 2011. Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (A
Classroom Action Reserach at the first Grade students of
SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur), Skripsi, English Education
Department, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training,
Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.

Advisor: Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M. Ed

Key words: Speaking, Role Play Technique


This study is conducted in order to develop students speaking ability at
first grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur through role play activities. This
study is related to the result of a preliminary study showed that the students were
still poor in English speaking skill; especially in giving interpersonal response.

This study used a Classroom Action Research (CAR) which is conducted
to solve the students problem in English Speaking. The Classroom Action
Research (CAR) was done based on Kurt Lewins design. The writer did two
cycles in which each cycle consists of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.
The data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative
data were gained by analyzing the interview and observation result. Then,
quantitative data were obtained from the students speaking score of pretest and
posttest and questionnaire.

The finding of this study indicated that the implementation of role play
technique was successful since the criteria of success were achieved. The first
criterion was 75% of students could pass the target score 65 based on the KKM.
The finding showed that 84.21% of students had already achieved the target score.
Besides, the second criterion was the students who become more active involved
in teaching learning process. The result of observation, interview and
questionnaire showed that by using role play technique students were active
involved in the classroom. Based on the finding mentioned before, the writer
suggests that the English teacher could implement Role play technique in teaching
speaking in order to motivate students in learning English Speaking.



iv

ABSTRAK

Nurina P.S, 2011. Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (A
Classroom Action Reserach at the first Grade students of
SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur), Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan
Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan,
Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.

Advisor: Drs. H. Bahrul Hasibuan, M. Ed

Key words: Speaking, Role Play Technique

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara pada
siswa kelas VII SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur dengan menggunakan tehknik role
play. Penelitan ini diadakan berhubungan dengan adanya masalah yang mana
siswa memiliki kemampuan yang kurang dalam berbicara menggunakan bahasa
Inggris; terutama dalam memberikan respon.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindak kelas (PTK) yang
bertujuan untuk memecahkan masalah pada kemampuan siswa dalam berbicara
menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian tindakan kelas ini menggunakan model
Kurt Lewin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam 2 siklus dimana setiap siklus terdiri
dari tahap perencanaan, tindakan, observasi, dan refleksi. Dalam mendapatkan
data, penulis menggunakan metode kualitatif and kuantitatif. Data kualitatif
didapatkan melalui observasi dan interview, sedangkan data kuantitatif didapatkan
melalui tes (pre tes dan pos tes) dan kuesioner.

Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penerapan tekhnik role play
telah sukses, sejak kriteria sukses tercapai. Kriteria pertama adalah 75% siswa
mencapai target nilai 65 yang berdasarkan KKM. Hasil dari penelitian
menunjukan bahwa 84.21% siswa telah mencapai target nilai KKM. Di samping
itu kriteria yang ke dua adalah siswa menjadi lebih aktif pada saat proses belajar
mengajar, maka dari hasil observasi, interview, dan questioner menunjukan bahwa
dengan menggunakan tekhnik role play, siswa menjadi lebih aktif dalam proses
belajar mengajar. Berdasarkan hasil dari penelitian tersebut, penulis
menganjurkan kepada guru untuk menggunakan tehknik role play dalam
pengajaran Speaking agar siswa lebih termotivasi dalam belajar English Speaking.



v

TABLE OF CONTENTS


SURAT PERNYATAAN
ENDORSEMENT SHEET
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................. i
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ iii
ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... v
LIST OF TABLES .............................................................................................. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ ix
LIST OF APPENDICES ..................................................................................... x

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. The Background of Research .......................................... 1
B. The Limitation and formulation of the Problems ............ 4
C. The Objective of Research .............................................. 4
D. The Significance of Research.......................................... 4
E. The Method of Research ................................................. 4

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Speaking .......................................................................... 6
1. The Understanding of Speaking ................................ 6
2. The Functions of Speaking........................................ 7
3. Classroom Speaking Activities ................................. 11
B. Role Play ......................................................................... 13
1. The Understanding of Role Play ............................... 13
2. The Objective of Role play ....................................... 14
3. The Advantages of Role play .................................... 15
4. The Disadvantages of Role play ............................... 16
5. The Type of Role play Technique ............................. 17
vi

C. Teaching Speaking by Using Role Play ......................... 17
1. Scripted Role Play ..................................................... 17
2. Unscripted Role Play................................................. 18
D. Classroom Action Research ............................................ 19
1. The Understanding of Classroom Action Research .... 19
2. Design of Action Research.......................................... 19

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Time and Place of Research ............................................ 22
B. Subject of Research ......................................................... 22
C. Role of the Researcher in CAR ....................................... 22
D. The Research Design....................................................... 23
E. The Classroom Action Research Procedures .................. 25
F. Technique of Collecting Data. ........................................ 26
G. Technique of Data Analysis. ........................................... 29
H. Criteria of the Action Success. ........................................ 30

CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. The Result of Pre Implementation of the Action .............. 31
1. The Result of Interview .............................................. 31
2. The Result of Observation .......................................... 32
3. The Result of Questionnaire ....................................... 32
4. The Result of Pre Test ................................................ 33
B. The Implementation of the Action .................................. 36
1. Cycle 1 ........................................................................ 36
a. Planning .................................................................. 36
b. Acting ..................................................................... 36
c. Observing ................................................................ 38
d. Reflecting................................................................ 39
2. Cycle 2 ....................................................................... 40
a. Planning .................................................................. 40
vii

b. Acting ..................................................................... 40
c. Observing ................................................................ 43
d. Reflecting................................................................ 43
C. The Result of Post Implementation of the Action ............. 44
1. The Result of Post Test I ............................................ 44
2. The Result of Post Test II ........................................... 47
3. The Result of Questionnaire ....................................... 51
4. The Result of Interview .............................................. 52

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion ......................................................................... 53
B. Suggestion ......................................................................... 54

REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 55

APPENDICES .................................................................................................... 57
viii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The Rating Score of Oral Test .............................................................. 27
Table 4.1 The Students Speaking Score of Pre-Test ........................................... 34
Table 4.2 Schedule of the Research ...................................................................... 44
Table 4.3 Students 1
st
Post Test Score ................................................................. 45
Table 4.4 Students 2
nd
Post Test Score ................................................................ 47
























ix



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Model ............................................... 21
Figure 3.1 Kurt Lewins Action Research Design. ............................................... 23
Figure 3.2 The Phase of Classroom Action Research ........................................... 24
Figure 4.2 Students Score Mean Improvement ................................................... 49
Figure 4.3 Students Score class percentage who passed KKM ........................... 50





x

LIST OF APPENDICES


Appendix 1 The Rating Score of Oral Test ....................................................... 57
Appendix 2 Standar Kopetensi dan Kopetensi Dasar ........................................ 59
Appendix 3 Instrument Of Pre-Test, Post-Test1&2 .......................................... 60
Appendix 4 Students Score .............................................................................. 62
Appendix 5 The Graph Improvment Of Students Score .................................. 63
Appendix 6 Interview Before CAR ................................................................... 65
Appendix 7 Interview After CAR ...................................................................... 67
Appendix 8 Observational Notes ....................................................................... 69
Appendix 9 Instrument of Questioner ............................................................... 74
Appendix 10 The Result of Questioner ............................................................... 75
Appendix 11 Lesson Plan (RPP) ......................................................................... 77
Appendix 12 Students Documentation ................................................................ 97
Appendix 13 students Work .............................................................................. 98
Appendix 14 Surat-Surat ..................................................................................... 99

1








CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of Research
For many years, English has been considered as an international language.
Almost all the people from many different countries around the world use it to
communicate. The area of English has always become a special interest. Its
because of the importance of English in any scope of our lives. Julian Edge
expresses
Since British trade, followed by colonial and imperial expansion, English
spread around the world. Then the military and economic dominance of
the United States of America has confirmed English as the international
language of present historical period. As a consequence, English serves for
many people as a bridge into the worlds of higher education, science,
international trade, politics, tourism, or any other venture which interest
them. At the same time, English serve for many times many more people
as a barrier between themselves and those some fields of interest. Many
people in their own countries will not be able to become doctors, for
example if they cannot learn enough English.
1


Today, the first international language is English, and in this globalization
era, millions of people want to improve their English speaking or to ensure that
their children achieve good English speaking. Its because English speaking is one
of the ways to communicate.

1
Julian Edge, Essential of English Language Teaching, (New York: Longman,1993), p. 25
2

Communication is an essential need for human being. Language as a
means of communication has an important role to reveal an intention to someone
else. Since language is a means of communication, it is not enough for students to
learn words, phrases and grammatical features if they want to produce language in
their daily communication or to interact with others in English.
Therefore, the most important thing that should be noticed in teaching
speaking is how to activate all of language elements, such as vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation, which students have possessed to communicate,
since the main function of language is a means of communication. It means that
the goal for students learning English speaking is that they are able to use
language to communicate effectively and appropriately for all lifes requirements,
both social and academic.
2
The students have to be able to express their thoughts,
ideas, and feelings orally in English without thinking for a long time before saying
what they wish to say.
There are four skills in teaching and learning a language: listening,
speaking, reading, and writing, but out of the four skills, speaking seems
intuitively the most important
3
. Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya also
wrote in their book that speaking is one of the central elements of communication.
In EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teaching, it is an aspect that needs special
attention and instruction.
4

Based on the writers observation at the VII grade of 251 State Junior
High School, during the Integrated Pre Servise Teaching Profession Practice-
Praktik Propesi Keguruan Terpadu (PPKT) the writer found that the students are
poor in English speaking skill. When they speak English, they take so much time
thinking what they are going to say, some of them did not say anything. Many
factors can cause the problem of the students speaking skills, among others the
students interest, the material, the media, and technique in teaching English. In

2
Teresa Walter, Teaching English Language Learners, (New York: Pearson Education,
2004), p. 16.

3
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1996), p. 120.
4
Jack C. Richard and Willy A, Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching: an
anthology of current practice, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 210.
3



SMPN 251 the teacher teaches the students traditionally. The teacher asks the
students to perform that dialogue in front of class without asking them to develop
a more communicative dialogue using their own way. So, they only memorize the
dialogue and most of the students do not know how to use some expressions
taught by their teacher in a real communication. This strategy cannot help the
students to use language as means of communication.
The writer considers that it is necessary to find out an alternative way to
create suitable and interesting techniques to students condition. They need any
practices to assist them in developing their speaking ability. Many techniques can
be applied including role play because it encourages the students to be actively
participating in teaching learning process. This techique also gives students an
opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different
social roles. Gillian Porter Ladousse states that:

A very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom
through role play. The range of function and structures, and the areas of
vocabulary that can be introduced, go far beyond the limits of other pair or
group activities, such as conversation, communication games, or
humanistic exercises. Through role play we can train the students in
speaking skills in any situation.
5


Moreover, as Penny Ur emphasizes role play is used to refer to all sort of
activities where learners imagine themselves in a situation outside the
classroom
6
. It is expected that role play can help some shy students to be active
and enjoy their roles acting in speaking English.
Based on the statement above, the writer assumed that role play seem to be
good alternative way for teaching English in SMPN 251. Because this technique
can make students active in teaching learning process, it also allows students to be
creative and to put themselves in another persons place for a while. In addition
this technique gives students opportunity to speak in the target language for an

5
Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 6
6
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1996), p. 131.
4

extended period of time and students might naturally produce more speech than
they would otherwise.
So, in presenting this paper the writer decided to apply role play in
teaching speaking and want to measure the success of using role play in the
speaking class. Therefore the writer would like to takes a research under the title:
Improving Students Speaking Ability by Using Role Play (Classroom
Action Research at First Grade of SMPN 251 Jakarta).

B. The Limitation and formulation of the Problems
The problem that will be discussed is limited only on the using of role play
activity to develop the students speaking ability in giving interpersonal response
at VII grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur in the 2010/2011 academic
year.
Based on limitation of problem mentioned above, the problem of the
research can be formulated as follows; can role play develop students speaking
ability?

C. The Objective of Research
This Research is conducted in order to develop students speaking ability
at first grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta-Timur through role play activities.

D. The Significance of Research
The results of this research is expected to be useful for the English teacher
of SMPN 251 Jakarta Timur especially in teaching speaking teacher can manage
classroom activities communicatively by using role play activities. For students
themselves, it can motivate them to try to speak English as often as possible, so
that they can improve their ability in speaking skill.

E. The Method of Research
This research will be done by using Classroom Action Research method.
According to McNiff, Classroom Action Research is a reflective research which
5



conducted by the teachers to develop their teaching skill.
7
In addition Wijaya
Kusumah stated that classroom action research is a research which is conducted
by the teachers in their class with three ways, first is planning, second is acting,
and third is reflecting which has the aim to develop teachers teaching skill and to
improve students score.
8
It can be seen that Classroom Action Research is to
solve teachers problem in learning.



7
Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta
Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 8.

8
Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas p. 9.
6








CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. SPEAKING
1. The understanding of speaking
Speaking is significant to an individuals living processes and experiences
as are the ability of seeing and walking. Speaking is also the most natural way to
communicate. Without speaking, people must remain in almost total isolation
from any kind of society. For most people, the ability to speak a language is the
same with knowing a language since the speech is the most basic means of human
communication. When we speak, a great deal more than just mouth is involved
such as nose, pharynx, epiglottis, trachea, lungs and more. But, acording to Sandra
Cornbleet and Ronald Carter, speaking is not just making sound. Birds, animals,
babies make sound and though it may be communication of sorts, it is not
speaking.
1

The word speaking has many different meanings on linguistics views.
Acording to Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw speaking is not the oral
production of written languge, but includes learners in the mastery of a wide range
sub skill which added together, then it supports speaking skill.
2
In addition,
speaking is not produced without some combination of language skill, but it must
be included a number of skills. So, mastering speaking is gathering skill in

1
Sandra Cornbleet and Ronald Carter , The Language of Speech and Writing,
(London:Routledge Publisher, 2001), p.17
2
Jo McDonough and Christopher Shaw, Materials and Methods in ELT: Second Edition
A Teachers Guide, (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003), p. 133
7



thought because of including some input skills in it. As the result, the mouth is
delivering those skills orally.
In addition, Oxford Advance Dictionary states that "speaking is to make
use of language in an ordinary, not singing, to state view, wishes etc or an act of
spokesman.
3

Another expert states that speaking is the process of building and sharing
meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of
contexts.
4

From the statement above, it can be inferred that speaking is expressing
ideas, opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in
order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learnt by using some
teaching learning methodologies. Speaking also is the important instrument of
communication. People use it almost constantly. As human beings, especially as
social creature we have a need to make meaning of our surroundings. We have a
need to express our thoughts, opinions, or feelings in order to be accepted in
social life. Speaking does not only make sound by the speech organs but ideas and
emotions.

2. The functions of speaking
Several language experts have attempted to categorize the functions of
speaking in human interaction. According to Brown and Yule, as quoted by Jack
C. Richards, The functions of speaking are classified into three; talk as
interaction, talk as transaction and talk as performance. Each of these speech
activities is quite distinct in term of form and function and requires different
teaching approaches
5
. Below are the explanations of the functions of speaking:


3
AS Hornby, Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary. (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Sixth Edition, 1987) p.827
4
Hayriye Kayi , Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second
Language. (Nevada: University of Nevada), Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November
2006, p. 1. From: http://iteslj.org/ http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching Speaking.html.
5
Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice,
Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was
retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010
8



a. Talk as Interaction
Being able to interact in a language is essential. In fact, much of our daily
communication remains interactional. This refers to what we normally mean by
conversation. The primary intention in talk as interaction is to maintain social
relationship.
Meanwhile, talk as interaction has several main features as follows:
Has a primarily social function
Reflects role relationships
Reflects speakers identity
May be formal or casual
Uses conversational conventions
Reflects degrees of politeness
Employs many generic words
Uses conversational register
Some of the skills (involved in using talk as interaction) are:
Opening and closing conversation
Choosing topics
Making small-talk
Recounting personal incidents and experiences
Turn-taking
Using adjacency pairs
Interrupting
Reacting to others
6

Mastering the art of talk as interaction is difficult and may not be a priority
for all learners. In talk as interaction, the ability to speak in natural way is
required in order to create a good communication. That is why some students
sometimes avoid this kind of situation because they often lose for words and feel

6
Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice,
Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was
retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p. 2-3
9



difficulty in presenting a good image of themselves. This can be a disadvantage
for some learners where the ability to use talk as interaction can be important.

b. Talk as Transaction
This type of talk or speaking refers to situations where the focus is on what
is said or done. The message is the central focus here and making oneself
understood clearly and accurately, rather than the participants and how they
interact socially with each other
7
. In transaction, talk is associated with other
activities. For example, student may be engaged in hand-on activities (e.g. in
language lesson) to explore concept associated with tenses and derivations. Anne
Burns, as cited in Jack C. Richards, distinguishes talk as transaction into two
different types. One is a situation where the focus is on giving and receiving
information and where the participants focus primarily on what is said or
achieved. Accuracy may not be a priority as long as information is successfully
communicated or understood. The second type is transactions which focus on
obtaining goods or services, such as checking into a hotel
8
. In this type of spoken
language, students and teachers usually focus on meaning or on talking their way
to understanding.
Meanwhile, talk as transaction has several main features as follows:
It has a primarily information focus
The main focus is the message and not the participants
Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood
There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks
There may be negotiation and digression
Linguistic accuracy is not always important
Some of the skills involved in using talk for transactions are :
explaining a need or intention
describing something

7
Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice,
Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was
retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p.3
8
Jack C Richards, Developing Classroom, p.3
10



Asking questioning
Confirming information
Justifying an opinion
Making suggestions
Clarifying understanding
Making comparisons
9

Compared with talk as interaction, talk as transaction is easier for some
student because it only focuses on messages delivered to the others. Also, talk as
interaction is more easily planned since current communicative materials are a
rich resource of group activities, information-gap activities and role plays. It can
provide a source for practicing how to use talk fro sharing and obtaining
information as well as for carrying out the real-world transactions.

c. Talk as Performance
This refers to public talk or public speaking, that is, talk which transmits
information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcements, and
speeches. Talk as performance tends to be in the form of monolog rather than
dialog. Often follows a recognizable format and is closer to written language than
conversational language. Similarly it is often evaluated according to its
effectiveness or impact on the listener, something which is unlikely to happen
with talk as interaction or transaction. Examples of talk as performance are giving
a class report about a school trip, conducting a class debate, making a sales
presentation, and giving a lecture.
The main features of talk as performance are:
There is a focus on both message and audience
It reflects organization and sequencing
Form and accuracy is important
Language is more like written language

9
Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice,
Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was
retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p. 4
11



It is often monologists
Some of the skills involved in using talk as performance are:
Using an appropriate format
Presenting information in an appropriate sequence
Maintaining audience engagement
Using correct pronunciation and grammar
Creating an effect on the audience
Using appropriate vocabulary
Using appropriate opening and closing
10

Initially talk as performance needs to be prepared in much the same way
as written text, and many techniques teaching strategy used to make
understanding of written text. Therefore, this kind of talk requires a different
teaching strategy.

3. Classroom Speaking Activities
To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, there are
some activities used in the classroom to promote the development of speaking
skills in our learners. The discussions below centers on the major types of
speaking activities that can be implemented as follows
11
:
a. Discussion
Discussion is probably the most commonly used in the speaking skills
classroom activity. It is a common fact that discussion really useful activity for the
teacher in order to activate and involve student in classroom teaching. Typically,
student are introduced to a topic via reading, listening passage, or a video tape and
are then asked to get into pairs or groups to discuss a related topic in order to
come up with a solution, a response, or the like. Normally, people need time to
assemble their thought before any discussion and that is something needs to

10
Jack C.Richard, Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice,
Http://www.professorjackrichard.com/developing-classoom-speaking-activities.pdf, p.2, It was
retrieved on 04 Oktober 2010, p.6
11
Marianne Celce-Murcia, Teaching English As A Second or Foreign Language
(Boston: Heinly and Heinle, a Division of Thomson Learning,Inc.2001) p.106-108

12



consider. So, Teacher must take care in planning and setting up a discussion
activity.
b. Speeches
Another common activity in the oral skills class is the prepared speech.
Topics for speeches will vary depending on the level of the students and the focus
of the class, but in any case, students should be given some leeway in determining
the content of their talks. In order words, the teacher can provide the structure for
the speech-its theoretical genre and its time restrictions. For example asking
students to tell us about an unforgettable experience you had. Allow them to
talk about something that is personally meaningful while at the same time
encourages narration and description. Speeches can be frightening for the speaker
and after while boring for the listeners, so it is a good idea to assign the listeners
some responsibilities during the speeches. It is an excellent time to require peer
evaluation of classmates speech.
c. Role plays
Role paly is activity in which students are assigned roles and improvise a
scene or exchange based on given information or clues and its one way of getting
student to speak in different social context and to assume varied social roles is to
use role-play activities in the classroom. Role plays can be performed from
prepared scripts, created from a set of prompt and expression or written using and
consolidation knowledge gained from instruction or discussion of the speech act
and its variations prior to the role plays themselves.
d. Conversations
One of the recent trends in oral skills pedagogy is the emphasis on having
students analyze and evaluate the language that they or others produce. In
otherword, it is not adequate to have students produce lots of language; they must
become more metalinguistically aware of many features of language in order to
become competent speakers and interlocutors in English. One speaking activity
which is particularly suited to this kind of analysis is conversation, the most
fundamental form of oral communication.

13



e. Information-gap activities
This refers to the fact that in real communication, people normally com-
municate in order to get information they do not possess. In this activity, each
student has different information and they need to obtain information from each
other in order to finish a task. They must use target language to accomplish it.
12


B. Role Play
1. The understanding of Role Play
Role play is a classroom activity which gives the student the opurtunity to
practise the language, the aspects of role behaviour, and the actual roles he may
need outside the classroom.
13

In A Course in Language Teaching, Penny Ur defines role play as, all
sorts of activities where learners imagine themselves in a situation outside the
classroom, sometimes playing the role of someone other than themeselves, and
using langauage appropriate to this new context.
14
Thus, leaners would be
placed in a variety of experience where they play role as themeselves or play the
role of someone else and they should use language that appropriate the situation
and social context which they are playing. For example leaner get together, as
themeselves, to organize a reunion of their class for the next 20 years. Another
example, learners play a role of other people, to hold a formal meeting in an office
where there are five leaners. One of them play as director, a leaner as secretary,
two leaners are as manager, and another is as supervisor. Langauage expressions
of each player should appropriate to their role for example the way of director
talks to manager will be different with the way of the manager talks to the
director.

12
Jack C. Richards, Communicative Language Teaching Today, (New York: Cambridge
University Press: 2006), pp. 19
13
Carol Livingstone, Role Play in Langauge Learning,(Burnt Mill: Longman Group
Limited, 1983) p.6
14
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1996), p. 131.

14



Gillian Porter Ladousse states his opinion about the definition of role play.
At firts, he defines it by separating the words of role and play. role they play a
part (either their own or somebody elses) in specific situation. Play means that
is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as an inventive and playful
as possible. A group of students craying out a successful role play in a classroom
has musch in common with a group of children playing schol, doctors and nurse,
or star wars. Both are unselfconsciously creating their own reality and, by doing
so, are experimenting with their knowledge of the real world and developing their
ability to interact with other people. Moreover, he states about role play as a
technique in English teaching.

Role play is one of a whole gamut of communicative techniques which
develops fluency in language students, which promotes interaction in the
classroom and which increases motivation. Not only in peer learning
encouraged by it, but also the sharing between teacher and students of the
responsibility for the learning process. Role play is perhaps the most
flexible technique in the range, and teaches who have it at their finger-tips
are able to meet an infinite variety of needs with suitable and effective role
play exercise.
15


From the statement above, the writer concludes that role play is a
technique in English teaching which brings the students to real communication in
order to develop the students fluency. The situations and the roles are made by
the teacher as a real life situation so the students have the opurtunity to practise
there language that they need outside the classroom.

2. The Objective of Role Play
The objective of role play is to put the students into a realistic
communication situation to: sharpen their listening comprehension skills, bring
them in contact new language, and discover areas where they need additional
practice.
16


15
Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 5-7
16
Raymond Clark, Language Teaching Techniques, (Vermont: Pro Lingua Associates,
1982), p. 55.
15



In addition Jack C. Richard states that the objective of the role play is to
simulate a conversation situation in which students might find themselves and
give them an opportunity to practice and develop their communication skills.
17

Thus, it can be synthesized that the objective of role play is to develop
communication skill by putting the students into communication situation. The
realistic communication situation gives the students new experience in using the
language they have learned, and the experience is good for remembering what
they have learned.
Therefore the writer concludes that the objective of role play is
communication and it is similar to the objective of teaching speaking, so it means
role play can be applied in teaching speaking and it can help students in
improving speaking skill.

3. The advantages of role play
There are some advantages teaching speaking by using role play in the
class, they are:
18

a. With role play a very wide variety of experience can be brought into the
classroom and we can train our students in speaking skill in any situations
through role play.
b. Role play puts students in situation in which they are required to use and
develop those phatic forms of language which are so necessary in oiling the
works of social relationships, but which are so often neglected by our
language teaching syllabuses.
c. Some people are learning English to prepare for specific roles in their lives. It
is helpful for these students to have tried out and experimented with the
language they will require in the friendly and safe environment of a
classroom.

17
Jack C. Richards, Editor, Teaching in Action: Case Studies From Second Language
Classroom, (Virginia: TESOL 1998), p. 308
18
Gillian Porter Ladousse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 6-7

16



d. Role play helps many shy students by providing them with a mask.
e. Perhaps the most important reason for using role play is that it is fun.
Moreover, Adrian Doff states
role play gives students a chance to use the language they have practiced
in a more creative way- students improvise; it increases motivation
because the chance to imagine different situations adds interest to a lesson;
it encourages students to use natural expressions and intonation, as well as
gestures because they are acting out a situation, and by doing children
even teenagers and adults often imagine themselves in deferent situation
and roles when they play games.
19


In conclusion, role play can encourage students to create their performance
as well as possible due to the freedom given to them to make up a
dialogue/conversation by themselves. Therefore, most students are motivated to
share and express their ideas during the activity.

4. The disadvantages of role play
In spite of the fact that role playing gives some advantages, it is also
shows disadvantages. They are:
20

a. Organization, few teachers operate in ideal circumstance. The majority work
in classrooms which are too small, and with classes which are, numerically,
too large. Similarly, the noise level produced by a class of forty, divided into
eight role play groups in a small classroom, may be so high as to make
concentration impossible.
b. Time, if the time taken for preparation and follow-up work is included, then
role play will take up a lot of classroom time.
In conclusion, teaching speaking by using role play takes up a lot of
classroom time because the students need for preparation before their play a role.
Its also need an extra room, because if the room is too small the students cant
move in play their role, and its can make a noisy in the room, so its very difficult
for the students to concentrate.

19
Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 233 240
20
Carol Livingstone, Role Play in Langauge Learning,(Burnt Mill: Longman Group
Limited, 1983), p.30
17



5. The Type of Role Play Technique
In case of role play activities, according to Donn Byrne, role play can be
grouped into two types, scripted and unscripted role play. In details, those types of
role play activities described as follows:
a. Scripted Role Play
This type involves interpreting either the textbook dialogue or
reading text in the form of speech. The main function of the text after all is
to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way.
b. Unscripted Role Play
In contrast to scripted role play, the situations of unscripted role
play do not depend on textbooks. It is known as a free role play or
improvisation. The students themselves have to decide what language to
use and how the conversation should develop. In order to do this activity,
good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary.
21


C. Teaching Speaking by using role play
As what the writer writes above, role play can be classified into two;
scripted role play and unscripted role play. So, in applying this technique, there
are two ways that can be used.
1. Scripted role play
Scripted role play is a role play which is based on the dialogue.
Example of the dialogue:
Angela : Good morning. I want to send a letter to Singapore.
Clerk : Yes, do you want to send it by air mail or ordinary mail?
Angela : I think Ill send it air mail. I want it to get there quickly. How
much does it cost?
Clerk : To Singapore? That will be 30 pence, pleas.
Angela : (give the clerk 50 pence) Here you are.
Clerk : Heres your stamp, and heres 20 pence change.
Angela : Thank you. Where is the post box?
Clerk : You want the air mail box. Its over there, by the door.


21
Donn Byrne,Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher,
(Singapore: Longman Groups, 1986) p. 122-123 Page 25
18



To demonstrate a role play activity based on the dialogue, the procedures
given by Adrian Doff is as follows:
1) The teacher guides the role play by writing these prompts:(where? / air
mail / how much? / post box? / thanks). Talk as you write to show what the
prompts mean.
2) If necessary, go through the prompts one by one, and get students to give
sentences or question for each one.
3) Call two students to the front: one play the role as Angela and the other
one is the post office clerk. They should improvise the conversation using
the prompts to help them. Point out that the conversation should be similar
to the one in the textbook, but not exactly the same; the conversation can
be shorter than the presentation dialogue. It should just cover the main
points indicated by the prompts.
4) Call out a few other pairs of students in turn, and ask them to have other
conversation based on the prompts.
22

Based on these procedures, the writer views that the ways of organizing
this dialogue can be carried out into pairs of students who would improvise a
conversation in front of class, in turns. The teacher can also ask the students to
practice the conversation privately with their partners before they act it out in
front of the class.
2. Unscripted role play
Unscripted role play is role play which is not depend on textbooks. The
example and procedures of unscripted role play which is adapted from Adrian
Doffs book are as follows:
One student has lost a bag.
He/she is at the police station.
The other student is the police officer, and asks for details.

To demonstrate a role play activity based on the situation, the procedures
the procedures given by Adrian Doff is as follows:
1) The teacher could prepare the whole class, by:

22
Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 233 234
19



a) Discussing what the speakers might say (e.g. the police officer would
asks the students how he or she lost the bag).
b) Writing prompt on the board to guide the role play, and any key
vocabulary.
2) The teacher could divide the class into pairs, and:
a) Let them discuss together what they may say.
b) Let them all try out the role play privately, before calling on one or two
pairs to act out in front of the class.
23


The above procedures do not mean an exact to be used. It is flexible;
teacher can create or develop procedures which is appropriate and suitable with
his/her own class.

D. Classroom Action Research
1. The understanding of Classroom Action Research
According to McNiff, Classroom Action Research is a reflective research
which conducted by the teachers to develop their teaching skill.
24
It means that
the teachers can use Classroom Action Research as a method to develop their
teaching skill. In addition Wijaya Kusumah stated that classroom action research
is a research which conducted by the teachers in their class with three ways, first
is planning, second is acting, and third is reflecting which has the aim to develop
teachers teaching skill and to improve students score.
25
It can be seen that
Classroom Action Research is not only to develop teaching skill for the teacher
but also to improve students score and solve their problem in learning.

2. Design of Action Research
According to Wijaya Kusuma that dsign of Classroom Action Research is
divided into six models, there are:

23
Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainers Handbooks,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 234

24
Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta
Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 8.

25
Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas p. 9.
20



1. Kurt Lewin model
2. Kemmis Mc Taggarts Model
3. Dave Ebbut model
4. John Elliott model
5. Hopkins model
6. Mckernan model
26

Out of the six models, the writer would explain and apply Kurt Lewin
design in teaching and learning activities. Kurt Lewin design becomes basic
reference from the other models, specifically for classroom action research. Kurt
Lewin introduced classroom action research for the first time. The basic
conceptual of classroom action research includes four components:
1. Planning
Planning is a step to prepare the classroom instructional strategy to be
developed in the study to solve the instructional problems. The instructional
strategy has been selected based on the belief that the strategy can theoretically
solve the problems. It is this strategy that becomes the focus of the study, to be
prepared, to be tried out, to be revised, to be tried again until it proves effective
to solve the problems.
2. Acting
Acting is the second step after the planning step to implement the instructional
strategy that has been planned. At this stage, the researcher has mastered the
instructional scenario before starting the implementation in class. The
researcher at this stage is not in the process of learning how to implement the
plan, nor in the process of improving the quality of teachers performance, but
in the process of actually trying out the strategy to test how much the strategy
can solve the classroom problems. The researcher is recommended to
collaborate with one or two other teachers of the same subjects. The
collaborators observe the implementation of the plan to see how much the
strategy can solve the classroom problems.


26
Wijaya Kusumah and Dedi Dwitagama, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta
Barat: PT. Indeks, 2009), p. 20.
21



3. Observing
Observing is the process of collecting data indicating the success of the
strategy in solving the classroom problems. The focus of the observation is on
the data related to the criteria of success that have been decided. The question
that becomes the concern in the observing process is How well does the
strategy solve the problems? not other questions, like How well does the
teacher teach? or How well is the strategy implemented by the researcher?
These last two questions are not the questions for Classroom Action Research
but appropriate for observers observing students who are learning how to teach,
like in the practice teaching program.
4. Reflecting
Reflection is the process of analyzing data to determine how far the data
collected have shown the success of the strategy in solving the problem.
Reflection also shows what factors support the success of the strategy or what
other problems may occur during the implementation process.

The connection of four components above can describe as below:
Figure 2.1
Kurt Lewins Action Research Design



Picture 1. Kurt Lewin model (Classroom Action Research)
Reflecting
Planning Observing
Acting
22










CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Time and Place of Research
The writer held the research at VII Grade of SMPN 251, which is located
on Jl. Gongseng Raya RT 010 RW 001 Kelurahan Cijantung, Kecamatan Pasar
Rebo, Jakarta Timur. The writer did the Action Research on 17 January 2011 up
to 21 February 2011.

B. Subject of Research
The Subject of the research is VII grade students of SMPN 251 Jakarta in
the 2010/2011 Academic Year. There are 38 students in VII grade.

C. Role of the Researcher in Classroom Action Research
The role of researcher in Classroom Action Research is as the English
Teacher at seventh grade of SMPN 251 and she also makes lesson plan, pre-test,
and post-test, then she collects and analyzes the data, and then she reports the
results of research. In doing Classroom Action Research she is colaborated with
the real English teacher of SMPN 251 (Ibu. Nurminda S.Pd) who becomes the
observer in the Classroom Action Research.
23


D. The Research Design
The Classroom Action Research procedure used in this research is Kurt
Lewins design. It consists of two cycles in which each cycle contains four
phases; planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

Figure 3.1
Kurt Lewins Action Research Design




CYCLE 1








CYCLE 2




(Adapted from Wijaya Kusumah, 2009)
Acting
Planning
Acting
Observing
Observing
Reflecting
Planning
Reflecting
24

Based on the Kurt Lewins action research design above, the writer would like to
describe further concerning the implementation of Classroom Action research
(CAR) in the cycle one and cycle two as following:
Figure 3.2
The phases of Classroom Action Research modified by the writer
CYCLE 1












CYCLE 2











Planning
After interviewing the writer, observing
the class, and holding the pretest, then the
teacher & the writer collaborate to prepare
the instruments such as: lesson plan,
observational guidelines, and the posttest


Acting
The writer implements the lesson plan
that has been made; that is teaching
speaking in giving interpersonal
response by using role play


Observing
The teacher observes the teaching
learning process in the classroom. It
includes the writers performance, the
class situation, and the students
response. Meanwhile, at last of cycle 1
the students are given the posttest 1.
Furthermore, the teacher computes the
students speaking score result to find if
there some students improvement
scores from the pretest or not.







Reflecting
The teacher and the writer discuss about
the result of the implementation role play
in the action. Then, they prepare the new
lesson plan for the next cycle and for
post-test II in order to know the
improvement of students score and to
solve the problem unfinished yet.


Planning
The teacher and the writer collaborate to
prepare some instruments such as: the new
lesson plan (with some modifications of
role play strategy), observational
guidelines, and the posttest





Reflecting
The teacher and the writer discuss about
the result of the implementation of the
modified action. If the Classroom Action
Research target could not be achieved
yet, the action would be continued
(moved to cycle 3), but if the students
test result has completed the criterion of
the action success, the cycle would be
stopped.


Acting
The writer implements the new lesson
plan; that is teaching speaking in giving
interpersonal response by using role
play.
Observing
The teacher observes the writers
performance, the class situation, and the
students response. In the end of cycle
two, the students are given the test
(posttest 2). Next, the teacher calculates
the students speaking score result all at
once the students improvement score
from the previous test.


25

E. The Classroom Action Research Procedures
The Classroom Action Research using Kurt Lewins design consists of
four phases within one cycle. Those are planning, acting, observing, and
reflecting. After accomplishing the first cycle, it will be probably found a new
problem or the previous unfinished problems yet. Therefore, it is necessary to
continue to the second cycle in line with the same concept of the first cycle.
To make clear what happens in every phase. Here are the explanations:
1. Planning
In this phase, the writer design a lesson plan (see appendix 11) from the
syllabus which is consulted with English teacher, creating the topics that are
appropriate with the matter, Preparing materials that will be used at the cycle. The
writer also makes the evaluation form to know about students achievements at
the end of this cycle.
2. Action
In this phase, the writer and observer collaborates to carry out the planned
action . The writer gives explanation how plays a role, and give an example from
it. The writer also gives some related vocabulary items needed when students are
do a role play activity. Then, the writer gives a role card that tells the students
who he is, something of his background, what his opinions about a given subject
are, and possibly suggests a course of action that he should try and carry out, and
asks the students to practice in pairs or in a group. (see page 36-43 for more
detail).
3. Observation
In this phase, the observer (the real teacher SMPN 251) observes the
students responses, participations, and achievements which are found during the
teaching and learning process. Sometimes, the observer asks some students
opinions about the process of teaching and learning using role play activity. The
observer also takes the observation notes to write the real situation when the
action is occurred (see appendix 8).


26

4. Reflection
In this phase, the writer and the observer identifies the problems that are
found by seeing the result of the observation which should be solved. Then, those
are used to make plan for further cycle and correct its weaknesses.
F. The Technique of Collecting Data
In completing the data, the writer uses qualitative data and quantitative
data, qualitative data consists of observation, interview and quesionnarie,
quantitative data consists of pre-test and post test.
1

1. Observation
In this case, the writer uses the unstructured observation to get the
information about the real condition in teaching learning activities. The
writer make the observation notes about situation in the class while
teaching learning process occurred, teachers performance in teaching
speaking, and students speaking skills, such as; pronunciation,
vocabulary,grammar and their braveries in speaking lesson. (for more
detail see appendix 8)
2. Interview
Before implementing Classroom Action Research, the writer
interview the teacher about students difficulties in speaking skill,
students condition in speaking activity, and the kinds of strategies usually
adopted by the teacher in teaching speaking. The writer also carried the
interview after accomplishing Classroom Action Research to know the
teachers response toward the idea of role play technique (see appendix 7).
3. Questionnaire
The structured questionnaire was given to the students of VII.2
grade of SMPN 251 Cijantung in order to know their responds toward the
process of teaching and learning speaking by using role play technique and
also about their motivations and problems in learning speaking before and
after they were taught using role play technique (see appendix 9).


1
Suharsimi Arikunto, Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2009), p. 127-
132.
27

4. Test
The writer uses oral test for the students (see appendix 3). The test
used in this study is pre-test and post-test. The pre-test is done before
implementing role play technique. It is to measure students speaking
ability at first. Meanwhile, the post-test is implemented after using role
play technique.
The students did the oral test by role play technique, the students
asked to choose one of the envelopes of role card that provided by the
writer (see in appendix). Then, the students perform their role play. The
students need to do the test in groups.
The students test will be scored by using the rating scores of oral
test by David P. Harris as followed
2

Table 3.1
The Rating Score of Oral Test
Rated qualities Points Behavioral statments
Pronunciation

5 Has few tarce of foreign accent.
4 Always intelligible, though one is conscious of
a definite accent
3 Pronunciation problems necessitate
concentrated listening and occasionally lead to
misunderstanding.
2 Very hard to understand because of
pronunciation problems. Must frequently be
asked to repeat.
1 Pronunciation problems so severe as to make
speech virtually unintelligible.



Grammar


5 Makes few (any) noticeable errors of grammar
or word order.
4 Occasionally makes grammatical and or word
order errors which do not, however, obscure
meaning.
3 Makes frequent errors of grammar and word
order which occasionally obscure meaning
2 Grammar and word order errors make
comprehension d must often rephrase sentences

2
David P. Harris, Testing English as a Second Language, (Bombay: Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company ltd., 1977), p. 84.
28



and or restricts himself to basic patterns.
1 Errors in grammar and word order so severe as
to make speech virtually unintelligible.
Vocabulary
5 Use of vocabulary and idioms is virtually that
of a native speaker.
4 Sometimes use inappropriate terms and or must
rephrase ideas because of lexical inadequacies.
3 Frequently uses the wrong words; conversation
somewhat limited because of inadequate
vocabulary.
2 Misuse of words and very limited vocabulary
make comprehension quite difficult
1 Vocabulary limitations so extreme as to make
conversation virtually impossible.
Fluency
5 Speech as fluent and effortless as that of a
native speaker
4 Speed of speech seems to be slightly affected
by language problems
3 Speed and fluency are rather strongly affected
by language problems.
2 Usually hesitant; often forced into silence by
language problem.
1 Speech is so halting and fragmentary as to
make conversation virtually impossible
Comprehension
5 Appears to understand everything without
difficulty.
4 Understands nearly everything at normal speed,
although occasional repetition may be
necessary.
3 Understands most of what is said at slower-than
normal speed with repetitions.
2 Has great difficulty following what is said. Can
comprehend only social conversation spoken
slowly and with frequent repetitions.
1 Cannot be said to understand even simple
conversational English.

Note: maximum sore = 25
Sore = the result of score x 100
Maximum score



29

G. Technique of Data Analysis
The collected data found in this research are analyzed qualitatively and
quantitatively. It means that all the data gathered from the observations during
teaching learning process, questionnaire, and interview before and after classroom
action research are analyzed qualitatively. While the data obtained from tests (pre-
test and post-test) are Analyzed descriptive quantitatively (percentage).
In completing the numerical data, the writer tries to get the average of
students speaking score within before the the implementation and every cycle in
order to know how well the role play technique in the classroom.
It is the formula;
3


X




X : mean N : number of students
x : individual score
Then, the writer tries to get the class percentages which pass the the target
score of the minimal mastery level criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM).
The KKM that must be attained considering speaking subject is 65 (sixty-five)
which is adapted from the school agreement (SMPN 251 Jakarta). It is the
formula:
4


F
P = X 100%
N

P : the class percentage
F : total percentage score
N : number of students


3
Sudjana, Metoda Statistika, (Bandung: PT. Tarsito, 2002), p. 67.
4
Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistis Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada,
2008), p. 43.

30

The last, the writer analyzes the students speaking score from pre-test up to post-
test. It used to know whether students improve their score or not. She uses the
formula:
y1 y P : percentage of students improvement
P = X 100% y : pre-test result
Y y1 : post-test 1

H. Criteria of the Action Success
Classroom Action Research (CAR) is able to be called successful if it can
exceed the criteria which has been determined. In this study the research will
succeed when there is 75% of students could pass the assessment score 65 based
on the minimal mastery level criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM)
which is adapted from the school agreement (SMPN 251).
In addition, the success of the action is not only measured with the
achievement students speaking score, but also the role play technique can
motivate the students and they become more actively in learning process. If the
criterion of the action success achieved, it means that the next action of the
Classroom Action Research (CAR) would be stopped, but if this condition has not
been reached yet, the alternative action would be done in the next cycle.



31








CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDINGS

A. The Result of Pre Implementation of the Action
1. The Result of Interview
The interview was held on Thursday, January 13
th
2010 started at
15.10 and finished at 16.00. The writer asked to the teacher some
questions which were divided into three categories of question, they are:
the general condition of class, the difficulty in speaking skill, and the
strategy used by the teacher in teaching speaking.
First category discussed the general condition of class especially in
speaking class. The teacher said that the most of students did not like
studying English, because it is difficult lesson and they sometimes gained
low competence in English. The teacher also said that speaking is the
most difficult skill to be learned in VII.2 grade, because most of them
were hardly to pass the target score of the minimal mastery level criterion
(KKM).
Second category is the difficulty in speaking skill. The teacher said
that the students difficulties in speaking lied on pronouncing the word or
sentence, self confidence, and organizing the word into a sentence, and
this caused by less in practice English speaking.
The last category is the strategy used by the teacher in teaching
English speaking. The teacher said that she has never used role play in
teaching the students, she usually teaches speaking by introducing new
32

dialogue to the students, then she reads the dialogue, while the students
repeat it together, and then she give the meaning of the dialogue.

2. The Result of Observation
This observation was conducted in order to know the teaching
learning process directly before implementing the Classroom Action
Research (CAR). Based on the observation notes conducted on Monday,
10
th
January 2011 at 12.30, it was known that in teaching speaking at the
VII-2 grade students of SMPN 251 in the 2010/2011 academic year, the
teacher used dialogue-based learning technique, in which she gave
students dialogue and asked students to read the dialogue and then
perform in the front of the class in pair. In this case, students only read a
dialogue, give it meaning and then perform with their partner. They have
never told the usage of expressions they are practicing. Furthermore,
students have never been given chances to expose their ability to speak
and to develop a more communicative conversation using their own way.
(see appendix 8 for more detail)
The use of strategy like this would be an ongoing problem for
students in learning and understanding oral English usage. Moreover,
students whose vocabulary were limited which unable them to say
anything to communicate. It brings about silent toward student and is
lacking in speaking ability primarily in using expression likely in real
communication.
3. The Result of Questionnaire
The questionnaire was conducted to know the students response in
teaching learning process, the students result of speaking activity, and
the solution of the problem in teaching speaking.
Based on the result of questionnaire before the implementation of
CAR, the writer likes to give some explanations: from the first statement
they are 30 (78.94%) students did not feel satisfied with their score and
only 8 (21.05%) students who feel satisfied. The statement number 2,
33



showed only 10 (26.31%) students who like to learn English speaking
and 28 (73.68%) students did not like to learn English speaking. Relating
to the statement number 3, 30 (78.94%) students did not feel motivated in
learning English speaking, it means that only 8 (21.05%) students who
feel motivated in learning English speaking. In statement number 4, 32
(84.21%) students feel difficult in speaking English and 6 (15.78%)
students feel easy in speaking English. Then, in the statement number 5,
12 (31.57%) students said that the sentences were thought is suitable in
their daily life, and 26 (68.21%) students said the sentences were thought
did not suitable in their daily life. The response for the statement number
6, showed that only 8 (21.05%) students used their opportunity to asked
the question, and 30 (78.94%) students did not use their opportunity to
asked the question. In the statement number 7 to 8, showed that 38
(100%) students did not feel that the teacher gave opportunity to the
students to do an exercise in English speaking especially in giving
interpersonal response, and 38 (100%) students seldom used English
language in speaking class. For the statement number 9 to 10 the students
leave it in the blank because the Classroom Action Research have not
implemented yet. (See appendix for detail result of questioner)
Related to the result of questionnaire, it could be concluded that the
students activity and motivation in learning English speaking is still low,
there also needed to improve the students positive response after the
implementation of the action. Therefore the CAR was done.

4. The Result of Pre Test
The pre-test was conducted on the 17
th
and 20
th
January

2011 to
measure students speaking ability at first, and it was done before
implementing Classroom Action Research.
At pre-test, the students speaking ability was not so good. It could
be seen from the table list here in test speaking evaluation.

34

Table 4.1
The Students Speaking Score of Pre-Test
No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score
1 Adinda Chaerunissa 3 2 2 3 2 48
2 Adis Risjayanto 3 2 2 2 2 44
3 Ahmad Rosadi 2 2 2 2 2 40
4 Andreas Vido Novian 2 2 2 2 2 40
5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 2 2 2 2 2 40
6 Arief Priambodo 2 2 2 2 2 40
7 Astatantica Belly. S 3 3 4 3 4 68
8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 2 2 2 2 2 40
9 Bagas Pebrianja 2 2 2 2 2 40
10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 2 2 2 2 44
11 Deni Muhammad 2 2 2 2 2 40
12 Dita Ryani 3 2 2 2 2 44
13 Elisa Maharani. R 3 2 2 3 2 48
14 Faisal Erpan. S 2 2 2 2 2 40
15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 3 4 3 2 4 68
16 Halwiyah Oktavia 2 2 2 2 2 40
17 Hendra Gunawan 2 2 2 2 2 40
18 Humaira Kusuma. A 3 3 3 4 4 68
19 Marhaeni Riska. H 3 3 3 4 4 68
20 Mochamad Rifqi 2 2 2 2 2 40
21 Muchamat Suryanto 2 2 2 2 2 40
22 Muhammad Bramantyo 2 2 2 2 2 40
23 Muhammad Iqbal 2 2 2 2 2 40
24 Nina Richi Karlina 2 2 2 2 2 40
25 Pradini Yuliasari 2 2 2 2 2 40
26 Raynor Maulana 3 4 3 3 4 68
27 Renny Mardiah 3 2 2 2 2 44
28 Rijal Astian Hadly 2 2 2 2 2 40
29 Rizki Pratama. S 2 2 2 2 2 40
68 Rosyid Nur Iman 2 2 2 2 2 40
31 Selly Octaviani 2 2 2 2 2 40
32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 2 2 2 2 2 40
33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 2 2 2 2 2 40
34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 4 3 3 4 72
35 Wahyu Saputro 2 2 2 2 2 40
36 Winda Pratiwi 3 3 4 3 4 68
37 Yesi Adila 3 3 4 3 4 68
38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 2 2 2 1 1 32
Total 1772
Student who pass the KKM
35



Based on the data above, the writer highlited the students who
passed KKM (65), and to get the result of pre-test, firstly, the writer
calculated the mean score by employing the formula that has already
been previously pointed out.
X

=
1772
38

X

= 46.63
Next, to know the class percentage that passed the target score of
minimal mastery level criterion- Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM)
the writer used the following formula:
P =
F
N
x100%
P =
8
38
x100%
P = 21.05%
Based on the result of pre-test, the data showed that the mean score
of pre-test was 46.63. There were only eight students or 21.05% of
students who got the score passed the minimal mastery level criterion
(KKM).
After analyzing the result of pre-test, it could be concluded that
most of the students at VII-2 class of SMPN 251 had difficulty in
speaking ability. So, it needs to find out the solution to overcome this
problem. Here the writer used Role Play technique in every cycle of
Classroom Action Research to overcome the problem and to develop
students speaking ability.





36

B. The Implementation of the Action
1. Cycle 1
a. Planning
In this phase the writer and the teacher arranged the lesson plan that
included competition standard and selected the appropriate material. The
lesson plan was focused in giving interpersonal response, and there are
two lesson plans in cycle one, the topics are what do you want to be?
and ordering food. These topics discussed about asking and giving
opinion, and asking and giving for service. The writer also prepared role
card, camera, laptop, and field notes.

b. Acting
Acting phase is the implementation of the planning phase that has
been planned by the teacher and the researcher as well. Here, the writer
acted as the teacher who did the action by teaching students at first grade
of SMPN 254 Jakarta used role play technique. The acting in the first
cycle was done on January 24
th
and 27
th
2011. In teaching the lesson, the
researcher used three phase techniques; a technique that contains about
three phases, those are: pre teaching activity, while teaching activity, and
post teaching activity. In this acting, the writer tried to integrate students
to participate in the classroom activities. In detail, the writer presented in
the following action:

First meeting
Asking and giving opinion
Day/date: Monday, January 24
th
2011
i. Pre teaching activity
The writer opens the class by saying greeting and asking students
condition. Besides, she also asked students readiness to learn.
ii. While teaching activity
In the while teaching activity, the writer introduced role play
technique in teaching English by using the topic that has been
37



determined, then the writer gave a dialogue which expressed asking and
giving opinion, after the writer reads the dialogue which repeated by
students together, the writer asked the students to practice the dialogue in
pair, then she give lists new vocabularies for students, after that she
explained the expression asking and giving opinion.
To ensure students understanding of the materials, the writer
trained students by giving a role card, in role card the writer only give a
situation and what the students will be, such as:
- One student become a little sister, and just bought a new T-shirt
yesterday.
- She/he ask opinion to the another student who becomes a big sister
about the new T-shirt.
- The big sister thinks that the T-shirt is nice. It suits on you.
- But, another student who becomes brother come and thinks that the T-
shirt is not good on little sister.
- A little sister sad and ask the reason to brother why he said that?
After the students got a role card the writer asked the students to
make a group, then she gave a time for students to discuss together what
they may say, and next the writer let them all try out the role play
privately, before calling on one or two group to act out in front of the
class.
iii. Post teaching activity.
Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties
during the teaching and learning process. If it might there some questions
concerning with the materials, the writer will a bit explain and give the
answer. Some advices were given to students to motivate them to always
practice their English. While to close the class, the teacher closed it by
saying greeting or salam.








38

Second meeting
Asking and giving for service
Day/date: Thursday, January 27
th
2011
i. Pre teaching activity
The writer opens the class by saying greeting and asking students
condition. Besides, she also asks students readiness to learn.
ii. While teaching activity
In this meeting the writer explained the expression asking and
giving service firstly, then she used scripted role play in teaching
learning activity, a scripted role play is about activity in restaurant such
as:
Waitress : good afternoon. Can I help you?
Riki : good afternoon. Yes Id like fried chiken with fries and
coke, please.
Waitress : would you like a regular or large coke?
Riki : regular, please.
Waitress : would you like anything else?
Riki : yes, Id like an ice cream please.
Waitress : what flavour would you like?
Riki : chocolate, please.
Waitress : Ok.
In scripted role play one student played a role as waitress, and the
other one as Riki, after that to ensure the students understanding they
should improve the conversation by using their own word, they could
change a sentence or add a conversation, then the writer asked them to
act out in front of the class.
iii. Post teaching activity.
The writer asked students difficulties of the material during the
learning process. She also gave feedback concerning with the students
work. The last, she closed the class by saying salam.

c. Observing
In observing phase the teacher as an observer observed the
students response, participation, achievement and everything which
39



were found during the teaching and learning process, she also observed
the teachers activity. In order to make this phase real and concrete, the
observer also takes observation note in order to know how far the
technique influence students speaking ability in classroom. Based on the
observation note that has been taken, some of students did not pay
attention to the instruction and the students look like confused in doing a
role play activity. The classroom condition was still uncontrolled yet,
there were still some trouble makers who disturbed the other students
while the learning process was processing. The observer then suggested
the teacher to clarify the instruction, and give more explanation and
example in role play activity, if the teacher still cannot control students,
the observer suggested her to give punishment. (See appendix for detail
result of observation)

d. Reflecting
In this phase the writer and the teacher discussed the strengths and
the weakness of the actions and the first post-test. Based on data that
have been collected and analyzed by the teacher and the researcher, it
was found that students grammar and pronunciation are still low in
speaking, because they are clearly need to practice orally not only in the
form written, the students also still confused to speak English before
they write what they want to say, so the teacher should give more
attention and exercise to the students in order to make them braver and
more confident to speak English, the teacher also needed to improve her
class and time management in teaching. (see appendix 8 )
From the result of first post-test, it showed that only sixteen
students (42.1%) who had passed the target score of the minimal mastery
level criterion (KKM). So, the teacher and the researcher still needed at
least thirteen students (34.21%) who could pass the KKM since the target
of action success was 75% students passed the minimal mastery level
criterion (KKM).
40

Since both the observation and the test result indicated that the
action in first cycle did not achieve the action success yet, so the teacher
and the writer had to move to the next cycle.

2. Cycle 2
a. Planning
The cycle 2 was carried out to solve the problems that had been
found in cycle 1, which were students still low in speaking ability,
especially to speak spontaneously. In this phase the writer and the teacher
arranged the new lesson plan that included competition standard and
selected the appropriate material. There were not significant differences
with the previous lesson plan. The material still related to giving
interpersonal response but the topics are favorite food and our new
teacher and these topic discussed about expressing like and dislike, and
asking and giving clarification.

b. Acting
The action of the cycle 2 was done on February 10
th
, 14
th
2010.
The action was done based on the lesson plan. In cycle two, the writer
would teach students by using the same technique. Here, the writer
wished to have more development of students speaking score than in
previous section.
Here are the actions:

First meeting
Expressing like and dislike
Day/date: Thursday, February 10
th
2011
i. Pree teaching activity
The writer started the class by saying salam, asked students
condition, and asked students favorite food and favorite drink, and a
small discussion was needed to give students opportunities to share their
experience.
41



ii. While teaching activity
Related to the theme that was made, the writer gave the material to
students about expressing like and dislikes such us:
Likes Dislikes
I like/Love.... (Im afraid) I dont like......
I really enjoy... I (really) hate
After the teacher explained expressing like and dislike by using
example to the students. The writer read scripted roles play which is
expressing like and dislike:
Baim : where are you going Febi?
Febi : oh, Im going to the canteen.
Baim : can I join?
Febi : sure. Lets go.
Baim : anyway, whats your favorite food?
Febi : I love fried noodle so much, but I cant stand with fried prawn,
Im allergy. What about you, Baim?
Baim : I see. Well I enjoy vegetables soup and I hate nuts.
After that the writer gave a new vocabulary to the students, and
then the writer asked the students to repeat the dialogue after the writer
read it for them. Next the writer invited two students to perform the
dialogue in front of the class, one student became Baim, and other
student became Febi. It has aim to give the example of dialogue that
could be used for the next activity. However, the writer did not write the
dialogues on the whiteboard in order that the students did not copy the
dialogues.
To ensure the students understanding of the material, the writer
asked them to use their imagination and their ability to create the
dialogue which is expressing like and dislike on their own way, then they
had to act out in front of the class.
iii. Post teaching activity.
Before closing the class, firstly the writer asked students difficulties
during the teaching and learning process. If were some questions
concerning with the materials, the writer would give a bit explanation
42

and the answer. Then the writer called the students name to ensure that
they attended the class. After finishing it, she closed the class by saying
salam.

Second meeting
Asking & giving clarification
Day/date: Monday, February14
th
2011
i. Pre teaching activity
The writer started the lesson by giving warming up to the students
to make them focused on the topic. The writer asked some questions to
motivate students to speak, and that questions were related to the topic.
ii. While teaching activity
In this meeting the writer used unscripted role play, firstly the
writer explained asking and giving clarification by using example in
dialogue which is expressed asking and giving clarification such as:
Baron, Dedi, and Arul are having lunch in the canteen.
Baron : Our new English teacher just came from Cambridge. His
name is Jhonathan.
Arul : Is that right?
Dedi : Yes, that right.
Baron : I heard he is a baseball coach too.
Arul : Really? I dont know how to play baseball.
Dedi : Dont you?
Arul : No, I dont. Maybe I should join the baseball club.
Baron : Yes, I think should.
After that she gave the students the vocabulary items and
expressions related to the material, then the writer, the teacher, and a
volunteer from one of the students performed a dialogue above. After
that the writer gave unscripted role play to the students such as:
Your brother met your favorite actor in the mall.
He told you when he came home.
You didnt believe it and wanted to ask for clarification.
What would both of you say?
43



After the students got unscripted role play the writer asked the
students to make a pair, then she gave a time for students to discuss
together what they may say, and next the writer let them all try out the
role play privately, before calling them to act out in front of the class.
iii. Post teaching activity.
Before closing the class, firstly the teacher asked students
difficulties during the teaching and learning process. If were there some
questions concerning with the materials, the teacher would give a bit
explain and the answer. Then the teacher calls the students name to
ensure that they attend the class. After finishing it, she closed the class by
saying salam.

c. Observing
Generally, there were significant developments of the acting phase
in second cycle. From the observation note that has been taken by the
observer the writer performance in teaching English has implemented the
technique a bit better than in first cycle, she didnt speak too fast
anymore while explaining the material, the management class and time
was good enough. The classroom situation controlling also can be
handled by her, so when students playing a role play, overall students
looked more enthusiastic in doing role play activity than before. The
students also looked braver and more confident to speak English. They
competed to be volunteers when the writer asked them to speak or
answer the questions.

d. Reflecting
From the observation data and the post test result of cycle 2. The
writer and the teacher felt satisfied to the action research result, because
the implementation of role play technique in teaching English especially
teaching speaking showed amount changes than cycle 1. From the result
of post-test 2, it showed that thirty two students (84.21%) who passed the
target score of minimal mastery level criterion (KKM). So, it met the
44

requirement of action success which was 75% students passed the
minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) students in the score of 65.
Beside that based on the observation data, the students were braver,
more confident, easier to understand English speaking, and easier to use
grammatical rules and vocabulary items that they have possessed to
speak English fluently and correctly. Now they also are able to use
language for communication, especially for speaking. When the writer
met the students outside the class, she invited them to speak English with
her, and they were able to respond fluently and correctly, although
sometimes some students still made a few mistakes, such as in using
correct tenses. However, the writer has reached the goal that is the
students are able to use English as a means of communication. So, it
means that the researcher and the teacher didnt need to move to the next
cycle.
The following is the schedule of the Classroom Action Research:
Table 4.2
Schedule of the Research
No Activities
Month and Week
January February March
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3
1 Interview
X
2 Observation
X X
3 Instrument
X X
5 Cycle I
X X
6 Cycle II
X X
7 Report
X X X

C. The result of Post-Implementation of the Action
1. The Result of Post Test I
To know the result of students speaking of first post-test we can
see from the table here:

45



Table 4.3
Students 1
st
Post Test Score
No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score
1 Adinda Chaerunissa 3 3 3 3 3 60
2 Adis Risjayanto 4 3 3 3 4 68
3 Ahmad Rosadi 3 3 3 3 3 60
4 Andreas Vido Novian 3 2 2 3 3 52
5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 3 2 2 3 3 52
6 Arief Priambodo 3 2 2 3 3 52
7 Astatantica Belly. S 3 4 4 4 4 76
8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 3 4 3 3 4 68
9 Bagas Pebrianja 3 2 3 3 2 52
10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 4 3 2 2 56
11 Deni Muhammad 3 3 3 3 3 60
12 Dita Ryani 3 3 3 3 3 60
13 Elisa Maharani. R 4 4 3 3 4 72
14 Faisal Erpan. S 3 2 2 3 3 52
15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 3 4 4 3 4 72
16 Halwiyah Oktavia 3 3 3 3 3 60
17 Hendra Gunawan 3 3 3 3 3 60
18 Humaira Kusuma. A 3 3 4 3 4 68
19 Marhaeni Riska. H 3 3 3 4 4 68
20 Mochamad Rifqi 3 3 3 3 3 60
21 Muchamat Suryanto 3 3 3 3 3 60
22 Muhammad Bramantyo 3 3 3 3 3 60
23 Muhammad Iqbal 3 3 3 3 3 60
24 Nina Richi Karlina 3 3 3 3 4 64
25 Pradini Yuliasari 3 4 3 3 4 68
26 Raynor Maulana 3 4 4 3 4 72
27 Renny Mardiah 3 4 3 3 4 68
28 Rijal Astian Hadly 3 2 2 3 3 52
29 Rizki Pratama. S 4 3 3 3 4 68
30 Rosyid Nur Iman 3 3 3 4 4 68
31 Selly Octaviani 3 3 3 4 4 68
32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 4 3 3 4 4 72
33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 3 4 3 3 4 68
34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 3 4 4 4 76
35 Wahyu Saputro 3 3 2 3 2 52
36 Winda Pratiwi 3 3 3 3 4 64
37 Yesi Adila 3 3 3 3 4 64
38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 3 2 2 2 2 44
Total 2376
Student who pass the KKM
46

From the table above, the writer could calculates the mean of
students score, the percentage of the students who pass the minimal
mastery level criterion (KKM), and the improvement of students score
in speaking from the pre-test to the first post-test.
The mean score derived from the following formula:
X

=
2376
38

X

= 62.52
Then, to know the class percentage that passed the minimal
mastery level criterion Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) the writer
used the following formula:
P =
F
N
x100%

P =
16
38
x100%

P = 42.1%
Finally, to know whether students improve their score or not the
writer used the following formula:

% 100
1


y
y y

% 100
63 . 46
63 . 46 52 . 62



% 07 . 34

So, based on the calculation, the writer knew that the mean of
students at first cycle is 62.52. The improvement of students score of
speaking from pre-test to post-test is 34.07%, and the improvement is
still not enough yet, since the target of action success was 75% passed
the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) students, here the students
who passed the minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) only sixteen or
42.1%.
47



2. The Result of Post Test II
To know the result of students speaking of second post-test we can
see from the table here:

Table 4.4
Students 2
nd
Post Test Score
No Name Pron Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre Score
1 Adinda Chaerunissa 4 3 4 4 3 72
2 Adis Risjayanto 4 4 3 3 3 68
3 Ahmad Rosadi 4 3 4 3 3 68
4 Andreas Vido Novian 4 3 4 3 3 68
5 Apri Yandi Ahmat.S 3 3 3 2 3 56
6 Arief Priambodo 3 3 3 3 2 56
7 Astatantica Belly. S 4 4 4 4 4 80
8 Ayu Randri Vella.W 4 3 4 3 3 68
9 Bagas Pebrianja 3 3 3 2 2 52
10 Baskoro Hary.W 3 4 3 2 2 56
11 Deni Muhammad 4 3 4 4 3 72
12 Dita Ryani 4 4 4 3 3 72
13 Elisa Maharani. R 4 3 4 3 3 68
14 Faisal Erpan. S 3 3 3 2 2 52
15 Gadis Anggia Citra.N 4 4 4 4 3 76
16 Halwiyah Oktavia 4 4 3 3 3 68
17 Hendra Gunawan 4 4 3 3 4 72
18 Humaira Kusuma. A 4 4 4 4 4 80
19 Marhaeni Riska. H 4 4 4 4 4 80
20 Mochamad Rifqi 4 3 4 4 3 72
21 Muchamat Suryanto 4 4 3 3 3 68
22 Muhammad Bramantyo 4 3 3 3 4 68
23 Muhammad Iqbal 4 4 3 3 3 68
24 Nina Richi Karlina 4 4 4 3 3 72
25 Pradini Yuliasari 4 4 3 3 4 72
26 Raynor Maulana 4 4 4 4 4 80
27 Renny Mardiah 4 4 4 4 4 80
28 Rijal Astian Hadly 3 3 4 3 4 68
29 Rizki Pratama. S 4 4 4 4 3 76
30 Rosyid Nur Iman 3 4 4 3 3 68
31 Selly Octaviani 4 3 4 3 3 68
32 Siti Aisah Oktavianti 4 4 4 3 4 76
33 Sulastri Ayu Lestari 4 4 3 3 3 68
34 Vinadwirani Vicom. F 4 4 4 4 4 80
35 Wahyu Saputro 3 4 3 3 4 68
36 Winda Pratiwi 3 4 4 3 3 68
48

37 Yesi Adila 3 3 4 3 4 68
38 Yudha Ari Setyawan 3 3 3 2 3 56
Total 2628
Student who pass the KKM
At the second cycle of CAR, the writer calculated mean of
students score, the percentage of the students who pass the Minimum
Mastery Criterion (KKM), and the improvement of students score in
speaking from the pre-test to the second post-test.
First, calculating the mean of students in the second post-test result:
X

=
2628
38
= 69.15
Second, the percentage of students who pass the Minimum Mastery
Criterion (KKM):
F
P = X 100%
N

32
P = X 100%
38

= 84.21%

Third, the students score improvement from the pre-test to the
second post-test:
% 100
2


y
y y

% 100
63 . 46
63 . 46 15 . 69



% 29 . 48

From the calculation, the writer found that the mean of the
students second post-test result is 69.15, it also showed that thirty two
students (84.21%) who passed the minimal mastery level criterion
(KKM). Furthermore the whole of students score mean improvement
49



from the pre test to second post-test would be 48.29%. So, it means the
action has met the requirement of action success which was 75% students
passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion (KKM) in the score of 65. In this
case, those scores showed the successful of the classroom action research
toward students of first grade of SMPN 251.
From all the calculation above, the writer could interpret the result
after the implementation of Classroom Action Research from cycle I up
to cycle II. It could be seen from the result of pre-test, post-test I and
post-test II. Here the writer describes the result from pre-test, post-test I
and post-test II through diagram below:

Figure 4.2
Students Score mean improvement














0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
pre-test 1st Post-test 2nd Post-test
46.63
62.5
69.15
50



Figure 4.3
Students score class percentage who passed KKM

Before the implementation of role play technique in developing
students speaking ability, the writer gained the data from the result of
pre-test. In the pre-test, the mean score of the class before
implementation the action was 46.63. Furthermore, the writer calculated
the percentage of students speaking score in order to know the students
who pass the KKM. In pre-test, it is could be seen, the percentage which
passed the KKM was about 21.05%. It means there are eight students
who passed the KMM (65) and there are thirty students who get the score
below the KKM.
So, after the writer calculated the result of pre-test, the writer
conducted action research that applying the role play technique in
improving students speaking ability then the writer identified and
calculated the result of post-test 1. The mean score of students in post-
test 1 is 62.52. It means the students improvement was 15.89 (62.52
46.63) or 34.07%. Furthermore, the percentage of student who passed the
KKM is 42.1%. It is showed there were sixteen students who passed the
KKM and there are twenty two students were below the KKM.
0,00%
20,00%
40,00%
60,00%
80,00%
100,00%
pre-test 1st Cycle 2nd Cycle
21.05%
42.1%
84.21%
51



Next, after the writer conducted the cycle 2, she does post-test 2 in
order to know the improvement students speaking ability in cycle 2. The
mean score of students in post-test 2 is 69.15, and the improving
students score from post-test 1 to post-test 2 is 6.63 (69.15-62.52).
Furthermore, it can be seen that the improvement students speaking
ability from pre-test, to post test 2 is 22.52 (69.15- 46.63) or 48.29%.
Then, from the percentage of the students who passed the KKM in post-
test 2 is 84.21%, there were thirty two students who passed the KKM and
six students are below the KKM, so it has met a criterion of the action
success.

3. The Result of Questionnaire
Based on the result of questionnaire after the implementation of
CAR, the writer likes to give some explanations: from the first statement
they are only 6 (15.78%) students did not feel satisfied with their score
and 32 (84.21%) students who feel satisfied. The statement number 2
showed 30 (78.94%) students who like to learn English speaking and 8
(21.05%) students did not like to learn English speaking. Relating to the
statement number 3, only 2 (5.26%) students did not feel motivated in
learning English speaking, it means that 36 (94.73%) students who feel
motivated in learning English speaking. In statement number 4, only 9
(23.68%) students feel difficult in speaking English and 29 (76.31%)
students feel easy in speaking English. Then, in the statement number 5,
36 (94.73%) students said that the sentences were thought is suitable in
their daily life, and 2 (5.26%) students said the sentences were thought
did not suitable in their daily life. The response for the statement number
6 showed that 35 (92.10%) students used their opportunity to ask the
question, and only 3 (7.89%) students did not use their opportunity to ask
the question. In the statement number 7 to 8, showed that 38 (100%)
students feel that the teacher gave opportunity to the students to do an
exercise in English speaking especially in giving interpersonal response,
52

and 38 (100%) students usual used English language in speaking class.
For the statement number 9, 36 (94.73%) students felt their speaking
ability in giving interpersonal response was better than before the
implementation of role play technique, and only 2 (5.26%) students did
not felt better. The last statment showed that 38 (100%) students thinks
role play technique could help the students in learning English speaking.
(See appendix for detail result of questioner)
Related to the result of questionnaire after implementation of role
play activity it can be concluded that most of the students gave a positive
response in their speaking teaching-learning process, so from all the data
above, it shows that applying role play technique can develop students
speaking ability significantly, besides the students also became more
actively in teaching learning process and the writer can stop the cycle.

4. The Result of Interview
Unstructured interview was conducted on Thursday, March 3
rd

2011. This interview did after finishing the second cycle. Based on the
teacher answer within the interview, that the general students conditions
in speaking class during implementing the action were better than before.
In this sense, they looked enthusiast and felt easier to speak using role
play technique. The students participation was good because the activity
in the classroom involved the students. The teacher also said that role
play was a good technique in teaching speaking. It could be an effective
way to help the students speaking. Beside it might be able to develop the
students speaking ability, it also could be an alternative strategy and
could motivate the English teacher to use it. (See appendix for detail
result of interview)
From the explanation above, it could be drawn the general
conclusion from the post interview that the teacher gave a positive
response toward the implementation of role play technique.



53








CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
Based on the result of data analysis, the writer inferred that teaching
English by using role play can improve students speaking ability. It can be
proved through several data such as; pre-test and post-test. The result of pre-test
shows that the students mean score is only 46.63, and in post-test 1 the students
mean score is 62.52, and in post-test 2 the students mean score is 69.15 with
84.21%, students who passed the KKM, so it was showed the significant
improvement in teaching speaking by using role play technique. Moreover by
implementing role play in teaching speaking the students have chance to be active
and cooperative in speaking activity, role play has various activities that can be
effective to teach students in big class, it is supported from the observation and
questionnaire data.







54

B. Suggestion
The writer would like to give some suggestions for teachers and the
studens. First, that the English teachers could implement the role play technique
as an alternative strategy in teaching speaking. Second, it is recommended that the
students use role play technique as one of their learning strategies to practice and
improve their speaking ability in giving interpersonal response which can be done
in their extracurricular activities.


55
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