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Definition and concept of industrial relations: Industrial Relations or Labour relations, is an expression used not only for relationships

between employers and Trade Unions, but also for those involving overnment with the aim of defining policies, facing labour problems! "s Industrial Relations definition we can accept the concept of the outfit of:
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Rules for employment management% 'ethods defining those rules% Typology of actors )both employers and wor*ers organisations and representatives, but also +tate and institutional bodies$% Interaction processes between these entities!

'any authors have -uoted various definitions of Industrial Relations! +ome of the oft -uoted definitions .The term Industrial relations explains the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union/employer relationship01 V. Agnihotri. Industrial relations are broadly concerned with bargaining between employers and trade union on wages and other terms of employment! The day/to/day relations within a plant also constitute one of the important elements and impinge on the broader aspects of industrial relations0 1 2!3 4umar .Industrial relation is an art of living together for the purpose of production0 1 5!6enry

The sub7ect of industrial relations deal with certain regulated and institutionali8ed relationship in industry0 1 "llan 9landers! The field of industrial relations include the study of wor*ers and their trade unions, management, employers: association and state institutions concerned with the regulation of employment0 1 6!" 2legg ;ature of industrial Relations: Industrial relations are concerned with the organisation and practice of multi/pronged relationship between the wor*ers and the union in an industrial enterprise! +uch relationships may be either in organised form or unorganised plants! Industrial relation do not function in a vacuum but multi/ dimensional in nature and are conditioned with three determinants )i$ Institutional factors )ii$ <conomic factors )iii$ Technological 9actors! )i$ Under institutional factors are included items such as state policy, labour laws, voluntary codes, collective agreements, labourers: unions and employers: organisation, social institution li*e the community, caste, 7oint family, creed, system of beliefs, etc, attitudes of wor*, systems of power status, relative nearness to the centers of power% motivation and influence and industrial relations! )ii$ Under economic factors are included economic organisation )socialist, capitalist, communist, individual ownership, company ownership,

government ownership$ power of labour and employers, the nature and composition of the labour force and the sources of supply and demand in the labour mar*et! )iii$ Under technological factors come the techni-ues of production, moderni8ation and rationalisation schemes, capital structures etc! The development of industrial relations is not due to any one single factor but rather been largely determined by the conditions existing at the eve of the industrial revolution in the =estern <urope, and the social economic and political situation available in different locations! The changes which too* place, since earlier days, did not follow a uniform pattern in different countries but they reflected such economic and social forces which ad long times shaped the principle and practices of the industrial relations in the western countries! 9rom the earliest phase of industriali8ation from which the wor*ers formerly wor*ing with their own tools entered into power driven factories, owned by owners: to minimi8ation of brea*down due to industrial conflicts of later state and further to industrial peace and hence to human relations approach to raise productivity in an democracy based on labour partnerships not only for sharing the profits but of managerial decisions themselves has been a long 7ourney indeed! +cope of industrial Relations: The concept of industrial relation has a very wide meaning and connotation! It means that the employer/employee

relationship confines itself to the relationship that emerges out of the day/to/day association of the management and the labour! In its wider sense, industrial relations include the relationship between employers in the course of running an industry and may pro7ect it to spheres which may transgress to the areas of -uality control, 'ar*eting, price fixation and disposition of profits among others! "n industry is a social world in miniature! "ssociations of various persons, wor*men, supervisory staff, management and employer in industry create industrial relationships! This affects the economic, social and political life of the whole community! Thus, industrial life creates a series of social relationship which regulate the relations and wor*ing of not only wor*men and management but also of community and industry! Industrial relations are inherent in an industrial life: a$ labour relations: Relations between union/ management)"lso called Labour/management relations$ b$ <mployer/employee relations: relations between 'anagement and employee c$ roup Relations: Relations between various groups of wor*men d$ 2ommunity or public relations: Relations between industry and society! >b7ectives of Industrial Relations:

Industrial Relations are a bonding between the employee and employer! It also adds many other relations which are chain of previous relations! +o the motto of any industry should be sustaining good relationships between the employer and employee! ?rimary ob7ective should be to bring about good and healthy relationship between two partners in the industry! "s per 4ir*aldy .The state of industrial relations in a country is intimately connected with the form of its political government and the ob7ectives of an industrial organisation may change from economic to political ends0 Labour management committees have recognised certain fundamental principles as ob7ectives of social policy in governing industrial relation: ood labour management relations depend on employers and trade unions being able to deal with their mutual problems freely, independently and responsibly! The trade unions and employers and their organisation are desirous of resolving their problems through collective bargaining though in resolving such matters the assistance of appropriate government agencies may be necessary in public interest, collective bargaining, therefore is the corner stone of the good relations and hence the legislative framewor* of industrial relations should aid the maximum use of their process mutual accommodation! The wor*ers and employers organisation should be desirous of associating with the government agencies in

consideration of the general public, social and economic measures affecting employers and wor*ers relations!