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Christian Ethics or Moral Theology the part of theology whose object is the foundations, attitudes, and guidelines which

h enable a person to attain to his or her final goal Essential Tasks of Moral Theology 1. ethics of doing the right and good actions Moral theology is commonly defined as that part of theology which studies the guidelines a person must follow to attain his or her final goal in the light of Christian faith and of reason. Talk of guidelines causes most people to think directly of the moral norms which ought to be followed for this purpose. The elaboration of such norms is an essential task of moral theology. 2. ethics of being concerned with the type of person a human being and a Christian ought to be focuses on the formation of character, patterns of actions, the right vision of life, the basic values and convictions which move a person to do what he or she believes to be right

In its method, moral theology has always adhered to a methodological pluralism. The use of one method, which is methodological monism, is insufficient as likewise concluded by contemporary scholars and rather opt for a plurality of argumentations converging in one evidence. Division of Moral Theology 1. General Moral Theology treats of the general presuppositions of the moral act and the qualities with which every action must be endowed in order that it may contribute to mans final goal Modern man not only wants to hear what is to be done, but also wants to know why it has to be done. Themes to be dealt with: Nature of morality and its ultimate end The revealed, natural and human law as the objective norms of morality Conscience as the subjective norm Moral identity and fundamental option The realization of the moral value in human acts Sin as the morally bad action Conversion, virtue, and perfection in holiness 2. Special Moral Theology treats of the human behaviour in the different spheres and situations of human life Two Main Parts a. Man deals with responsibility in the religious realm. On the religious realm, it discusses the divine virtues of faith, hope and charity, the nature of divine worship and the different forms of worship. b. Man deals with his responsibility towards the created world. On the created world, it treats the virtues of love of neighbour and justice; bodily life and health; honour, fidelity and truth; sexuality and marriage; community life in family, state and Church; work, property and social economy; responsible care for creation. Source: Sparks, Richard C. (1996). Contemporary Christian Morality: Real Questions, Candid Responses. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company.

Two Postulates or Presuppositions of Moral Theology 1. Man possesses freedom of will. Men experience themselves not merely as instruments in the hands of higher forces, but as creative agents, able to choose among alternatives and capable of self-determination. 2. Man is accountable to an ultimate value or authority, which can claim his unconditional obedience. Only on this condition is it possible to speak of moral duties in the strict sense which bind a person in conscience and which he or she cannot refuse to obey without becoming guilty. From the commitment to this supreme value, human life also receives its ultimate meaning at the same time. Supreme Value or Authority It does not necessarily have to be thought in terms of the Christian notion of God but may be conceived in quite different terms of the images and even in only implicit forms. It will always be a reality vested with absolute and therefore divine character. The affirmation and recognition of this reality ultimately takes place in an act of faith, even if only an implicit one.

Christian Morality It is about who we are since morality is about persons. It is about personal character and virtue as clearly recognized by Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas centuries ago. It only exists in Christian persons who necessarily are persons of their culture and history. The worldview of the persons in whose lives this specific Christian morality is found is necessarily also shaped by the culturalhistorical influences of their day. Worldview bound to influence our whole approach to life results from our personal interaction with a whole series of interlocking influences, cultural, religious, historical, familial, etc. Christian Worldview bound up with a belief in Gods saving action in history, culminating in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, and continuing down through the centuries in the Spirit-inspired life and memory of the Church, as we listen again to or Judeo-Christian narratives and stories and interpret life through a liturgy rich in symbols Center of Christian Worldview The belief the knowledge of God, awareness of him, friendship with him is the supreme good. Attention to this might well modify ones attitude to goods which a non believer regards as important. Source: Kelly, Kevin T. (1993). New Directions in Moral Theology: The Challenge of Being Human. New York: Cassell Publishers Limited.

Christian Morality It has something to do with living life well as in living a good life, being an upright person, a man or a woman or a child of good character. It is ones values, choices, and actions. Who or what does one from the definition entail? 1. Individual Everyone has his or her set of values or moral standards by which to live. According to these values, you make choices and act on them. Community Each of us belongs to a variety of groups or communities, each with its own set of values, its own code of proper behavior. Each of these groups has its own moral code, its own spoken or unspoken, written or merely intuited sense of what is right and what is wrong for people who belong to that community.

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Source: Peschke, Karl H. (2004). Christian Ethics: Moral Theology in the light of Vatican II. Philippines: Logos Publication, Incorporation.