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CIRCLY 5 User Manual MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd. P.O. Box 2114, Richmond South, Vic.

, 3121 Australia Tel.:(03) 9427 1085 Intl. +613 9427 1085 Fax:(03) 9428 1197 Intl. +613 9428 1197 Email: mincad@mincad.com.au Web: http://www.mincad.com.au January 2004 MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd. CIRCLY 5 User Manual MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd. P.O. Box 2114, Richmond South, Vic., 3121 Australia Tel.:(03) 9427 1085 Intl. +613 9427 1085 Fax:(03) 9428 1197 Intl. +613 9428 1197 Email: mincad@mincad.com.au Web: http://www.mincad.com.au January 2004 MINCAD Systems Pty. Ltd.

Contents Summary CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement Introduction Overview ....................................................................... ................................................................7 Special Features for Pavement Engineering ...................................... ...........................................8 Cumulative Damage Concept....................................................... .......................................8 Material performance ........................................................... ................................................9 Traffic and Loading ............................................................ ................................................10 Wheel Loadings ................................................................. ................................................10 Automatic thickness design ..................................................... ..........................................10 ESA Multipliers................................................................. ..................................................10 Methods for handling Damage Pulses.............................................. .................................10 Overview of User Interface Introduction.................................................................... ..............................................................11 Creating, Opening and Saving Files ............................................. ...............................................12 Creating and Editing Input Data................................................. ..................................................12 Database Approach .............................................................. .............................................13 Running CIRCLY32 Analysis and Plotting Results.................................. ....................................13 Run Analysis ................................................................... ...................................................13 Plot Results.................................................................... ....................................................13 Options ........................................................................ ................................................................13 What's New in Version 5.0 Overview ....................................................................... ..............................................................15 Support of Austroads 2004 Pavement Design Guide ................................ ..................................15 New "built-in" Graphics Engine ................................................. ...................................................16 Cost Calculation ............................................................... ............................................................18 Automatic Parametric Analysis ..................................................

..................................................19 How to Start Using CIRCLY Getting Started: Assembling and Running a Job .................................. .......................................21 Global Coordinate System ....................................................... ....................................................28 Alternative Calculation Options Overview ....................................................................... ..............................................................31 Damage Calculation Details...................................................... ...................................................31 Thickness Design Capability..................................................... ...................................................33 Calculate Selected Results at User-defined z-Values ............................ .....................................34

Contents How to Use Advanced Features Cost Calculation ............................................................... ............................................................37 Calculation of Total Cost....................................................... .............................................37 Material Costs ................................................................. ...................................................38 Automatic Parametric Analysis .................................................. ..................................................39 Example Cost Optimization ........................................................ ...............................................41 How to Modify the Databases Introduction.................................................................... ..............................................................47 Units........................................................................... .......................................................47 Sign Convention................................................................. ................................................48 Overview of Database Approach .................................................. .....................................49 The "Layered System" and "Materials" Databases.................................. ....................................50 Overview of Layered System and Material Properties ............................. .........................50 Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in road pavement materials ....................... .......................51 Creating a new Layered System................................................... .....................................52 Defining the Layer properties................................................... ..........................................53 Duplicating a Layered System ................................................... ........................................54 Adding a new Elastic Material................................................... .........................................55 Adding a new Performance Criterion.............................................. ...................................57 Adding a new Material Type ..................................................... .........................................59 The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum" Databases ................................... .......................................60 Introduction ................................................................... .....................................................60 Adding a new Traffic Spectrum................................................... .......................................60 Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum.................................................. .........................................61 Coordinate System for Loads ....................................................

........................................62 Adding a new Load Group (i.e., a Vehicle or Axle Group)......................... ........................63 Defining Load Locations (i.e., Wheel positions)................................. ................................65 Important Note about Axle Locations............................................. ....................................65 Important Note about Damage Pulses.............................................. .................................67 Coordinates for Results......................................................... .......................................................69 Appendices Overview of Austroads 2004 Features Model of Standard Axle.......................................................... ............................................74 Project Reliability ............................................................ ...................................................75 Material Properties............................................................. ................................................75 How to Use New Austroads 2004 Features Modelling the Standard Axle..................................................... .........................................79 How to Use Project Reliability.................................................. ..........................................80 Changes to Materials ........................................................... ..............................................81 Austroads 2004 Examples......................................................... ........................................82 References...................................................................... ............................................................83

Summary CIRCLY software is for the mechanistic analysis and design of road pavements. CI RCLY uses state-of-the-art material properties and performance models and is continuo usly being developed and extended. The first mainframe version of CIRCLY was released in 19 77 and the current Windows version is Version 5. It is an integral component of the Aus troads Pavement Design Guide (Austroads, 1992, 2004) that is widely used in Australia a nd New Zealand. The system calculates the cumulative damage induced by a traffic spectr um consisting of any combination of user-specified vehicle types and load configura tions. As well as using the usual 'equivalent' single wheel and axle load approximations, optionally the contribution of each vehicle/load configuration can be explicitly analysed. Othe r geotechnical applications, such as foundation engineering and settlement analysis, can also b e analysed using CIRCLY. A Parametric Analysis feature can loop through a range of thicknesses for one or two layers, while simultaneously designing the thickness of another layer. This feature will optimise up to three layers. Combining this with a Cost Analysis feature, allows for fine-tunin g of layer thicknesses to minimize construction and maintenance costs. CIRCLY has many other powerful features, including selection of: .. cross-anisotropic and isotropic material properties; .. fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth) layer interfaces; .. a comprehensive range of load types, including vertical, horizontal, torsional, etc.; .. non-uniform surface contact stress distributions; and .. automatic sub-layering of unbound granular materials.

CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement CIRCLY (c) Mincad Systems Pty Ltd ABN 27 006 782 832. All rights Reserved. Copyright This manual is copyright and may not be copied, photocopied, reproduce d, translated or reduced to any electronic medium or machine readable form, in whol e or part, without the prior written consent of Mincad Systems. This documentation is licensed and sold pursuant to the terms and conditions of the CIRCLY End User Licence Agreement, which appears under the CIRCLY "About" dialogue box which provides (in part). 21.Exclusions and Limitation of Liability 21.1 To the maximum extent permitted by law all warranties whether express, impl ied, statutory or otherwise, relating in any way to the subject matter of this Agreem ent or to this Agreement generally, are excluded. Where legislation implies in this Agreement a ny condition or warranty and that legislation avoids or prohibits provisions in a c ontract excluding or modifying the application of or the exercise of or liability under such term, such term shall be deemed to be included in this Agreement. However, the liability of Mincad Systems for any breach of such term shall be limited, at the option of Mincad Sy stems, to any one or more of the following: if the breach related to goods: the replacemen t of the goods or the supply of equivalent goods; the repair of such goods; the payment o f the cost of replacing the goods or of acquiring equivalent goods; or the payment of the cost of having the goods repaired; and if the breach relates to services the supplying of the s ervices again; or the payment of the cost of having the services supplied again. 21.2 To the maximum extent permitted by law and subject only subject only to the warranties and remedies set out in Clause 12 and Sub-clause 21.1, Mincad Systems shall not be under any liability (contractual, tortious or otherwise) to Customer in respect of any loss or damage (including, without limitation, consequential loss or damage) howsoever caused, which may be suffered or incurred or which may arise directly or indirectly in respect to the supply of goods or services pursuant to this Agreement or the act, failure or omission of Mincad Systems. Customer warrants that it has not relied on any representation made by Mincad Sy stems or upon any descriptions or illustrations or specifications contained in any docume nt including any catalogues or publicity material produced by Mincad Systems.

22. Acknowledgement 22.1 Customer acknowledges and agrees that: (a) pavement design and engineering is a complex area and the CIRCLY is not desi gned as a substitute in any way for professional advice; (b) CIRCLY is supplied with certain operating instructions and a failure to foll ow these instructions carefully could result in erroneous data being produced by CIRCLY;

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide (c) Whilst CIRCLY may be used by persons without a detailed knowledge of compute rs, CIRCLY is designed to be used by persons who have a detailed knowledge of, witho ut limitation: (i) the applicable engineering standards for paving and concrete; and (ii) All appropriate legislation and other relevant instruments, including, with out limitation the relevant industry recognised engineering design guides; (d) It shall manually check all results provided by CIRCLY for any anomalies; an d (e) It shall obtain professional advice in relation to all results provided by C IRCLY. 22.2 CIRCLY is licensed on the basis set out in this Agreement on the understand ing that to the extent permitted by law Mincad Systems is not responsible for the results of any actions taken, either by Customer or a third party relying on figures supplied or not su pplied by CIRCLY. 23. Indemnity Customer warrants that any materials supplied to Mincad Systems by Customer do n ot infringe Intellectual Property Right of any person. To the extent permitted by law, Customer shall fully indemnify and keep indemnif ied Mincad Systems, its officers, employees and agents, against any loss, costs, expenses, demands, taxes or liability whether direct or indirect arising out of: (a) use of CIRCLY; (b) a breach of this agreement by Customer; or (c) any wilful, unlawful or negligent act or omission of Customer.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction Overview CIRCLY is a powerful package that analyses a comprehensive range of load types a cting on layered elastic systems. CIRCLY has special features for the convenient mechanis tic analysis and design of pavements using state-of-the-art material properties and performance models. CIRCLY is an integral component of the Austroads Pavement Design Guide (Austroads 1992, 2004) that is widely used in Australia and New Zealand. The sys tem calculates the cumulative damage induced by a traffic spectrum consisting of any combination of vehicle types and load configurations. Because the contribution o f each vehicle/load configuration can be explicitly considered, it is not necessary to approximate multi-wheel configurations by equivalent single loads. CIRCLY can also be used for other geotechnical applications such as foundation engineering and settlement analysis . CIRCLY has a user-friendly menu-driven interface that runs under Microsoft Windo ws. Databases are used for material properties and loadings, thus eliminating the ne ed to constantly re-key information. Typical runs take less than a second on Pentium PC s. Results can be obtained in tabular form or as report-quality plots on any printe r or plotter supported by Microsoft Windows. Results can be easily exported to other applicat ion packages such as spreadsheets for further processing. In many soil and rock engineering problems, loads are applied to the horizontal, or near horizontal, surface of natural or man-made stratified deposits. CIRCLY calculate s the stresses, strains and displacements that are developed in these systems, permitt ing the rational assessment of ultimate stability and the behaviour under working loads. As well as the usual isotropic properties, cross-anisotropic material properties can also be considered. A cross-anisotropic material is assumed to have a vertical axis of s ymmetry. Anisotropies of this type have been observed in soil and rock deposits due to pr ocesses involved in their formation. The interfaces between the layers can be either ful ly continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth), or a combination of both types. In practice, loads may be applied to soil or rock pavement layers in the form of

vertical wheel loads, horizontal wheel loads due to traction and braking, torsional wheel loads due to cornering, and the "gripping" load developed by pneumatic tyres on pavements. In addition, foundation loads on footings, piers and rafts may be applied as vertical forces, horizontal forces, moments about horizontal axes or contact stresses due to foundation roug hness. The program allows all of these load types to be simulated for a circular loaded shape. CIRCLY can also model non-uniform contact stress distributions. CIRCLY is based on integral transform techniques and offers significant advantag es over other linear elastic analysis techniques, such as the finite element method. Inp ut data for the program is much simpler than that required for most finite element programs. For most problems the program uses less computer time than a finite element program.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide This Australian designed system has been developed by the Melbourne company, MIN CAD Systems. It has been in regular use in Australia and worldwide for more than two decades, proving its worth in thousands of design applications. CIRCLY had its genesis in software developed at CSIRO for relatively simple loading cases (Harrison, Wardle and Ger rard 1972). CIRCLY was first released in 1977 and handled polynomial type radial vari ations in contact stress and multiple loads which provide a much closer representation of the actual loading conditions (Wardle 1977). CIRCLY was commercialised in 1988 by MINCAD Systems. A limited release of the fi rst Windows version (Version 2.4) was made in early 1996. Version 3.0 was released i n late 1996 and included many improvements, including a major re-write of the integrati on algorithms and automatic sub-layer generation for granular materials. Version 4. 0 was released in early 1999 and extended the software to include an automatic thickne ss design capability. Version 4.1 was released in early 2003. Version 5.0 was released in early 2004. For an overview of the new features of Version 5.0 see What's New in Version 5.0 (see "Overview" on page 15) Special Features for PavementEngineering CIRCLY has many features to facilitate pavement analysis and design. Cumulative Damage Concept The system explicitly accumulates the contribution from each loading in the traf fic spectrum at each analysis point by using Miner's hypothesis. The damage factor for the ith loading is defined as the number of repetitions (ni) of a given response parameter divided by the allowable repetitions (Ni) of the response parameter that would cause failure. The Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF) for the parameter is given by summing the damage factors over all the loadings in the traffic spectrum: n Cumulative Damage =. i Ni The system is presumed to have reached its design life when the cumulative damag e reaches 1.0. If the cumulative damage is less than 1.0 the system has excess cap acity and

the cumulative damage represents the proportion of life consumed. If the cumulat ive damage is greater than 1.0 the system is predicted to fail before all of the desig n traffic has been applied. The procedure takes account of: .. the design repetitions of each vehicle/load condition; and .. the material performance properties used in the design model. This approach allows analyses to be conducted by directly using a mix of vehicle or axle types. It is not necessary to approximate passes of different vehicles or axles to passes of an equivalent standard load.

Chapter 1 Introduction The current version of the software uses the cumulative damage concept to sum th e damage from multiple vehicle/load cases for one set of layered system material properti es. The figure below is a sample cumulative damage plot produced by CIRCLY. CIRCLY generates a file that can be read by most spreadsheet and technical graphics programs. Material performance Generally most performance models may be represented graphically by a plot of to lerable strain versus load repetitions (generally by a straight line of 'best fit' on a log-log plot). CIRCLY represents models in the form: kb .. N = .. e.. where N is the predicted life (repetitions) k is a material constant b is the damage exponent of the material e is the induced strain (dimensionless strain) Log-log relationships can be readily converted to the above form. CIRCLY is supplied with a comprehensive range of published performance models. Y ou can use your own performance equations by specifying values for k and b and the particul ar component to be used, for example vertical strain, vertical deflection, maximum tensile strain, etc.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Traffic and Loading You define the anticipated repetitions over the design period for each vehicle o r axle group and 'load case'. The 'load case' allows the loading for a given vehicle or axle group to be treat ed in more detail if required. Wheel Loadings The load on each wheel is defined by tyre contact radius and contact pressure (g enerally assumed to be the tyre inflation pressure). Although the loads are usually vertical, CIRCLY can compute results from non-ver tical loads such as braking and cornering loads. Automatic thickness design You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. This pro cedure is very fast and takes only a few seconds on a Pentium PC. For further details see Thickness Design Capability (on page 33). ESA Multipliers For design methods such as Austroads that use an equivalent standard wheel appro ach, the traffic expressed in ESAs must be multiplied by a factor that depends on each ma terial type. You can specify these multipliers (e.g. 1.1, 10) for each material type. For fur ther details see Damage Calculation Details (on page 31). Methods for handling Damage Pulses The damage that a given point in the pavement will experience during the passage of a multiple axle primarily depends on the depth below the road surface. The two ext remes of behaviour are .. multiple distinct pulses resulting from each axle, for shallow depths; and .. a single pulse that reflects the overall loading on the axle group, for large de pths. CIRCLY lets you specify the method to be used to calculate the damage. Further d etails are given in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 67).

11 CHAPTER 2 Overview of User Interface Introduction CIRCLY has a standard format Microsoft Windows menu, but most commands can be accessed directly from the toolbar as shown below:

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Creating, Opening and Saving Files You supply a 'Jobname' to use as the basis for naming all of the files associate d with a 'job' or analysis. If the job name is Jobname the following files are used Jobname.cls CIRCLY data file- this is used to save the details of your job. All the other files are generated automatically by the system: Jobname.cli CIRCLY32 input data file Jobname.clo CIRCLY32 'printable' results file Jobname.prn CIRCLY32 raw results file (i.e., strains, etc.) Jobname.dam CIRCLY32 cumulative damage results file (for plotting) Jobname.dmx CIRCLY32 results summary file (damage factors and critical strains) All of these files are text files that can be opened by standard text editors. Three icons on the toolbar allow you to create, open and save job files. Icon Description Closes the current job, prompting you to save any changes; then creates a new job. Closes the current job, prompting you to save any changes; then opens an existing job. Updates the current job file. You can also save your job under a different name by clicking on the File Menu, then clickingSave As. Creating and Editing Input Data The following seven icons allow you to create and modify your input data. Each i con corresponds to one of the main groups of data necessary to fully define a Job.

Chapter 2 Overview of User Interface Database Approach Some of the input data items are entered using very simple input forms. Most of the input data is handled using a relational database approach. This is designed to elimin ate re-entry of data for design loads and material properties. You can tailor each of the dat abases to contain specific sets of regularly used data. The relational database approach gives maximum flexibility in data preparation. For example, the data for a commonly used material need only be entered into the sys tem once. If this data is subsequently modified, all Layered systems that use that materia l and subsequently all Jobs that use those layered systems will automatically access t he modified material properties. Running CIRCLY32 Analysis andPlotting Results Run Analysis This invokes the CIRCLY32 analysis. During a long analysis you can switch to ano ther application (CIRCLY will continue to run at a lower priority using Microsoft Win dows multitasking). Plot Results Usually, this command will produce a graph of the damage contribution from each vehicle type and the overall total (damage contribution from all the traffic). Alternatively, as an option you can produce a graph of a selected displacement, stress or strain component at your chosen Z-values (i.e., vertical distances/depths below the surface of the pavement) and results can be plotted for a selected displacement, stress or strain component. Options The Options screen allows specification of the following directory: .. location for all data files (Defaults to the same directory that CIRCLY has been installed.)

CHAPTER 3 What's New in Version 5.0 Overview You will find many improvements in CIRCLY 5.0 if you have used earlier versions such as CIRCLY 4.0 or 4.1. Latest improvements include new features to make designing pavements easier, more transparent and more efficient. This section gives a quick overview of the new and improved features in CIRCLY 5 .0. Crossreferences to the rest of the manual show you where to look for information on t hese topics. Support of Austroads 2004Pavement Design Guide The Austroads Pavement Design Guide (the full title is Pavement Design - A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements) was first published in 1992 (Austroads 1992 ). The Guide has undergone a major re-write over the last few years. The 2001 Draft (Au stroads 2001) was the most recent published version at the time of writing this manual. The technical content of the new Guide was finalized in June 2003 and that the Guide is expected to be published in the first quarter of 2004. In what follows, the new Guide wil l be referred to as the 2004 Guide. Briefly, CIRCLY 5.0 implements the following changed features in the Guide: .. Standard Axle modelled in full (Austroads 1992 uses only one side or half the ax le) .. Project Reliability as chosen by the designer; .. Changed methodology for sub-layering of unbound granular material; .. Introduction of Select Fill as a particular type of unbound granular material; .. Changed Subgrade Performance model for subgrade materials. These changes are outlined in more detail in Overview of Austroads 2004 Features (on page 73). Detailed instructions on how to use the new features are given in How to Use New Austroads 2004 Features (on page 79).

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide New "built-in" Graphics Engine CIRCLY now uses its own "built-in" Graphics Engine to create on-screen graphics almost instantaneously. The graphics can be customized, exported and printed. In most c ases, results for different layers or Z-depths in a layered system can be created with out reanalysing the system. Here is a sample Cumulative Damage graph: You can choose a graph for a different layer (without re-analysing the system):

Chapter 3 What's New in Version 5.0 17 Here is a sample "Three-dimensional" graph of vertical displacement: You can customize the graph via the context-sensitive graph menu that drops down when you right click with the mouse pointer anywhere on the graph. Click on Customizat ion Dialog to customize the graph:

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide This lets you customize many of the graph parameters such as Minimum and Maximum axis values, etc. Cost Calculation The unit costs for the materials laid and constructed in the layers can be speci fied using a combination of both a volumetric (or weight) component and an areal component. T he areal component lets you take account of costs that are primarily a function of area, such as surface treatments, subgrade stabilization and the like. The areal component can also be used in circumstances where the relationship between total layer cost and thickn ess has a non-zero component for zero thickness.

Chapter 3 What's New in Version 5.0 Automatic Parametric Analysis Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thi cknesses for one or two nominated layers. For example, you can have Layer 2 vary from 100 mm to 200 mm in steps of 10 mm. Additionally, for each combination of those layer thic knesses, you can automatically design the thickness of another layer. By combining Automatic Parametric Analysis with the Cost Analysis feature you ca n finetune layer thicknesses to optimise construction cost. Minimum Total Cost Automatically generated plot: Total Cost vs. Layer 2 Thickness

CHAPTER 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY Getting Started: Assembling andRunning a Job In the interests of providing instant hands-on experience, this worked example a ssumes that most of the input data is already in the appropriate databases. You will be usin g an existing traffic spectrum and an existing layered system. Follow this procedure: 1. Start a new Job file Click on the button.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Enter your Job Name and Job Title (this is used on the graphs). 2. Select Traffic Spectrum Click on the button. Click on the Spectrum tab. This will bring up the list of available Traffic Spectra: If you have not already selected a spectrum the blue highlight will be positione d on the first entry. Select Austroads 2004 - Example 1 - Unbound Granular Pavement by moving the mouse pointer to this line and then clicking on it. 3. Specify Layered System button. Click on the Layered System tab. This will bring up the list of available Layered Systems: Click on the

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY If you have not already selected a Layered System, the blue highlight will be po sitioned on the first entry. Select Austroads 2004 - Example 1 - Unbound Granular Pavement by moving the mouse pointer to this line and then clicking on it. 4. Specify Coordinates for Results Click on the

button. This screen has fields for specifying the locations for which results are to be computed. Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for r esults calculation: .. An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the X-axis .. A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the X-direction and the Y-directio n Enter the data as shown below.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide The data entered as above will create a line along the X-axis from (0,0) to (165 ,0) at intervals of 165 mm. To comply with the Austroads Guide, the dimensions are in millimetres (see Units (on page 47) for further details). The sub-section Assumed number of damage pulses per movement is dealt with later in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 67). Run the CIRCLY32 analysis Click on the button. This invokes the CIRCLY32 analysis. When the CIRCLY32 analysis starts you may see a blue "progress bar" at the botto m left corner of the screen. Analyses typically take about a second on a Pentium PC. When the CIRCLY32 analysis is complete the results for the damage factor (CDF) w ill be transferred to the top table on the screen, as shown below.

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 25 6. Plot the Results Click on the button. This will generate a graph of the results:

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide You can print a copy of the chart by clicking on the Print icon on the toolbar. You can also copy the graph to the clipboard and then paste into another applica tion such as Microsoft Word or Powerpoint. You do this via the context-sensitive graph menu t hat drops down when you right click with the mouse pointer anywhere on the graph:

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY 27 Then click on 'Export Dialog'. The 'Export Dialog' lets you export to a variety of formats, but for most purposes select 'Metafile' to ensure that the graphics are scalable.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Global Coordinate System A global coordinate system is used to define load locations, the layered system geometry and the points below the road surface at which results are required. The global coordinate system is also used to describe the resultant displacements and stress and strai n tensors. The X-axis is usually taken as the direction transverse to the direction of vehi cle travel. The Y-axis is then parallel to the direction of vehicle travel. Figure 1: Global Coordinate System The Z-axis is vertically downwards with Z = 0 on the pavement surface. Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for r esults calculation: .. An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the X-axis; .. A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the X-direction and the Y-directio n.

Chapter 4 How to Start Using CIRCLY X Y 0 Direction of Travel Xmin XmaxXdel Results points Figure 2: Coordinates for results defined by a line of equally spaced points X Y 0 Xmin XmaxXdel Ymax Ymin Ydel Results points Direction of Travel Figure 3: Coordinates for results defined by a uniform grid of points

CHAPTER 5 Alternative Calculation Options Overview CIRCLY 5.0 offers a number of calculation options. Normally, you will calculate the damage factors (CDF) for your pavement. You can automatically determine the optimum thi ckness of a given layer. Alternatively, you can calculate results for any given displaceme nt, stress or strain component at selected Z-values (depths below the road surface). Damage Calculation Details Typically, between one layer (the subgrade) and three layers (asphalt surfacing, cementstabilised layer and subgrade) will have performance criteria associated with them. Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen: 1 2 3

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide 1 Two alternative calculation options are available: .. Calculate damage factors (CDF); .. Calculate selected results at user-defined Z-values (see Calculate Selected Resu lts at User-defined Z-Values (on page 34)). When operating in 'calculate damage factors' mode, the key features on the scree n (the numbers refer to the screenshot above) are: 2 This table is a summary of the layered system including material titles and cu rrent thicknesses. Also the current Cumulative Damage Factors (CDFs) will be shown if the problem has been run previously. The current thickness of any layer can be chang ed from this screen. 3 This table is a summary of the properties for those layers that have a perform ance criterion. Here the Traffic Multipliers are multipliers that are used in Equivalent Single Axle (ESA) calculations (as described in the Austroads Pavement Design Guide, 1992, S ection 7.5). These multipliers are necessary to take account of the material type and t he actual traffic mix. The multipliers are simply used to increase the ESA count (in the ' Movements' field) that is specified in the Traffic Spectrum screen.

Chapter 5 Alternative Calculation Options Thickness Design Capability You can automatically determine the optimum thickness of a given layer. This pro cedure is very fast, typically taking a few seconds on a Pentium PC. 1 The thickness design capability is invoked by clicking on the checkbox that is l abelled 'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'. 2 You select the layer you wish to design by moving the mouse pointer to the appropriate layer and clicking the mouse button once. The layer selected will be highlight in blue. 3 By default, the design will use the maximum damage factor (CDFmax) from all the layers that have a performance criterion. The design involves bringing the maxim um damage factor to 1.0 by varying the thickness of the highlighted layer. In some circumstances, it may be necessary to ignore one or more layers when calculating the maximum damage factor. Here a tick ( ) denotes that the layer will be included in the maximum damage factor calculation. The tick-box can be toggled on and off by clicking on it. 1 2 3

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Minimum and maximum thicknesses can be specified for each layer, or these fields can be left blank, so that no constraints are applied. If a specified maximum or minimu m thickness limit prevents attainment of a CDF of 1.0, the CDF for the thickness limit will be computed. Calculate Selected Results at Userdefined z-Values In some circumstances, you may need to calculate selected results (displacements , stresses and strains) at selected Z-values (depths). Specify first convenient Z-values an d then plot results for a selected displacement, stress or strain component. When you use th is option, damage factors are not calculated. Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen: 2 1 6 3 4 5

Chapter 5 Alternative Calculation Options 1 This option is invoked by clicking the button that is labelled 'Calculate select ed results at user-defined Z-values'. 2 You can choose the component that is to be plotted by first clicking on the 'Component type' tab. You can then define the component type (e.g. displacement, strain etc.) by clicking on the down arrow on the right hand side of the 'component typ e' combo box. This will invoke this drop down list: Click on the component type that you wish to use. 3 The actual component (e.g., vertical, etc.) is specified by clicking on the down arrow on the right hand side of the 'Component' combo box. A drop down list of alterna tives will appear: Click on the Component that you wish to use. 4 6 . 5 Now you can define the Z-values. Each Z-value is added by clicking the New butto n You can delete any entry by clicking on it and then clicking the Delete button. When a Z-value coincides with the interface between two layers, you can specify which side of the interface is to be used (i.e. above the interface, or below th e interface).

CHAPTER 6 How to Use Advanced Features Cost Calculation Calculation of Total Cost CIRCLY 5.0 can automatically calculate Total Cost for a pavement from the unit c osts of materials in each layer. Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen: Total CostTotal Cost 1 1 Click on the Calculate Cost checkbox

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Material Costs The unit costs for the layers can be specified using a combination of both a vol umetric (or weight) component and an areal component. The areal component lets you take acco unt of costs that are primarily a function of area such as surface treatments, subgrade stabilization, etc. The areal component can also be used in circumstances where the relationshi p between total layer cost and thickness has a non-zero component for zero thickne ss. Unit Material Costs Unit Material CostsUnit Material Costs The Total Cost for a given layer is calculated as follows: Total Cost (layer no. i) ($/m2) = Unit Volumetric Cost (layer no. i) ($/m3) x Th ickness (layer no. i) (mm) + Unit Areal Cost (layer no. i) ($/m2) The Unit Volumetric Cost can be defined in terms of: 1 Cost/Volume, or 2 Cost/Weight and the density of the material (Weight/Volume).

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features Automatic Parametric Analysis Automatic Parametric Analysis lets you automatically loop through a range of thi cknesses for one or two nominated layers. For example, you can have Layer 2 vary from 100 mm to 200 mm in steps of 10 mm. Additionally, for each combination of those layer thic knesses, you can automatically design the thickness of another layer. Combining this with the Cost Analysis feature lets you fine-tune layer thicknesses to optimize construction c ost. Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen: 1 1 Click to switch on Parametric Analysis. This will bring up the following form:

1 2 3 4 1 This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i.e. the number of Layers for which you are varying the thickness): 1. One Independent Variable, or 2. Two Independent Variables. 2 This section gives the details of the first Independent Variable.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide 3 This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Indepe ndent Variable. 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer: minimum to T1 step The thickness will range from T1 maximum in steps of T1. To use two Independent Variables, click the combo box ( 1 on the screenshot belo w). 1 2 3 4 2 This section gives the additional details for the second Independent Variable 3 Here you specify which layer (thickness) is to be used as the second Independe nt Variable 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for that layer: minimum to T2 step The thickness will range from T2 maximum in steps of T2.

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features Example Cost Optimization In this example you will use the Automatic Parametric Analysis feature to automa tically loop through a range of thicknesses for one layer (Layer 2) and to determine which th ickness has the minimum Total Cost. For each Layer 2 thickness, you will get CIRCLY to autom atically design the thickness of Layer 3. Thickness ThicknessThickness Unit Cost Unit CostUnit Cost T TT1 11= 40 mm = 40 mm= 40 mm $288 / $288 /$288 / m mm3 33 T TT2 22= ? = ?= ? $288 / $288 /$288 / m mm3 33 T TT3 33= ? = ?= ? $50 / m $50 / m$50 / m3 33 Asphalt: Size Asphalt: Size Crushed Rock: Subgrade, CBR .. Step 1. Open the sample file "Economic Analysis - Pavement Option B2". .. Step 2. 2 1 14, Type H 20, Type T 20 mm , Class 4 = 3

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide 1 Make sure the Calculate Cost check-box is ticked. 2 Click the Parametric Analysis check-box. This will bring up the following form : 1 2 3 4 1 This combo box lets you specify the number of Independent Variables (i.e. the number of Layers for which you are varying the thickness). For this example you will use the default, One Independent Variable. 2 This section gives the details of the Independent Variable, the thickness of L ayer 2. 3 This lets you choose which layer (thickness) is to be used as the first Indepe ndent Variable. For this example change this to "2". (as you are varying the thickness of Layer 2). 4 Here you specify the range of thicknesses to be used for Layer 2: For this example, you will let Layer 2 vary in thickness from 160 mm to 230 mm i n steps of 10 mm. Enter the following values: Minimum: 160, Maximum: 230, Step: 10. .. Step 3. Now set the automatic thickness design feature to Layer 3.

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features Click on the "Summary" tab (left of the "Variables" tab). 2 1 1 Click the check-box labelled 'Design thickness of layer highlighted below'. 2 Click anywhere on the Layer 3 row. Click in the "Minimum Thickness" cell on this row and enter 100 (mm). Now click on to run the analysis. .. Step 4- Plot the Total Cost vs Layer 2 thickness. When the analysis is finished, click on to plot the results. Minimum Total Cost This plot shows the Minimum Total Cost condition for Layer 2 thickness is 220 mm (to a resolution of 10 mm).

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide .. Step 5- Plot the CDF (for Layer 2) vs. Layer 2 thickness. Click on the Parameter combo box. Select CDF (Select Layer =>). Click on the Layer combo box. Select Size 20 Type T - 40km/h (This is Layer No. 2) .. Step 6- Plot the Layer 3 thickness (Design Layer) vs. Layer 2 thickness. Click on the Parameter combo box.

Chapter 6 How to Use Advanced Features 45 Select Thickness (Layer used for Thickness Design). Comments on these results. If the Layer 2 thickness is 160 mm or less, the "designed" thickness of Layer 3 exceeds 5000 mm. Therefore a Layer 2 thickness of less than 160 is not viable if support ed by the Layer 3 material. If the Layer 2 thickness is 220 mm, the Layer 3 thickness is 100 mm, because of the Minimum Thickness constraint and because the CDF is 0.91. If there was no Minimum Thickness constraint, the Layer 3 thickness would be 39. 6 mm. This would be inconsistent with the Austroads (1992) sub-layering requirement that th e minimum thickness of a sub-layer is 50 mm.

CHAPTER 7 How to Modify the Databases Introduction Units In order for CIRCLY to deliver coherent results, all data must be in a consisten t set of units. The recommended system of units is given below. Quantity Units Length, mm Displacement Elastic modulus, MPa Pressure Force N Moment N.mm Strain mm/mm This system of units is consistent with the Austroads Pavement Design Guide and has been used for all the data files provided with CIRCLY. These units must be used for a ll Austroads applications involving sub-layering of granular materials. Other compatible systems of units can be used as shown in the following table, a s long as sub-layering of granular materials is not used. Output stresses will have the sa me units as used to define the loading stresses and the elastic moduli; the strains are dime nsionless and the displacements will have the same units as the load dimension and the layer t hicknesses. Quantity Metric* Metric Metric Imperial Imperial Length, MPa mm m m ft in Displacement Elastic modulus, kPa MPa lb/ft2 lb/in2 (psi) Pressure

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Force N kN MN lbf lbf Moment N.mm kN.m MN.m lbf.ft lbf.in Strain mm/mm m/m m/m ft/ft in/in *This system of units must be used for Austroads applications involving sub-laye ring of granular materials. Sign Convention Compressive direct stresses and strains are considered to be positive. Positive shear stresses are defined on the basis that both the stress and strain tensors obey t he right hand rule. Displacements in negative coordinate directions are considered to be posit ive. Hence a load causing a positive stress acts in the positive coordinate direction. The sign conventions used in the rectangular coordinate system and cylindrical local coor dinate system are illustrated below. Figure 4: Sign Convention

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Overview of Database Approach The relational database approach is designed to eliminate re-entry of data for d esign loads and material properties. For example, the data for a commonly used material need only be entered into the system once. If this data is subsequently modified, all Layered Systems that use that material and subsequently all Jobs that use those Layered Systems will automatically access the modified material properties. The Figure below illustrates the relational database concept for the elastic mat erial properties. Here, each of the components that make up a Layered System is linked to entries in the Elastic Material Properties database via an ID (index) field of u p to 10 characters. Figure 5: Relationships between elements in Layered System databases A similar hierarchy applies for the Traffic database. Each load group referenced by the Traffic Spectrum is linked to a record in the Load Group data. A consequence of the relational database approach is that data should generally be prepared from the 'bottom up'. This means that: .. Elastic Materials Properties data must be entered before the Layered System Components data; .. Load Group data must be entered before the Traffic Spectrum Components data. To create a new layered system, these steps must be followed: 1 Create any materials that are not already in the Elastic Materials database; 2 Create a new entry in the Layered Systems database;

50 CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide 3 Define each of the Materials and thicknesses for each of the Layers using the Layered System Components database. Worked examples in the following sections show how you can create new data. The "Layered System" and "Materials" Databases Overview of Layered System and Material Properties CIRCLY models road pavements as a system of layers, each with differing elastic properties. The layered system consists of one or more layers. The layer interface planes ar e horizontal and each layer is assumed to be of infinite extent in all horizontal directions. The bottom layer may extend to a finite depth or to a semi-infinite depth (see the figure b elow). If the bottom layer is of finite depth, it is assumed to rest on a rigid base, and the contact can be either fully continuous (i.e., rough) or fully frictionless (i.e., smooth). Inte rfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully frictionless (smooth), or a combination of both types. Layer No. 2 Rough rigid base Smooth rigid base Semi-infinite base Layer No. NL Layer No. 1 8

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Cross-anisotropy and isotropy in road pavement materials The elastic material in each layer of the pavement/road structure is assumed to be homogeneous and of cross-anisotropic or isotropic symmetry. A cross-anisotropic material has an axis of symmetry of rotation, which is assum ed to be vertical, i.e., the elastic properties are equivalent in all directions perpendi cular to the axis of symmetry (in horizontal, radial directions). In general, these properties are di fferent from those in the direction parallel to the axis, whereas isotropic materials have th e same elastic properties in both the vertical and horizontal directions. In the Austroads pavement design method (1992 and 2002) cross-anisotropic proper ties are used for subgrade materials and unbound granular aggregates and isotropic proper ties are used for bound materials such as asphalt and cemented materials. The stress-strain relations for a cross-anisotropic material in a particular lay er are: exx = (1/Eh) (sxx -.h syy -.hv szz) eyy = (1/Eh) (-.h sxx + syy -.hv szz) ezz = (1/Ev) (-.vh sxx -.vh syy + szz) exy = ((1+.h)/Eh) sxy exz = (1/f) sxz eyz = (1/f) syz The moduli and Poisson's ratios are related by the following equation: .vh/Ev = .hv/Eh The condition that the strain energy must be positive imposes restrictions on th e values of the elastic constants: Eh > 0 Ev > 0 f > 0 1 > .h > -1 1-.h-2.hv.vh > 0 For isotropic materials the restrictions become: E > 0 0.5 > . > -1.0 To be able to model a cross-anisotropic material you need to specify five consta nts: the vertical Elastic modulus (Ev), the horizontal Elastic modulus (Eh), the Poisson s ratio (.vh), the Poisson s ratio (.h) and the Shear modulus (f). Data values for all five constants are rarely available.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide The Austroads Pavement Design Guide uses the following simplifications to model subgrade and unbound granular materials: Eh = 0.5 Ev .vh = .h = . f = Ev/(1+.) In this case, the material is defined simply by the vertical Elastic modulus, Ev , and a single Poisson's ratio, .. For isotropic materials, only the Elastic modulus and Poisson s ratio need to be e ntered, as they are assumed to be the same in all directions. Creating a new Layered System Click on the button. Click on the Layered System tab. Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear as shown below. You should now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 c haracters). For this example you can type in 'MyLayers' as the ID and 'Example of creating a new Layered System' as the Title. Click the OK button. Now you can define the details of the layers in your layered system.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 53 Defining the Layer properties You add the layers working from the top of your pavement system, i.e., starting with asphalt or cemented material, and working downwards through the pavement. Click on the New button. A pop-up list will appear, as shown below. You will now choose the Material Type. To select the Material Type, click on the appropriate line then click the OK button. A list of available materials will now appear. Select the required material by c licking on the appropriate line, then click on the OK button. A new record will be added at the bottom of the table and the cursor will be pos itioned in the Thickness column. Enter the layer thickness. You repeat this process to add as m any layers as you require. The subgrade will extend to an infinite depth if you enter the t hickness as 0.0. As explained in Overview of Layered System and Material Properties (on page 50), interfaces between the layers can be either fully continuous (rough) or fully fr ictionless (smooth), or a combination of both types. You can specify any interfaces as full y frictionless. 1

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide By default, all interfaces are assumed to be rough. You can change the condition for the interface at the bottom of a given layer by clicking in the 'Interface Type' cell. You can then click on the down arrow at the right of the cell to select a 'Smooth' inter face. Note that for a semi-infinite subgrade both 'Rough' and 'Smooth' are equivalent. Duplicating a Layered System Sometimes you may want to create a Layered System that is similar to an existing one. The Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Layered System. Then you can c hange the settings that need to be different. Move the blue highlight to the Layered System that you want to duplicate: Then click the Duplicate button. You will then see a form that will let you defi ne the ID and Title of the newly duplicated Layered System:

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 55 The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Layered System - ma ke sure that you modify the Title. After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Layered System Components table so that you can make your changes. Adding a new Elastic Material Click on the button. Click on the Elastic Materials tab. You now choose the material type to be used. Click on the material type combo bo x as shown below to select from the available material types. Click on 'Subgrade (Aus troads 2004)' for the Material Type. Cl ClClick ickick he hehere to re tore to se seselec leclect tt Ma MaMate teteri riria aal ll Ty TyTyp ppe ee Click on the New button. A dialog box will appear, as shown below. You should no w type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters. As you can see from the example be low, the ID is used to sort the data. For this example, you can type in 'Sub_CBR2.5'. Type i n 'Subgrade, CBR=2.5' for the Title. Click the OK button.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide You will now be given an opportunity to select a Performance Criterion. To selec t a Performance Criterion make sure the checkbox next to Use performance criterion is checked, then click on the appropriate performance criterion. Click on the OK bu tton. A new record will be added to the table. Select 'Anisotropic' in the column head ed 'Aniso?'. Then type in the moduli and Poisson's ratios as follows: Ev = 25.0 Eh = 12.5 (= 0.5 Ev) .vh = .h = 0.45 (= .) f = 17.24 (= Ev/(1+.)) The new record should be as shown below:

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Adding a new Performance Criterion For this example we consider the Shell asphalt fatigue criterion: 5 . . 6918(0.856 VB + 1.08) .. . 0.36 . N = RF e . Smix . where RF is the Reliability Factor e = maximum tensile strain (in units of microstrain), VB = percentage by volume of bitumen in the asphalt, and Smix= mix stiffness (Elastic modulus) in MPa. The Reliability Factor is assumed to be 1.0 if you are using the Austroads 1992 Pavement Design Guide. Otherwise the value of the Reliability Factor is automatically han dled by your choice of Project Reliability (see How to Use Project Reliability (on page 80)). For this example, assume VB = 12.9 and Smix = 1600 MPa, so that the above equati on simplifies to: N = [ 5889 / e]5 To enter this data click on the button. Click on the Performance tab. You now choose the material type to be used. Click on the material type combo bo x (as shown on the first screenshot in Adding a new Elastic Material (on page 55)) to select from the available material types. For this example click on 'Asphalt'. Click on the New button. Now type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 character s and the

Title (up to 72 characters). For this example type in 'Asph1600' for the ID. Typ e in 'Asphalt1600 MPa, Vb=12.9%' for the Title. Click the OK button.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide A record will be added to the table and you can type in the relevant data as fol lows: The cursor will now be in the component field. Here you specify the particular displacement, stress or strain component to be u sed. You can select the component from a dropdown list by clicking on the button. If there are more entries than will fit in the listbox, there will be a slider bar on the rig ht hand side. You can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow or by dragging the slider d own. For this example select the Max. Horizontal Tensile Strain (maximum horizontal tensile strain). The Location field defines the location (relative to a layer of this material) a t which the criterion is to be applied. Click on the button to choose between Top and Bottom . For this example Location should be 'Bottom'. The entries for the remaining two parameters define the fatigue relationship N = [5889 / e]5 Note carefully that strains in CIRCLY must be specified in dimensionless units ( i.e., length/length, mm/mm). As CIRCLY assumes that the fatigue relationship is of the form N = [k / e]b , the parameter (micro) must be replaced by 10-6 giving: N = [k / e]5 So Constant (k) will be 0.005889 and Exponent (b) will be 5.0. The new record should be identical to the bottom row in the figure below:

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Adding a new Material Type You can add new material types. To add a new material type, Click on the

button. Click on the Material Types tab. Click New to create a new entry. A dialog box will now appear and you can enter the ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and Title field (up to 72 characters). Clic k the OK button. You will now choose the Generic Material Type for your new Material Type:

You will now be given an opportunity to select a Sub-Layering scheme. To select a SubLayering scheme, click the checkbox next to use sub-layering , then click on the ap propriate sub-layering scheme. Click on the OK button.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide The "Loads" and "Traffic Spectrum" Databases Introduction Four inter-related databases are used for the Traffic data. The databases form a hierarchy: .. Traffic Spectrum; .. Traffic Spectrum Components; .. Load Groups; .. Load Locations. Depending on whether or not the components you need already exist, the steps req uired are described in the following sub-sections. Adding a new Traffic Spectrum If the Traffic screen is not already active, click on the button. Click on the Spectrum tab. Click New to create a new entry. A dialog box will now appear and you can enter the ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and Title field (up to 72 characters). Clic k the OK button. The Spectrum Components Table will now appear. Now define your spectrum components: Click New for each vehicle model you wish to include. This will activate a pop-u p list of possible choices. You can move the highlight to the vehicle that you wish to use by positioning the mouse pointer on it and clicking once. If there are more entries than will fit in the listbox there will be a slider bar on the right. You can move down the list by clicking on the down arrow or by dragging the slider down. You finally select the vehicle by double clicking on it. A new record will be added at the bottom of the table and the cursor will be pos itioned in the Movements column. Enter the number of vehicle movements (or passages) over the d esired

design life.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases 61 Duplicating a Traffic Spectrum Sometimes you may want to create a Traffic Spectrum that is similar to an existi ng one. The Duplicate function lets you duplicate an existing Traffic Spectrum. Then you can change the settings that need to be different. Move the blue highlight to the Traffic Spectrum that you want to duplicate: Then click the Duplicate button. You will then see a form that will let you defi ne the ID and Title of the newly duplicated Traffic Spectrum: The ID and Title that are provided are based on the original Traffic Spectrum make sure that you modify the Title. After you click the OK button you will be taken to the Traffic Spectrum Componen ts table so that you can make your changes.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Coordinate System for Loads The most common type of load modelled in CIRCLY is a circular area over which a uniform vertical pressure is applied. This load typically represents the contact of a ty re on the surface of the pavement. However, it is possible to model more complex loads ind uced by breaking and turning movements of vehicles, which is dealt with in Wardle (2004) . The location of the circular load is described by a global coordinate system, whil e 'local' coordinate systems are used to describe each of the loads. The 'global' system i s cartesian, with axes X, Y, Z. Note the use of uppercase X, Y, Z for Global coordinates and lowercase x, y, z for Local coordinates. You can choose the origin of the 'global' coordin ate system to be any point on the upper surface of the layered system and the X and Y axes as any two mutually perpendicular axes that lie in this horizontal plane. The Z-axis in the positive direction is taken as vertically downwards. Each 'local' coordinate system may be cartesian (x, y, z) or cylindrical (r, ., z) and has its origin at the centre of the load it describes. In terms of the 'global' coordina te system the origin of each 'local' coordinate system is specified by Xload, Yload. For loads that are symmetrical about a horizontal axis this axis is taken as the x-axis. The orient ation of the load is defined by the angle (.load) between the directions of the X-axis and th e x-axis. For loads that are symmetrical about their centre point the x-axis may have any orie ntation, though, for convenience, it may be taken as parallel to the X-axis so that .load is then zero. The location and orientation of a load are therefore specified by Xload, Yload a nd .load. Figure 6: Global and Local Coordinate Systems

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Adding a new Load Group (i.e., a Vehicle or Axle Group) Click on the button. Click on the Load Groups tab. The example given here is for a tandem axle with dual wheels. Click on the New b utton. A dialog box will appear as shown below. Type in your ID (index) field of up to 10 characters and a descriptive title (up to 72 characters). For this example type in 'TA-DW' as the ID and 'Tandem axle with dual wheels' as the Title. Click the OK button.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide A record will be added to the table and you can enter the relevant data as follo ws: Field name (Heading) Value Explanation Plot Label TA-DW Label used by legend in graphs (Up to 72 characters) Rows 2 Number of rows (axles) in main gear (this is the NROWS parameter described in Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 67)) Type 1 A flag to indicate type of load (1=Vertical, for other values see Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual) Radius 92.1 Radius of tyre contact area (mm) Stress 0.75 For Vertical loads (Type=1) use the tyre contact pressure, generally assumed to be the tyre inflation pressure (MPa). If you are using an advanced load type, enter the reference stress referred to in the Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. Exponent 0.0 If this parameter is zero the contact stress will be uniform. Non-zero values give non-uniform contact pressure distributions as described in Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. The entries should look like this: You should now specify the wheel locations.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Defining Load Locations (i.e., Wheel positions) If the Load Groups screen is not already active, click on the button. Click on the Load Locations tab. Check the descriptive title above the table to make sure that you are referring to the correct Load Group. If it is not the one you have just defined, click on the Load Groups tab, click on the appropriate record within the Load Groups tabl e and click onLoad Locations again. Click New for each wheel and enter the gear number, and the X and Y coordinates of each wheel. See the note Important Note about Axle Locations (on page 65) below for s pecial information about defining axle locations. The scaling factor is normally 1.0 - other values allow for a variation in conta ct pressure from wheel to wheel. Theta is only used to define the force or moment direction for non-standard load s such as braking loads. Theta corresponds to .LOAD in Figure: Global and Local Coordinate Systems. Important Note about Axle Locations Make sure gear number 1 has an axle on Y = 0. It is essential that the gear numbers are correctly specified. The gear numbers are used for calculating the centroid of gear number 1. This is used to shift the Y-coordinat es of the wheels for the combined pulse option, as described, so that the gear centroid of gear number 1 is on Y = 0 (see Important Note about Damage Pulses (on page 67) for further d etails). For the Tandem axle, dual wheels gear layout (TA-DW) shown above, the entries in the table should be similar to the table below. Note that the wheels making up a given gea r can be in any order.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Y Direction of Travel (-165,0) Axle 1 0 (165,0) (165,-1320) (-165,-1320) Axle 2 Figure 7: Example wheel layout (Tandem axle, dual wheels)

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Important Note about Damage Pulses The damage that a given point in the pavement will experience during the passage of a multiple axle will primarily depend on the depth that the given point is below t he road surface. For shallow pavement depths, relative to axle spacing, one pulse per axle is selec ted. CIRCLY then computes the damage beneath that axle due to the strain contribution s for all wheels of the vehicle, then multiplies the computed damage by the number of axle s in the axle group (NROWS). NROWS refers to the number of axles in the gear, which is sp ecified in the ROWS column of the Load Groups section of the Loads database. CIRCLY relies on you to specify one set of axles at Y = 0 as shown on Figure: Ex ample wheel layout (Tandem axle, dual wheels). However, for large depths, relative to the axle spacing, the maximum strain will generally occur under the centroid of the gear. In this case, you specify 'combined pulse for gear' and CIRCLY will automatically shift the load coordinates so that the origin is at th e centroid of the gear, as shown in the Figure below. CIRCLY then computes the damage pulse beneat h the centroid of the gear due to the strain contributions for all wheels of the vehic le, and ignores the number of axles in the group. X Y 0 Direction of Travel Axle 1 Axle 2 Figure 8: Automatic shift of Y-coordinates for pulse for gear case

combined

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide You must decide whether the pavement is deep or shallow relative to the axle spa cing. CIRCLY automatically shifts the position of the load coordinates if you specify 'combined pulse for gear'. You specify how to deal with the gear by clicking on the button to open the Coordinates for Results screen. This screen has a sub-section for specifying the locations at which results are to be computed and the method for treating the damage pulse s. Computation of the damage at intermediate depths requires judgement based on a knowledge of the strain pattern, regardless of whether CIRCLY or other analysis methods are used.

Chapter 7 How to Modify the Databases Coordinates for Results Click on the button. This screen has fields for specifying the locations for which results are to be computed and the method for treating damage pulses. Two alternative formats are available for specifying the points to be used for r esults calculation: .. An array of equally spaced points along a line parallel to the x-axis; .. A grid of points with uniform spacing in both the x-direction and the y-directio n.

CHAPTER 8 Appendices

Overview of Austroads 2004 Features The Austroads Pavement Design Guide (the full title is Pavement Design - A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements) was first published in 1992 (Austroads, 199 2). The Guide has undergone a major re-write over the last few years, culminating in the release of the 2001 Draft (Austroads, 2001). The technical content of the new Guide was fin alized in June 2003 and that the Guide is expected to be published in the first quarter of 2004. The development of the new features in CIRCLY relating to the Guide was based on the April 2003 Draft. For convenience, we use the convention that Austroads 1992 is the original Guide and that Austroads 2004 is the new Guide. The following notes assume that you are already familiar with the original Guide . These notes should be read in conjunction with Austroads 2004. No attempt is made to comprehensively describe all the features, but the main differences with the ori ginal Guide are highlighted.

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide Model of Standard Axle The Standard Axle Load consists of a dual-wheeled single axle, applying a load o f 80 kN. Austroads 2004 uses a full Standard Axle Loading, whereas Austroads 1992 uses on ly one half of the Standard Axle. This figure shows the layout of the wheels and their respective positions along the CIRCLY x-axis. Figure 9: Model of Standard Axle

Chapter 8 Overview of Austroads 2004 Features 75 Project Reliability The Project Reliability is defined as follows (Austroads 2004): The Project Reliability is the probability that the pavement when constructed to the chosen design will outlast its Design Traffic before major rehabilitation is required. In regard to these reliability procedures, a project is defined as a portion from a uniformly desig ned and (nominally) uniformly constructed road pavement which is subsequently rehabilita ted as an entity. The desired project reliability is chosen by the designer. Typical project relia bility levels are given as follows (Austroads 2004): Project Reliability (%) Freeway 95 - 97.5 Highway: lane AADT>2,000 90 Highway: lane AADT<2,000 85 Main Road: lane AADT>500 85 Other Roads: lane AADT<500 80 Material Properties Sub-layering Unbound Granular Materials Sub-layering is required for granular materials placed directly on the subgrade. Austroads 2004 always uses 5 equi-thick sub-layers, whereas with Austroads 1992, the number of sub-layers were dependent on the thickness and elastic properties of t he layers. The procedure is: a Divide the total depth of unbound granular materials into 5 equi-thick sub-lay ers. b The vertical Elastic modulus of the top sub-layer is the minimum of the value specified in the CIRCLY input (indicative values are given in Table 6.3 of Austroads 2004) an d that determined using: 2(total granular thickness / 125) = EV top sublayer EV subgrade

97.5 95 95 - 90

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide c The ratio of Elastic moduli of adjacent sub-layers is given by: 1 . E . 5 R = .. top granular sublayer E subgrade .. d The Elastic modulus of each sub-layer may then be calculated from the Elastic modulus of the adjacent underlying sub-layer, beginning with the subgrade or upper sub-l ayer of selected subgrade material as appropriate, the Elastic modulus of which is kn own. Selected Subgrade Materials Selected subgrade materials are a special case of unbound granular material. The total (i.e. combined) thickness of all selected materials is divided into fi ve sub-layers and each assigned an Elastic modulus value according to the following guidelines: a Divide the total depth of all selected subgrade materials into 5 equi-thick su b-layers. The vertical Elastic modulus of the top sub-layer of selected subgrade is the mi nimum of 10 times the design CBR of the selected subgrade material and that determined us ing:

2 (total selectedsubgrade thickness /150) E = E V top sublayer V insitu subgrade b The ratio of Elastic moduli of adjacent sub-layers is given by: 1 . E . .. . 5 top selectedsubgradesublayer R ... = E insitu subgrade c The Elastic modulus of each sub-layer may then be calculated from the Elastic modulus of the adjacent underlying sub-layer, beginning with the insitu subgrade, the El astic modulus of which is known. d If the pavement includes more than one type of selected subgrade material, a c heck needs to be made that the vertical Elastic modulus calculated for each sub-layer (step

a) does not exceed 10 times the design CBR of each selected subgrade material within the sub-layer. If this condition is not met, an alternative trial selecte d subgrade configuration needs to be selected. Performance Models The main change to the Performance Models is the introduction of a Reliability F actor, RF. b N = RF . .. k . e ..

Chapter 8 Overview of Austroads 2004 Features The Performance models for Cemented and Asphalt Materials are the same as for Au stroads 1992, apart from the introduction of the Reliability Factor. Cemented Materials Suggested Reliability Factors (RF) for Cemented Materials Fatigue (Austroads 200 4) 97.5% Reliability Factor (RF) 4.7 3.3 2.0 1.0 0.5 Asphalt Suggested Reliability Factors (RF) for Asphalt Fatigue (Austroads 2004) 97.5% Reliability Factor (RF) 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.67 Subgrade The subgrade Performance Model used in Austroads 2004 is: 7 . 9300 . N .. = .. e Note that a Reliability Factor is not used for the subgrade.

How to Use New Austroads 2004 Features The previous Section provided an Overview of the new features in the Austroads 2 004 Guide. This Section shows how to use the new Austroads features in CIRCLY 5.0. The following notes assume that you are already familiar with using CIRCLY 4.0 o r 4.1 in conjunction with the original Guide. Modelling the Standard Axle The layout of the four wheels used to model the Standard Axle is shown in the ea rlier section (see "Model of Standard Axle" on page 74). The design tyre pressure for pavement analysis is taken as 750 kPa (Chapter 7, A ustroads 2004). This Standard Axle is provided in the Load Groups database with the ID given by "ESA75Full".

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide How to Use Project Reliability Click on the button. This will bring up the following screen: 1 1 Click the Reliability tab to switch to the Reliability form. This will bring u p the following form: 2

Chapter 8 How to Use New Austroads 2004 Features 2 Click on Use Project Reliability Factors. 3 In the Project Reliability list, click the desired Project Reliability. 3 4 4 This Table shows the Reliability Factor for each Material Type. Changes to Materials The Materials database in CIRCLY is affected by the Austroads 2004 changes in th ree main areas: 1 Unbound Granular Materials 2 Subgrade Materials

CIRCLY 5.0 User's Guide 3 Select Subgrade Materials To ensure that pavements can be handled using either the Austroads 1992 or Austr oads 2004 methods, separate Material Types are used for variants of these materials: Austroads 2004 Unbound Granular Material Unbound Granular (Austroads 1992 sub-layering) Unbound Granular (Austroads 2004 sub-layering) Subgrade Subgrade (Austroads 1992) Subgrade (Austroads 2004) Select Subgrade Material n/a Subgrade (Selected Material) n/a = not applicable Austroads 2004 Examples Appendix 8.3 (Austroads 2004) outlines three worked examples that apply a mechan istic design procedure for flexible road pavements. Copies of these examples are provided in the CIRCLY database: Pavement Description Austroads 2004 - Example 1 - Unbound Granular Pavement Sprayed Seal Surfaced Unbound Granular Pavement Austroads 2004 - Example 2- Asphalt Pavement with CT Subbase Asphalt Pavement containing a Cemented Material Subbase (pre-cracking phase) Austroads 2004 - Example 2- Asphalt Pavement with CT Subbase-Post-Cracked Asphalt Pavement containing a Cemented Material Subbase (post-cracking phase) Austroads 2004 - Example 3 - Full Depth Asphalt Pavement Full Depth Asphalt Pavement CT = Cement Treated See Appendix 8.3 (Austroads 2004) for full details of the parameters used.

References Austroads (1992). Pavement Design A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavem ents. Austroads Publication No. AP-17/92. (Austroads: Sydney). Austroads (2001). 2001 Austroads Pavement Design Guide (Final Draft). Austroads Publication No. AP-T10/01. (Austroads: Sydney). Austroads (2004). 2004 Austroads Pavement Design Guide. Austroads Publication. (Austroads: Sydney). (At the time of writing the publication number and date wer e not known). Wardle, L.J. (1977). Program CIRCLY User s Manual. CSIRO Australia. Division of Ap plied Geomechanics, Geomechanics Computer Program. No. 2. Wardle, L.J. (2004). Program CIRCLY Theory and Background Manual. Mincad Systems , Australia.