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ODC010007 MPLS TE overview


ISSUE 1.0
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MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) has been successfully configured and applied in a number of large network. MPLS TE is a perfect combination technology of MPLS and TE, with best resources architecture and most resources usage percentage.

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References
l VRP5 operation manual MPLS

chapter

MPLS TE user guide !

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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to: [ Be known detailed TE concepts and models [ Be known MPLS technology specifics and priorities [ Master MPLS TE background and function module

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Chapter 1 What is TE Chapter 2 MPLS introduction Chapter 3 MPLS TE

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Chapter 1 What is TE
1.1 What is TE 1.2 TE before MPLS

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Concept of TE
NE (Network Engineering) and TE (Traffic Engineering)
l Two engineering concepts appear accompany with the growth of

network size: [ NE (Network Engineering) NE is the process of how to plan, design and implement a network to satisfy the real traffic requirements. First real traffic requirements, then network design and implementation. [ TE (Traffic Engineering) TE is the process of how to configure and implement the already exists network equipments to make the traffic been normally transmitted. First exists network equipments, then reconfigure them.
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What is TE

l !Traffic Engineering is the process of controlling

how traffic flows through one"s network so as to optimize resource utilization and network performance#"

(Global Crossing, IEEE)

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Why we need TE
A major goal of Internet Traffic Engineering is to facilitate efficient and reliable network operations whiles simultaneously optimizing network resource utilization and performance. #RFC 2702 Requirements for Traffic Engineering over MPLS $

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Why we need TE cont.!


TE target
l Reduce OPEX costs through more efficient bandwidth

usage
l Avoid possible part link busy or empty through

appropriate rearranging traffic


l Make the best network resources usage and improve

network performance through good redesigning traffic

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TE performance
performance
l TE performance consists of two parts %

[ Performance

oriented

services:

enhanced

services

QoS

performance. i.e. effect to packet loss, latency, throughput and SLA#Service Level Agreement $ [ Performance oriented resources: optimize resources usage. Bandwidth is precious resource, to arrange them efficiently is the core target of TE

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Chapter 1 What is TE
1.1 What is TE 1.2 TE before MPLS

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Earlier TE introduction
ATM TE and IP TE
l TE is not the result of MPLS, it is general technology project l Before MPLS TE, technology mainly used to generate TE are:

[ ATM TE [ IP TE

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IP TE
IP TE
l IP TE can be easily used without much detailed technology l IP TE cannot control transmission path based on traffic sources,

but on destination forwarding


l IP TE mainly change special link cost value of IGP metric to

control traffic

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IP TE"fish problem
R2 R4 R5 R3 10 R1 10 10 10 R6 10 R7 R8

IP routing: destination-based shortest path route Path for R2-R3-R4-R5-R8 traffic Path for R1-R3-R4-R5-R8 traffic under-utilized alternate path
l All traffic from R1 or R2 will select R3-R4-R5 path arriving R8
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IP TE"fish problem
R2 R4 R5 R3 10 10 5 5 R6 5 R7 R8

R1

IP routing: destination-based shortest path route Path for R2-R3-R6-R7-R8 traffic Path for R1-R3-R6-R7-R8 traffic under-utilized alternate path
l Change R3-R6-R7-R5 cost value, all traffic from R1 or R2 will shift on it
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IP TE weakness
IP TE weakness
l It is far less enough that calculate path only based on IGP metric value,

instead of considering bandwidth, link properties and others factor


l IP TE is essentially destination-based forwarding technology, it is hop-by-

hop forwarding, can not control traffic by sources


l IP TE is connectionless-oriented, can not support Explicit Routing

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ATM TE
ATM TE
l ATM TE mainly generated by PVC through traffic source to traffic

destination
l ATM TE is connection-oriented, can be well and easily done to arrange

traffic flow and put QoS


l ATM TE is necessarily applied in full-mesh network, which exists of O #N$$

problem, results in bad extensibility


l ATM TE is end-to-end TE, not so as to IP TE hop-by-hop

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ATM TE"Overlay Solution


L3 L2 L3 L2 L2 L3
Physical

L3 L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L3

L3

L3 L3

L3

L3
Logical

l Physical architecture: Layer 2 #ATM/FR$ built base on ATM TE l Logically: the full-mesh network consists of all Layer 3 #Routers$

equipments, in this network, each router has unique VC connected with any other router

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ATM TE weakness
ATM TE weakness
l In case of carry out ATM TE in traditional IP network, telecom operator

need to buy new ATM/FR equipments, it will increases OPEX costs in a large scale
l ATM TE will bring extra and more complex network management costs

[ Two layer network: ATM and IP equipments are difficult to manage together [ Different equipment will bring extra training works, technique support works, and project implement works
l Full-mesh network architecture exists of O #N$$ problem, bad extensibility l IP over ATM will results in extra Cell Tax

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Question

l IP TE and ATM TE have their superiority and inferiority

respectively, how can we do to keep superiority and to discard inferiority

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Chapter 1 What is TE Chapter 2 MPLS introduction Chapter 3 MPLS TE

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Chapter 2 MPLS introduction


2.1 MPLS basis 2.2 MPLS superiority

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MPLS basis
MPLS packet

IP Packet
32-bit MPLS Header
l In MPLS network, the IP packet is added with one or more MPLS header at

the length of 32 bits


l MPLS is a concept between OSI layer 2 and layer 3 which can support

variety of network protocol (IPV4/IPV6/ATM/FR)


l Earlier MPLS technology intent is improving router forwarding speed
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MPLS basis cont.!


MPLS header
Label EXP S TTL

l 20 bits label, mapping traffic into LSP, in the range of 16-1,000,000 l EXP consists of 3 bits, indicate MPLS QoS l S has only 1 bit, indicate the last label in the label queue l TTL has the same function as IP has, the purpose is inspecting and avoiding

generating routing loop in Frame mode

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Chapter 2 MPLS introduction


2.1 MPLS basis 2.2 MPLS superiority

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MPLS superiority
MPLS superiority
l MPLS technology use fixed length label searching instead of traditional

IP routing longest match search method, rapidly improve forwarding speed, this is the beginning MPLS intension
l MPLS can combine IP and ATM well, save extra cell tax of IPOA l MPLS true superiority is to provide variety of value-added service:

[ MPLS VPN [ MPLS QoS [ MPLS Traffic Engineering

Network going direction

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Chapter 1 What is TE Chapter 2 MPLS introduction Chapter 3 MPLS TE

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Chapter 3 MPLS TE
3.1 MPLS TE development 3.2 MPLSTE necessary condition 3.3 MPLSTE elements

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MPLS TE development
MPLS TE development
l In Sept, 1999, RFC 2702 #Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over

MPLS$give detailed necessary conditions of building network based on MPLS TE, make a good fundamental for MPLS TE development and application
l Since TE is a global complex system project, generating and

implementation is fairly difficult, nowadays, only small number of network provider can provide scaleable application
l MPLS TE is a perfect combination of MPLS and TE, which is definite

trend of large scale network provider building core network and backbone

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MPLS TE realization method


MPLS TE realization method
l Nowadays main MPLS TE realization method:

[ RSVP-TE RSVP-TE technology is mature, has been scaleable applied, but too complex and bad extensibility [ CR LDP-TE CR LDP-TE technology is not very mature, rarely applied, but simple, good extensibility [ RSVP-TE is widely and mainly used

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Chapter 3 MPLS TE
3.1 MPLS TE development 3.2 MPLSTE necessary condition 3.3 MPLSTE elements

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MPLS TE necessary condition


MPLS TE necessary condition

1!

l Support creating end-to-end LSP-based tunnel l Support tunnel preempt function by different priority l Support failure inspection switch function, when one link or node

fail, the other can quickly take over


l Support pre-creating backup LSP

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MPLS TE necessary condition


MPLS TE necessary condition

2!

l Support LSP tunnel auto re-optimize by the change of network

resource
l Support LSP tunnel bandwidth auto adjustment by the change

of network bandwidth
l Support explicit path, can be set include or exclude node by

field requirement
l Support priority LSP tunnel, different priority traffic will input into

different tunnel respectively with DiffServ

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Chapter 3 MPLS TE
3.1 MPLS TE development 3.2 MPLSTE necessary condition 3.3 MPLSTE elements

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MPLS TE four elements


MPLS TE four elements
l MPLS TE four elements:

[ Information distribution [ Path calculation [ Signaling#or path setup$ [ Packet forwarding


l Four elements can guarantee basic traffic forwarding, but not very

accurate
l MPLS TE also support some high level specification

[ FRR#Fast Reroute$ [ Tunnel backup [ Auto Bandwidth Allocation [ Path Re-optimum


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MPLS TE realization picture


TE four elements picture

LSP setup

IGP routing selection Link state database

LSP path selection TE database

Signaling protocol module

LSP setup

Information flooding Packet entry

IS-IS/OSPF routing Packet forwarding module

Information flooding Packet exit

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l TE is separate from MPLS essentially, the

Summary

original intent is well utilize whole network resources


l MPLS is a combination of IP and ATM both

superiority, can provide variety of applications, i.e. MPLS VPN, MPLS TE


l MPLS TE is perfect combination of MPLS

and TE technology, can make network resources well optimized, improve network performance

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Thank You
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