Beading Treasures

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Books of merit th a t will highlight your personal library. Between the covers of these books lie revelations of self-mastership.

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Rosicrucian Q u e s t i o n s a n d Answers with C o m p l e t e H is to ry o f t h e O r d e r Rosicrucian Principles for th e H o m e a n d Business The Mystical Life o f J es u s The S e c r e t Do ct rin es o f J es u s U n to Thee I G r a n t . . . ( S e c r e t T e a c h in gs of Ti bet ) A Th ou sa nd Years of Y e st e rd a y s ( A R eve la tio n of R e i nc a rn a tio n ) Self M a s te ry a n d F a te with t h e C y cl es of Life (A V o c a ti o n a l G u i d e ) Ro sicrucian M an u al Mystics a t Praye r Behold th e Sign (A Book of A n c i e n t Symbolism) M ansions of th e Soul (The C o s m i c C o n c e p t i o n ) Lemuria, The Lost C o n t i n e n t of the Pacific The T e c hn iq u e o f th e M a s te r The Sy mb ol ic P r o p h e c y of th e G r e a t Pyramid The Book o f J a s h e r The T e c h n iq u e of t h e Disciple M e n ta l Poisoning G l a n d s — O u r Invisible G u a r d i a n s A lo n g Civilization's Trail ( O u t o f Print) The W o r d W e n t Forth ( O u t of Print) W h a t to Eat— A n d W h e n The S a n c t u a r y of Self S e p h e r Yezirah (Book o f th e K a b al a ) O f G o d s a n d M iracles (A n c i e n t E gy pt ian Tales)



W r i t e for c o m p l e t e fr ee c a t a l o g u e to:

R osic rucian S u p p ly B u reau
Rosicrucian Park Sa n J o s e , C al ifo rni a, U. S. A.

By U L R I C H S T E I N D O R F F C A R R I N G T O N ' A M O RC



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Tales Egypt.



a d ven ture



p ic tu re d

salvaged fro m the sands o f

in homey, real-life stories.

The The life and tim es of a mous the author's y outh he th a t was fe lt an­ 'living E g yp t.' pulse-beat Son o f a f a ­ of unique people: g if t e d in the arts— excelling and d e eply in science— w ith endow ed E g yp to lo g is t, c ie n t civilization. spiritual awareness.

E gyptian lite ra tu re e x te n d ­ Primogenitor of the ing o ver a p e rio d o f alm ost 4000 years.

Ar abian Nights, Aesop's Fables, and m odern proverbs.

A n o th e r in trig u in g volume A u th e n tic tra n sc rip tio n s o f E gyptian p a p y ri; fre e fro m scientific jargo n— w ritte n fo r easy re a d a b ility . o f historical wealth and in­ spirational reading fro m the Rosicrucian Lib ra ry (see back cover).
P -1 6 254 LITHO IN U S A .


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Wondrous Tales of the Ancient Egyptians

Translated by
U lric h S te in d o rf f C a rrin g to n

Rosicrucian Library V olume X X IV

Supreme G rand Lodge of A M O R C P rinting and Publishing Departm ent San Jose, California

Copyright, 1954 By the Supreme G rand Lodge of A M O R C , Inc. All Rights Reserved

Library of Congress Catalog Card N u m ber: 53-9733


Printed and Bound in U . S. A . T H E R O S IC R U C IA N PRESS, LT D . San Jose, California, U . S. A .



Rosicrucian Questions and Answers with Complete History of the O rd e r Rosicrucian Principles for the Home and Business T he Mystical Life of Jesus T h e Secret Doctrines of Jesus “ U n to Thee I G ra n t . . (Secret Teachings of Tibet) A T housand Years of Yesterdays ( A Revelation of R eincarnation) Self Mastery and Fate with the Cycles of Life ( A Vocational G uide) Rosicrucian M anual Mystics at Prayer Behold the Sign ( A Book of A n c ien t Symbolism) Mansions of the Soul (T h e Cosmic C onception) Lemuria— T h e Lost Continent of the Pacific T he Symbolic Prophecy of the Great Pyramid T he Book of Jasher T h e T echnique of the Disciple M ental Poisoning Glands— O u r Invisible G uardians Along Civilization's Trail (O u t of P rin t) T he W o rd W e n t Forth ( O u t of P rint) W h a t to Eat— A n d W h e n T he Sanctuary of Self Sepher Yezirah O f Gods and Miracles ( Other volumes will be added from time to time. W r ite for complete catalogue.)


Preface ................................................................................... 9

T he Dawn of Destiny........................................................... 15 T hree M ira c le s...................................................................... 21 T he Eloquent Peasant........................................................... 41 Lost on the High Seas........................................................... 67 T he Exploits of Sinuhe...................................................... 75 Between T w o Brothers......................................................... 95 T he IlhFated Prince..............................................................113 A Dangerous Voyage............................................................121 T he G reat Contest................................................................139 T he King’s Treasure and the Thieves...............................163 B ibliography........................................................................... 169

T H E T H R E E M IR A C L E S A portion of the original hieroglyphic script (hieratic) of the Papyrus W estcar, written during the Middle Kingdom ( 2 0 0 0 T 7 8 0 B.C.), from which comes the tale, “ T he T hree Miracles." (A . Erman, “ Die Maerchen des Papyrus W estcar,” Berlin, 1890) In the Brooklyn Museum Collection




K IN G T U T A N K H A M E N 'S T O M B Portion of the celebrated tomb in which one of the great archaeological discov* cries of our age was made. W ithin the stone sarcophagus (coffin) may be seen the inner one made of gold. T he glass is a modern addition. (Photo by Rosicrucian M useum )

Dr. M. Zakaria Goneim, (picture writing) inscribed floor of the Valley of the on papyri scrolls comes our

A S T O R Y IN S T O N E Egyptologist, points out the highly colorful hieroglyphics on the walls of a tomb of a Pharaoh deep beneath the Kings. From such inscriptions as these and those found knowledge of the lives of the ancient Egyptians. (Photo by Rosicrucian Museum)

PREFACE V “Be an artist in thy speech. Then thou shalt be strong. For man’s strength is in his word, and the tongue is mightier than the sword.” This bit of wisdom was given to an Egyptian prince by his father two and a half thousand years before King Solomon spoke his Proverbs. The twin arts of speech and of writing, possessed by but few, ranked equally high in ancient Egypt. Next to the king stood the scribe, even then the power behind the throne. Now, if an Egyptologist’s son chances to be a scribe, do not censure him for trespassing on the property of science and for giving words to a love he first embraced when he was knee-high. When my father, at full length stretched out on the floor of his study, scanned the pages of the giant volumes of Lepsius’ Egyptian Monuments, I, a boy of four, shattering all professional rules and professorial decorum, climbed upon his back and rode across the fields of Egyptian antiquity. My youth was living Egypt. The books around me, the pictures on the walls, the people who visited and spoke of Egypt—all filled a world
V IS T A OF T H E PA ST In the distance may be seen one of the great colonnaded halls of Luxor Temple, Egypt. This vast temple is situated on the east bank of the Nile. O n the walls of its sanctuaries are deeply cut in stone the religious belieis and the accounts of conquests o f these people o f the past. (Photo by Rosicrucian M useum )

slumbering in tombs with the blood of life and the pulse of actuality. It is the lofty duty of the men of the exact sciences to depart not a hair’s breadth from the path of facts which their knowledge reveals, and to fend off the sorties of the rebel imagination which always tempts them to best their reason. Thus, the philologist regards any violation of this principle as gross sacrilege. Since everything for him verily begins and ends with the word, it must be his unbreachable dogma to be true to the letter. To that reverence which is also the Egyptologist’s part, I have always bowed. I realized that imagi' nation has to be tethered for the sake of philological accuracy and advancement. Yet, I felt also that a scribe with imaginative artistry should step be' hind the Egyptologist’s royal accomplishments in excavating and exploring a dead world, and help resurrect and restore the faded colors of life. The sands of the Sahara have saved but little of the Egyptian literature that once upon a time must have been rather comprehensive. W hat has come to us are fragments recovered from scant writings upon a few walls of tombs or monuments and some withered rolls of papyri. Any transla' tion that is true to the letter, therefore, must

show the spots where cracks and crevices have taken toll. Nor can it ever fill or patch up the major breaks by which the continuity is inter' rupted or destroyed. Beyond that, the Egyptolo' gist is faced with other difficulties. Many an ancient craftsman who had to copy a scripture, written a thousand or more years before his day, was as unfamiliar with the language or the writ' ing of the original as the average modem type' setter is with Elizabethan English. There was much he did not understand at all, and much more that he misunderstood, and thus he made mistakes and often mutilated the original text. The Egyptologist, regardless of his everdmprov' ing philological equipment is bound to grope for the meaning of each word or group of words. The closer his literal translation comes to the truth, the more likely is he to confess that it is far from being the enjoyable piece of art which the original must have been to its contemporaries. W hat I have gathered into this small volume does not pretend to be a literal translation. I have tried to free it from the ballast of scientific quest and query. My aim was to make it easily readable. But in doing just that, I have sought to escape the errors of the self'Styled restorer who is neither a faithful scientist nor a true artist and

therefore destructs more than he constructs. I have restricted myself religiously to the use of whatever material was handed to me by the scientific explorer. However, most of the tales had neither a beginning nor an end. I had to give them what they needed by knitting together some frazzled threads of the narrative and fitting them into the original pattern. In the interpretation of words and phrases I had to take many liber" ties, but I have done my level best not to give them a counterfeit meaning. I have let myself be guided by the textual transcriptions and com" ments of the past masters of Egyptology. With" out Adolf Erman’s Literatur der Aegypter and Gaston Maspero’s Contes populaires de I'Egypte, which I collated with others, I would not have been able to carry out my layman’s task of pre" senting modem literature with this modification of the legacy from ancient Egypt. The very time at which these tales originated may never be determined. All we can tell with at least approximate accuracy are the centuries during which they were written down as we be" hold them. Egyptian literature extends over more than three thousand years. The story of “The Eloquent Peasant,” for instance, is reported to

have found its first literary form about the year 2500 B.C. If this be true, there lie between this unknown original and the versions that have come to us, as many centuries as between the first medieval printings of the Canterbury Tales and their editions in the language of our day. In the eyes of eternity, centuries are short days. The emotions which flow through the tales of the ancient Egyptians, the human experiences which caused them to be written, are of the same day as our own. While science may count off the hours and minutes of the history of literature, we may unconcernedly enjoy its gifts as the fruits from A rt’s eternal tree. Two tales in this volume, strictly speaking, do not belong to it. The legendary tale of “The Great Contest” was written during the era of Egypt’s cultural decline. Although it is far re" mote from the spiritual realm of the other stories, I have taken it in. For, only from the darkness and decay of which it is an eloquent witness, can be measured the radiant grandeur of the classic works. The story of “The King’s Treasure and the Thieves,” told by Herodotus, I have included because it shows how Egypt reflected herself in the mirror of the Greek historian, and what a

fabulous picture he passed on to a world unable for twenty'five centuries to see her true image as it now emerges ever more distinctly from con' temporary records. The works of the plastic arts which the spade unearthed in the land of the pharaohs speak their own language and have inspired our age. The “Tales of the Ancient Egyptians” are mute in their original tongue. May it be that I have been able to lend them the gift of speech!
U lric h S te in d o rff C a rrin g to n

Preserved by inscriptions in several royal tombs of the N ew Kingdom (1546-1085 B.C.)

February, 1953




ND it came to pass that the desires of men were wicked, and that they had evil de' signs against Re, the sun'god, who has no creator but himself and who is king over all men and over all gods. Now, Re was no longer young but naught of what men had in mind escaped him. Thus, His Divine Majesty said to those who followed him: “Call unto me Hathor, the sun'eyed, and all the godships, together with their divine forebears who once were one with me in the waters of Nun, the ocean eternal. And call unto me Nun him' self and his followers. But have them come in silence so that mankind will not notice the gath' ering and be terrified in their hearts. Lead them into the Great Hall, for I want to know what they advise me to do.” So, the gods were all called and came unto him. They touched the ground with their foreheads and waited for the words he would say to the

T H E ALL-SEEIN G EYE The ancient Egyptians made the first use of this symbol in the form of an amulet called an Utchat. Presumably, the generally circular form of the eye symbolizes the universe, the all, and the pupil or the point in the center depicts the solar deity Ra, the life-giving radiation of the sun. T he All-Seeing Eye, therefore, has come to repre­ sent the all-pervading consciousness of God, or the U n i­ versal mind.

father of all gods and the creator of all humanity, the king of kings. And they said to Re, the sun' god: “Speak up and say why you have called us, and let us hear your words.” Then Re turned to Nun and spoke: “You, the oldest of all gods, you of whose being I have come to be, and you gods all and everyone, and you their ancestors, listen to what issues from my mouth! Mankind that once upon a time had run out of my eye plans evil against me. Tell me how you would meet with their designs. Be' hold, I am hesitant and have not killed them, for I wanted to hear your advice.” Then N un’s Eternal Majesty spoke: “Re, you, my son—you, the god who is mightier than the one of whom you have come, and mightier still than his creators! Do not descend from your throne. For, great will be the fear of those who dare abuse you if you but turn your eye against them.” And Re’s Majesty said in reply: “Verily, they have fled into the wilderness, for their hearts were filled with fear because of the evil they have spoken.” The gods then gave counsel and said: “Turn your eye against them, and they will be slain. Send out Hathor, the eye of your eye!”

So, Hathor went forth into the wilderness and slew many men. And when she returned, Re said: “Welcome, eye of my eye. Have you fub filled your mission?’'’ And Hathor said: “By your Majesty in Eternb ty, I have become master of mankind, and my heart is filled with joy.” But Re answered: “My will was to have them conquered so that none be left.” So, Hathor once more went to work, and there was war, and she waded in blood. When Re saw this, he spoke to those who fob lowed him and said: “Make haste and call for me swift runners who can speed like a body’s shadow.” And at once messengers were brought to him and the sumgod’s Majesty said to them: “Hasten southward and fetch me madder root as much as you can carry!” And at once it was brought, and he handed it to one of the gods who followed him that he might pound it into fine meal. And Re’s maiden servants had to make beer from barley. And into it he commanded them to put the madder root. And, lo and behold, the fluid reddened and took on the color of human blood. And welbnigh seven thousand crocks were filled, and Re, the

lord of the Kingdoms of Egypt, saw the red brew and was contented. Now, this was the night before the mom on which Hathor wanted to slay all mankind as the hosts of men went forth to battle. But Re spoke to the gods who followed him, and said: “Is this not fine beer in those crocks? Verily, I shall use it to protect humanity. Take it to the place where Hathor said that she would meet mankind and destroy it.” Thus, still under the cover of darkness, the crocks were emptied as Re, Egypt’s lord and god, had commanded. And, lo and behold, Re made the divine brew stand welbnigh four hands high above the fields. A t the break of dawn, Hathor came along and saw the flood of red. It reflected her face, and she looked beautiful. So, she stooped and drank of it, and it gave her pleasure. And she went on drinking. Thus, she became so drunk that she no longer recognised humanity, and mankind es^ caped destruction for all time to come.




Preserved on the W estcar Papyrus, w ritten between 2000 and 1780 B.C.

T CAME to pass in the days when King Khufu [Cheops] reigned over the lands of Egypt that he gathered his sons about him so that each might tell him a story and a miracle of his ken. Thus, Khefre, the king’s son, arose to relate his tale and said: “My king, I shall tell you of a miracle which really happened once upon a time when King Nebka, your forefather, betook him" self to Memphis to visit the temple of Ptah. Now, in those days there lived in Memphis the very wisest of the wise priests whose name was Ubaoner. To him, too, the king betook himself with his followers. “Now Ubaoner had a wife who fell in love with one of the king’s followers. She made him precious garments which she asked her maiden servant to take to him as a present. So it was done, and the follower of the king let the servant go back and tell her mistress in his words: ‘You know the little pleasure house on the islet in the

lake in the middle of your gardens. Come and let us there enjoy each other!1 “When Ubaoner’s wife heard this, she called for the major-domo who also was the head steward of the gardens, and said to him: T u t the little pleasure house on the islet in the lake in the mid' die of the gardens in good order and have it well fitted out.1 “So it was done, and she went there and ca' roused with the king’s follower and enjoyed h er self with him until sundown. Then, when it was dark, he felt like taking a bath. So, he went down to the shore of the lake, and her maiden servant went with him to shield him. The major'domo though saw what happened, and when the night grew light again and the new day appeared, he betook himself to his master and told him every' thing he knew. Then Ubaoner said to him: "Bring unto me the holy scriptures and the chest of ebony and gold with the wax and all the paraphernalia.1 "‘And as this was brought to him, he took the wax and molded out of it a crocodile seven times the breadth of his hand. Then he took the scrip' tures and spoke from them to the crocodile, and it was a magic spell which ended thus: "Whoso' ever it be that cometh to bathe in the lakes of mine, him thou shalt seise and devour!1 Then he

handed the crocodile to the major'domo and said to him: "When the king’s follower goes down to the lake to take his evening bath, you will throw this crocodile after him into the waters.1 ""With that the major'domo left and took the waxen crocodile with him. “Now, on the following day, Ubaoner’s wife bade the major'domo once more to come to her and she said to him: ‘Have the pleasure house well fitted out all over again, for I want you to know that I am going to spend all day there.1 “Thus, the pleasure house was equipped once more with all the best things, and Ubaoner’s wife went there with her maiden servant. And the king’s follower came, and they had together a full day of enjoyment. A t nightfall, the follower of the king went down to the shore to take his evening bath. Then the major'domo took the waxen crocodile and threw it after him into the water. And, lo and behold, it grew to be seven yards long and seised the king’s follower just as Ubaoner had commanded. “Now, Ubaoner whiled away seven days with King Nebka, without leaving him, and all this time the king’s follower was in the depth of the lake and had no air to breathe. “After the seventh day, the king missed his

follower. Then, Ubaoner stepped before the king and said: ‘Your Majesty may come with me and behold a miracle that will be done before his very eyes.’ “Thus, the king went with him to the lake in the middle of the gardens, and Ubaoner called the crocodile and commanded: ‘Bring the king’s follower before me!’ And behold, the crocodile dived out of the water dragging him with it. The king was terrified and cried: ‘Woe is me! How gruesome a creature is this crocodile!’ “Then, Ubaoner bent down over the crocodile, took it up and, behold, in his hands it turned again into wax. “The wisest of the wise priests then told the king what had happened between his wife and the king’s follower in the pleasure house on the islet in the lake in the middle of the gardens. Then the king spoke to the crocodile that was wax, and said: ‘Go and take what is yours!’ And behold, it once more seised the king’s follower and disappeared with him in the lake. And noth' ing was heard since of the follower of the king. “The wife of Ubaoner, by command of the king, was taken outside the city and burned alive. And her ashes were thrown into the river. “Thus ended the miracle that was done in the

days of King Nebka, your forefather, one of the many performed by Ubaoner, the wisest of the wise priests.” When King Khufu had heard this tale, he said: “Make an offering of a thousand loaves of bread and a hundred jugs of beer, a whole ox and a double measure of incense, to the glory of King Nebka, the just, and at the same time have a loaf of the sweetest bread, of beer one jug, and a good meal, and incense aplenty for the wisest of wise priests, Ubaoner, for I have heard what dv vine a miracle he has performed.” And so it was done as His Majesty commanded. V After that arose Baffre, another son of King Khufu, and spoke: “I shall, my king, tell you of a miracle that really happened in the days of King Snefru, your father, and that was one of the many performed by Zaza^emAnkh, wisest of wise priests. “It came to pass one day that King Snefru felt ill at heart and called unto him the great of his court to give him cheer. Yet, none of them sue ceeded. Then the king commanded: ‘Call unto me Zaza^en-Ankh, the wise keeper of the holy scrip' tures!’ And at once there appeared in his presence

the high priest, and the king said to him: ‘Know you, I have gathered about me the entire court to find words of cheer for me, and yet they were not given me.1 “And Zaza-en-Ankh answered the king and said: ‘Deign to betake yourself to the lake in your royal gardens. Take a boat with the loveliest from the house of your royal women and let them row you. Cheer will fill your heart when your eyes behold them as they move up and down to the beat of their oars. Then you will feel the sweet' ness of the waters of your lake and the beauty of its verdant shores, and ever greater joy will be in your heart.1 “And His Majesty answered: ‘Verily, you counsel me well. You may return to your home. I shall prepare at once the outing on the lake. Bring to me twenty oars of ebony with handles of sycamore ornate with gold! Bring to me twen­ ty of the loveliest maidens, the shapeliest, the most beautiful of breast and hair; twenty who have never been with child! And bring me twenty of the netlike garments in which they may gown themselves.1 “And it was done as the king commanded. The maidens rowed him up and down the lake, and

at their sight the royal heart was indeed filled with great cheer. “Now, it came to pass that one of the maidens entangled herself in her hair, and the diadem of glittering malachite, which she was wearing, dropped into the lake. A t that, the joyous calling of the oar beats stopped, for she was the leader in the boat. And since she dropped her oar, all the others fell silent, and none rowed any longer. “ ‘Are you tired of rowing?1 the king asked. And they answered: ‘Our leader is silent and rows no longer.1 Then the king turned to her and asked: ‘W hy have you ceased rowing?1 And she replied: ‘My diadem of glittering malachite has fallen into the lake.' “Thereupon the king commanded that another diadem be brought, and he handed it to her and said: ‘Be good and go on rowing. Look, I am replacing your loss.1 “But she said: ‘I want the food back and not the pot!1 “A t that the king commanded and said: ‘Well then, call to me Zaza-en-Ankh, the wisest of the wise, and bring him before me!1 And at once Zaza-en-Ankh was called and the king said to him: ‘Zaza, my brother, I have done as you have counselled me, and my royal heart was filled with

cheer at the sight of their rowing. Now, the lead­ er’s diadem of glittering malachite has fallen into the lake, and she fell silent and dropped her oar. I asked her: 'W hy do you row no longer?’ ‘My diadem of glittering malachite has fallen into the lake,’ said she. ‘Be good and go on rowing,’ said I; ‘look, I am replacing your loss!’ Said she: ‘I want the food back and not the pot!’ “Then Zaza-en-Ankh, the wisest of the wise priests, spoke and what he said was a spell. And he folded one side of the lake upon the other, and, behold, there was the diadem lying openly upon a shard. He lifted it up and handed it to her who had lost it. The water in the middle of the lake had been twelve fathoms deep, and now that Zaza-en-Ankh had folded it, its depth measured twenty-four fathoms. Then Zaza-en-Ankh spoke again his spell, and the lake resumed its previous level. “After that, the king had the most cheerful day, and he rewarded Zaza-en-Ankh with the very best for his great wisdom. “Thus ended the miracle that happened in the days of your father, King Snefru, and that was one of the many performed by Zaza-en-Ankh, wisest of the wise priests and keeper of the holy scriptures.’’

When King Khufu had heard this tale, he said: “Make an offering of a thousand loaves of bread and a hundred jugs of beer, a whole ox and a double measure of incense, to the glory of King Snefru, my father, and at the same time have a loaf of the sweetest bread, of beer one jug, and a good meal and incense aplenty for the wisest of wise priests, Zaza-en-Ankh, for I have heard what divine a miracle he has performed.’’ And so it was done as His Majesty commanded. V Then arose Hardedef, the third son of King Khufu, and spoke: “W hat you have heard so far, my king, are tales of what was done by the wiz­ ardry of men who have lived in days bygone, and there is nobody who could bear witness to its truth. Yet, there is one who does miracles in your very day.” Thereupon His Majesty asked: “W ho is he?” And Hardedef replied: “Dedi is his name. He is a subject of yours and lives in Dedsnefru. He is over a hundred years old and yet so hale and hearty that he can eat five hundred loaves of bread together with a whole haunch of beef, and drink ten jugs of beer all by himself. He knows how to put the head back on a beheaded man’s shoulders, and he also knows how to make a lion so tame

that he will follow him, and the rope around the beast’s neck needs not be lifted from the ground. And he knows also all about the locks to the tern' pie of Thot as though he were the god of wisdom himself.” Now, King Khufu had tried for many a year to know more about the locks to the temple of Thot, for he was eager to have an equally urn violable locking device for his own sanctuaries and his pyramid. Thus, he said: “Hardedef, my son, go yourself and bring this man before me!” So, ships were fitted out for the king’s son, and he sailed up the river to Dedsnefru. When they had reached the landing place, the ships were drawn ashore, and Hardedef made the last part of his journey on land, in a litter of ebony with carrying poles of pliant sandalwood mounted with pure gold. Thus he came to Dedi in Dedsnefru. The lit' ter was set down, and the king’s son went afoot to greet him. He found him on the threshold of his house, lying on a sleeping mat. One of his servants held his head, rubbing it with ointment, while another salved his feet. And Hardedef, the king’s son, spoke to him: “Verily, yours is the day of living before the advent of age and of senectitude. Far are you

from taking leave, and far from pall and tomb. Behold, you are sleeping into the noon of day like a young man. You need not fear your age. Greetings to you, reverend sir! I come with a message from my father, King Khufu. I am call' ing you to him so that you may partake of his royal table and of all the splendors of his court, and that he may lead you through a beauteous life to your fathers who dwell in realm of the dead.” Then Dedi spoke: “Peace be upon you! Peace be upon you, Hardedef, beloved son of the king. May Khufu, your royal father, reward you! May he give rise to your youth before age! May your heart be victor over all your enemies! May your soul some day find the way to him who unlocks the gate to the land of the dead! Be greeted!” Then, the king’s son stretched out both his hands and drew Dedi up to himself. And together they went to the landing place, Hardedef guiding Dedi. Then Dedi entreated him and said: “Grant me a ship for my own so that I need not leave my household and my holy scriptures behind me.” And he was given two ships. Yet, Dedi himself sailed in the same boat with Hardedef. When they had reached the capital, Hardedef went to King Khufu in order to report everything

to him, and said: “O my king and lord, I have brought Dedi with me.” And His Majesty re" plied: “Well, then bring him before me.” Where" upon the king betook himself into the Great Hall of the palace, and Dedi was brought before him. And the King said: “W hat is the reason that I have never seen you until this day?” And Dedi replied: “He who is not called does not appear.” Then King Khufu asked further: “Is it true, as they say, that you know how to put the head of a beheaded back on his shoulders?” “Yes,” Dedi replied, “I do know, my king and lord.” Thereupon the king commanded: “Take a condemned man from the prison and bring him before me that he receive his punishment!” But Dedi replied: “Never ever, my king and lord, shall I do such to any man. Verily, your command had better be fulfilled on an animal.” Then a goose was brought and her head was chopped off. And the body of the goose was placed at one end of the hall and her head at the other. Then Dedi began to speak, and what he spoke was a spell. And the goose’s body arose and waddled. And so did the head. And when the two met, the goose was the same she had been before, and cackled. Thereupon a duck was brought, and Dedi did

the same to her. Whereupon the king called for a bull and had his head cut off. And again Dedi spoke his spell, and the bull arose the same as he had been before. Only his halter was still lying on the floor. Then King Khufu said: “Is it also true, as they say, that you know all about the locks to the holy temple of Thot?” And Dedi answered: “Forgive me, my king and lord, I do not know all their number, but I know where they are to be found.” “Where are they to be found?” the king asked further, and Dedi said: “In the city of the sun, in Heliopolis, in one of the temple chambers there is a chest of stone. Therein are the locks.” Then the king said: “You shall go there and bring them to me.” Whereupon Dedi replied: “Never ever shall I be the one who brings them to you.” “W ho else but you?” the king asked, and Dedi said: “They will be brought to you by the eldest of the three sons yet unborn in the womb of Reddedet.” A t that the king shouted: “I command you to tell me! W ho is this Reddedet of whom you speak?” And Dedi replied: “She is the wife of a priest of the Lord of the Sun, our god, Re of

Sachebu. She is heavy with three sons of Re. And the god has foretold her that some day they will hold royal honors and wield the sceptre, and that the eldest of her sons shall be high priest at the city of the sun.” A t that King Khufu was deeply saddened. But Dedi spoke to him and said: “W hy be of such sadness? My king and lord, do you grieve be' cause of those three sons? Verily, after you comes first your own son, and then your son’s son, and only after him one of hers.” Thereupon His Majesty asked: “W hen do you say, shall she give birth, this Reddedet?” And Dedi said: “On the fifteenth day of the first month of the great drought.” Then the king said: “There must be a way for me to visit Re’s temple at Sachebu even at such a time.” And Dedi said: “Verily, at your time of sailing I shall let the waters of the river rise four fathoms high.” Thereupon the king withdrew into the inner chambers of the palace and commanded: “Give Dedi lodgings in Hardedef’s house and let him stay with him. And give him a thousand loaves of bread and a hundred jugs of beer, a whole ox, and a hundred bushels of the choicest leek.” And it was done as King Khufu commanded.

Now, when the days were accomplished, and Reddedet felt the pains of travail approaching, the sun'god’s Majesty, Re of the temple at Sachebu, turned to Isis and to Meschenet, the goddess of birth, and to Heket and Chnum, the creator of man, and said to them: “Well now, come and de' liver Reddedet of her three sons who shall some day be kings over the lands of Egypt. They will build you temples and lay many offerings upon your altars. They will cover the tables of sacrifice with food and drink, and lavish many gifts upon you.” Thereupon the three goddesses changed their appearance and went forth in the guise of maiden musicians, accompanied by Chnum as their serv' ant. And they came to the house of Rawoser, the priest and wedded husband of Reddedet, who was standing in fatherly despair at the open door. They set about to dance and sing, letting their necklaces and bracelets jingle, and swinging their rattles. Then Rawoser spoke to them and said: “Most worthy women, forgive me, but inside there lies a woman in travail.” And they cried: “Come on, let us see her. W e are well versed in the art of delivery.” “Follow me,” Rawoser said joyfully. And they went into Reddedet’s chamber. But they shut the

door tight and did not let Rawoser in. Isis knelt down at Reddedet’s feet, and Meschenet stood be' hind the seated woman, holding her arms around her, while Heket speeded up the delivery. Isis said: “You shall be strong and mighty, son, after you leave your mother’s womb. Verily, I name you Userreff, "Strong and Mighty’.” And the infant slipped easily into her hands, and behold, he measured in length a full yard and was strong of limb. His whole body was golden and his head was crowned with lucent lapis lazuli. After the umbilical cord was severed, and the infant was cleansed, he was bedded in fine linen. Then Meschenet stepped over to him and said: "‘You shall be king over these lands!” Then Chnum came and endowed his body with health. After that, Isis received in her hands the second son and then the third son of Reddedet. And to the one she said: “Do not press upon your mother’s womb, son, for you shall be the oppressor of your enemies as verily as I name you Sahre, "Lord and Oppressor.’ ” And to the other she said: “Lighten up, son, your mother’s pangs, for you shall be a light to all as verily as I name you Ke\u, "Lord and Light.’ ” Now, when the goddesses had delivered Red'

dedet of her three sons, they went out to Rawoser and said to him: “Rejoice, Rawoser, for three sons are born unto you.” And he said: “Most worthy women, how shall I thank you? Well, let your servant take your reward in barley.” And Chnum came and took a full load of grain. Thereupon they returned to their abode. But Isis said to the others: “Verily, we have been with Reddedet; yet, we have not performed any miracle of which we could tell the divine father. W e have not done right.” So, they created three diadems as precious as kings are wont to wear on their brow, and they hid them in the load of barley. Then they made a storm draw up over the skies and let rain pour from the heavens. And they returned to Rawoser’s house and said: “Ah, let us keep our barley safe under roof until we come back and can take it home without danger.” Rawoser showed them the storeroom where they could keep the barley and closed it with his seal. Now, two weeks later, when Reddedet was clean again and allowed to attend the house, she asked her servant maid: “Are kitchen and larder well provided?”

“There is nothing wanting,” the maid said, “but we are short on beer.” “W hy have they not made enough beer?” Reddedet inquired. “There would have been enough beer, had not all the barley been given as a present to the mu­ sicians. It is well locked up in a room of its own.” “W ell,” said Reddedet, “go and get some of it. Rawoser, certainly, will replace what you take as soon as he returns.” Thus, the maid went and broke the seal to the storeroom. But as she entered she heard music and singing and jubilating, such as is heard at feasts in honor of a king. The maid went back and told Reddedet what she had heard and what had happened on the day of delivery. Thereupon Reddedet went herself to the store­ room, for she was anxious to find out whence the music came, but she could not determine the right spot. Finally, she put her ear to one of the barley chests, and behold, the music came from inside. So, she looked into the chest. And when she saw what was inside, she put the chest into a basket and put the basket into another chest. She tied the chest up with leather straps and took it into the larder which she locked, for she did not want anybody to know what she knew.

But when Rawoser returned home, she told him everything. And Rawoser was full of cheer, and they sat together and enjoyed their happiness. Now, it came to pass that Reddedet became angered at her servant and had her lashed. There­ upon the maid said to the others in the house: “Do you know what has happened? Reddedet has given birth to three kings. I shall go and tell King Khufu about it.” And with that, she walked out of the house to talk things over with her brother who was just bundling flax on the threshing floor. “Where are you going, sisterkin?” he asked her. And she told him all. Then he said: “And you are coming to me that I shall share the guilt of your betrayal?” And he took a skein of flax and hit her hard. She ran away to cool her face with a handful of water; and, lo and behold, there came a crocodile out of the river and dragged her off. Then her brother went to Reddedet to tell her what happened. He found her sitting, head upon her knees, in deep sadness. “W hy are you so sad, most worthy woman?” he asked her. And she replied: “Because of your sister whom I have brought up and who has said to me: ‘I shall betray you!’ ” Thereupon he bowed and said: “Most worthy woman, she came to me and told me. And I hit

her hard. So she ran away to cool her face with a handful of water. And, lo and behold, a croco­ dile came out of the river and dragged her off, so that she would not betray anything.” Thus, it came to pass that Re, god of the sun and lord of the temple at Sachebu, saved Reddedet and her three sons from all evil so that there could be fulfilled what Dedi, the wisest of the wise priests, had foretold to King Khufu [Cheops].

V Preserved on several papyri of the XII Dynasty, w ritten between the years 2000 and 1780 B.C. (M iddle Kingdom)

NCE upon a time there was a peasant by the name of Chuenanup. He lived with his wife, whose name was Meret, in a remote oasis of the Natron Valley. Now, one day Chuenanup said to Meret: “Know you, I have to travel down to Egypt and earn a living for our children. Go to the corn shed and see how much grain we have left.” So, Meret went to measure it and found that there were eight bushels. Then the peasant said to his wife: “Keep two bushels for yourself and the children in the house. Of the other six, bake me bread and brew me beer enough to travel on.” Thus, the peasant departed for Egypt. His pack asses were heavily laden with all the best an oasis of the Natron Valley had to offer: fruits of the fields, natron and salts, jackal pelts, wine skins made of panther hides, and whatnot. In the neighborhood of Pufefi, not all too far from Medinet, on a dike, Chuenanup was destined

to meet with a certain Dehutinecht, the son of a certain Iseri, who was one of the stewards of the royal lands under the supervision of a certain Rensi, the son of Meru. Now, Dehutinecht saw the peasant coming his way with his pack asses, and they made his mouth water. So, he said to himself: “I shall not pass up this catch, so help me God.” Now, the lands under the stewardship of De' hutinecht were touching the road over the dike which at this spot was very narrow. In fact, it allowed no more space than a man’s loin cloth. One side was washed over by the waters of the canal, and the other was covered by the over' growth from the fields. Dehutinecht quickly ordered his men about and said to them: “Hurry and get me a sheet of linen!” This being done, he spread the sheet across the dike, laying it out in such a way that its front end dangled into the water and the back end cov' ered the stalks of the adjoining barley patch. As the peasant approached the dike which was part of the road and open for everybody, De' hutinecht shouted at him imperiously: “W atch out! Be careful and do not step upon that stuff of mine!” And Chuenanup answered respectfully:

SCALES O F T H O T H Thoth, whose name signified “the measurer” was one of the principal gods of Egypt. H e is always found in judgment scenes, where he records on his palette the result of the weighing of the heart of the deceased. The cynocephalus, an apelike animal sacred to Thoth, is shown above representing equilibrium as he is seated on the middle of the beam of the scales in which the heart of the deceased is being weighed.

“Certainly, I do not wish to be contrary. I shall find the right way.” W ith that he turned to one side of the road. But Dehutinecht yelled: “Is that barley field of mine the right way?” Whereupon Chuenanup replied: “Certainly, it is the right way. The waters are high, and on this side are fields. The dike you have barred with that stuff of yours. Do you want me not to pass at all?” Now, while he was saying that, one of his pack asses snatched a mouthful of barley ears. And Dehutinecht yelled: “The ass is mine, you boor. He has eaten my barley! A fat ass threshes well.” Then Chuenanup said: “I was on the right road. Impassable as it is, I must lead my asses some way around. Are you going to take him from me because of a mouthful of barley? I know the one who is master over these lands. This field belongs to Rensi, the son of Meru. And is he not the man chosen to fight robbers and thieves all over the kingdom? Shall I let myself be robbed on his own piece of property?” Thereupon Dehutinecht said: “The old prow erb that says, k A servant’s voice is no voice’ is not always right. You have heard my voice, but do not fool yourself, peasant; the voice of Rensi, whom I serve, will sound the same.”

W ith that, Dehutinecht broke a pliant branch from a tamarisk tree and whipped Chuenanup. Then he took his pack asses and drove them to the village. Chuenanup cried loud out with pain and sobbed for grief over the wrong that was done to him. But Dehutinecht shouted back at him: “Stop cry' ing so loud, or Osiris, the god of stillness, will silence you for good.” “You whip me,” Chuenanup gainsaid, “and rob me of what is mine; are you going to steal the plaints from my lips for good measure? Ah, Osiris, god almighty who makes silence eternal, help me back to what is mine! Crying injustice I shall lament forever!” For ten long days Chuenanup stayed in Dehuti' necht’s village and pleaded for his right, but the steward would not listen. So, he turned south and went to Ehnas in order to put his plaint be' fore Rensi, the son of Meru, the master of Dehutinecht. He found Rensi at the very minute when he stepped out of the gate of his house to go aboard the ship in which he made from time to time tours of inspection as it was his office. And Chuenanup spoke up to him and said: “Lend

me your gracious ear! Let me tell my plaint to a man of your confidence!1 1 Thereupon Rensi, the son of Meru, the lord steward of all royal lands, sent to him one of his devoted servants so that he would receive a full report on the matter. After that, Rensi brought the plaintiff’s case before his councilors. And they said: “It is our considered opinion that the peasant Chuenanup was on his way to take his wares to some person other than Dehutinecht as he should have done according to custom. Consequently, Dehutinecht has done what anybody else would have done under that circumstance. Verily, no­ body would have acted differently. Should De­ hutinecht be taken into punishment because of a few bags of natron and salts? Order him to repair the damage done to the man. No doubt, he will make amends.1 1 Rensi, the son of Meru, was tacit. He had no retort to the council. Nor did he make a reply to Chuenanup. Then Chuenanup appeared again before Rensi, the son of Meru, to make his complaint to him in person. And this is what he said: “You, lord steward of the royal lands—you, one of the greatest among the great of the king, the lead­ ing master of all that there ever was and of all

that there is, my lord: Whenever you step down to the shores of truth and travel upon her waters, may a good wind be with you! May your sails be rigged fast so that your ship be not retarded! May no storm ever strike its mast nor a tempest tear asunder the hawsers so that the seas will cast you upon desolate strands! Never ever may you taste the fears and the terror of being adrift! May the fish of evil always run into your net and the most evasive birds become your prey. “Behold, you are the father of the fatherless and the widow’s provider. You are a brother to the outcast and a sheltering cloak to him who has no motherly friend. Now, see to it that your illustrious name is giving splendor to the law of the kingdom. You are the justice in whom there dwells no wrong. You stand highest and you will not stoop. Deceit and falsehood shatter be­ fore you who is the maker of truth and right. Do not deny yourself to the pleas of my heart! Listen to me who is the plaintiff! Be my judge, you who is praised above all for his justice and to whom the highest in the land bow in gratitude. Look at me! I am weary and heavy-laden. Look, I can no more. Count all the wrong I may have done, and you will see that it is of no account!1 1 Thus, Chuenanup spoke to Rensi. And it

happened at the time when Nebkaure was still king of Egypt. And Rensi went before His Ma' jesty and said: “My king and lord, there has appeared before me a man of great eloquence, a peasant who knows how to put his words. He was robbed of what was his, by one of the stewards in my service, and he came before me with his plaint.” And King Nebkaure, blessed be he, said: “If you mean well by me, put him off. Give him no reply so that he may manifest more of his elcy quence and speak words of beauty. Have his plaints written down for me to enjoy. But see to it that his wife and children have enough to live on. Dispatch one of your men to Meret so that her household be not wanting. And see to it that he himself is well taken care of. Yet, ar­ range everything in such manner that he will not know from whom his food comes. After that Chuenanup received day by day four loaves of bread and two jugs of beer. The giver was Rensi, but he handed them to a de­ voted servant who gave them to somebody else to take them to Chuenanup. A t the same time, Rensi sent word to the oasis in the Natron Valley and allotted to its overseer three full bushels of corn which Meret, Chuenan-

up’s wife, was to receive for her and her chil­ dren’s sustenance. V Now, Chuenanup appeared for the second time before Rensi, the son of Meru. And this is what he said: “My lord, you who are the lord steward of the royal lands, greatest among the great and mightiest among the mighty, may your power prove itself for ever and a day! You, helm of god, keel of the good ship Earth, and plummet of profundity, may you never steer a false course, never burst asunder, and never tangle! “I ask you: Shall the man in power be allowed to take the widow’s own and to rob him who stands alone of what he possesses? Behold! You have in your house all you need. You have food and drink aplenty. How much of it will your hands scoop up to still the hunger of the weak be­ fore you? Verily, his death is to be your death. Or do you not want to live in all eternity? “I ask you: Is it good when a scale is not on the level, and when its tongue errs from the right? Is it good when a just man totters into injustice? “Alas! Truth before you has a poor chance if her tongue is errant. Believe me, your councilors give evil counsel and mete out false measure. Those

who should have an ear for the right, do not give it a hearing. Those who should grant space and air to a complaint, take one’s breath away. Those who should be the makers of peace are creating discord, and instead of dispensing justice they bring forth injustice. Those who should exorcise the waves of crime, adjure them to flood the earth.” Thus spoke Chuenanup. And Rensi replied: “You are speaking evil. Blame nobody but your­ self if I have you chastened.” Yet, Chuenanup continued and said: “Those who are measuring corn, measure it into their own sacks. And those who weigh out, are weigh­ ing short. Those who should carry out justice, carry away the goods of their neighbors. I ask you: W ho can fend off injustice when the guard­ ian of right totters into evil? Do unto the wrong­ doer what he has done unto you! Then he will reap his reward, and the arrow from his bow will fly back unto him. “You conjure the hour of death and doom. You let the herds of your cattle dwindle and your pigeon flocks fly away. Verily, he who sees, goes blind, and he who has ears, becomes dead of hearing. He who has been made a leader, mis­ leads.

“Verily, you are a strong and mighty man. But your strength is brute power, and your force is avarice. Compassion has passed you by. Behold! the poor man laments, for you are his ruin. You are the image of the god of destruction, crocodile and plague. Verily, you may do as they do, but do it where it is rightly to be done. Then the beggar will have no longer to endure rich masters who strip him of his alms. Nor will there be left a wealthy thief to rob the pauper. “I ask you: Is this not evil done by him who is not wanting? You are rich in every way. You eat your fill of barley, and yet you get drunk with the beer you make of what you cannot eat. “When the helmsman’s eye strays, the ship will drift where it pleases. When the king idles his hours away sleeping with his women and you are holding the rudder in his stead, be not sur­ prised if you meet with disaster, when you too are idling. Verily, the plaintiff will have a long way to go, and the court will ask: W h o is the stranger that comes to find justice?’ “Be a good breakwater for the ships and a strong dike! Let a true tongue tell the right road to everyone. Do not speak a lie, and have none spoken by your councilors. Verily, those

who hold hearings, do not want truth, for it burdens their souls. “I ask you: You who know the needs of all humanity are you ignorant of my distress? You, the protector of the suffering men at sea, behold, I am drifting helpless upon the waters. You who stretch out your hand to anyone so that he may not drown, are you going to let me be submerged by misery?” A After that, Chuenanup appeared for the third time before Rensi, the son of Meru. And this is what he said: “You, lord steward of the King’s lands and my lord! You are the image of Re, the god of the sun, who sails in his bark over the horizons. All mankind’s life rests in your hands. You are Egypt’s river and his flood that makes the fields green and turns the desert wastes into orchards. “Send your waters against the robbers and thieves, but hold the tide so that its waves do not turn against the beggars of mercy. Follow the word that says: ‘Doing right is the breath of life.’ Punish him who deserves punishment, and let nobody excel you in justice. “I ask you: Can a scale be so wrong that the pan holding the least weight goes down? Can

Thot, the divine judge, be unjust in his wisdom? Verily, it is he whom you must follow. Never requite good with evil. But neither should you pay for evil with clemency. Justice is the beam of the scales of the kingdom. “Be true, and you will be just. Be not too light, and you will weigh right. Do not lie, and you will be the balance. Count the weights, and you will not be wanting, for you cannot be wrong when they are not wrong. Do not sink, you who must be the tiller. Do not rob, you who must protect against robbery. Behold, the great who is filled with avarice, loses his greatness. Let the tongue of the scales be your tongue. The weight is your heart, and the beam is the justice of your lips. If you shut yourself off from justice, who shall be the evildoer’s judge? “Behold, you must not be like the one who washes the pauper’s linen by the river and thrusts him into the water, taking what he brought as a trusting friend. Behold, you must not be like the ferryman who carries but him who shows him the fare, and who knows no longer right from wrong. “Behold, you must not be like the keeper of the royal gardens who has the peasant whipped because his harvest is not big enough. Behold,

you must not be like the bird of prey who fattens himself on the weakest birds and the sparrows. “Behold, you must not be like the cook who delights in slaughter and kills more than he needs in the kitchen. “Behold, you must be like the shepherd who worries about each and every one of his flock and trembles for the least that is missing. “Verily, you have ears to hear with, and yet you are deaf. He who hides the truth, cannot cover it forever; and the lie will be found by the hunter. “Never prepare a feast for the morrow. You never know what evil it may bring.'1 '’ Chuenanup spoke all these words to Rensi, the son of Meru, as he was standing in the gate of his house and before all his servants. And Rensi called for two men with whips, and they lashed Chuenanup. Then Chuenanup said: “Verily, the son of Meru strays from what is right. He is blind to what his eye sees, and deaf to the words he hears with his ear. Alas, he is forgetful of what he has been reminded. “You are like a city without a head and like a council without brains. You are like a ship

without a captain and like an army without a commander. “You have been made the watchman, and you are the thief. You have been made lord of the exchequer, and you allow yourself to be bribed. You have been chosen to protect the realm against robbers, and now you are their model.” A W ith that Chuenanup left. But he returned to put his plaint before Rensi for the fourth time, and he found him just as he stepped out of the temple of Herishef. And this is what he said: “You, who has been richly bestowed, may Herishef, the god whose house you are now leaw ing, reward you time and again! Verily, the good perishes and no one can boast that falsehood and deceit have been hunted down. “Do you not need a ferry for crossing the river? So must the land have a raft of justice to be ferried over the flood of injustice. “Who, in this kingdom, dares close his eyes by day? W ho can wander about at night with peace in his heart, and travel safely his road? W ho can come before you with a just complaint? “Behold, you have to be told and told again: compassion has passed you by, and the poor man

must lament, for you are the cause of his distress. “You are the happy hunter who thrusts his spear and fells the hippopotamus. Your arrow never misses the wild steer. You give chase to the beasts of the river and catch them as you catch birds in your nets. You are fast in hitting with words but slow in changing your mind. Let your heart be moved and recognize the truth! “Behold, what was written down for you, must make your eyes see. Do not stand upon your power, and let not your pride conjure evil upon you. “He who eats, first tastes. He who is hailed, answers the salute. He who sleeps has dreams. Behold, you foolish heart, some one has come to you. Do you not know that you are saluted? You sleep no longer and your dreaming must end. “Oh, you man at the rudder, let not your ship run aground! You who give life, keep away death. You who have the power to destroy, hit well with your destruction. You who are shade, do not become sun to him who is dying of thirst. Refuge, you, do not turn to be the ambush. “For the fourth time I have come to you with my plaint. How long then shall this last?” A And for the fifth time Chuenanup appeared

before Rensi, the son of Meru. And this is what he said: “You, lord of the king’s lands and my lord, you know the fisherman who with the rod catches the preying fish of the lakes. You know him who fishes with the net and lets nothing slip through. You know him too who spears the fish and lets none escape his aim, for he stirs up the mud until he finds it. Behold, such is your office! “Do not deprive the poor man of his own. You know his misery. Do not catch the wrong fish. His breath is all the poor man possesses. He who takes it from him, suffocates him. “You have been placed in office to hold hear' ings and to stand as judge between the robbed and the robber. But instead of fending off thieves you are the fence around their loot. “Verily, you have been placed in high con' fidence but have raised yourself above it. You have been set up as a protecting wall and dike for the poor that they may not drown, but, be' hold, you have become the flood—you, the all overwhelming.” A And for the sixth time Chuenanup spoke his complaint before Rensi. And this is what he said: “You, lord steward of the king’s lands and my

lord—you, the greatest among the great and mightiest among the mighty—bring forth justice! Bring forth what is good and destroy what is evil. Come and be the fill that stills hunger. Come and be the cloak that covers nakedness. Be the heavens serene after the storm, and the sun that gives warmth to them who shiver with frost. Be the fire that cooks well the food that is underdone. Be the water that quenches the thirst. “Look about you! He who should serve others, serves but himself. He who should hand out hap­ piness and joy, deals discord and sadness. He who should be a healer brings sickness. Behold, nothing good can spring from injustice, and evil will not increase your possessions. He who goes to meas­ ure a full bushel, must not fill air in between, nor make it run over. “Verily, when you enjoy justice, share it with your brother and make him happy. Grief puts man against man, and misery sets them apart willy nilly. “Do not hesitate and speak justice. Behold, the truth will pierce your dike and the dammed-up filth will flood the land. The ship will be wrecked and its cargo will be destroyed in the storm of evil. “You are a wise and learned man. Have you

been educated to be a robber? You do the same all the others are doing, and you are one with them in falsehood and deceit. Verily, the tiller of shame waters his soil with sin but fraud will be his only harvest and deceit his only gain.” A After that, Chuenanup appeared for the seventh time before Rensi and said: “My lord, you who are the lord steward of the royal lands! You are Egypt’s helm, and the ship of state sails as you will it. You are stand­ ing next to Thot who judges without prejudice. My lord, give the plaintiff your judgment, before it is too late. Do not bear ill will, for it cannot be your wish to see an open face shrivel in tor­ ment. Do not begrudge the day for what has not happened yet, and do not rejoice in the to­ morrow and what it may bring. “The judge must not be lenient for friendship’s sake. He must be the destroyer of the evil that spreads itself before him, and not the destroyer of law and order so that the poor man be pillaged and truth pass by without a greeting. “Verily, my inward self is deeply laden and my heart is heavy to the bursting. The dike is break­ ing and the flood rushes through. My mouth will hold the words no longer. The waters must spill

over the dam. The winds have left and the pressure is gone. I have washed the linen before you. I have spoken and come to the end of my misery. Now then, what is your decision? “Verily, the tardy mind is an errant leader, and avarice blunts the senses. Will you make yourself enemies for greed’s sake? “Where is there a man who equals me in pa­ tience? W ho has so much leisure time that he can come and come again before you and complain? “Verily, there is no man so dumb that you could not make him talk; no man so fast asleep that you could not awaken him; no man so stiff that you could not limber him up; no man so ignorant that you could not put him wise, and no one so stupid that you could not give him wits. “Those are the gifts given to root out evil. They are the endowments of good councilors who like artists have the ability to form truth and model nature as wisely as they put the head of a beheaded man back on his shoulders.” A And for the eighth time Chuenanup appeared before Rensi, the son of Meru, and said: “Lord steward of the royal lands and my lord! The greedy one falters, and the avaricious will end wanting. Behold, you are covetous and that

befits not your office. You rob, and that is not to your best. “Verily, you have all you need. You will not go hungry. You have corn aplenty and if there is waste you need not be concerned. But your councilors pillage, steal and plunder, even though they have been put in office to prevent fraudulence. The most dishonest finds shelter behind him who should be a dike against crookedness. “Verily, I accuse and I do so without fear. Yet, you are unwilling to know what is in my heart and refuse to answer me no matter how manifold my plaint. “You have your many acres of fertile land. The corn stands high on your fields, and you have bread. Your councilors turn much over to you, but you take still more. I ask you: Is that not pillaging? Are you not enriching yourself with land when, after the vernal floods, you reset the boundary stones of the fields? “Do right for the sake of Thot, your god, and the justice which is his. As long as you stay away from falsehood, you will be his quill and carrier of his words. “Verily, all can be good, ah, so good if you are good. Right lasts forever and faithfully follows into the netherworld the one who kept it company.

Entombed and buried, you will be remembered because of your justice, and never upon earth shall your name be erased. Therefore speak the words of your god. Verily, the scales of eternity always tell the right weight and the balance is never false. “Now then, whether it is I or somebody else who comes before you, withhold not your reply to what he says, and do not answer him with silence. If he offends you, return the offence. “You are sound and in good health and have not excused yourself with sickness. Your presence proves that you have not sidestepped me. W hy then have you not spoken and observed the beau­ tiful word from the mouth of Re that says: ‘Speak right and do right.’ For, exalted are justice and truth, mighty and everlasting. Follow them so that you also may receive justice and be guided into eternal glory! “If you tilt the balance and tip the scales and weigh false, the end will be evil. Wrongdoing never finds a berth. But justice will make its port.” A And again Chuenanup appeared with his plaint before Rensi, and it was the ninth time that he spoke to him. And this is what he said: “You, lord steward of the royal lands and my

lord! It is the tongue of the man which tells the weight. It points to what is wanting. If you punish him who deserves punishment, you will be praised as the Scales of Justice. “Verily, where there is deceit on the rampage, there is confusion, and the ferryman will not find the right shore. He who keeps company with falsehood will go without children and leave no heir on this earth. He who sails thus will have poor sailing and never reach land, and his ship will not find the eternal harbor. “Do not weigh heavy when you hold no weight. Do not press down where there is no need for pressure. Judge without prejudice and be not biased in doing justice. Be not blind to what you have recognized and see with open eyes whom­ soever you do see. Turn away none who com­ plains before you. Be not tardy in pronouncing justice. Do right to him who has done no wrong. Do not listen to the voices of your Council and let me have your verdict! “He who hesitates to be just will not know on the morrow that there was a yesterday. He who is deaf to truth will be without a friend, and the greedy will not have a single day of joy. Verily, he who does not hear a plaint, shall be condemned himself and plead in vain.

“Alas, I have complained before you, and you have not listened. Now then, Anubis shall hear me, the god of death whom I am going to face.” Thus, Chuenanup went away. But Rensi, the son of Meru, sent two of his men after him to bring him back. Chuenanup thought that he was to be chastened because of his speech and said: “As he who is athirst for a drink of water, as the lips of a suckling yearn for the mother’s milk, so do I call for death to release me.” This time Rensi spoke to him and said: “Be without fear, tiller of the soil, you shall not de­ part from here.” And Chuenanup replied: “Then you will have to give me food and drink in all eternity!” And Rensi answered: “Verily, you shall stay, and I will reward you for what you have spoken.” Now, Rensi’s scribes had put down in writing the plaints of Chuenanup, word for word and day by day. And the scroll was sent to His Ma­ jesty, King Nebkaure. And the king found great­ er pleasure in the eloquent words of the peasant than in all the treasures of the land, and he told it to Rensi and said: “Son of Meru, render judg­ ment as you deem fit.”


Thereupon, Rensi let Chuenanup come before him and kept him at the king’s court. Then Meret, his wife, and his children were taken to Egypt with all his household. And Dehutinecht was ordered to return the pack asses. Thus, Chuenanup received back whatever he had owned and was greatly rewarded.

Preserved on a papyrus written between the years 2000 and 1780 B.C. (M iddle Kingdom)

E OF good cheer, my lord, we have come back! W e have reached port. The mooring posts are rammed in and the ropes made fast. Everyone praises the great god and gives him thanks, and we are holding our arms around each other in joy. Unharmed we have come back, and none is miss' ing of the crew. W e have ventured far and have seen many sights. But now, we are home again and on the soil on which we were born.'” These words were spoken to the Prince of Jeb, and he who said them was his friend and seafar" ing companion. And he continued with encour agement: “Do not be downhearted at the loss we have suffered, my prince. Listen to my advice. You know, I am not a man of idle chatter. Cleanse yourself, pour water over your hands, and go before the king. Tell him what has happened and give answer to all his questions, without fear and

without stammering. As a man speaks so is he. Speech is his shield against injustice, and con' sideration is its reward. Yet, follow your own heart. Giving advice is tiresome. “Let me tell you a story. W hat happened to you now, happened once to me when the king sent me to his mines in a ship that was all of one hundred and twenty feet long and forty feet wide. It carried a crew of one hundred and twenty of the choicest sailors to be found in Egypt. They watched the skies above the waters and looked out for land below. Their senses were keener than a lion’s scent. They could tell a storm long before its approach and knew ill weather when it loomed still far away. “Yet, we were on the high seas when a sudden storm broke, and there was no land in sight. W e made for the coast, but a new squall seised us, and we were washed into the sea by a wave that was all of five and four'fifths of a fathom high. The ship met its doom, and not one hand was saved. “A plank was driven my way, and I was thrown by the waves upon the strand of an island. There I spent three days with no other companion but my good courage. I found rest in the green bower of a tree and slept in the arms of its shadow.

Then I set my feet arunning, for I had to have something to put into my hungry mouth. I dis' covered figs and grapes, the most delightful leek, berries and roots, and gourds aplenty. There were fish and wild fowl and whatever my heart desired. I stilled my hunger and, behold, there was left much more than I could carry. I gathered some wood, rubbed a fire, and made a grateful offering to the gods. “Suddenly I heard a thundering noise. In my fear, I thought it was the sea with her tide. Trees crashed down and the whole earth trembled. When I took the hands from my eyes, I saw a huge serpent crawling closer and closer. She measured wellnigh thirty yards. Her royal beard alone was two yards long. Her body was of glittering gold, and her eyebrows of purest lapis lazuli. And behold, she grovelled and wound her' self toward me, and opened her mouth and spoke to me: ‘W ho has taken you to this island? Who? Who has brought you here, you midget? If you do not tell me at once who put you upon this island, the flames of my wrath will turn you into dust and ashes. You will be scattered and end in nothing!’ ‘“ Verily, I hear you speak to me,’ I replied, ‘but in my fear, I do not understand what you

say. Look at me! I am lying before you, no longer master of myself.’ “Then she lifted me up by her jaws and carried me to her abode. But she did no bodily harm to me. I lost no limb, and not even my clothes were torn. Then when I lay once more prone before her, she opened her mouth again and spoke: “ 'Answer me! W ho brought you here? W ho took you to this island that is surrounded by the sea?’ “Humbly, I raised my hands and said: 'The king of Egypt sent me to his mines, and I sailed away in a ship all of a hundred and twenty feet long and all of forty feet wide. And it had a crew of a hundred and twenty of the choicest sailors in the land. They watched the skies above the waters and looked out for land below, and their senses were keener than a lion’s scent. They could tell a storm long before its approach and ill weath­ er when it was still far away. Yet, we were on the high seas when the storm broke, and there was no land in sight. W e made for the coast. But a new squall seized us and overwhelmed us with a wave that was all of eight fathoms high. But a plank was driven my way. The ship met its doom, and not one hand was saved. Verily, thus I have come to you upon this island.’

'T hen the serpent said to me: 'Be unafraid, little man. Be unafraid. Lift your eyes up to me and have no more fear, for you have been sent to me. Verily, the great god has taken pity upon you and brought you to this blessed isle that has in abundance all you may desire and is rich in the goods of life. You shall sojourn here a month and another month and one month more until the year completes its third. Then there will come a ship from Egypt with men you know, and you shall return home and live to the end of your days in your town. Keep thinking of the pleasure that lies in telling a tale of disaster after it has been overcome. Therefore, let me tell you the story of utter misfortune that happened once upon a time to me just as it happened now to you: “ 'I lived on this island with my children and my brothers and sisters, altogether numbering seventy serpents of the same kin. Then, it came to pass that a fiery star fell from the heavens and set the island ablaze. All my children, my brothers and sisters all were consumed by the flames. I alone survived, for it so happened that I was not with them at that fatal hour. When I beheld the mountain of dead bodies, I almost died for grief and sorrow. Yet, he who is strong masters his heart. Be of good cheer, for you will fold your

arms around your children again and kiss your wife and see once more your home. Verily, of all the goods on earth there is none better. You will return home and live amidst your own.’ “After I had heard her speak thus, I bowed before her and kissed the ground and said: ‘I shall tell my king of your divinity and speak to him of your majesty. Frankincense and myrrh and all the sweetest perfumes of the land that please the gods, shall be offered to you. I shall tell the tale of what has happened to you and of what my eyes have seen on this island. Verily, the whole kingdom and all its great will give thanks unto you. I shall have steers slaughtered for burnt offerings and geese sacrificed on the altar. And I shall see to it that they send to you ships fraught with Egypt’s treasures as it befits a god who, un­ known to men, treats them with loving kindness.’ “But the serpent laughed out loud at me and my words as though a fool had spoken. ‘Of myrrh,’ she said, ‘you will have not much to offer. W hat your land possesses is frankincense. Know you, I am the Queen of Punt and this is the Isle of Fragrance. I have in great abundance all you promise me as a gift. And know you also, once you have departed from this island, you will

never see it again, for it will turn into wave and water of the sea!’ “And it came to pass that a ship approached the shores as the serpent had presaged. I went and climbed upon a tree—and, behold, I knew the men who sailed it. Then I returned to the serpent to tell her, but, behold, she knew already and said to me: ‘Return to your home, little man, unharmed and healthy, and enjoy your children and your house. My only wish of you is that you proclaim my glory throughout your land.’ “I threw myself upon the ground and raised my hands in farewell. And she gave me a fraught of myrrh and frankincense and perfumes—of skins and furs and ivory, of precious dogs and sacred cats and holy apes, and of all the many treasures of Punt. And it was indeed a full ship­ load. “And when I threw myself upon the ground for the last time in gratitude, she said: ‘Verily, in two months from this day you will be back in your town and hold your children in your arms. A new and long fife will begin for you and it will be many years before you enter the kingdom of the dead.’ “Thereupon I went down to the shore where

the ship had made fast. I called the crew unto me and praised the exalted goddess of the island of Punt and magnified her glory. And all hands praised her with me. “Then we sailed northward to the royal city. And behold, we made port two months from the very day we had left just as the serpent had presaged. I stepped before the king, fearful of his wrath at the loss of the ship I had suffered. But I pointed at the treasures I had brought from the island of my disaster. And he thanked me in front of all the great of the kingdom and made me rank high in his court, and he rewarded me richly with the choicest of his slaves. “Thus, my prince, I happened to land once after much evil had befallen me. Now, heed my advice! Verily, all goes well if one does not close his ears to well-meaning words.’ ’’ Yet, the prince of Jeb replied: “My friend, do not play the wise man. W ho leads a goose to water in the morning, if he knows that she will be killed at night?” V V V

Preserved on a papynas written between the years 2000 and 1780 B.C. (M iddle Kingdom)

SINUHE, prince and county lord, royal governor in the lands of the East, the king’s beloved friend and his loyal ser' vant—I, Sinuhe, the faithful follower of His Majesty and chamberlain of the house of royal women, appointed to the service of Her Grace, the daughter of King Amenemhet and King Senwosret’s consort, the most worthy Nefre—I, Sinuhe, begin hereunder to tell of my exploits: In the thirtieth year of his reign and on the ninth day of the third of the months during which the land is flooded, Amenemhet, our king divine, departed and went where there is eternal rise and setting. He left into his horizon and rose heavenward, one with the sun and body of his body as he had been before. Silence reigned in the royal city and deep sorrow was in everybody’s heart. Locked were the palace gates. The great of the court sat mourning with bended backs,

heads on their knees, and all of the people joined in their lament. Now, at this very time, King Amenemhet had a host of men on the march toward the West. Its commander was his first-born son, Senwosret, our divine and most gracious lord. He had made many prisoners in the desert lands and countless herds of captured cattle were in his train. Now, he was bound to return. The court sent messengers to the king’s son with tidings of what had happened and of what there was in store to happen. It was late in the evening when they reached him on the march. Senwosret, the divine falcon, lost no time and flew away with his most trusted followers, without warning and unnoticed by the rest of his men. A t the same hour, his brothers who were also with the troops, received a message of their own. I was standing close by and heard the voice of the one who was being summoned against Sen­ wosret, the rightful heir to the throne. And he was my worst enemy. My heart grew heavy, my arms dropped, and my knees began to tremble. I sneaked away and looked for a hiding place. Some underbrush gave me cover until I could escape on a deserted road. I wandered southward in order to avoid the

capital, for I was sure that meantime there would be bitter fighting and that I had no chance to get through alive. I reached the river not far from the great sycamore forest and swam to the near­ est island. There I hid myself in a cornfield. When it was day, I came upon a ferryman. But he ran away, seemingly afraid of me. Then when evening came, about mealtime, I had reached the height of the first village. A wind was blow­ ing from the West, and so I could cross the river on a raft without the help of an oar. Then I took an easterly road past the big quarries of the Red Mountain. From there I turned north until I came close to the border walls built against the peoples of the desert. Once more, I crawled deep into the underbrush, for I was in great fear that the sentries would discover me when they made their rounds. After darkness I wandered on, and by day­ break I was near Peten on a wide neck of land where I stopped for a rest. Thirst had overcome me so that I broke down. My lipa were parched, and I said to myself: “Such is the taste of death!” Then I heard the lowing of cattle and saw herders. My heart beat higher and I summoned my last strength. The head of the herdsmen saw me and recognised who I was, for he had been

in Egypt. He gave me a drink of water and cooked milk for me. Then he took me to his people. I cannot thank them enough for all the good things they did for me. Thus, one roaming desert people passed me on to the next until I reached Byblos from where I wandered eastward to Kedeme. There I stayed six long moons until Nenschi, the prince of Retinu, the son of King Ami, arrived from the lands of the Jordan and took me with him. “You will feel at home with us,” he said, “and hear your own language spoken.” By these words he wanted to let me know that he knew who I was. I am sure, he had some Egyptians amongst his men who had told him. And he talked to me and said: “W hat has driven you here? Has something bad happened in Egypt?” Said I to him: “Amenemhet has departed, sun to sun. W ho would know what may have hap­ pened since.” And then I lied: “I left the troops in the North when I heard about it. I was shocked out of mind. Yet, though I did not know what I was doing, I found my way through the desert lands. Verily, I was not pursued by anyone, and no one had any reason to send spies after me. Nobody has accused me. Nor is my name out-

lawed or proscribed. How I have come here, the great god alone knows. It was his will.” Whereupon he said: “And what is going to happen to Egypt without Amenemhet, her lord, before whom the countries cringed in fear as they do before Sachmet, the lion-headed, when she strikes with war and plague?” And I answered: “Is not his son sitting on his throne, and is he not his father’s heir, divine as he, unequalled and excelled by none, all wis­ dom’s master, superb of mind and of good will to all? W ar comes and peace as he wills it. It was he who triumphed over distant lands and sent but tidings to his father whenever he had fulfilled another of the king’s commands.
He is the strength, the mighty arm That has no peer in battle. A tta c \ is he who strides the foe A n d ropes him in li\e cattle. He is the force that brea\s his horns A n d drives him limp to slaughter. He is the courage that drin\s blood A n d never thirsts for water. He is the ever'fast pursuit That follows without ending. He is the wall that broods no breach A n d towers high, defending. He is the ever'moving tide

That turns against the strongest. He is the courage that endures A n d always lasts the longest. He is triumphant victory In J^lorth and South and East and W est, The unretiring hand that slays A n d never \no w s of fear or rest, The how that only he can bend, The arrow straight and ever right. He is the sun whose flaming heat Allows escape alone by flight. He is the battle that will last Till none is left he could destroy. He is his people's comfort and delight A n d holds it to his heart in endless joy. He is the glory of the land A n d praised beyond all gods before him. He is the song of man and wife, A n d praised beyond all gods before him. He is our lord, bom to be lord, Destined to wear the crown. He is the steady growth that swells The wealth o f land and town. He is the m a\er of a greater realm, The chosen champion everywhere, W h o conquers all ali\e, A n d who will fight and stri\e W ith his victorious hand The hosts that roam the desert sand!”

And I said to him: “All this I am saying to you so that you may send good tidings to the king and your word of allegiance. Verily, he will treat you and your people with kindness if you submit yourself to His Majesty.” Thereupon he said to me: “As Egypt knows so well the greatness of her king, she must prosper. And as you are my guest, you shall not be wanting.” I was exalted indeed above all his sons and given his firstborn daughter for a loving wife. I had the choice of land in his vast kingdom, and mine was the best of his possessions. It was called Jaa and was a borderland. Figs were growing there and grapes, and verily Jaa had more wine than water. There was honey in abundance, and it was rich in oil and every kind of fruit. Barley was there and wheat, and cattle without number. And I received tribute in plenty, for I was prince and master of this choicest land of his. Day upon day they sent me the bread, and day upon day the wine I needed, and meat and fowl already well prepared for my table. Of game I had not only what I hunted myself but also what they hounded in the desert. Verily, I lacked nothing. Nor did I want for milk or what is made of it.

Thus, many years passed by. My sons grew up in strength, and every one of them became the ruler of a desert people which he had forced into submission. Verily, I did well. Whenever the king’s envoys went southward with their mes­ sages to other lands or returned from the South to Egypt, they stayed a while with me. They all depended on my hospitality. A t all times I had water for the thirsty, and led to the right road those who had lost their trail. And I always helped those who were waylaid by thieves. W hen­ ever desert peoples rose in defiance of their over­ lord, it was I who made call to war, for the king of Retinu had given me the command over his fighting men. And wherever I went to battle, after the first attack, the grazing lands and the water wells were back in my hands, the enemy’s cattle my spoils, his stores my booty, and his men my slaves. My arrows never missed their mark. Verily, strength was my bow, and death my arm, when I meant war. The king of Retinu was highly pleased with my exploits, for he knew what my arm could do. And it came to pass that a great warrior came to my camp and challenged me to fight with him. He was indeed a fighting man beyond compare, and there was none in all Retinu who could have

stood up against him. Thus, he called for me to meet him, and boasted that he would make a mercy-crying beggar out of me and divide all my cattle amongst his men. The king took counsel with me, and I said to him: “I know not that man. I have never been near him, nor have I ever set foot in his tent. I have never seen his camp nor crossed his path as an enemy. He comes to fight because of wicked grudge and envy. Verily, I am like a bull sur­ rounded by a foreign herd whose own bullheaded leader will not suffer him and rages against him. Well then, I shall be bull! If he wants a fight, let him have it. The outcome rests in the hands of the gods.” So, at night I put a new string on my bow, whetted my sword and furbished my shield. When morning came, half of the land of Jordan was gathering together, for all were eager to see the fight. There was no heart in the entire camp of ours that did not warmly beat for me. The women were most excited because they pitied me and said: “Is there anyone strong enough to outfight that warrior?” And he came forth with shield and axe and with an armful of spears. I let him try his skill of arms on me, but I dodged each and every one

of his thrusts. Then we drew closer to each other. He sought to get a hold of me but I came to draw my bow; and, behold, my arrow pierced his throat. He howled and dropped upon his face. Then I took his axe and felled him dead. Foot upon his neck, I cried victory, and all around me there was roaring jubilation. I thanked and praised Month, the god who had protected me, the fighting son of Re. The people of the slain warrior lamented. And Nenschi, King Ami’s son, embraced me in front of all. The possessions of the vanquished became my own, and I took all his cattle and made beggars out of his people. W hat he wanted to do unto me, I did unto him. I took whatever his tent offered and laid his camp bare. Great wealth in treasure and in cattle fell to me. Thus I was blessed by my lord and god—I who had sinned so much against him and who had fled in fear of him into foreign lands. Should not my heart be filled again with joy?
Once fugitive and without friend, I am now magnified at home. He who half'Starved was forced to roam, Has bread for everyone to send. He who in na\edness had left, Is vested well and rich in land. Once of all help I stood bereft, J^ow I have thousands to command!

Indeed, stately was my house, and widespread were my lands. My name was dear to the king and I was known as his closest friend. O Lord, who­ soever you may be that once made exile my des­ tiny, be merciful and call me back to the land of my birth! Let me behold again the places on which my heart is set. Great would be my joy if I only knew that my body may rest in my native soil. Ah, may such happiness be my lot! May the helping hand of him who made me leave, lead my return. My lord, my king, your anger must be gone. Listen to my pleading from afar, and in your infinite grace allow me to be again the servant of your kingdom’s exalted mistress and of her royal house so that my age may turn to youth again. The years have come upon me and weighed me down. My eyes are spent, my arms are weak, and my legs refuse to carry me. Ah, my heart is tired, and ever nearer draws the day of parting. W ho shall lead me to the temples of eternity? Majesty of the Universe, my queen of long ago, send me good tidings from your palace and let me be with your court in all eternity! Now, when His Majesty, King Senwosret, heard from me about the sufferings of my heart, he sent his envoys to me with gifts befitting a

prince and with tidings from all of his house. The king’s gracious letter which I received read thus: “Senwosret, King of Lower and of Upper Egypt, the son of Re, Lord of Life from Eternity to Eternity, by this order makes known to Sinuhe, his vassal, the following: “You have travelled far and wandered to Kedeme, and from Kedeme to Retinu. One land has passed you on to the other as it was the desire of your heart. W hat have you done to me that I should requite with evil? You have shown no evil will nor uttered punishable words. You have not raised your voice in Council against the Coun­ cil’s voice. You have exiled yourself by your own free will. Know you then: Nefre, your queen and Heaven’s Majesty, is in the best of health, and to this day she shares the kingdom’s reign with me, and all her kin is well endowed with power. Now, you too shall enjoy in plenty what she be­ stows upon you, and be richly rewarded. Return to Egypt and to the city of your king where you grew up, so that your lips may kiss the ground on which you enter. Come and return to all the dignities of your many offices! “You are no longer young, and the best of your strength is spent. Be mindful of the day when you will be laid to rest and gathered to your fathers.

The eventide is coming when your remains will be anointed with the oils of death and wound in the linen of Tait, the divine weaver. And the day will come when you are enshrined. Gold shall be the covering that will hold you ever after, and your head shall be overlaid with lapis lazuli. And above you there shall arch like heaven the canopy of your catafalque. Softly bedded shall be your coffin and not be carted away on rocking wheels as it is done in foreign lands. Steers shall draw you to the temple, singers shall march be­ fore you, and they shall dance a dance of death on the threshold of your tomb. Sacrifices shall be slain and laid upon your altar, and the holy texts shall be recited for you. Resplendent pillars shall hold the vault of your sepulchre and you shall rest in the midst of the resting places of the kings. Remind yourself that you need not die on foreign soil. Nor must you be buried by barbarians who would sew your body into a ram’s skin and let it rot. Therefore, be mindful of your death and do come home.” Thus read the king’s message. I was standing in the midst of my people when it was handed to me. And when I heard what it said, I threw myself upon the ground and kissed the earth.

Joy drove me all over the camp. Is it possible, I jubilated, that so much grace be shown to one who has served so evil and whose fearful heart misled him into foreign lands? Verily, your kind­ ness, my lord and god, gives me a second life, and your mercy grants me to die at home! Now then, my answer to the king’s message was as follows: “I, Sinuhe, ever-obedient servant to the royal house, I do say this: May you receive these words in peace. Your gracious Majesty knows that when your servant fled, he did so without reason. You know me well enough, my king and lord, belovedest of Re, god of the sun, and richly favored by Month, the divine master of arms. May the great Amun of the City of the Dead at Thebes, may Horns and Hathor and all the gods of your lands fill you with their breath and lavish all their gifts upon you! Yours be eternity without restraint and everlasting time of day! Your own and all the other lands know of your might. You have conquered all that there lies under the sun. You have well recognized your servant’s wish—you, the lord of knowledge whose wisdom knows the most distant heart. Your servant was beset with fear when he asked you, for his request was great and heavy to bear. But you, who are the sun,

gave light unto your servant. You are Horus, the divine and ever-victorious falcon; yours is the power over all lands. Now, send out your envoys to Kedeme, to Chent, and to the lands of the Fenechu and bid their princes to come before you. I have been with them and know therefore that they are devoted to you. I need not mention Retinu, for he is yours as faithful as your dog. “Verily, your servant’s flight was made with­ out sense and without thinking. I know not what misled me. It happened to me as though I was in a dream, against all reason as it may happen to a foolish peasant who leaves his well-tilled fields to live in the swampland, or to a man who in his madness moves from the fruit belt in the North into the southern desert wastes. You know that I had no reason to run away, that I was not pursued by anyone. Nobody had accused me. Nor was my name outlawed or proscribed. But it so happened that, at the tidings of sorrow, I shook with fear and that my knees began to tremble. I gave way to my distracted mind and followed the god who had ordained my flight. You know, it was not spite that prompted me to turn from you. He who knows you does not dare spite you. You have implanted reverence at home, and the most remote kingdoms look up to you in awe.

In your own lands and abroad it is you who is commanding over day and night. You make the sun rise as you please. You let the waters of life flow at your will and give your heavenly air to breathe as you decide. Though far away, I am still your servant. I behold your message and I am moved by the inspiring breath that makes me live anew. May all the gods keep you in all eternity.” I remained in Jaa but for one more day and put everything in order. I set up my first-born son as my successor and turned over to him what­ ever I owned in lands and goods, my servants and my cattle, fields and gardens, and all fruit-bearing trees. Then I journeyed northward until I reached Egypt’s river and the kingdom’s boundaries. The captain of the border guards sent word of my arrival to the city of the king, and His Majesty dispatched the stewards of the royal stores with shiploads of gifts for all who had accom­ panied me thus far, and I called everyone by name to pay him homage. Then the cooks had to do their duty, and the voyage began with all sails set. There was bak­ ing and brewing without rest until we reached the city of cities. A t the break of day just as the

earth grew light, I was called. Ten royal escorts had come to take me to the palace. Between the sphinxes I knelt and touched the earth with my forehead. W ithin the gates, the royal kin stood gathered together for my recep­ tion, and the royal chamberlains led me unto His Majesty who sat upon the throne beneath the great canopy of gold. I flung myself at his feet. He greeted me most graciously, and yet my senses left me. I felt as though somebody dragged me into darkness. My whole body trembled. I was out of my mind. Verily, I knew not whether I was alive or dead. Then the king said to one of the chamberlains: “Raise him up so that he may speak to me!” And thereupon he spoke to me and said: “Behold, you have come home after many years have passed since you fled into barbarian lands. Age gnaws on you, and the days of senectitude are drawing near. Do you not know what it means that you can go to rest at home, and that your body will not be thrown into a patch of foreign earth? W hy do you not answer? W hy are you so tacit? Speak up! Have I received you for nothing?” I had to answer, but I spoke in fear and said: “I wish I could reply to the words of my lord, but I cannot. I feel the choking hand of a god upon

my throat. W ithin me there is terror like the one that made me flee. Alas, I lie before you! My life is yours! Your will be done!” Thereupon the king summoned the royal kin and the queen. And His Majesty said to her: “Be­ hold, this is Sinuhe who has come home. Look at the barbarian and son of the desert.” And the queen’s only answer was a terrifying cry. And the princes and princesses shrieked and screamed: “Lo, no! This is not he, O King and Lord!” But His Majesty said: “Verily, it is he!” Then there was great joy. The women clapped their cymbals and sounded their rattles and danced. And they sang to the king while they handed him the golden chains of Hathor, the ever benign and bounteous:
T a\e, O Lord, into your gracious hands T he jewelled strings of Heaven’s Queen. The life eternal which she spends, M ay be forever yours in radiant sheen. The ls[orth and South united lie Obedient at your royal feet. From evil foes who dared defy, Tow, Re, the sun, you have them freed. Do thrust not through your horns, withdraw Y our arrows from the wound, and give Breath to him whom fear and awe Made breathless, so that he may live!

W in bac\ for us the one who fled, Return the lost son to his fold. Let E gypt’s soil be the eternal bed For him who now is w ea\ and old. He who has once beheld your grace, W ill never dread again your eyes A n d never ever shun the face T hat shines upon him, till he dies.

When the king heard this, he said: “He shall tremble no longer and be without fear. He shall be chamberlain and in the Council of my court. Be with him and lend him a helping hand.” So, I was dismissed from the King’s presence. The princes and princesses helped me from the palace to the house of one of the king’s sons that was richly bestowed with many treasures. A bath was prepared for me, and I was given from the royal stores all the ornate vestments I wanted, and linen and jewels, myrrh and precious oint­ ments. The king’s chamberlains waited upon me, and the royal cooks had no idle hours. The years fell from me. My beard was shorn, and my hair well dressed. The dirt I had worn upon me was given back to the desert, and so were my coarse and shabby clothes. I was robed in the finest linen and anointed with the choicest oils in the land. Now, I could rest again on a

soft bed and leave the sleeping on bare sand to those who live in the desert, and gritty oils to those who have none better. I was given a house as a friend of the king deserves it. Many carpenters were put to work on it, for it was to be fitted out with new wood­ work. Three and even four times a day I was brought food from the palace, not to speak of what the princes and princesses constantly sent me. W ithin the realm of the royal pyramids, a new one was being built for me. The king ordered his first stone mason to erect it, his first painter to adorn its walls, and his first sculptor to do the stone carvings. Everybody in the City of the Dead was kept busy. Nothing that belongs to a tomb was for­ gotten. The sacred priests, whose office it is to attend the dead, were chosen, and there was not a thing omitted that befits a chamberlain of the king. A stone image of myself was made and covered with pure gold which His Majesty or­ dered to be molded for me. Verily, seldom has a man so humble, been honored so highly. And thus I am living in the King’s favor until the day when I must depart.

Preserved on a papyrus w ritten by the scribe Emana about the year 1220 B.C., toward the end of the M iddle Kingdom.

NCE upon a time there lived two brothers. They were, so it is said, sons of the same father and the same mother. The older one was called Anapa , and the name of the younger one was Bata. Anapa had a wife and a household of his own while his younger brother lived with them as a mere farm hand. His was all the hard work. He had to run after the grazing cattle; he had to plow and to thresh and to do all the rest of the heavy labor on the land. Bata indeed was a good man to have. None better could be found in the whole country, and he walked with the Lord. Day upon day Bata herded the cattle, and eve upon eve he came home with his load of milk or whatever there was to be carried back from the fields. And he put it all down at the very feet of his brother who, by that time, already used to sit most comfortably with his wife and

had his meal. Bata, however, ate and drank in the stable with the cows. A t the break of dawn, when the bread was baked for the new day, Bata took all the loaves to his brother who gave him just what he needed during the day in the fields. Now, one morning when he took the cows to pasture, walking behind them, they began to talk and said to him: “Look yonder, there is fine grass and a good place for us to feed!” And he was good and heeded their advice and let them graze where they wanted. And, lo and behold, the cows grew big and fat, indeed very big and fat, and they threw many calves, indeed, very many calves. Then there came the time for plowing, and Anapa said to his brother: “Pick out a yoke of oxen and let us go to work. The floods have passed, and the land needs the plow. Go and have everything ready so that we can start early in the morning.” And Bata did as he was told and overlooked nothing. And when it grew light and the new day appeared, the two brothers went out and plowed and plowed. In their hearts was the joy of labor, indeed, a great joy, and they did not grow weary. Day upon day, they stayed in the fields and

plowed. Then when it came to it that they needed the grain for sowing, Anapa said to his brother: “Go home and get the seed corn, but lose no time!” So, Bata went home where he found his broth­ er’s wife busy braiding her hair. “Come on!” he called. “Let me have the seed corn. My brother is waiting for it in the fields. I have no time to lose. Hurry up!” But she replied: “Ah, hurry up yourself! The stores are not locked. Take what you need. I am not done yet with my hair.” So, the young man went and took a huge weight of wheat and barley corn, for he was afraid of taking too little. Now, when his broth­ er’s wife saw him coming with his load, she asked him: “Say, how much are you carrying on your shoulders, Bata?” And he answered: “Oh, three bushels of barley, and maybe two bushels of wheat. Well, about five bushels altogether. That’s all I am carrying.” Then she turned around to him and said: “You are strong. You are very strong. I am more sur­ prised at you each day.” And with that, she rose and leaned against him and said: “Come on, let us enjoy each other for a little while. You will not be the loser. I shall make you two beau­ tiful robes to wear.”

A t that, wrath welled from his young heart, and he raged like a tiger at her evil design so that she was frightened, indeed, very much frightened. And he told her: “You know, you are to me like a mother, and your husband is like a father to me. Anapa is my master and my livelihood. Do not dare ever to repeat the evil words you have spoken! But do not be afraid, I will keep them to myself. They shall not pass from my lips, and I shall not tell them to anybody!” W ith that, Bata left, with the load upon his shoulders. And the two brothers took up their work together as though nothing had happened. When evening came, Anapa rushed home as usually, while Bata walked slowly with the cattle, carrying whatever he had to take back from the fields. It was a long way to the stable where he still had to bed the cows for the night. Anapa’s wife, who was beset with fear because of the evil words she had spoken to Bata, had made herself appear as though somebody had bad" ly beaten her. Her scheme was to tell Anapa: “Look! That is how your brother has beaten me!” Now, when her husband came home that eve" ning, he did not hear the cheerful voice of his wife as he was used to hear it. He found not water for his hands as she always set it up for him,

and there was no light. And in the darkness she was lying in great misery and agroaning. “W ho has been here?” Anapa asked, and she answered: “None other than your own brother! When he came to get the seed corn for you and found me all by myself, he said to me: 'Come on, and let us enjoy each other for a little while. Go on, finish braiding your hair and make yourself more beautiful for me.’ But I would not listen to him. I gave him the right answer. 'Am I not,’ said I, 'like a mother to you, and is your brother, my master, not like your father?’ So he was frightened and beat me up that I would not tell on him. If you do not go and kill him, I shall take my own life. I know what he will do to me when he comes home and finds out that I have not kept his evil words to myself!” A t that, wrath welled from Anapa’s heart, and he raged like a tiger. He whetted his spear and went to hide himself behind the stable door, ready to kill his brother as soon as he returned with the cattle. Bata came home as usually just after the sun had set. The first cow entered the stable, but she turned back to her herder and said: “Beware! your brother is standing behind the door, spear in hand and ready to kill you. Hurry away!”

When Bata heard this, and then heard the second cow speak the very same words, he peered under the stable door and saw his brother’s feet. And he saw also that he held a spear in his hand. A t that, he threw down whatever he carried and took to his heels the best he could. Yet, his brother, spear in hand, went after him in hot pursuit. Bata cried unto the Lord, the god of the sun. “Re-Harachte,” he called, “gracious lord, are you not the just judge over injustice?” And the lord of the horizons listened to his fearful cry and let a body of water rise between him and his brother. And the water was full of crocodiles. There they stood, each on one side, and Anapa cursed madly because he would not reach his brother with his spear. Bata shouted across the water: “W ait un­ til it is day! When the sun rises, I will answer you before him so that wickedness be rightly judged. Never again shall you see me under your roof. Never again shall I share the house with you. I am going to leave forever. The Vale of the Sycamores shall be my resting place!” Now, when it grew light, and the new day ap­ peared, the two brothers faced each other, and Bata spoke to Anapa and said: “W hy do you hound me? W hy did you lie in ambush to kill

me and asked me not for what I have to say? Am I not your younger brother? Are you not like a father to me, and is your wife to me not like a mother? Verily, this is the truth: When you sent me to the house for the seed corn, your wife said to me: ‘Come on and let us enjoy each other for a little while.’ But woe be me, she has twisted the truth!” And Bata told his brother what really happened. And he raised his hand before the sun and cried: “And you set out in viciousness to kill me for the bawdy talk of a loose woman!” And at that, he yanked the trenchant blade from a sword cane at the water’s edge, sheared off his virility and thrust it into the water to be devoured by the swimming beasts of prey. Then he slumped to the ground. And Anapa was deeply sorrowed. He stood there and sobbed, for he could not pass the water because of the many crocodiles. But he heard his brother crying out to him: “After all your evil thoughts, now foster good ones. Go to work and do what I have always done for you. Go home and take care of your cattle, for I cannot stay with you. I am leaving for the Vale of the Sycamores. You cannot do anything for me now. But I want you to remem­

ber this: Some day I shall need you again. W hen­ ever evil tidings are brought to you about me, then you must come and take care of me! I am going to hide my heart within the blossom of a lofty sycamore. But if that sycamore be felled and my heart fall to the ground, then you must come and search for it. But though your search may last for seven years, do not despair. You shall find it and place it in a crock with fresh water. Then I shall be alive once more and give evil its answer! Whenever you are being handed a jug of stale beer and a jug of wine that has soured, then waste no time and do what I have told you!” W ith that, Bata departed from his brother and wandered away to the Vale of the Sycamores. And Anapa went home, in grief over his brother, and he slew his wife and thrust her body to the wild dogs. Time went on, and Bata dwelled in the Vale of the Sycamores, in utter loneliness. All his days he spent hunting desert game, and the nights he passed sleeping beneath the lofty sycamore whose blossom bore his heart. More time went on, and Bata built himself a stately house, and it was rich in everything a home would need. Then one day, when he was

wandering about, he encountered the divine Ennead, nine altogether of the greatest gods, who had come to see what happened in their realm. And the Nine spoke to him as with one single mouth and said: “For what reason do you live alone, friend of the gods, and for what reason have you left home? Do you not know that long ago Anapa slew his wife, and that he knows the evil done to you?” And the gods felt pity for Bata, indeed great pity. And Re-Harachte, thesun-god, spoke to Chnum, the creator of mankind, and said to him: “Would you not make a wife for Bata so that he may not live in loneliness?” And behold, Chnum made him a wife to share his house, a woman more beautiful than any in the land, for within her was the very essence of all the nine divinities. Yet, when Hathor, the goddess of love, herself appear­ ing sevenfold, looked upon the woman, the Seven spoke as with one single mouth and said: “She will die a death of violence.” Bata, in time, was much in love with her, in­ deed very, very much in love. She took care of his house while he was away hunting in the desert. And whatever game he caught, he always laid at her feet. Every now and then, Bata warned his wife and

said to her: “Do not stray from the house. The river may seise you, and you will not be able to save yourself. And I cannot come to your rescue.” He also spoke to her of his heart, for he kept nothing from her. “My heart rests in the blossom of the sycamore,” he told her. “Should a stranger ever find it, I would lose myself!” So, time went on, and Bata was away hunting as he was every day. But the young woman wanted to enjoy herself and strolled from the house. And alas, the river saw her and leaped after her with his waters. She ran towards the house, but the river followed her and called the sycamore to help him catch her. “Hold her! hold her fast!” he roared. But the sycamore could only take hold of one of her braids. And the river grabbed this braid, and his waters carried it down to Egypt. There they dropped it at the city of the pharaoh where the washermen used to wash for the king. Now, the royal garments took on the odor of the woman’s hair, and the pharaoh blamed the washermen and said: “My garments smell of pomade!” Day upon day, the king had to scold the wash' ermen but they did not know what to do about it. Now, the daily scolding made the head of the


washermen angry, indeed very angry. So, he went himself to the river bank, and as chance had it, he came right to the spot where the braid of hair could be seen in the water. His men had to fish it out. And behold, it had a sweet smell, indeed a very sweet smell. Thus, he took it to the pharaoh. The wise men and the learned scribes of the court were summoned, and they agreed and they said: “Pharaoh, this braid of hair belongs to a daughter of Re'Harachte, and in her is the divine essence of every god. From far away such gift has come to you. Send out your messengers and let them search everywhere for this woman. But the one you may send to the Vale of the Sycamores to find her, do not send him alone!” And His Majesty replied: “Verily, what you advise, it seems to me, is very good advice.” And he dispatched his messengers. Time went on, and the king’s men came back from lands afar, but they had nothing to report. And those who had been sent to the Vale of the Sycamores did not return. Bata had slain all but the one who brought the tidings of their fate to the pharaoh. Then the king sent out a force of many men, afoot and in chariots, to bring to him the daughter of the gods. But he sent with them one of his


royal women who took to her the most precious jewels. And behold, she returned with Bata’s wife and the whole kingdom was jubilant at her ar­ rival. The pharaoh, in time, grew very fond of her, indeed very, very fond. And he raised her high above all other women. He asked her to tell him all about her husband, and she kept nothing from him. But when she had finished, she said: “Your Majesty, have the lofty sycamore tree felled and cut to timber!” Thereupon a new force of men was sent out. They felled the sycamore tree and cut the blossom wherein the heart of Bata was resting. And, lo and behold, at this very hour Bata fell dead. On the day that followed the day of the felling of the sycamore, Anapa, the older brother, came home at mealtime, and when he sat down to eat, he was brought a jug of beer, and it was stale. Then he was brought a jug of wine and the wine had soured. So, at once he took his pikestaff, put on his sandals, and well equipped with weapons, he went on his way to the Vale of the Sycamores. When he entered his brother’s house, he found him lying on the bedstead and saw that he was dead. Weeping, Anapa walked to the sycamores

where Bata had slept so many nights, and started searching for his heart. For three long years Anapa searched and could not find it. And at the beginning of the fourth year, his soul was longing for home, and he said to himself: “Tomorrow, I shall leave tomorrow!” Yet, when it grew light and the new day ap­ peared, he went once more to the sycamores and searched in vain the livelong day. When darkness fell and he was ready to give up, he scanned the ground with a last fleeting glance; and, lo and behold, there lay the heart of a fruit. He took it and went back into the house, and verily it was his brother’s heart. So, he put it into a crock of fresh water and then sat down to rest for the evening as he was used to do. Now, when night had fallen and the heart had drunk its fill of fresh water, a trembling ran through Bata’s body and he opened his eyes and looked at his brother. And Anapa took the crock with the fresh water and Bata’s heart and let him drink it. And as his heart returned to its right place, Bata was at once the very same he had been before. The two brothers embraced each other and talked and talked. “Behold,” Bata said after a little while, “I shall change myself into a sacred

bull and bear you on my back. Before the sun rises, we shall be where my wife is and I shall give evil its answer. After that, you shall lead me before the king. You will be highly rewarded. You will be given my weight in gold and silver for bringing me to him. For I shall be a miracle, and the whole land will be rejoicing over me. And after that, you may return home.” And when it grew light and the new day ap­ peared, Bata transformed himself into an Apis bull as he had promised. Anapa climbed on his back, and before the sun had fully risen, they were in the king’s city. His Majesty soon learned about the arrival of the sacred bull and came to see him, his heart filled with joy, indeed with great, great joy. He had the offerings in the temple doubled and said: “Verily, a great miracle has happened.” And there was jubilation throughout the land. Anapa was given the Apis’ weight in silver and in gold. And he went home with many men and richly bestowed with royal gifts, for the king had grown fond of him, indeed very, very fond of him. Time went on, until one day the Apis found his way to the house where the king’s now most beloved woman lived, and he began to talk and

said to her: “I want you to know that I am still alive!” And she replied: “W ho are you?” And he went on and said: “I am Bata! Have you for­ gotten that you did ask the king to fell the syca­ more and thus to take my life? But, behold, I am still living. I am the great god’s sacred bull!” Now, the words she heard, filled her with fear, indeed with great fear, and she went to the pharaoh. She made him feast with her and let him enjoy herself. She served him wine, and he was in a gracious mood, indeed a very gracious mood. Then she said: “Swear to me by the great god that you will hear the wish I have and fulfill it!” And the pharaoh swore by the great god. And she said: “Give me the heart of the Apis to eat. It is good for nothing else anyhow.” The king was deeply saddened by her words, for he had pity with the Apis, indeed great pity. But when it grew light and the new day ap­ peared, the king proclaimed a feast of sacrifice and sent for the first of the royal slaughterers to kill the sacred bull. And they killed him and slashed his throat. But when they carried him through the temple gate, he shook his mighty neck, and two drops of blood fell to the ground, one drop on either side of the gateway. And from them grew at once two lofty Isched trees of wondrous beauty.

And the people went to the pharaoh and said: “Last night there have grown up two lofty Isched trees by the Great Gate. Your Majesty, a miracle has happened!” And once more there was jubila­ tion throughout the land, and the king proclaimed another feast of sacrifice in celebration of the holy trees. And when it grew light and the new day ap­ peared, the king was seen in great splendor at the palace window, bedecked with lapis lazuli. And he was taken in his golden chariot, bedecked with flowers, to the Isched trees. And his most beloved queen followed him in a beauteous chariot of her own. Now, as the pharaoh stood under one of the Isched trees and made his offerings, the other tree began to talk to the queen and said: “Unfaithful woman, you, behold, I am Bata! I am still living. Have you forgotten that you did ask the king to fell the sycamore? You took my life, but I became the sacred bull whom you have asked to be killed.” Time went on, and again she made the king feast with her and let him enjoy herself. And she served him wine, and he was in a gracious mood, indeed a very, very gracious mood. Then, she said to him: “Swear to me by the great god that

you will hear the wish I have, and fulfill it!” And the pharaoh swore by the great god. Then she said: “Have the two Isched trees felled and have them made into a fine chest for me.” The king did as she had asked him to do. He sent out his best carpenters to fell the two sacred trees. And His Majesty watched them with his own eyes; and his most beloved queen, once Bata’s wife, stood next to him. But when the wood was hewn, a sliver flew into her mouth. She coughed and swallowed it, and from this very hour on she was with child. Time went on, and she gave birth to a son. The joyous tidings were brought to the pharaoh, and everybody cheered: “Behold, a son is born unto you!” The infant was brought before him and given wet nurses and many other nurses to attend him. There was great jubilation throughout the land and feasting everywhere. And the king grew very fond of this prince, indeed very, very fond of him. He bestowed upon him the kingdom’s highest title and made him heir to his throne. Thus it happened that Bata came to live again, and he lived in the life of the king’s son who was

his, until the pharaoh was gathered to his divine fathers. Then Bata, by his son now pharaoh himself, gave order and proclaimed: “Call unto me all my councilors so that I may tell them what has hap" pened to me!1 1 And he had her who once had been his wife brought before him to receive the judgment she deserved. And there was none in his Council who disagreed with his sentence that she must die. Then Bata sent for Anapa, his older brother, and named him heir to the throne. For thirty years Bata reigned as king of Egypt, and when he passed away, his brother Anapa took his place.

Preserved on the Papyrus Harris, w ritten about 1300 B.C. (N ew Kingdom)

NCE upon a time there was a king of Egypt, and he had no son. So he prayed in humble devotion to the gods and begged them for an heir. And the gods disclosed to him that they were willing to let him have a son. Now, in that selfsame night the king was sleeping with his wife, and she conceived. And when her time was fulfilled, she bore him a son. Now then Hathor, the goddess of the heavens, came in her sevenfold divinity, to see the infant and to divine his fate. And this is what she fore" told: “He will meet death from a crocodile, a serpent, and a dog.1 1 The royal women who were about the child, heard what she said and told it to the king, and he was deeply saddened in his heart. And the king gave order to build a house of solid rock in the midst of the desert. He had it furnished with the very best from his palace and

had it guarded by the most faithful of his guards. And the prince was not allowed ever to leave this house. Now, when he was quite grown up, he stood one day on the flat roof and saw a man coming down the road with a little greyhound running behind him. And the prince asked the servant who was always with him: “W hat is running there behind that man who is coming down the road?” And the servant answered: “Why, that is a little greyhound!” “Oh,” said the young prince, “such a grey­ hound I would like to have.” So, the servant rushed to the king and told him the princely wish, and His Majesty answered: “Certainly, he can have a whelp like that if it makes him happy.” Thus, the young prince was given a greyhound. The years went by, and the prince became a man, well-built and strong. Then he sent word to his father and asked: “W hy must I sit here with nothing to do? I know, I am foretold that my fate will be death threefolded. But let me live my time of life as I like to live. The gods will none the less do as they will.” The king agreed and sent him a chariot and arms, and also a trusted man to stay with him

and serve him. Then His Majesty in person es­ corted his son across the river and said to him in farewell: “Now, my son, you may go wherever you like to go!” So, the young prince parted from his royal father and went eastward, his greyhound always with him. He roamed through the lands as he had wanted to roam, and hunted himself the choicest game of the desert. Thus, he reached the river Euphrates and came to the kingdom of Naharin. The king of Naharin had no sons. He had but one only daughter. And for her he had built a house with windows seventy yards above the ground. Now, the king had summoned all the princes from the lands around the river Jordan and proclaimed: “To him who is able to climb up to my daughter’s windows, I shall give her for wife.” Many a day had passed, but none of all those princes had accomplished that feat. Now then, the young prince of Egypt came along with his greyhound running behind him, and since he was a very handsome youth, the princes from the lands around the Jordan asked him to stay with them. A bath was prepared for him, and his horses were well fed. He was treated most generously, and

they anointed his feet and perfumed his whole body. His trusted man was also provided with all he needed. Then they talked to him and asked: “Whence do you come, you handsome youth?” And he replied: “I come from Egypt. I am the son of a royal charioteer and archer. My mother died, and my father gave me a stepmother who hated me evermore. So, I ran away from home.” When the princes from the Jordan lands heard that, they bade him all the more welcome and showered him with kindness. After quite some while, he asked the youths: “W hat are you doing here?” And they answered: “Do you not know that the king of Naharin is going to give his one and only daughter to him who is able to climb up to her windows?” The prince of Egypt sighed and said: “Ah, I wish that I could do it! But let me go with you and try my very best.” Now, when the others went and tried, as they did each and every day, to climb up to the princess’ windows, he went with them. But he stood aside. Yet, the daughter of the king of Naharin saw him, and he felt her eyes resting upon him. Then he decided to compete with the princes from the Jordan lands. And behold, he climbed up and reached the window at which she was

sitting. And the princess took him into her arms and kissed him. The good tidings were brought to the king, and everybody shouted: “It has been done! The window of your daughter has been climbed!” And the king of Naharin asked: “Whose son is the prince who has done so?” And they said: “Oh, he is the son of the royal charioteer and archer from Egypt. He has fled from home because of his stepmother!” A t that the king of Naharin grew very angry and shouted: “Never ever shall I give my daughter to a fugitive from Egypt! Send him back from where he came!” So, they went and told him: “The King com­ mands that you go back from where you have come!” But the princess flung her arms around him and cried and swore: “By the god of the sun, if you take him away from me, I shall neither eat nor drink again! The sooner I die, the better!” Now, when the king was told what she had said, he sent out men to seize the son of the charioteer and archer from Egypt, and to put him to death. But the princess said to them: “If you kill him, I swear by all the gods, before the sun will set, I shall be dead!” And again they went to the king and told him

what she had said. Then the king commanded that his daughter and the man from Egypt be brought before him. And behold, he was no longer angry but bade him welcome and kissed him and said: “You who shall be as a son to me, tell me who you are!” But the son of the king of Egypt answered: “I am the son of a royal charioteer and archer in Egypt. My mother died, and my father gave me a stepmother who hated me evermore. So, I ran away from home.” Thus he spoke. But just the same, the king of Naharin gave him his one and only daughter for wife, and he endowed him with house and fields, and with cattle and everything a son of his would be entitled to have. Now, when the princess had become his wife, he said to her one day: “I am foretold that my fate will be death threefolded. My life is going to be taken by a crocodile, a serpent, and a dog.” Said she: “W hy then do you not kill the dog that always follows you?” But he replied: “Never ever shall I kill the dog I have raised from a whelp!” From this day on, the princess watched his ways and never let him leave without a guard. But there came a time when he had to journey home to Egypt. And it came to pass that one day while he was standing by the river, a giant crocodile

came swimming towards him. But it so happened that the one who was watching over the prince, was mightier than the crocodile and had the pow' er to forbid it to come out of the river. Only when it slept at night, he left his watch, but as soon as the sun rose, he came back to guard the prince. So, the king’s son was well protected each and every one of the sixty days he had chosen to stay in Egypt. Then the young prince journeyed back to N a' harin, and he was happy and content. But there came an evening when he fell fast asleep while his wife was sitting beside him, keeping watch over him, a jug of beer in her hand. And behold, a huge serpent crept from her hole and threatened to sting him. His wife saw her in time and made her drink from the beer. And the serpent got drunk, stretched out and lay stiff and numb. And the princess grabbed an axe and hacked her to pieces. And when her husband awoke from his slumber, she said to him: “Behold, the gods have given one third of your fate into my hand. Now, they will also deliver you from the other two!” Then he prayed to the gods and offered sacrifices and magnified their glory day after day. Now, it came to pass that he journeyed again to Egypt and that he was sauntering across the

fields with no companion but his greyhound. And the dog took up a scent, and the king’s son fol­ lowed him to the bank of the river. And, lo and behold, the giant crocodile came out of the river and seised him and said: “I am your fate!” And it took him to the place where once the mighty one had guarded him. And the crocodile said to the king’s son: “Now I hold you in my power. Look, there lies the mighty one, stung to death by a serpent! Now you must die!” Thus, the young prince was killed. And he met his death from a crocodile and from a dog, for he had followed his greyhound to the river, and also from a serpent, for she had killed the mighty one so that he could guard him no longer. Verily, he died as Hathor, the goddess of the heavens, had divined his fate on the day he was bom.

Preserved on a papyrus w ritten about 1000 B.C.

N THE fifth year of the reign of my king and on the sixteenth day of the third month of that summer, I, Unamun, elder priest in Amun’s temple at Thebes and his devoted servant, set out on a voyage in order to procure the precious woods needed for the restoration of Userhet, the holy bark of Re, the sun’s eternal majesty, that lay decrepit on the river. I went first to Tanis, the residence of Prince Smendes and his wife, Tentamun. To them I delivered the mandatory message from Amun-Re, the king of gods. Both listened graciously to the royal request, and when they had heard what I read to them, they said: “Verily, the will of Amun-Re, our lord and master, shall be done!” So, I stayed in Tanis until the end of that third month of summer. By that time, Smendes and Tentamun had a ship ready for me and put it under the command of a certain Mengebet, one of their most trusted sea-masters. I embarked at

M O D EL O F A N E G Y PT IA N B O A T The ancient Egyptians are said to have built the first real boats. Early boats, about 2700 B.C., were made of bundles of reeds or bulrushes, tied together w ith fibers of papyrus, and smeared inside with pitch. Later boats were larger, made of wood, had spacious cabins and were beautifully ornamented with paintings.

once, and on the first day of the fourth month of that summer we were sailing eastward on the high Syrian sea. Thus, I came to Dor, the port and city of the Zakar below the foothills of the Carmel moun­ tains. Bedar, the prince of the Zakar, sent me bread and wine and a whole quarter of an ox as gifts of welcome. Now, it so happened that a member of my crew committed theft and escaped with his loot. W hat he had taken was all my treasure. Of gold he took three platters five deben in weight, of silver four bowls weighing twenty deben, and he also took a pouch containing eleven debens’ worth. Altogether the theft amounted to a full pound of purest gold and more than six pounds of silver. I discovered the theft in the early morning and betook myself at once to Bedar, the prince of the Zakar, and said to him: “I have been robbed in the harbor of the land over which you are the ruler. Do your duty! Have a search made for the thief, my silver and my gold! Verily, it all belongs to Amun-Re, the king of gods and Egypt’s lord. It was entrusted to me by Hrihor, the high priest, by Smendes, the prince of Tanis, and by all the great lords of Egypt. It was meant

to remunerate you as well as Prince W eret and Prince Mechemer, your neighbors, and also Zerkarbaal, the lord of Byblos.” Yet, Bedar answered: “You may be angry or not, but I know not what to do. If the thief were one of my people who had entered your ship and stolen your gold and silver, verily, I would let you have the full value of the theft from my own treasure until the fugitive be caught with his loot. But he who robbed you, is a son of your land and a member of your own crew. If you so desire, you may stay here for a few days. Meanwhile, maybe the thief will be found.” Thus, I had to stay. I lingered nine long days in the port of Dor. But then I betook myself again to Bedar and complained: “You have not found yet my silver and my gold,” I said to him. “Now let me depart. The captain of my ship and all who are sailing in it, know that I was robbed in your land. Verily, you are its prince and ought to be its master, but you lack the power to find the thief and his loot of the gold and silver that belongs to Amun, the lord of Egypt!” A t that, Bedar was greatly angered and shouted: “Silence! You have lingered nine long days in my harbor, waiting for the thief to be caught by me. W hy have you not searched for him your'

self? He is a son of your land and a member of your own crew, is he not? Now go and travel on with your captain and all who are sailing with you in your ship. I will not keep you any longer!” So, I went back to my ship and sailed towards Tyre. Now, it so happened that there lay in the harbor a ship from Dor with a crew of Zakar, belonging to Prince Bedar, and I found out that it carried a treasure in silver. It was bound for Byblos just as I was. So when it left early in the morning, I sailed after it. I stopped the ship of the Zakar and apprehended the treasure which weighed thirty deben in silver. And I told them: “Behold, I am taking your silver to make good for what has been stolen from me in your city, and I shall keep it until the thief is caught whom Bedar, the prince of your land, was unable to find!” Thereupon, I let them sail on. Now, it so hap' pened that the ship of the Zakar reached Byblos before me and had already made fast when I arrived. When my captain found that out, he was afraid that the Zakar would seek revenge for what I had done to them. So, while I was on land, he sailed away with my ship and all who were sailing in it. I having been left behind had to seek refuge. I hid the image of Amun, the eternal

God of the Road, whom I had taken with me, and all my other belongings in a safe place. Now, the Prince of Byblos, soon learned about me, and he sent a messenger to tell me: “Shove off and get out of my harbor!” And I sent him my answer: “If you want me to leave your harbor, give me a ship to take me back to Egypt and to Amun-Re, the lord of the lands, who has sent me to you!” Nineteen days I stayed in the city of Byblos, and each and every day Zerkarbaal sent me the same message: “Shove off and get out of my harbor!” And each and every day I sent him the same answer. And it came to pass that there was being held a great feast of offering to the gods of Byblos, and one of the noble youths of Zerkarbaal’s court was seised by the gods and plunged into delirious ecstasy. “Bring the god unto me! Bring him unto me! Bring unto me the messenger of Amun! Amun has brought the god here! Amun is with him!” Thus this youth raved on into the night. Now, I had just found a ship ready to sail for Egypt and had stowed away my belongings. And I said to myself: “When night has fallen, I shall take the image of Amun, the eternal God of the [126]

Road, aboard so that I can leave and he will not be seen by any eyes but mine.” But just then, the master of the port came to me and said: “Stay here until tomorrow! Such is the command of the Prince of Byblos!” But I answered: “Are you not the one who has come to me each day and said: ‘Shove off, and get out of my harbor!? And now you come and say: ‘Stay here!1 Shall I let the ship that I have found at last, sail now without me, so that you can come back tomorrow and shout again: ‘Shove off and get out of my harbor!?” And the master of the harbor went to tell Zerkarbaal what I had said. Thereupon the prince sent him to the captain of the ship I had found to take me back to Egypt, and commanded him: “Stay here until tomorrow!” Now when morning came, Zerkarbaal sent for me, and I was brought before him. But Amun, the eternal God of the Road, was resting still at the seashore where I had hidden him. I found the prince of Byblos seated in the upper hall of his palace, his back against the window so that he could not see the waves of the Syrian sea breaking behind him. “Amun be with you in kindness!” I said to him in greeting. He did not answer but asked

me: “How long is it to this day that you have left the home of Amun?” “It is today five months and one day!” I an­ swered, and he said to me: “Show me the written message from Amun and the mandate from the high priest that you, no doubt, have brought with you!” And I replied: “I have delivered both to Smendes, the Prince of Tanis, and Tentamun, his wife!” A t that, Zerkarbaal grew very angry and said: “So, you have neither a written message nor a mandate to bear you out? Do you wish to call as your witness the ship of sycamore in which you sailed from Tanis? Do you want the crew of Syrians who were sailing in it, to testify for you? Has Smendes not handed you over to an alien captain to kill you and throw your body into the sea? Verily, nobody will ever miss you and search for you! No Amun has sent you!” Thus he shouted at me. But I said in reply: “My ship was an Egyptian ship, and Egyptian was its crew. Smendes has no Syrians sailing for him.” “Twenty vessels,” he yelled again, “are lying in my harbor, and not a single one is an Egyptian ship. Yet, all of them are under sail for Smendes. A hundred ships and many more lie now in Sidon

where you are headed—Phoenicians all and ready to return to Tanis in Smendes’ trade with Berkatel, the Phoenician merchant!” A t this, I felt that silence was the best answer. And Zerkarbaal changed his tone and asked me: “For what purpose have you come here?” And I replied: “I have come for precious woods needed for Userhet, the holy bark of Amun-Re, the king of gods. Your father gave them, your father’s father gave them, and so you too will give them unto me!” Whereupon he said: “You speak the truth. They have indeed given what you say. And I shall do as they have done, if you can pay for what I give. Verily, my father and my father’s father have given what was wanted, but then the pharaoh had sent six ships laden with all the treas­ ures of Egypt, and they have filled our stores. But now what do you have to offer in exchange?” Whereupon he asked to bring unto him the records of trade and had them read for me. And behold, therein were listed a thousand deben paid in silver. And Zerkarbaal said: “If the lords of Egypt had been the lords of this land and its pos­ sessions, if Byblos had been Egypt’s vassal, verily, they would have sent neither gold nor silver when they came and asked: ‘Grant us the wish of Amun.’

W hat they have sent to Byblos was not a token as kings send unto kings to be obeyed. Verily, I am not your vassal or a subject of him whose em voy you are. I can do as I will. When my voice calls upon the wooded mountains of the Lebanon, the heavens burst and throw the trees of precious wood down to the sea. But first show me the sails under which you will sail, show me the ships that will carry the timber down to Egypt. Let me see the braided ropes for the bundling and the dragging of the giant trunks I will have felled for you as Byblos' gift to Egypt! None of your puny vessels will ever carry such load. Their bow would split asunder, and you would find your death on the high seas when Amun starts to thunder from the skies and lets Seth rage, the god of storms. Amun, the giver of all gifts, is he not the one who protects the land of Egypt from where you come? The glory of his might and his great wis' dom has spread everywhere. How then could you be sent on a journey as insane as the one that brought you here?” To that I answered: “Shame and more shame upon you who dares call a voyage made for Amun’s sake insane. There is no ship on all the seas that is not his. His are the waters. His are the trees of Lebanon you call your own although

you know that their wood belongs to Userhet, the holy bark. Verily, it was the king of gods who came to Hrihor, my lord and master, and asked him to send me with him on this voyage. Be' hold, you kept him waiting in your port although you know that he had come to Byblos in his grace. Amun is the same in glory and in wisdom that ever he has been. But you belie it and belittle him because you think that you can drive a better bargain for the woods of Lebanon which indeed are his. You say: 'The kings in days bygone have sent me gold and silver.’ Verily, the blessings Amun bestowed upon your fathers weighed heavier than all the treasures they received. Amun'Re, the king of gods, is lord of life and all prosperity. He was the god protector of your fathers who worshipped him to the end of their days. And so you too shall be his faithful servant. Verily, if once you say: 'Thy will be done!’ and you fuL fill it, you will live long and in prosperity and be a blessing to your land and all your people. But cursed shall you be if you covet what belongs to the great god. Remember: W hat the lion holds, he never will let go!” Zerkarbaal did not answer, and I said to him: “Now then, call me a scribe so that I may send a message to Smendes and Tentamun of Tanis

whom Amun’s Majesty has made the rulers of the North. They will send you what you de­ mand, for I shall write to them: ‘You can trust me. As soon as I return to Amun’s city, I shall repay you.11 1 Thus, the message was written, and the Prince of Byblos handed it to an envoy. And with it he sent to Egypt the wood from seven trees for Userhet, the holy bark. The envoy reached Tanis without mishap and returned to Byblos during the first month of winter. Smendes and Tentamun sent with him of gold four platters and one jug; of silver five bowls; of royal linen ten pieces and another ten of peasant linen; and in addition five hundred lengths of papyrus, five hundred cowhides, five hundred braided ropes, twenty sacks of lentils, and thirty bales of dried fish. As gifts for myself I received some garments of good linen and five pieces of royal linen, and in addition also one sack of lentils and five bales of dried fish. The Prince of Byblos was greatly pleased and satisfied. He put at once three hundred men and five hundred oxen with a goodly number of over­ seers to work in the Lebanon. The trees were all felled but they could not be removed during the

winter. N ot until the third month of summer they reached the shore. Then Zerkarbaal himself went to inspect the wood. And he sent for me, and his request was: ‘Come at once!1 So, I hurried to the seashore, and as I stood beside him, the shadow of a fan held over him, fell also upon me. A t that, his cup­ bearer, an Egyptian by the name of Penamu, stepped between us and said to me with a sneer: “He who stands shaded by the fan of a prince, walks in the shadow of his lord and master!” These words made Zerkarbaal angry, and he said to me: “Do not answer him!” And as I bowed respectfully, he said: Behold, what my fathers did, I have now also done, although you could not do as much as your fathers did. Your sycamores lie to the last here at the shore. Now, it is up to you to load them and to put them to sea. Verily, I shall not keep them from you. But do not come to me and talk of the terrors you are facing. The terrors of the sea are small compared with the terrors I could have commanded against you. Verily, I have spared you the fate to which I once delivered the envoys of Chaemwese. For seventeen long years I let them languish here and starve to death far from Egypt.” And he turned to Penamu, the cupbearer, and

said: “Go with him and show him the grave in which they lie.” But I said: “W hy should I go and see their grave? Chaemwese's envoys were mortal men, and mortal was he who sent them. W as there anyone amongst them who came from the king of gods? How can you talk of them as though they were my equals? Verily, you should be proud and have a stone set up for all posterity, and put upon it your words of joy, proclaiming: ‘AmunRe, the king of gods, sent unto me himself, and with him came, in his divine glory, his envoy in order to procure the precious woods for Userhet, the holy bark. I had the trees felled. I had them loaded on my ships manned by my sailing crews. I had them brought to Egypt so that Amun may grant me life everlasting after the years he allows me to spend on earth.’ ” And I added: “Thus it shall be done! Then, verily, when on some distant day a traveller comes from Egypt and reads what you have said, and sees your name engraved upon that stone, you will be praised and highly honored with offerings. Thus you will live forever!” Thereupon Zerkarbaal replied: “You know well the value of my service.” And I said: “I shall give you value for value. Verily, Hrihor, the high

priest, will be generous when I come home to Amun’s city. You will receive all you demand, when he sees that you have fulfilled his wish.” Not long thereafter when I went to the sea­ shore where all the tree trunks lay ready to be loaded, I saw eleven ships approaching. And they were all ships of the Zakar from Dor with an order from Bedar, their prince, that said: “Cap­ ture the man who has robbed my ship, and take him prisoner! Henceforth no ship shall sail from Bybios to Egypt!” When I heard that, I sat down and wept. And when Zerkarbaal’s scribe came and saw my sor­ row, he asked: “W hat troubles you?” And I answered: “The birds of passage are winging to­ wards Egypt already for the second time since I am here. Behold, the herons are returning to their home and to their native waters! And I, how long must I still languish far away from home? Do you not see the ships that have come to take me prisoner?” And the scribe went back to Zerkarbaal to tell him what I had said. And the prince began to weep over my sorrow and sent the scribe back to me with two large jugs of wine and the tender meat of a young ram. And then he called for

Tetnet, one of his Egyptian singers and dancers, and said to her: “Go and sing him songs and rid his heart of evil thoughts!” And she came to me and told me in his words: “Eat and drink and be of good cheer! Tomorrow I shall let you know what I can do for you.” And when the morning came, Zerkarbaal sum­ moned the eleven captains of the ships from Dor, and as the Zakar stood gathered about him, he asked: “W hat is in your minds?” And they re­ plied: “W e shall not rest until the ships you want to sail for Egypt are sunk and destroyed!” Where­ upon Zerkarbaal said: “I will not have it that the envoy of Amun-Re be taken prisoner on the soil of my land. Yet, if you insist, let me take him aboard one of my ships. Then you pursue it and capture him!” So, Zerkarbaal had one of his ships loaded for me and made me sail out of his harbor. But there came a sudden storm and drove us to the isle of Cyprus. A host of armed men swarmed out of the city and threatened to kill me. They marched me to the palace of Heteb, the queen of the island. And it so happened that she was crossing the courtyard between the palace wings. I greeted her and said to those who followed her: “Surely, there must be one amongst you who understands

the speech of Egypt.” And behold, one of them replied in my tongue: “I understand it!” So, I said to him: “Tell your queen what her humble servant says! Verily, word has gone as far as to Thebes, the city of Amun: ‘Injustice may rule all over this earth, but in Cyprus there reigns Justice!1 Now, I wonder: Are you doing every day what you are doing to me this day?” When Heteb was told these words of mine, she turned to me and said: “W hat is the meaning of the words you have spoken?” And I answered: “The sea has raged and the storms have cast me on the shores of this island which is yours. Is it your will that your men assail and kill me? Verily, I am the envoy of Amun-Re. If I do not return to him, he will search for me day and night. And if they slay the men with me, who are from Byblos, their lord and master will kill ten times that num­ ber of your own wherever he may find them!” Thereupon Queen Heteb called her men and commanded them to guard and to protect my ship. And she said to me: “Be of good cheer! Tonight you may sleep in peace. No harm shall befall Amun’s envoy in my land!” So, I returned to my ship. And Amun-Re, the king of gods, and his divine image, Amun of the

Road, brought me back to Egypt together with my load of precious woods for Userhet, the holy bark.

Preserved on a papyrus w ritten during the First C entury A.D.

HEN Petubastis was still king of Egypt, it came to pass that the High Priest of Amun died at Thebes and left all his earthly goods, slaves, land, and cattle to his sons. But the high priest also was the holder of a divine endowment of great value. And this possession was to be given to a son of his who was ranking priest of Horus in Buto. However, Anch'Hor, King Petubastis’ son, laid hand on it. Thereupon, the son of the deceased, unwilling to forego his right, gathered about him thirteen of the roughest war lords, all desert princes on whose loyalty he could depend, and sent a message to the pharaoh which said: “If Anch'Hor, your son, does not yield what rightfully belongs to me by the will of my father, verily, I shall come and take it by the force of arms! When the pharaoh heard this, he summoned his Council and said: “The priest of Horus in Buto, the son of Amun’s high priest has sent me

a message which says: ‘If Anch-Hor, your son, does not yield what rightfully belongs to me by the will of my father, verily, I shall come and take it by the force of arms!’ ” When the royal councilors heard this, they ad­ vised the pharaoh not to yield. Now, as soon as the priest of Horus received Petubastis’ answer, he and the thirteen princes who were loyal to him, sailed southward to take his heritage by force. It so happened that they reached Thebes at the very time when the holy bark of Amun was being taken across the river to the City of the Dead where the great yearly feast was going to be held. And the priest of Horus and his companions fell upon the sacred bark and took possession of it. Petubastis, the pharaoh, his court and all his men in arms, stood on the river banks and help­ lessly looked on. There was great lamentation for the holy bark on which Amun had sailed since time began, the ship whose mast, strong by his power, no storm would break, whose rudder was embedded in its hull as Horus was in Isis’ womb, yielding unfail­ ingly to his divine command, and whose beams held as fast together as twin brothers. The priest of Horus raised his voice above the

din against the pharaoh and shouted: “Verily, you cannot say that there lives a man who is more rightful in his claim than I, the priest of Horus whose voice is Amun’s voice! To me belongs what my father, his highest priest, has willed to be mine. Nobody has the right to take it from me!” Thereupon the pharaoh spoke to the priests of Amun and said: “Have you heard the words of the young priest?” And they replied: “They have come to our ears now for the first time, and we must therefore withhold our judgment.” Now, all this was spoken so that it was heard by the divine image of Amun, the great god. So, the priests said to the pharaoh: “May it please your Majesty to ask Amun himself. Let the great god decide whether or not the priest of Horus has a rightful claim!” And the pharaoh said: “Verily, you do advise me well.” So, he turned to Amun and asked him: “Is the priest of Horus the one who is right or not?” And Amun’s divine image at once inclined and spoke: “He is the one!” Thereupon, the pharaoh said: “Young priest of Horus, you who are right in your heart, why have you not come to me before and claimed your own? Verily, if I had known you I would have not permitted Anch-Hor to withhold it.”

To this the priest of Horus replied: “My king and pharaoh, I stand before your Majesty and Amun’s priesthood, I stand before him whose might makes right, Amun himself, and he has spoken. I have raised my voice before, but it was not heard!” Then Teos, the son of Anch'Hor, the king’s son, spoke and answered him: “If you have raised your voice yesterday, you need not raise it again today, and malign my father and my father’s father! Anch'Hor is armed and, by Amun’s holy image, well protected against injustice!” “You be silent!” the priest of Horus shouted. “You be silent, Teos, son of Anch'Hor! You may answer when you are asked about matters that are your concern! Now, let me ask you, An eh' Hor, son of the king: W hat are you going to do about my property? By Horus, the god whose servant I am, the holy bark shall not carry Amun back to Thebes until you give me what is mine!” Then Anch'Hor said: “Have you come to take it by the laws of peace or by brute force?” And the young priest replied: “If you listen to me, it will be done peacefully; if you listen not, it shall be done by force. Take my word for it!” A t these words, Anch-Hor’s wrath rose like the raging sea. Flames darted from his eyes, his

blood whirled in a blinding storm, and he yelled: “By Amun-Re, my lord and god, you shall not have what you claim. I would rather give it back to the high priest of Amun. Take my word for it!” After Anch'Hor had spoken these words, he turned his back to the priest of Horus and went into the temple. He took off the byssus robes in which he had clad himself for the great feast. He laid aside the golden ornaments and jewels, and called for his armor and the protecting talismans of Amun. The priest of Horus also made himself ready to fight as one of his faithful men came forward with the most exquisite piece of armor. He girded himself and followed Anch'Hor. He encountered the king’s son in the foreyard of the temple. And he dealt him mighty blows and struck him down. Thereupon, Teos, Anch'Hor’s son, arose and, joined by all the princes who were faithful to the king, issued a call to arms, proclaiming: “Are you going to stand idly by while the son of your king is beaten? Take up arms and come to help!” And Egypt’s hosts answered the call. They came rushing on from everywhere. The men from Tanis came and those from Mendes, from Aphthis and from Sebennytos, to stand by the king with

all their might. But against them stood the force of the enemy, the roughest men of war, well girded with armor, helmets on their heads, shields on their arms and swords in their hands. And as the thir­ teen princes gathered about the priest of Horus, they heard them say to him: “In the face of Amun, the great god, give us your commands! Verily, the earth shall drink to its fill the blood of him who dares but one word that may displease you!” And, alas, the awesome splendor of the enemy's armed might filled the men of the pharaoh with so great a fear that no one dared say another word. Then the young priest of Horus took up again his fight with Anch-Hor. He struck him as a lion strikes a she-ass and hit him as one hits a crying child. He lifted him by his armor and dropped him to the ground. He tied a rope around his neck and made him walk before him like a cap­ tured slave. Followed by his men, the priest of Horus marched him to the river, and no Egyptian dared resistance, so great was the fear. And Anch-Hor, the king's son, was taken to the bark of Amun and thrown, bound as he was, into the darkness of its hold. Then the priest of Horus and his thirteen lords

of war took off their armor and went ashore with their warriors and the crews of their ships. And they all sat down to feast on the bread and wine and meat that they had taken from the holy bark. Now, while they had their faces turned in gratitude to Amun, the great god, and while they burned frankincense and purified themselves be­ fore the divine image of everlasting justice, the king of Egypt raised his voice in loud lament and cried: “By Amun, the great god, woe is me! The glory of my great is gone! W hy is not Pemu with me, the hero of On, and Pesnufer, the East’s great lord of arms? My heart is deeply sorrowed, for the priest of Horus has taken the holy bark and feasts in its divine splendor!” Then Teos, Anch-Hor’s son, spoke up again and said: “My king and lord, let yourself be guided by Amun who never hides his will. Go and ask him: Is it right for me to call my hosts to fight so that they may deliver Anch-Hor from the enemy’s hands?” And the pharaoh went forth and asked the great god: “Is it right for me to call my hosts to fight?” But Amun did not incline to him, and his answer was: “Nevermore!” Then the pharaoh asked: “Is it right for me to

call your priestly servants and let them seat you on a precious litter beneath a byssus roof as you were seated on the holy bark, so that you may be with us till the strife is ended?” And Amun moved forth as he had done before, and said: “Let this be your call!” Thus, there was brought the most precious litter, and Amun was seated beneath a byssus canopy as though he were on the holy bark. Now, Petubastis, the pharaoh, and his court stayed in the City of the Dead on the banks of the river facing Thebes. And since he would not call his hosts to fight, Amun had to rest on the precious litter under the roof of byssus. The priest of Horus and his thirteen lords of war re­ mained on the holy bark, and in the darkness of its hold Anch-Hor, the king’s son, lay languishing in bonds. They showed neither fear of the pharaoh nor fright of Amun’s justice. Whenever Petubastis looked across the river, he saw them strutting on the holy bark. So, one day, he spoke to Pekrur, the son of Pesnufer, the East’s great lord of war, and said to him: “W hat shall we do? They are holding Amun’s holy bark, and they make for war and stir revolt under his very eyes because AnchHor would not yield what he has taken. The best I know to do is that you go to the priest

of Horus and tell him from me: Tim e has come for you to put on festive robes. Take of the talismans of victory and lay them down before Amun, the great god, for you shall be forthwith high priest in Thebes!’ Pekrur at once went to see the priest of Horus and repeated before Amun’s divine image and the thirteen lords of war each and every word the pharaoh had spoken. And the priest of Horus had this answer: “Verily, Petubastis has spoken well, when he said the words which you are bringing me. Indeed, the time has come to put on robes of linen. Tell him from me: Take off your armor or, by Horus, my god, I shall turn my hosts against you and smite you dead! Do you forget that Anch-Hor, your son, is my prisoner? I de­ mand that Amun and his divine treasure be given to me in exchange for him. And while you turn over what rightfully belongs to me, do not forget the precious litter of Amun and the talismans of golden glory! I shall not take off arms till Amun rests upon his holy bark, all mine and in the hands of the thirteen lords here with me! Not one day sooner shall an oar be moved or Amun’s bark be taken back to Thebes! Verily, none of your men who ever dares again set foot upon this ship, shall stay alive!”

Thereupon Pekrur returned to the pharaoh and repeated to him each and every word the priest of Horus had spoken. And Petubastis also re­ peated them word for word and asked: “Did he really say: 'Is Anch'Hor not my prisoner? I de­ mand that Amun’s divine treasure be given me in his exchange?’ Verily, if he demanded from me gold and silver, I would pay him. But never shall I let him take Amun and his divine treasure to Buto in triumph over Thebes!” Now, it came to pass that in the North the mightiest man of war arose and appeared with his host at Thebes to aid the pharaoh, his king and lord, so that Amun would not be taken from his city. And as he stood before Petubastis, he said: “My king and lord, behold, the talismans of victory are in my hands. Rejoice, your Majesty, at the fate I hold in store for the priest of Buto and his thirteen lords of war! Woe upon them, if they dare take more than what rightfully be­ longs to them. If they want war, my pharaoh, war I shall give them to the end!” Petubastis blessed the mighty lord of war and sent him on his way. And Amun’s faithful fol­ lower went in full armor to the holy bark and called to the priest of Horus: “The time has come that you atone for the evil you have wrought

upon my king, you and your host who took by force of arms the holy bark and still keep it from Amun’s faithful servant. Verily, if you have risen to claim rightful possession of your heritage, come to the shore and you shall receive your own. But if war is what you wanted, come on and let the banks of the river be drenched with your blood!” Thereupon the priest of Horus called down tq him from the holy bark and answered him: “Only too well I know you who are called the North’s most mighty lord of war. Verily, your name is famous for the grandeur of your words. W ait, I shall send the most faithful man of mine to the shore and let you have my answer!” W ith that, the priest of Horus motioned to the thirteen lords who were with him on the bark as always, that he would gird himself and go to shore. And he rose up against the mighty war lord from the North and struck him as a lion strikes a she-ass. He lifted him by his armor and dropped him to the ground. He tied a rope around his neck and set his foot upon him. He took him to the holy bark and threw him into the darkness of its hold where Anch-Hor, the king’s son, still lay in bonds. Then he took off his armor and made himself ready for a feast of victory. And he and

his thirteen faithful, together with their men and the crews of the ships, drank their fill in wine and feasted under the eyes of Amun and in the sight of the pharaoh and all his men. Then King Petubastis raised his voice in loud lament and cried: “Woe is me! Once Anch-Hor, my son, was sailing in his ship, the leader of my royal fleet that carried Egypt’s never-beaten hosts, and from its mast a shield of gold proclaimed: ‘I am the shield and guard of Egypt!’ Woe is me! Once the ship of the North’s most mighty man of war followed the royal fleet, protector of its rear, proudly proclaiming to the world; ‘I am the Bark of Egypt, Mighty and Never to be Beaten!’ Now, woe be me!, the priest from Buto has come with his barbarian hosts and both, the Shield and Bark of Egypt are in his hands. He makes the kingdom tremble Eke a broken ship that none can steer. Woe be me! Nevermore will Amun, the great god, sail from the shores of Thebes across the river to the City of the Dead!” Thereupon Teos, the son of Anch-Hor, rose up again and said: “By your Majesty, my king and lord, this battle will stand still till all of Egypt’s might is thrown against the enemy.” But Pekrur, the son of Pesnufer, the war lord of the East, turned against Teos and said to the

pharaoh: “Is it not sheer folly what Teos advises you to do? Have not all perished who have gone to fight? Has not Anch-Hor been taken prisoner, and the North’s great warrior been captured? Even your mightiest host will never set them free. Verily, Teos’ counsel sounds to me as though he said: ‘Throw in all your might so that it may be bathed in its own blood.’ Amun, the great god, is not in vain with us. Whatever we have done, was done upon his word. W hy do you not ask him?” And the pharaoh said: “Verily, you are counsel­ ing me well, Pekrur.” And he went and bowed in prayer before Amun and spoke to him: “Amun, my lord and god, is it right for me to call Egypt’s whole might to fight against the priest of Horus and his war lords?” But Amun did not incline and answered: “Nevermore!” Then the pharaoh asked: “Amun, my lord, is it right for me to yield to the demands of the priest of Horus? And will he then set free AnchHor and the North’s great lord of war?” Amun again did not incline and answered: “Nevermore!” Then the pharaoh asked: “My lord and god,

will he and his barbarian hosts wrest all of Egypt from my hands?” And again Amun answered: “Nevermore!” Then the pharaoh asked: “Will you, O Amun, and your divine glory be possessed by him?” And for the fourth time Amun answered: “Nevermore!” So, the pharaoh asked once more: “My lord and god, will you grant victory to my arms and make him leave the holy bark?” This time Amun moved forth and said at once: “It shall be done!” Thereupon, the pharaoh named one by one the princes and the lords of war who were with him and had brought him victory before. Yet, Amun inclined to none. Then he called the names of Pesnufer, the East’s great lord of arms, and of Pemu, the hero of On, and the great god moved forth at once and said: “They are the ones, whom I shall aid so that they may rout the enemy and set free Anch-Hor and the great war lord of the North. They are the ones to be of help to you!” Thereupon Petubastis turned to Pekrur and took counsel with him in the face of Amun. And this was Pekrur’s advice: “If it so please you, my king and lord, send messages to Pemu and Pesnufer

that they may join you and carry out your Ma­ jesty’s wish and command.” “By Amun,” Petubastis replied, “if I send for them, they will not come because I have offended them. I did not ask them to honor me with their presence at the great festival of Amun, my lord and father, when I ascended the throne. Only to you, Pekrur, lord of the East, they will now listen. You are the only one who could send for them. Upon my word and will, they would not come.” And Pekrur said: “My king and lord, great indeed is the insult you have made them suffer, for you forgot your friends till you needed them in your misfortune.” But the king replied: “Verily, by Amun, it was against my wish and will that they were insulted. Teos, Anch-Hor’s son, caused the discord. He set me against them with evil words. It was he who said: ‘My king, there will be strife and quarrel in your ranks as long as Pesnufer and Pemu are not kept away.’ But, verily, he who sets traps for others will be caught himself. He who evilminded digs a pit will fall therein. He who whets a treacherous dagger will cut his own throat. Be­ hold, Teos’ warriors lie in bonds and there is none to wage a fight for them. Yet, let us keep words from battling against words!”

Thereupon Pekrur sent Pemu a message which said: “Turn to the South your glorious might, for there is none Eke you in all the hosts of Egypt!” And then Pekrur said: “Call to me Hige, the son of Minnebme, my scribe!” And they hastened and brought Hige before him. And Pekrur said to his scribe: “W rite what I say to Pesnufer, my son, and send it to Persapte where he now is.” And this letter read as follows: “Pekrur, lord of the East, son of Pesnufer and father of Egypt’s brave bulls of victory, herewith sends greetings to Pesnufer, his son, Persapte’s mighty bull of war, the Eon of the East, the iron rampart, my gift from Isis, the brazen mast of Egypt’s bark that holds the heart of its host! My son, Pesnufer, when this letter reaches you while you are eating, lay down the bread. If it comes to you while you are drink­ ing, put aside the chalice of ebriety! Tarry not, oh, tarry not! Make haste, make haste! Embark at once with the core of your fighting men, the fifty and six brave of the East. And do not leave Pemu behind, the son of Inaros, your brother in arms, and his royal ship, nor the four princely priests who are his faithful aides. Turn to the South and join me at Thebes where the pharaoh is sorely pressed by his enemies in daily fighting. Amun, the great god, is held and kept away from

the City of the Dead. No sail of byssus covers him, for captured is the holy bark. Anch-Hor, the son of Petubastis, is taken prisoner and with him lies in bonds the North’s great lord of war. Turn to the South! Take up the battle! Let the hosts of Egypt see the enemy in terror and in fear of you!” This letter was closed at once and sealed with Pekrur’s signet. Then it was handed to a certain Harkoris who rushed with it to the North with­ out a halt by day or night. Thus, he reached Persapte in a few days. He went immediately to see Pesnufer and handed him the letter. But when it was opened and the great war lord of the East heard what it said, his wrath rose Eke the raging sea and he hissed Eke a flame of sacrifice: “I see, I see! The royal fisherman of Thebes casts out his net for me. I see that His Majesty has set his trap to snare me. Nevermore! Petubas­ tis, son of Anch-Hor, you whom I was not al­ lowed to greet as king, now you are calling me because you need my help in your misfortune! Verily, when you were holding festivals and needed no defense against your enemies, you would not call for me and do me honor!—Yet, by Sebdu, my god, the great lord of the East, and by myseE I swear that I shall not requite evil with evil.

Since my father, Pekrur, the East’s great warrior, has sent me word that Amun is held and kept from the City of the Dead, and that there is none to fight for the house of Petubastis, I shall forget the shameful insult done to me. Together with the fifty and six brave of the East who always fight faithfully by my side, I shall embark and sail well armed to Thebes! Now, you, the envoy of His Majesty, hasten to On and tell Pemu, the son of Inaros, that this is my wish and will: ‘Arm your newest ship and set sails! Pesnufer is going to meet you in Pemebhotep.’ ” W ithout delay, the envoy of the pharaoh went on his way to On. He brought Pemu the message from Pesnufer and said to him in his name: “This is my wish and will!” Meanwhile Pesnufer called the fifty and six war lords of the East, armed his men and em­ barked. W ithout delay, he sailed to Pernebhotep, the port of On where he found Pemu and his armed force embarked on his newest ship. Thus, together they sailed to the South. Now, it came to pass that Petubastis, the phar­ aoh, who had to stay in the City of the Dead across the river from Thebes, went to the river banks, as he did every day, to look out for the ships of Pesnufer and Pemu. But instead of look­

ing northward, he happened to look to the South. And, lo and behold, in the far distance he saw a ship coming down the river. It took about an hour till it reached the height of Thebes. Then the pharaoh detected a warrior in full armor who was rowed across the river. The boat reached shore, and the warrior went on land. He was indeed from head to toe in shining armor, a bull with mighty horns. W ithout coming closer to the place where Petubastis stood, he turned at once towards the holy bark of Amun and called to the priest of Horus and his men: “May Schais, the gracious god of Fate, guard forever the life of the pharaoh!—Verily, wicked are you who took by force the holy bark and kept the great god from his devoted servant!” And the priest of Horus answered: “W ho are you to dare such words? Are you from Tanis or from Mendes?” And the warrior replied: “I am not a son of the North, as you may think. My name is Minnebme. I am a son of Inaros, prince of the Isle of Jeb—the mighty lord of the South!” To that the priest of Horus replied: “If you are coming from the South, why do you serve the pharaoh and make his cause your own? Come on

and join me on the holy bark and feast with us under Amun’s eyes!” A t that Minnebme shouted: “By Chnum, my god and lord of Jeb, never will you atone thus for the crime you have committed. Or do you chal­ lenge me to fight you on the holy bark? Have your choice! Set Amun free and keep him not from voyaging to shore. If you not do it by your own free will, it shall be done by force!” Thereupon, one of the thirteen war lords rose up and yelled: “Look out, you negro, you dirty Nubian, you mouthful of filth from Jeb!” And with that he girded himself with his armor and went ashore. W ith mighty blows he fell upon Minnebme. And they fought from the early dawn until the eighth hour of the day under the eyes of the pharaoh and in the sight of all the hosts of Egypt. They tried their skill of arms upon each other, yet neither was able to overcome the other. Then the pharaoh said to Pekrur, the East’s great lord, and to Teos, the son of Anch-Hor: “By Amun, they still stand firmly on their feet. But who can tell before the night what there may happen?” The two fought on for quite a while longer. But then, the war lord who had come from the holy bark, paused and said to Minnebme: “Now,

we have fought long enough for one day’s fight­ ing. Let us go on tomorrow! But cursed be he and shame upon him who is not here at dawn!” Minnebme agreed and they laid down their arms. They left the place of battle, and each re­ turned to his ship. Now, the pharaoh wanted to meet Minnebme. So he sent Pekrur and Teos after him. And they said to him: “Does a fighter for the king ever go into battle and return from it without coming to the pharaoh for his reward?” So, Minnebme went to Petubastis, bared his head, threw himself at his feet and kissed the ground before him. Only then, the pharaoh rec­ ognized him. And he walked over to him, folded his arms around him, pressed his lips upon Minnebme’s lips and held him as a lover holds his bride. Then he said to him: “Hail to you, Min­ nebme—hail to you, son of Inaros, lord of the South! Verily, Amun has granted me what I have asked from him; to have you back with me, un­ harmed and strong as ever. By Amun-Re, now that I have seen you fight, I know: he who brings me victory, must be a bull of Jeb, son of a mighty bull; must be a lion and a lion’s son as mighty as you are, son of Inaros!” Pekrur and Teos, and with them all the great

of Egypt took Minnebme’s hand and wished him good luck. And the pharaoh asked him to sit with him under the byssus roof of the royal tent. Then Minnebme returned to his ship, and the pharaoh sent him many gifts, and all the great of Egypt sent him their presents. And it came to pass that Minnebme had to fight for two more days. But when the third day drew to its end, he left the field of battle un­ harmed, for his foe could not prevail over him. Thus, word passed from one Egyptian to the other, and everybody said: “There is no stock of fighting men in Egypt equal to the stock of Inaros. Neither Anch-Hor, the king’s own son, nor the great war lord of the North could stand the battle for one single day. But, behold, Minnebme, Inaros’ son, has fought three days and left the field with­ out a wound!” Now, while all this happened, Pemu and Pes­ nufer reached the South. They landed with their ships not all too far from Petubastis’ tents and, in full armor, went ashore. And when the pharaoh learned of their arrival, he went with Pekrur and Teos, Anch-Hor’s son, to greet them. Pesnufer, the East’s great lord of war, and Pemu, the hero of On, bowed before the king who folded his

arms around them and held them in his embrace for a long while. In the early morning, Pesnufer girded himself with his armor and called to the holy bark, chal­ lenging the priest of Horus. And he came ashore to meet the East’s great war lord in battle. But Pesnufer struck him as a lion strikes a she-ass and hit him as one hits a crying child. He lifted him by his armor and dropped him to the ground. He tied a rope around his neck and set his foot upon him, and thus fulfilled the word which Amun, the great god, had given to the pharaoh. The priest of Horus and his thirteen lords of war could not withstand the might of Pemu and Pesnufer. The holy bark was won back for Petu­ bastis, and Anch-Hor, the king’s son, and the North’s great war lord, were freed from their bonds. Amun, the great god, could rest again under byssus sails while the holy bark was taken unhindered to the banks of the river by the City of the Dead where the great feast of the year was now being held. The heritage for which the priest of Horus had come, with his thirteen lords of war, was handed over by Anch-Hor, the king’s son, to the high priest of Amun’s temple at Thebes in whose pos­ session it had been before.

Preserved by Herodotus in his History, w ritten in Greek ca. 450 B. C. It is the only version of this ancient tale known to exist.

ING RHAM PSINITUS was so rich that none of the pharaohs who came after him, ever excelled him or even equalled him in wealth. Now, in order to protect his treasure he had a chamber built of blocks of stone so that its entrance wall projected into the adjoining wall of his palace. But the crafty master builder fitted somewhere into the structure a block so skilfully hewn that it could be easily removed by two men or even one alone. When the chamber was completed the king placed in it all his treasures. But it came to pass that soon thereafter the master builder felt the hour of his death approaching. And he called his two sons and disclosed to them the artful secret which he had built into the royal treasure chamber, in order to provide their future with the luxuries of life. He told them everything: the exact position of the block, its measurements, and how to move

it. He also made it clear to them that, if they used the necessary caution and diligence, the king’s treasures would be theirs for the taking. Now, when their father had passed away, the two sons would not wait all too long and went to work. Under the cover of night they entered the palace, searched out the secret block, easily re" moved it, and took with them a goodly load of silver. When, in the course of time, the king visited the treasure chamber and found the silver in the chests reduced, he was surprised beyond all meas" ure. He would not know whom to suspect, for everything seemed perfectly intact, and not a single seal upon the doors was broken. Now, the same thing happened several times. The thieves continued their performance, and whenever the king looked at his treasures, he could not help seeing that they were vanishing ever faster. So, in order to put an end to the thievery once and for all, he ordered traps of ex" traordinary strength to be set around the treasure chests. When the two thieves paid the treasure cham" ber their usual visit, one of the brothers, passing the first chest, stepped into a trap and could not force himself out of it. He fully realized his pre"

dicament and called his brother. He pointed out to him the mortal danger which confronted both of them. In order to prevent any possible idem tification, he urged him to cut off his head. And the brother, convinced that this was good advice, carried out his wish. Then he replaced the secret block and left the palace with the severed head. A t the break of dawn, the king went to the treasure chamber. But when he saw the body of the thief without a head, caught in the trap, and could not find any other trace of the nocturnal visit, he was astonished as he never was before. In his bewilderment, the king could think of nothing better to do than to have the headless corpse hung up on the palace wall for everybody to be seen. He ordered guards to watch it, and to seize and bring before him anyone who would make himself suspicious by weeping or by show" ing any other sign of grief at the sight of the dead man. Now, when the body was hung up, the mother in her sorrow and despair, threatened the surviving son that she would go to the king and tell him all, if he did not bring the body home to her for burial. He tried to change her mind, but when he realized that all such effort was in vain, he fell upon a ruse and went to work.

He took a team of pack asses, loaded them up with skins of wine and drove them to the palace wall close to the spot where the guards kept watch over his brother’s body. There, he opened on the sly some of the skins, and as the wine poured out, he started crying and lamenting in feigned despair. The guards, of course, saw what happened and came rushing up to him with all kinds of vessels to catch as much of the wine as they possibly could. A t first, the driver of the asses madly swore at them as any merchant in that situation would have cursed. But, after a little while, he admitted that the men did nothing wrong, and let them calm him down. He took his time moving the asses to the roadside, where he pretended to re' arrange his load, and started a friendly chatter with the guards. He laughed heartily at a joke they told and, after all was set and done, pre' sented them most generously with another skin of wine. So, they asked the “merchant” to sit down with them and keep them company. He let himself be persuaded and, because they treated him so very kindly, he felt that they deserved an' other and still another skin. Very soon, the wine fulfilled its purpose. One after the other, the guards dropped drunk upon

the road and fell asleep right on the spot. Under the cover of darkness, he cut his brother’s body from the wall, sheared off the right side of the beard of each and every guard for sheer mockery, put the headless corpse upon one of his asses and rode home on the other. Thus, he complied fully with his mother’s wish. Now, when the king heard what had happened, he was enraged beyond all measure and swore he would not rest until the brazen thief be found. To this end, he devised a plan beyond belief. He commanded his daughter to give herself to all comers who wished to enjoy her, and to ask in return but the one favor that each visitor tell her the most wicked and deceitful deed of his life. But he commanded her also to seize and deliver to him the one who would confess to her the thievery in question. The daughter of the king did as she was com' manded. But the thief, fully aware of the whole design, decided to outwit the king once more, and thus he went to work. He cut off the arm of a man who had just died, hid it under his robe and went to have his pleasure with the king’s daughter. Now, when she asked him the question she had asked from all comers, he brazenly confessed that the most wicked thing he ever did was to cut off

his brother’s head as he was caught by a trap in the king’s treasure chamber, and that his most de­ ceitful deed had been to make the guards drunk and to take home his brother’s body. As the king’s daughter heard this, she wanted to seise him. But, favored by the dimness in the room, he made her grab the dead man’s arm. Thus, he escaped, and the king’s daughter had to admit that she was fooled. When the king heard what had happened, he was equally astonished at the ingenuity and the audacity of that man. And so that all end well, he made known to all the land that the thief would not be punished if he revealed himself and ap­ peared before the king. And the thief trusted the royal proclamation and presented himself. Now, King Rhampsinitus thought so much of this man’s wits that he gave him his daughter for wife. For, in the king’s opinion, an Egyptian ex­ celled the whole world in intelligence, but this man had excelled even the most intelligent Egyptian. V V V

Budge, E. W ., Egyptian Reading Boo\. London, 1888 Erman, Adolph, Die Literatur der Aegypter. Berlin, 1923 Flinders Petrie, W . M ., Egyptian Tales. London, 1895 Griffith, F. LI., Egyptian Literature. N ew York, 1898 Lepsius, K. R., Den\maeler aus A egypten und Aethiopien, 1897 Maspero, Gaston, Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt. London 5? N ew York, 1915 Newberry, Percy, Am herst Papyri, 1901 W iedem ann, A., Altaegyptische Sagen und Maerchen. Leipzig, 1906
N o t e : T h e reader will find the most comprehensive bibliograph' ical inform ation contained in the above listed works ol A d olph Erroan and Gaston Maspero.




A n t i c i p a t i n g questions which may be asked by the

readers of this book, the publishers wish to announce that there is but one universal Rosicrucian O rder existing in the world today, united in its various jurisdictions, and having one Supreme Council in accordance w ith the origi­ nal plan of the ancient Rosicrucian manifestoes. This international organization retains the ancient tra ­ ditions, teachings, principles, and practical helpfulness of the Brotherhood as founded centuries ago. It is known as the A ncient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, which name is abbreviated for popular use into A M O R C . T he inter­ national jurisdiction of this O rder for N orth, Central, and South America, British Commonwealth and Empire, France, Switzerland, and A frica is located at San Jose, California. Those interested in knowing more of the history and present-day, helpful offerings of the Rosicrucians may have a free copy of the book entitled, The Mastery of Life, by sending a definite request to S c r i b e C. J. D., A M O R C Temple, Rosicrucian Park, San Jose, California.

V o lu m e I


By H .
Spencer L e w is,

F. R. C., Ph.D .


T h e Rosicrucian Library
Consists of a number of unique books which are described in the following pages, and which may be purchased from the R O S IC R U C IA N SUPPLY BU REA U
S a n Jose, C a l i f o r n i a

T h i s volume contains the first complete, authentic history o f the Rosicrucian O rd e r from ancient times to th e present day. T he history is divided into two sections, dealing with the trad i' tional facts and the established historical facts, and is replete with interesting stories of romance, mystery, and alluring incidents.

T his book is a valuable one, since it is a constant reference and guidebook. Questions th a t arise in your mind regarding m any mystical and occult subjects are answered in this volume. F or m any centuries the strange, mysterious records o f the Rosicrucians were closed against any eyes b u t those of the high initiates. Even editors of great encyclopedias were unable to secure the fascinating facts of the Rosicrucian activities in all parts of the world. N o w the whole story is outlined and it reads like a story from the land of th e “ A rabian N ights." T h e book also outlines the answers to scores of questions dealing w ith the history, work, teachings, benefits, and purposes of the Rosicrucian fraternity. It is printed on fine paper, bound in silk cloth, and stamped in gold. Price, postage prepaid, $2.85 ( £ l / - / 4 sterling).


V o l u m e II

By H .
Spencer L e w is,

F. R. C., Ph.D .

By H.
Spencer L e w is,

F. R. C., Ph.D .

T h i s volume contains such principles of practical Rosicrucian teachings as are applicable to the solution of everyday problems of life in business and in the affairs of the home. It deals ex ­ haustively w ith the prevention of ill-health, the curing of m any of the common ailments, and the attainm ent of peace and h a p ­ piness, as well as the building up of the affairs of life th at deal with financial conditions. T he book is filled with hundreds of practical points dealing especially with the problems of the average businessman or person in business employ. It points out the wrong and right way for the use of metaphysical and mystical principles in attracting business, increasing one's income, p ro ­ m oting business propositions, starting and bringing into realiza­ tion new plans and ideals, and the attainm ent of th e highest ambitions in life.

T h i s is the book th a t thousands have been waiting for— the real Jesus revealed at last! It was in p reparation for a num ber of years and required a visit to Palestine and Egypt to secure a verification of the strange facts contained in the ancient Rosicrucian and Essene records. It is a full account o f the birth, youth, early m anhood, and later periods of Jesus’ life, containing the story of His activities in the times n ot m entioned in the Gospel accounts. T h e facts relating to the immaculate conception, the birth, crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension will astound and inspire you. T h e book contains m any mystical symbols, fully explained, original photographs, and an unusual p o rtrait of Jesus. T h ere are over three h u n d re d pages w ith seventeen large chapters, beautifully printed, b ound in silk, and stamped in gold. H ere is a book that will inspire, instruct, and guide every stud en t of mysticism and religion. I t is one of the most talkedabout books ever w ritten on the subject. R ead it and be prepared for th e discussions of it th a t you will hear among men and wom en of learning. Sent by mail, postpaid, for $2.75 ( 1 9 / 8 sterling).

Rosicrucian Principles for the Hom e and Business is not th eo ­ retical b u t strictly practical, and is in its n in th edition, having had a wide circulation and universal endorsem ent not only among members of the organization, who have voluntarily stated that they have greatly improved their lives through the application of its suggestions, b u t among thousands of persons outside of the organization. It has also been endorsed by business organizations and business authorities. T h e book is of standard size, well printed, bound in silk cloth, and stamped in gold. Price, postage prepaid, $2.75 ( 1 9 /8 sterling).

V o l u m e IV

B y H .S p e n c e r
L e w is,

F. R. C.,

Ph.D .

D o e s the Bible actually contain the unadulterated words of Jesus the Christ? D o you know th a t from 325 A .D . until 1870 A .D ., tw enty ecclesiastical o r church council meetings were held, in which man alone decided u po n th e context of the Bible? Selfappointed judges in the four Lateran Councils expurgated and changed the sacred writings to please themselves. T he Great M aster's personal doctrines, of the utmost, vital importance to

every man and wom an were buried in unexplained passages and parables. T h e Secret Doctrines o f Jesus, by Dr. H. Spencer Lewis, em in en t au th o r of T h e Mystical Life o f Jesus, for the first time reveals these hidden truths. Startling, fascinating, this book should be in every th inker's hands. It is beautifully bound, illustrated, of large size, and the price, including postage, is only $2.75 ( 1 9 / 8 sterling).

By H.
Spencer L e w is,

P. R. C., Ph.D .

V o lu m e


“U N TO THEE I G R A N T . . "
By S ri. R a m a t h e r i o
T h i s is one of the rarest O riental mystery books known. It was translated by special permission o f the G rand Lama and Disciples of the Sacred College in the G rand Tem ple in Tibet.

H e r e is a book th at will tell you about the real facts of reincarnation. I t is a story of th e soul, and explains in detail how the soul enters the body and how it leaves it, where it goes, and when it comes back to earth again, and why. T h e story is n o t just a piece of fiction, b u t a revelation o f the m ystic laws and principles know n to the M asters of the Far East and the O rient fo r m any centuries, and never p u t into book form as a story before this book was printed. T h a t is w hy the book has been translated into so m any languages and endorsed by the mystics and adepts of India, Persia, Egypt, and Tibet.

Fascinating — A lluring— Instructive Those who have read this book say th at they were unable to leave it w ith o ut finishing it at one sitting. T h e story reveals the mystic principles tau g h t by the Rosicrucians in regard to reincarnation as well as the spiritual laws of the soul and the incarnations of the soul. I t is well printed, b ound with a cloth cover, and w orthy of a place in anyone's library. Price, per copy, postage prepaid, only $1.75 ( 1 2 / 6 sterling).

H ere is a book th a t was w ritten two thousand years ago, b ut was hidden in m anuscript form from the eyes of the world and given only to the initiates o f th e temples in T ib et to study privately. O u t of the mystery of the past comes this antique book con' taining the rarest writings and teachings known to m an w ith the exception of the Bible. H u nd reds of books have been written about the teachings and practices o f the M asters o f the Far East and the A d epts of T ibet, b u t none o f them has ever con' tained the secret teachings found in this book. T h e book is divided into m any parts, each p a rt containing a large num ber of sections or divisions and chapters. T h e book deals with m an’s passions, desires, weaknesses, sins, strengths, fortitudes, ambitions, and hopes. All are treated in detail with illum inating simplicity. T h e book is beautifully printed and bound w ith stiff cover, and contains also the strange mystic story of the expedition into T ib et to secure this marvelous manuscript. Price, per copy, postage prepaid, only $1.75 ( 1 2 / 6 sterling).

V o lu m e


By H.
Spencer L e w is ,

F. R. C., Ph.D .

T h i s book is entirely different from any oth er book ever issued in America, dealing w ith the secret periods in the life of each man and wom an wherein the Cosmic forces affect o u r daily affairs. T h e book reveals how we may take advantage of certain periods to bring success, happiness, health, and prosperity into

o u r lives, and it likewise points o ut those periods which are not favorable for m any of the things we try to accomplish. It does n ot deal with astrology o r any system of fortunetelling, but presents a system long used by the M aster Mystics in O riental lands and which is strictly scientific and demonstrable. O ne reading of the book w ith its charts and tables will enable the reader to see the course of his life at a glance. I t helps every­ one to eliminate "ch an ce” and “luck,” to cast aside “ fate” and replace these w ith self-mastery. H ere is a book you will use weekly to guide your affairs th ro u g h o u t the years. T h ere is no magic in its system, b ut it opens a vista of the cycles of the life of each being in a re­ markable m anner. W ell-printed, b ound in silk cloth, and stamped in gold to match other volumes of the Rosicrucian Library. Price, postage prepaid, $2.60 ( 1 8 / 7 sterling).

crucian explanations, aside from the complete dictionary it contains. T h e Rosicrucian M anual is of large size, well printed, beau­ tifully bo und in red silk cloth, and stamped in gold. T h e book has been enlarged and improved in m any ways since its first edition. Price, postage prepaid, $2.8? ( £ l / - / 4 sterling).

V o l u m e IX M Y STICS A T PR A Y E R
Compiled by M a n y C i h l a r A u strian Philosopher and M ystic T h e first compilation of the famous prayers o f the renowned mystics and adepts of all ages. T h e book, M ystics at Prayer, explains in simple language the reason for prayer, how to pray, and the Cosmic laws involved. You come to learn the real efficacy o f prayer and its full beauty dawns u p on you. W h a te v e r your religious beliefs, this book makes yo u r prayers the application n o t of words, b u t of helpful, divine principles. You will learn the infinite power of prayer. Prayer is m an ’s rightful heritage. I t is the direct means of m an's communion with the infinite force of divinity. M ystics at Prayer is well bound, p rinted on art paper in two colors, w ith deckle-edged pages, sent anywhere, postpaid, $1.5? ( 1 1 /1 sterling).

V o l u m e V III

By H .
Spencer L e w is,

F. R. C., Ph.D .

T h i s book contains n o t only extracts from the Constitution of the Rosicrucian O rder, b u t a complete outline and explana* tion of all the customs and term inology o f the Rosicrucians, with diagrams and explanations of the symbols used in the teachings, an outline of the subjects taught, a dictionary of the terms, a complete presentation of the principles of Cosmic C on ­ sciousness, and biographical sketches of im portant characters connected w ith the work. T h ere are also special articles on the G reat W h ite Lodge and its existence, how to attain psychic illumination, the Rosicrucian Code of Life with th irty laws and regulations, and a num ber of portraits of prom in ent mystics in ­ cluding M aster K. H ., th e Illustrious.

V o lu m e X BEHOLD T H E SIG N
By R a l p h M . L e w i s . F. R. C.
W h a t were the Sacred Traditions said to have been revealed

T h e technical m atter contained in the text and in the hundred or more diagrams makes this book a real encyclopedia o f Rosi-

to Moses— and never spoken by the ancient Hebrews? W h a t were the forces of natu re discovered by the Egyptian priesthood and embodied in strange symbols— symbols which became the ever-living knowledge which built King Solomon's Tem ple, and which found their way into the secret teachings of every century? Regardless of the changing consciousness of man, certain signs and devices have immortalized for all ages the truths which make men free. Learn the meaning of th e A n c h o r and

A rk , the Seven-Pointed Star, ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, and many other age-old secret symbols. H ere is a book th a t also explains th e origin o f the various forms of th e cross, the meanings o f which are often m isunder­ stood. I t fu rth er points o u t th e mystical beginnings of the secret signs used by m any fraternal orders today. T his book of symbolism is fully illustrated, simply and interestingly written. W ell bound and printed. Price, postage prepaid, $1.45 ( 1 0 /4 sterling).


B e n e a t h th e rolling, restless seas lie the mysteries of for­ gotten civilizations. Swept by the tides, half-buried in the sands, w orn away by terrific pressure, are the rem nants of a culture little know n to our age of today. W h ere the mighty Pacific now rolls in a majestic sweep of thousands of miles, there was once a vast continent. T his land was known as Lemuria, and its people as Lemurians. W e pride ourselves upon the inventions, conveniences, and de­ velopments of today. W e call them modern, b u t these ancient and long-forgotten people excelled us. T hings we speak of as future possibilities, they knew as everyday realities. Science has gradually pieced together the evidences of this lost race, and in this book you will find th e most amazing, enthralling revelations you have ever read. H ow these people came to be swept from the face of the earth, except for survivors who have living descendants today, is explained. Illustrations and explanations o f th eir mystic symbols, maps of the continent, and m any a n ­ cient tru th s and laws are contained in this unusual book. If you are a lover of mystery, of the unknow n, the weird— read this book. Remember, however, this book is n o t fiction, but based on facts, the result of extensive research. Does civilization reach a certain height and then retrograde? A re the culture and progress o f m ankind in cycles, reaching certain peaks, and then retu rnin g to start over again? These questions and many more are answered in this intriguing volume. Read of the living des­ cendants of these people, whose expansive nation now lies at the bottom of the Pacific. In th e minds of these descendants is the knowledge of the principles which in bygone centuries m ade their forebears builders of an astounding civilization. T h e book, Lemuria— T h e Lost C ontinent o f the Pacific, is beautifully bound, well printed, and contains m any illustrations. It is economically priced at $2.50 ( 1 7 / 1 0 sterling).

V o l u m e XI

M A N S IO N S OF T H E SOUL T he Cosmic Conception
By H.
Spencer L e w is ,

F. R. C., Ph.D.

R e i n c a r n a t i o n ! T h e world's most disputed doctrine. T he belief in reincarnation has had millions of intelligent, learned, and tolerant followers th ro ug h ou t the ages. R inging through th e minds and hearts o f students, mystics, and thinkers have always been the words: “ W h y A re W e H ere?’’ R eincarnation has been critized by some as conflicting with sacred literature and as being w ithout verification. T his book reveals, however, in an intelligent m ann er the many facts to sup po rt reincarnation. Q uotations from em inent authorities, and from Biblical and Sacred works substantiate reincarnation. This volume P R O V E S reincarnation. It places it high above mere speculation. This book is without exaggeration the most complete, inspiring, en­ lightening book ever w ritten on this subject. It is not a fiction story b u t a step-by-step revelation of pro found mystical laws. Look at some of the thought-provoking, intriguing subjects: T h e Cosmic Conception; T h e Personality o f the Soul; Does Personality Survive Tra nsition ?; H eredity and Inheritance; Karma and Personal Evolution; Religious and Biblical View points; Christian References; B etw een Incarnations; Souls of Animals and the " U n b o r n ”; Recollections o f the Past. T h e book contains over three h u n dred pages. Beautifully printed, neatly bound, stamped in gold, it will be a valuable asset to your library. Economically priced at only $2.85 ( £ l / - / 4 sterling) per copy, postage prepaid.

V o l u m e X III T H E T E C H N IQ U E OF T H E M A ST E R T he W a y of Cosmic Preparation
By R a y m u n d A n d r e a , F .R .C . A GUIDE to in n er unfoldm ent! T h e newest and simplest explanation for attaining the state of Cosmic Consciousness. T o those w ho have felt the th rob of a vital power w ithin, and whose in n er vision has at times glimpsed infinite peace and happiness, this book is offered. I t converts the intangible whispers of self in to forceful actions th a t b ring real joys and accomplishments in life. I t is a masterful w ork on psychic unfoldm ent. I t is well bound in cloth. Secure this treasure for yourself. Economically priced, postage prepaid, at $2.25 ( 1 6 /1 sterling).

V o lu m e XV T H E BOOK O F JA SH E R T he Sacred Book W ithheld
By w h a t right has man been denied the words of the prophets? W h o dared expunge from th e H oly Bible one of its inspired messages? For centuries man has labored u n d e r the illusion that there have been preserved for him the collected books of the great teachers and disciples— yet one has been withheld — T he Book o f Jasher. W ith in the hallowed pages of the great Bible itself are ref­ erences to this lost book which have puzzled the devout and students for centuries. A s if by Divine decree, the Bible ap­ pears to cry o ut to m ankind th at its sanctity has been violated, its tru th veiled, for we find these tw o passages exclaiming: “ Is n ot this w ritten in the Book of Jasher?"— Joshua 10:13; “ Be­ hold, it is w ritten in the Book of Jasher."— 2 Samuel 1:18. A lcuin discovered this great book of the Bible w ritten by Jasher. H e translated it from the H ebrew in 800 A .D . Later it was suppressed and th en rediscovered in 1829, and once again suppressed. But now we bring to you an actual photographic reproduction of this magnificent work, page for page, line for line, unexp u r­ gated. This enlightening work, bound in original style, is priced at only $2.75 ( 1 9 /8 sterling) per copy, postage paid.

B y H . S p e n c e r L e w i s , F. R. C., Ph. D. T h e world's greatest mystery and first w o nder is the G reat Pyram id. It stands as a m onum ent to the learning and achievements of the ancients. For centuries its secrets were closeted in stone— now they stand revealed. N ever before in a book priced w ithin the reach of every reader have the history, vast wisdom, and prophecies of the G reat P y ra ­ mid been given. You will be amazed at the Pyram id's scientific construction and at the trem endous knowledge of its mysterious builders. W h o built the G reat Pyram id? W h y were its builders inspired to reveal to posterity the events of the future? W h a t is th e path th a t the G reat Pyram id indicates lies before m ankind? W ith in the pages of this enlightening book there are the answers to many enthralling questions. It prophesied the W o rld W ars and the great economic upheaval. Learn w hat it presages for the future. You must not deprive yourself of this book. T h e book is well bound with a cloth cover, and contains in ­ structive charts and illustrations. Priced at only $2.50 ( 1 7 / 1 0 sterling) w ith postage paid.

V o lu m e XVI

By R a y m u n d A n d r e a , F. R . C. T h e T echnique o f the Disciple is a book containing a modern description o f the ancient esoteric path to spiritual illumination, trod by the masters an d avatars of yore. I t has long been said t h a t C hrist left, as a great heritage to members of His secret council, a private m ethod fo r guidance in life, which m ethod has been preserved until today in the secret, occult, mystery schools. R aym und A n drea, the author, reveals th e m ethod for a ttain ­ ing a greater life tau g h t in these mystery schools, which perhaps parallels the secret instructions of Christ t o members o f His

council. w ritten. Postage sterling)

T h e book is enlightening, inspiring, and splendidly It is handsomely bound in silk and stamped in gold. is paid on shipm ent to you. Priced at $2.25 ( 1 6 /1 per copy.

V o l u m e X V II

M E N T A L P O IS O N IN G Thoughts T h a t Enslave M inds
By H .
Spencer L e w is,

F. R. C., Ph.D .

T o r t u r e d souls. H u m an beings, whose self-confidence and peace of mind have been to rn to shreds by invisible darts— the evil thoughts of others. Can envy, hate, and jealousy be p ro ­ jected through space from the mind of another? D o poisoned thoughts like mysterious rays reach th ro ug h the ethereal realm to claim innocent victims? W ill wishes and commands born in hate gather momentum and like an avalanche descend upon a helpless m an or wom an in a series of calamities? M ust hum anity remain at the mercy of evil influences created in th e minds of the vicious? Millions each year are mentally poisoned— are you safe from this scourge? M ental Poisoning is the title of a book written by Dr. H . Spencer Lewis, which fearlessly discloses this psychological problem. It is sensational in its revelations. Read it and be prepared. This neatly bound, well-printed book will be sent to you for the nominal price of only $1.95 ( 1 3 /1 1 sterling). It has been economically produced so it can be in the hands of thousands because of the benefit it will afford readers. O rder yours today. Price includes postage.

control of the glands can mean the control of your life. These facts, scientifically correct, with th eir mystical interpretation, are for the first time presented in simple, nontechnical language, in a book which everyone can enjoy and profit by reading. Mystics and metaphysicians have long recognized th at certain influences and powers of a Cosmic nature could be tapped; that a D ivine energy could be d raw n u p o n , which affects our creative ability, our personality, and o u r physical welfare. For centuries there has been speculation as to w hat area or w hat organs of the body contain this medium— this contact between the Divine and the physical. N o w it is know n th at certain of the glands are governors which speed up o r slow down the influx of Cosmic energy into the body. W h a t this process of Divine alchemy is and how it works is fascinatingly explained in this book of startling facts. D r. M. W . Kapp, the author, during his lifetime, was held in high esteem by the medical fraternity despite the fact th a t he also expressed a deep insight in to the mystical laws of life and their influence on the physical functioning of the body. I N T R O D U C T I O N BY H. S P E N C E R L E W IS, F.R.C., Ph.D . Dr. H . Spencer Lewis— first Im perator of the Rosicrucian O rd e r ( A M O R C ) , of N o rth and South America, for its present cycle of activity, and au th o r of m any works on mys­ ticism, philosophy, and metaphysics— wrote an im portant in tro ­ duction to this book, in which he highly praised it and its author. T h e book is well bound with a cloth cover; price only $1.80 ( 1 2 / 1 0 sterling) with postage paid.

V o l u m e X V III

V o l u m e XXI

By M. W . Kapp, M .D .
You need n o t continue to be bound by those glandular c h ar­ acteristics of your life which do not please you. These influences, through th e findings of science and th e mystical principles of nature, may be adjusted. T h e first essential is th at of the old adage: “ Know Yourself.” Have revealed the facts about the endocrine glands— know where they are located in your body and w hat mental and physical functions they control. The

W H A T T O E A T —A N D W H E N
B y S t a n l e y K. C l a r k , M .D ., C.M ., F.R.C.
“ M i n d over m atter” is not a trite phrase. Y our moods, your tem peram ent, your very thoughts can and do affect digestion. A re you overweight— or underw eight? A ppearances, even the scales, are n ot always reliable. Y our age, your sex, the kind of work you do— all these factors determine w hether your weight is correct or w rong for you. Do you know that some people

suffer from food allergy? Learn these interesting facts, and how your digestion m ay be affected even hours after you have eaten. T h e au th o r o f this book, D r. Stanley K. Clark, was for several years staff physician at the H e n ry Ford Hospital in Detroit. H e is a noted gastroenterologist (specialist in stomach and intestinal disorders). H e brings you his w ealth o f knowledge in this field, plus his additional findings from his study of the effects of the mind upon digestion. W h a t to Eat— and W h e n is compact, free from unnecessary technical terminology. Includes complete h a n d y index, food chart, and sample menus. I t is n o t a one-time-reading book. You will often refer to it th ro ug h ou t the years. W ell printed, strongly bound. Price, postpaid to you, $2.00 ( 1 4 / 4 sterling).

N o rth , Central, and South Am erica, British Commonwealth and Empire, France, Switzerland, and Africa, this volume of over 3 JO pages, carefully indexed, is of particular value as a text for teachers an d students of metaphysics, including philosophy and psychology. W ell-bound and attractive, it is purposely economi­ cally priced at $2.85 ( j £ l / - / 4 sterling), postpaid, m aking it available to all sincere seekers.

V o l u m e X X III

SEPH ER Y E Z IR A H — A BOOK O N C R E A T IO N O r T he Jewish Metaphysics of Remote A ntiquity
D r . I s i d o r K a l i s c h , T ran slator

V o l u m e X XII

B y R a l p h M. L e w i s , F. R. C.
W h a t could be more essential than the discovery and analysis

o f self, the composite of th at consciousness which constitutes o ne’s whole being? T his book of sound logic presents revealingly and in entirety the four phases of hum an living: T he Mysteries, T h e Technique, T h e Pitfalls, and A ttainm ent. D o you not, a t times, entertain th e question as to whether you are living your life to your best advantage? You m ay find an answer in some of the 23 chapters, presented u n d e r headings such as: Causality and Karma, T h e Lost W o rd , D eath — T h e Law of Change, Love and Desire, N a tu re of Dreams, Prediction, M astership an d Perfection. C onsider “ Love and Desire.” In much of ancient and m odern literature, as well as in the many and various preachments of the present-day world, L O V E is proclaimed as th e solution to all h um an conflict. D o you u n d e r­ stand tru ly the m eaning o f absolute love1 D o you know that there are various loves and th a t some of the so-called loves are dangerous drives? W ritte n authoritatively by Ralph M . Lewis, Im perator of the Rosicrucian O rd e r ( A M O R C ) , the international jurisdiction of

A m o n g the list of the h u n dred best books in the world, one m ight easily include this simple volume, revealing the greatest authen tic study of the secret Kabala. For those averse to fan­ tastic claims, this book is truly comprehensible — for the wise stud ent who does n o t care for magical mumbo-jumbo, it is dynamic. T h e phantasies of those baffling speculations o f o ther writers become u n im p o rtan t when the practical stu d en t of mysticism reverently thum bs through these pages and catches the terse and challenging statements. T h e woolgathering of m any so-called authors of occultism is bro u gh t to n oth in g b y this simple volume which makes a p a ttern for honest mystical common sense. T h e Sepher Y ezirah is one of the m any books published by A M O R C . It has 61 pages with both H ebrew and English texts, photolithographed from the 1877 original edition. For anyone interested in th e best— also, considered by some th e most ancient — in H ebrew mystical thought, this book will be a refreshing discovery. Students of the Kabala and readers of mysticism will recognize in it one of the two greatest source books for all occult thinking. T h e careful reader will be attracted to th ree characteristics o f this edition of the Sepher Y ezirah: (1) A clear English translation of a most ancient work, almost unavailable up to the present.

(2 )

A simple expose of fundam ental aspects of the ancient Kabala w ithout superstitious in ' terpretations. A n inexpensive and convenient translation of the world's oldest philosophical w riting in Hebrew.

(3 )

A ttractive and convenient, paper-bound edition. Price: $1.25 ( 8 / 1 1 sterling), postpaid.




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R o s i c r u c i a n P a r k , S a n J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a , U. S. A.




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