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its Furnishings; V, The Women of Athens; VI, Athenian Costume; VII, The Slaves; VIII, The Children; IX, The Schoolboys of Athens; X, The Physicians of Athens; XI, The Funerals; XII, Trade, Manufactures, and Banking; XIII, The Armed Forces of Athens; XIV, The Peiraeus and the Shipping; XV, An Athenian Court Trial ; X VI , The Ecclesia of Athens ; XVII, The Afternoon at the Gymnasia; XVIII, Athenian Cookery and the Symposium; XIX, Country Life around Athens; XX, The Temples and Gods of Athens; XXI, The Great Festivals of Athens.

There are a few statements which might be questioned. On page 7 it would be better to discuss the geology of Athens, and to tell us that the Acropolis was originally part of a continuous line of hills stretching to Piraeus than to say that we might dream that this steep, tawny rock was flung by the Titans into the midst of the Attic plain. The map on page 7 is too sketchy and incorrect. The agora is not so small; the street of tripods and the location of Mt. Hymettus are wrongly given. On page 17 it is said that the walls of the stoa of Zeus were not frescoed; but the paintings there, by Euphranor, of the Twelve Gods, of Democracy and Theseus, and of the battle of Mantinea were famous in antiquity. On page 29 we have the antiquated idea and plan of a Greek house in 360 B. C. with two courts. Even the later Greek houses df Priene and Delos had only one court. It is by no means certain that Hippocrates died in 357 B. C, as is said by Dr. Davis (80). On page 88 it is stated that burning was the method commonly used by the Greeks to dispose of their dead, but burial was very common. On page 98 it is said that "in 360 B. C. the Athenian industry in pottery is still considerable; in fifty places up and down the city the potters' wheels are whirling". The best vasepaintings had practically died out before 360 B.C., and it would have been impossible to find many places in Athens certainly not fifty where the glazers were adding the elegant patterns to vases in 360 B. C. Nor is the statement (99) trtte that there is absolutely no duplication of patterns. There is not only frequent duplication of pattern, but even of whole scenes with slight variations. In the illustration on page 106 the warrior wears a metal cuirass, but below it appears a loin cloth or undergarment, not, as Professor Davis says, a thick fringe of stout strips of leather with metallic studs. But the illustration belongs to early Greek art, and the metal was discarded for the leather cuirass long before 360 B. C. On page 118, in the poor sketch (compare also 121), the main harbor should be marked Peiraeus; the name Cantharus probably applies to the whole harbor, which resembles in shape the Greek vase, known as a cantharus, which Dionysus so often carries, rather than to the part nearest the entrance reserved for the war navy. We read on page 151 that there is a general rush away from the agora and down one of the various avenues leading to the Pnyx. For "down" read 'up'. There is no evidence (page 152) for a small portable altar in front of the Bema

of the Pnyx, or for a few planks laid upon the rock in the rear of the-Bema, or for a handsome chair for the presiding officer upon the Bema itself. There is no evidence for translucent marble slabs in the roof of the Parthenon (223), and we get an idea of the Athena Parthenos from many other works of art than recently discovered statuettes (224). Many of the statements about scenic antiquities and the festivals are debatable, but

it is almost certain that in Middle and Later Comedy the chorus did not entirely disappear. The last page has two bad errors. Professor Davis in his visit to Athens could not have seen from the bastion of the Nike temple full thirty miles down the coast to Sunium. This mistake also occurs in Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture (250), where we read, "Pausanias says that the crest of the helmet and the point of the spear could be seen from off Sunium" ; Pausanias only means that boats coming from Sunium can see the Athena Parthenos, but surely not till they had passed the high range of Hymettus, which prevents any view of Sunium. Worse than this is to end the book by attributing to Aristophanes the famous couplet of Pindar about Athens. Aristophanes parodies it, to be sure, but Pindar should receive credit for the immortal lines in which he called Athens Radiant, violet-crowned, by minstrels sung, Bulwark of Hellas, Athens, illustrious. The Johns Hopkins University. David M. ROBINSON.

LATIN MOTTOES The two-fold value of Latin mottoes in fixing moral and inspirational truths as well as vocabulary and forms is widely recognized by teachers. Some text-books for beginners print a motto or quotation beneath the heading of each lesson; others publish a special supplement containing such matef ial. Benham's A Book of Quotations alone contains 345 pages of mottoes, proverbs and phrases in Greek and Latin, carefully indexed (J. B. Lippincott Co.). Incidental teaching of vital worth to the student can be done through the medium of brief quotations from the Classics which crystallize some helpful thought or dynamic truth. Short mottoes, especially those that are alliterative or metrical, stick in the memory, and the student unconsciously acquires a varied vocabulary as well as an inexhaustible ,store of helpful quotations which will enable him in later years to quote from the Classics, long after he has forgotten his syntax and forms. Every class-room doubtless contains a permanent bulletin board for announcements and notices of School activities. This is advertising space of inestimable value to the teacher. Let him post each week, in the most conspicuous place, some memorable phrase or maxim in Latin which will catch the student's eye and stick in his memory or excite his curiosity 'to look it up' at the first opportunity. The best type of bulletin board for the proper display of mottoes is one that haB a metallic back with line-like grooves upon which



moveable letters are hung; such boards are used widely to-day by Churches and the Y. M. C. A. for announcing the order of services, with the subjects of sermons and lectures, etc. The cost of such boards for the classroom is not prohibitive.

Peabody High School, Pittsburgh, Pa.

N. E. Henry.

CORRESPONDENCE In his article on The Renaissance of Greek (The Classical Weekly 9.17, note 1), Professor Yeames says: "Cornell, with the finest Dante library in America, has sometimes been without a single student of that author". For several years I have offered a course entitled Dante in English, which has steadily attracted as many students as I desire to teach. The work is of an advanced nature, and mainly designed for prospective teachers of English. This year twelve are enrolled. Since his coming to Cornell, Professor Hamilton, of the Department of Romance Languages, has constantly given both more general and more special instruction in Dante; his students have the advantage of reading the poem in the original. Cornell University. Lane COOPER. Professor Cooper's comment does not affect my statement, which originated with Dr. L. L. Forman, formerly of Cornell University. See his Humble Apology for Greek (1904), quoted by Professor Shorey in his article, The Case for the Classics, in Latin and Greek in American Education (edited by F. W. Kelsey, 191 1), page 334. Professor Hamilton's courses are a rather recent addition to the Cornell curriculum, and Professor Cooper's course is Dante in English. Hobart College. H. H. YEAMES.

Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals American Lutheran Survey Sept. 15, Guglielmo Ferrero, Ancient

Rome and Modern America <R. C. Horn). Antiquary Oct., Notes of the Month [current archaeological news: frescoes discovered at Pompeii, a Roman coin in the Isle of Sheppey, Roman forts in North Britain]. Athenaeum May 29, (H. O. Taylor, Deliverance: the Freeing of the Spirit in the Ancient World; the Codex Alexandrinus in Reduced Photographic Facsimile: Old Testament, Part r; M. H. Morgan, Vitruvius: the Ten Books on Architecture; Gilbert Murray, The Alcestis of Euripides). Aug. 7, (Jacques Chevalier, La Notion du n6cessaire chez Aristote et chez ses pr^decesseurs; Jacques Chevalier, Etude critique du dialogue pseudo-platonicien, l'Axiochos sur la Mort et sur I'lmmortalite de l'Ame). Aug. 14, (A. H. M'Neile, The Gospel according to St. Matthew: the Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Indices). Aug. 21, (The Works of Aristotle, Translated into English: Magna Moralia, by St. George Stock, and Ethica Eudemia and De Virtutibus et Vitiis, by J. Solomon; De Mundo. by E. S. Forster, and De Spiritu, by J. F. Dobson). Aug. 28, (O. M. Dalton, The Letters of Sidonius, Translated with Introduction and Notes). Sept. 11, (E. W. Lummis, How Luke was Written); A Mistranslated Line in the Georgics [r. 266: rubea virga = red osier, salix rubra, used by basketmakers], T. Okey. Sept. 25, An Inscription at Penmalchno, John Rhys. Bibliotheca Sacra Oct., A New Bible Text from Spain, E. S. Buchanan; (W. M. Groton, The Christian Eucharist and the Pagan Cults). British Review Oct., Cunctator [Latin poem]. Bulletin of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia July, The Mountains of Greece [illustrated], W. W. Hyde.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester April, The Origin of the Cult of Dionysos, J. R. Harris. Columbia University Quarterly June, Greek Games. V. C. Gildersleeve (ill.); Progress and Hellenism, E. J. Putnam. Current Opinion July, Revitalizing Greek Tragedy for American Consumption (ill.). Aug., Why Plato was one of the World's greatest Novelists. Dial Sept. 30, The Great Vocation [against narrowly 'vocational education'], Grant Showerman. Oct. 14, A Curious Specimen of Learned Humoi [Dissertationum Ludicrarum et Amoenitatum Scriptores Varii, in the Warsaw University Library}. Edinburgh Review Oct., Greek Athletes and Military Training, F. A. Wright. Forum Nov., Two Choruses from Iphigenia in Tauris, W. Bynner. Harper's Weekly May 1, The Trojan Women [editorial]. June

12, The Oedipus of Sophocles, "W. S. Rogers. June 19, The Trojan Women and Iphigenia in Tauris, Karl Schmidt (ill.). Harvard Graduates' Magazine Sept., A Modest Plea for the Humanities, H. C. Lodge. Harvard Theological Review April, The Ethical Value of Oriental Religions Under the Roman Empire, C. H. Moore. Oct., The Conflict of Moral Obligation in the Trilogy of Aeschylus, B. A. G. Fuller. Independent June 7, The Stadium and the Greek Play, M. J. Moses (ill.). June 14, In the Stadium, E. E. Slosson [The Trojan Women]. Independent Oct. 25, The Roman Soldier's Faith = (W. J. P. Adams, Mithraism). Journal of the New York State Teachers' Association April, Co-ordination of Latin and English, E. C. Chickering. May, Use of Translations: The Extent and the Remedy, Tared Scudder; The Use of Translations in College Work, C. K. Gaines. Literary Digest May 29, The Greek Play in the Yale Bowl (ill.). June 26, A Classic for our Day [The Trojan Women] (ill.). Menorah Journal Oct., The Arch of Titus [poem], H. M. K. Mid West Quarterly July, A Classical Romanticist, G. K. Throop. Monist The Religious Views of Euripides as Shown in the Bacchanals, W. W. Hyde; The Father of Monism (Parmenides), S. Waterlow. Nation (London) Oct. 9, Classical Literature and Philology [a selection of the more interesting and valuable books appearing in the publishers' autumn lists]. Nation (New York) April is, A Life of Cicero = (E. G. Sihler, Cicero of Arpinum). May 6, Classic Ground [editorial]; The Loeb Classical Library, William Heinemann; Dr. Page and the Loeb Library, T. E. Page; The Revival of Latin, Gonzales Lodge; (Passow, Greek Dictionary, Revised by Cronert; Livy 1-4, edited by R. S. Conway; Caesar. Gallic War, 1-2, edited by E. Riess and A. L. Janes; Terence, Andria, edited by E. H. Sturtevant; Livy, 1, 21, 22, edited by E. B. Lease; A. A. Howard, Latin Selections; E. C. Chickering and H. Hoadley, Beginners' Latin by the Direct Method; J. B. Smiley and H. L. Storke, A First Year Latin Course; J. E. Sandys, Short History of Classical Scholarship; I. C. Thallon, Readings in Greek History; R. L. Ashley, Ancient Civilization; H. H. Mattingly, Outlines of Ancient History; J. L. Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection of Antiquities from Cyprus in the Metropolitan Museum of Art; H. R. Hall, Aegean Archaeology). May 13, The Greek Play in America [editorial]; "Kultur" in Euripides [Ion 1045-1047], N. L. Robinson. May 20, The Loeb Classical Library, The Reviewer; Discoveries at Pompeii [Notes]; Iphigenia in Tauris

[Drama]. June 3, The Trojan Women. June 10, The Loeb Classical Library, James Loeb; Reviewer's reply. June 17, The Breakdown of Internationalism, Part 1, Irving Babbitt; Dante and Origen, L. A. Fisher. June 24, The Breakdown qf Internationalism, Part 2, Irving Babbitt. July 22, The "Crowning" of Statius, E. K. Broadus. Sept. 30, Martin Luther D'Ooge. F. W. Kelsey; (Tacitus, Dialogus de Oratoribus, Edked by Gudeman). National Geographic Magazine Sept., Historic Islands and Shores of the Aegean, E. L. Harris (ill.). Neue Rundschau Das Weltreich des Augustus, U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorf. Open Court Oct., Aphrodite [illustrated], P. Cams. Quarterly Review April, The Golden Bough, L. R. Farnell. Revue des Deux Mondes. May, Humanitarisme dans l'ancienne Rom, R. Pichon. Revue Historique May-June, Bulletin historique: Antiquites romaines, 1913-4. July, Antiquites latines, publications etrangeres, 1913-1915, C. Lecrivain; Constantin et la Fondation de Constantinople, L. Br^hier. Revue Philosophique Oct., J. Chevalier, La notion du ncessaire chez Aristote (L. Dauriac). Saturday Review Oct. 9, Sculpture and the Grecian Spirit (E. A. Gardner, A Handbook of Greek Sculpture). School Review April, The Twentieth Michigan Classical Conference, F. W. Kelsey. Scribner's April, A Ballade of the Liris, Edmond Rickett [Horace, Odes 1. 31]. Smith Alumnae Quarterly Feb., The Classics and Mathematics, R. D. Sherrill. April, Greek in the High Schools, Alice Murphy.