You are on page 1of 6

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

Josu Armando Jimnez Archiga 11300517 English 4 4F Teacher Arturo Martnez

English 4

Pgina 1

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

Modals of giving advice Modals in English have many meanings. They can be used to show: Obligation, permission, ability, possibility, and advice The modals that are used most often are: Can, could, may, might, must, have to, will, should, would Advice: present and future 1. You feel tired and sick. You should get more sleep at night. You ought to get some more sleep. (This means that you should change your ongoing behavior.) 2. You should not watch TV tonight. (This is a suggestion about the future.) 3. If you have trouble sleeping, You could drink some milk before bed. You could read a book at night. (Could is weaker than should.) 4. You are going to take the TOEFL tomorrow. You had better get some sleep. ('Had better is very strong. It can be used as a threat. ) 1. What are some things that you ought to do more often? 2. What should you do in the future? Advice: Continuous It is 1:00 am. I should be sleeping right now. A teacher says, You should not be talking now. You should be working. The continuous with should means that your current behavior should be different. 1. What should all students be doing now?
English 4 Pgina 2

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

Advice: past 1. I am tired. I should have gone to bed early last night. I should not have watched TV. I ought to have gone to bed early. (This shows regret.) 2. You should have called me yesterday. I wanted to talk to you. 3. I might have worked harder. I could have gone to a better school if I had studied more. What are some things that you should have done differently? What are some things that you have done, but should not have done? Indefinite pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite". Some typical indefinite pronouns are: * all, another, any, anybody/anyone, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone Note that many indefinite pronouns also function as other parts of speech. Look at "another" in the following sentences: * He has one job in the day and another at night. (pronoun) * I'd like another drink, please. (adjective) Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below, with examples, as singular, plural or singular/plural. Notice that a singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also agree (in number and gender). Look at these examples: * Each of the players has a doctor.
English 4 Pgina 3

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

* I met two girls. One has given me her phone number. Similarly, plural pronouns need plural agreement: * Many have expressed their views. Would rather

Would rather is used to express a preference in English. Would rather is the same in meaning as would prefer. These two phrases are used interchangeably to express a preference when making a choice. Here are some examples of short conversations that use would rather to either state or ask for a preference. Would Rather - Structure The form would rather is a little strange because 'rather' is not a verb but is part of an expression that means 'would prefer to'. 'Rather' is usually immediately followed by a verb in base form (verb without 'to'). It's common to use would rather in the shortened 'd rather form in positive statements. All subjects take 'would rather'. Would rather can be used to refer to the present moment or a future moment in time. Positive Subject + would rather ('d rather) + base form of verb Peter'd rather spend time on the beach. I would rather learn a new language than study math.

Question Would + subject + rather + base form of verb Would you rather stay at home?

English 4

Pgina 4

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

Would they rather do homework tomorrow morning? Would Rather - Than Would rather is often used with 'than' with two verbs or objects when making a choice between two specific actions. Would you rather work for Tom than for Mary? She would rather play tennis than go horseback riding.

Would Rather - For Other People Would rather is also used to express what one person prefers another person to do. The structure is unusual because it takes the past for the preferred action. Here are some examples: Tom would rather Mary bought a SUV. Would you rather she stayed here with us?

Positive Subject + would rather ('d rather) + object + past tense I would rather my son worked in finance. Susan would rather Peter took a plane.

Question Would + subject + rather + object + past tense Would she rather her sister flew home tomorrow?

English 4

Pgina 5

Centro de Enseanza Tcnica Industrial

Would you rather he came with us to the meeting?

Positive Subject + would rather ('d rather) + object + negative past tense I'd rather she didn't come with us today. Tim would rather Peter didn't join the company.

English 4

Pgina 6