Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Tint Noh

of
"I cry my cry in silence"' Alfred Tennyson

In Chris Marker's poetic commentary loA.K.. his documentary on the making of Akira Kurosawa's Ran (1985), Hidetora Ichimonji. the film's tragic protagonist, looms evocatively as. "King Lear [and] yet [... ] not King Lear, more like Lear's echo reverberating across those castle walls built by Kurosawa on Mount Fuji.'" TTiat Marker refrains from sounding the Shakespearean depths of Kurosawa's echoing of King Lear in no way minimizes the literal veracity of his statement. For one crucial aspect of Ran as film adaptation is that Kurosawa impregnates its image/sound interaction with Noh's resonant stillness that parallels in its paradoxism what J;m Kott calls King Lear\ oxymoronic landscape where "sounds are present by their very absence: the silence is filled wiUi them" {116). Just as Noh thrives on an interplay of sound and what Tom Takemitsu. KuRisawa's film composer, labels "that point of intense silence preceding it, called ma" (.51), so does Ran imbue its visual action with an analogous sound/silence dialectic. Kurosawa re-imagines King Lear's oxymoronic edge by having sight and/or sound suspended or silenced through a Noh-inspired medley of "audible non-images" and "non-audib!e images" in his filmic diegesis, Kurosawa distiUs Kott's aural awareness of King Lear\ absent presences to a Noh-like resounding silence. But this statement can be viewed in truer perspective if we analyze how Kurosawa develops Hidetora into a Noh Lear widi a heart beating like that of a Shakespearean aural phantom. Consider, for instance, the initial boar hunt sequence where Kurosawa leaves Hidetora suspended between drawing his arrow and actually shooting it, thereby transforming the antjw's unleashing into a non-event which never niatedaUzes in visual temis. What attests to the arrow's unseen flight, and its unerring trajectory to the heart, is what Kurosawa connotes by the 85

86/The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran sudden shriek of a Nohkan, or Noh flute. By combining the Nohkan's bishigi. or high pitches, which Richard Emmert rightly describes as "eerie and otherworldly" (29), with the ma's embodiment in the cessation of every sound effect except the horse's clopping, Kurosawa implicitly suggests thai Hidetora has galloped into a nether realm whose unfathomable silence paradoxically deepens with its plangent shrieking. What Takemitsu's Nohkan score screams out is Uie piercing of Hidetora's heart. Hidetora shares, it seems, Lear's uncanny gift of hearing the unhearable. Echoing, in fact, the Shakespearean lament of reluctant births haunting Lear "When we are bom we cry that we are come / To this great stage of fools" (4.6.178-79)'the Nohkan's scream heralds Hidetora's own coming hither, but as the beast that Gloucester sees in Goneril, "stick[ingl boarish fangs in [Lear'sl anointed flesh" (3.7.57). Kathy M. Howlett's image of Hidetora "thrashing) wildly [through] the flapping canvas" (121) reinforces the Hidetora/boar identification that he himself justifiably suggests, knowing that he has magnified Lear's failings to such a ruthless extent that he becomes more sinning than sinned against. Significantly, unlike Lear who ironiciilly transfixes his own hean by batiishing Cordelia from it while warning Kent that "jt)he bow is bent and drawn: make from the shaft" (l.l. 144), Hidetora embarks on the same suicidal path before actually disinheriting Saburo. What David Jortner intuits about Hidetora's final image as hunting archer, that it appropriates "the viewpoint of tlie boar in his final moments" (82), once again implies that the hunt is nothing less than a headlong plunge into a self-annihilated self. Kurosawa takes what Julie Kane tenns "the austere Japanese aesthetic ideal of wabf (146) to its minimal limit by U-ansfomiing the hunting Hidetora into the hunted boar at the very moment he draws his Uagic bow. Hence Ihe timely irruption of the Nohkan hinting by its shriek that Hidetora, even before banishing Saburo, is essentially a Shakespearean beast, and one of those who, in Albany's words, "must prey on itself, / Like monsters of the deep" (4.2.50-51). That the Nohkan shriek wails Hidetora's paradoxicaJ fate as a self-hunted beast of prey is further reaffirmed by its second irruption at Hidetora's shooting of Taro's retaineran event that Kenneth S. Rothwell rightly specifies as Kurosawa's "magnified displacement" (199) of Kent's tripping of Oswald, Goneril's servant (1.4.84). Admittedly, Hidetora's arrow attack is this time instigated by his attempt to save his fool Kyoami's life: but it unleashes the arrow apocalypse augured by the boar hunt's plaintive hishigi underscoring what Samuel Crowl describes as "the blood red title: RAN" (109), with its Japanese connotations of an impending cataclysm. Nowhere is diis arrow unleashing more subtly conveyed however than in the sequence where Hidetora first takes to the wilderness after having been banished from the first two castles he has abdicated in favor of his elder sons Taro and Jiro, a reversal of Lear's daughters Goaeril and Regan. Significantly, the ma's silent descent upon Hidetora as exiled Lear is paradoxically accentuated by what J. Lawrence Guntner calls "a sound effect more effective than a musical score" (131). Inspired by Gloucester's dark vision of divinity swatting humanity"As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods, / They kill us for their sport" (4.1.38-39)Kurosawa makes Takemitsu modulate the unheard droning of Shakespeare's human flies whom the gods sadistically silence into an unseen chorus of shrilling cicadas. Stu Kobak's description is deadly accurately: "The sound is hke wave upon wave of arrows slicing through the air. quivering into the great Lonj."^ Jiro's "bitter arrow"' evidently recoils upon Hidetora's conscience unlea.shing an arrow-haunted nightmare that imbues with an illuminating vibration "the maddening tumult" (419) Brian Parker hears in tlie cicadas' chirping. Takemitsu's penchant for "electnmic metamorphoses" (46). to use Peter Bart's phrase, tliat intermesh musical and

The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran/%1 sound effects is stunningly displayed in the cicada incident. Kurosawa deepens here the similar effect of employing an equally unseen avian chorus whose "bird-calls" Peter Conrad rightly interprets as "mockfingl" (150) Hidetora's irresponsible abdication based on a fallacious "arrow" argument. Admittedly, like Edgar's aviary of "crows and choughs" silently winging through his mind (4.6.13), Kurosawa's birds strike the right ominous note for not only do arrows break even in threes, as Saburo proves conclusively, but they also tragically shatter lives by breaking archers' hearts. Still, the shrieking cicadas loom tbematically larger than the mocking birds in jf?a's aural diegesis of absent presences. It is, in fact, the cicada symphony, pitched to the edge of aural instability like the Nohkan's hishigi, which alerts us to Hidetora's heightened hearing, a faculty that Lear, in his mad wisdom, recommends to blind Gloucester: "A man may see how this world goes with no eyes. Look with thine ears" (4.6.146-47). By looking with his ears, Hidetora sees into the cicadas' shrillness, and hears his insect requiem. As Basho elegiacaJly observes: "Dying cricket / how full of life, his song."* Thus Kurosawa's invisible cicadas, whose piercing notes evoke the Nokhan's hishigi, offer Hidetora the Zen insight of King Lear. Echoing Shakespeare, in fact, Takemitsu recalls Hisamatsu Shin'ichi, the distinguished Zen scholar, telling John Cage: "We can hear with our eyes and look with our ears."' Similarly Hidetora must learn aural perception. For this reason, Kurosawa decides not to employ any diegetic or source sound during the first three quarters of what is arguably Ran\ fmest sequencethe decimation by Taro's and Jiro's forces of Hidetora's retainers at Saboro's former castle where they have taken refuge. Significantly, Kurosawa initiates the Third Castle conflict by filtering its hellish evocation of the Kamakura misha-e scroll of "The Burning of the Sanjo Palace" through a Shakespearean silencing of Hidetora's arrow nightmare. That Kurosawa distills, again with wabi intensity. King Lear's central storm scenes into a battle

that involves what John Collick calls "storms of arrows" (183) is however only half tlie Equally crucial is Richard Lacayo's observation that these are "arrows (that] fly through [an] eerie stillness" (68). The effect is extremely unsettling, for deadlier than auows whizzing through cicada chirping, are arrows discharging silence. Revealingly. it is when Hidetora's arrow affliction propels him to the very limit of auditory suspension^which Michel Chion terms "null extension" (132)that he suddenly plunges into ma's abyss where not only arrows but even firing muskets and charging stallions emit a resounding silence. Hidetora's plight parallels in this respect what Edgar endures in King Lear, and specifically his aural ordeal at Dover Cliff, where he likewise plummets into the sound of silence. Descending into the Shakespearean ma's equally oxymoronic Hades, Edgar too aurally visualizes the unhearable. for both "Ulhe murmuring surge" (4.6.20) and "the shrill-gorg'd lark" (4.6.58) invisibly sound in the ear of his eye. Far from stumbling Gloucester-like with his eyes wide shut, Edgar perceives an echoing hollowness within. "Edgar I nothing am" he declares (2.2.192), as his silent self resonates

88/The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran its emptiness. That Hidetora, unlike blind Gloucester who never realiy leaps over Dover Cliff, harmlessly jumps off the Azusa ridge reinforces the suggestion that he sounds the empty depths of Edgar's insight of silence at the Third Castle. Equally applicable to Ran then is what Kott says of King Lear: "The abyss, into which one can jump, is everywhere" (117). For Hidetora, just like Edgar, is an abyss unto himself, and his hollowness aptly reverberates through the silent battle that his division of kingdom ultimately instigates. But it is also as the embodiment of this tragic resounding silence that Hidetora comes clo.sest to incarnating Lear's nothingness. Significantly, ihe Fool, sharing Edgar's insight, constantly harps on Lear's suicidal jump into the vacuum of his heart: "Thou has pared thy wit o' both sides and left nothing i' the middle" (1.4.177-79). Or again: "I am a fool, thou art nothing" (1.4.184-85). What Hidetora of the Third Castle, hollowed out of Shakespearean reverberating silence, tragically analogizes is the Fool's Lear, "an O without a figure" (1.4.183-84). whose nothingness Kurosawa transforms into the zero-degree essence of SoundScape phantomness. Hence the thematic aptness of underscoring the ambient soundtrack's echoing hollowness by means of Takemilsu's .symphonic elegya Mahleresquc dirge whose mournful strings, like the cicadas' hLshigi-\ike shrilling, sound like Death's silence to Hidetora's visual ears. Whether Hidetora looks with his ears then, or hears with his eyes, what pierces his heart is the silence of a funeral march. Significantly. Takemitsu's lament for this Lord of Nothingness is. in Donald Richie's phrase, "at its grandest and its slowest" (218) while the Tliird Castle carnage is most lethally silent. At such oxymoronic moments Ran celebrates Kurosawa's profound understanding of Robert Bresson's insightful statement: "The soundtrack invented silence" (21). The Third Castle accrues in fact a Noh-like dimension where tna'a eerie silence thickens through Takemitsu's hoof-echoing timpani rhythm. Kurosawa thus transcribes the boar hunt's royal horseman bolting from Lear's unleashing of his equine apocalypse"Darkness and devils! / Saddle my horses" (1.4.243-44)into an adagio of percussive hoof beats. If the Fool's Lear is just a "shadow" of himself (1.4.222). then Hidetora is an echo of this Shakespearean .shade. Significantly, since the Ichimongi banner, witli its solar disc and crescent moon as emblems, locates the clan's destiny in the heavens. Kurosawa molds Hidetora's tragedy out of celestial portents pregnant v^iih immateriality. Hence Kurosawa's reiterated motif of expansive skies teeming with silently accumulating thunderclouds which he evidently reworks from Lear's suppressed invocation of Jupiter, "the thunder-bearer" (2.2.46) whose unheard thunderbolts resound in Lear's implied ihreat to Goneril. As these silent thunderclouds punctuate Hidetora's dissolution of his Unno realm, they seem to function like the forest mist in Kumommi-jo, Kurosawa's film version of Macbeth, for they likewise hint by their immaterial materiality at his insubstantial deification. Intrinsically a thundercloud spirit, Hidetora inhales Edgar's "unsubstantial air" (4.1.7) to swell into the "!ight-as-air Leviathan" (64) Theodore Weiss sees in Lear. Kurosawa pivots Ran on Northrop Frye's definition of King Lear as an "essential paradox [where| all things are full of emptiness" (265).

The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran/S9 Thematically hollowness is of the essence, for Ran echoes throughout with Shakespearean silent sounds. Thus, though the cloud formations darken into an eclipse during the Third Castle conflict, they typically thunder in discordant silence. The effect is more menacingly oneric than that of Goneril's vision of England as a "noiseless land" (4.2.57) resounding with fluttering foreign ensigns, for it equally evokes Edmund's England plagued by ominous "eclipses (that] portend [...] divisions" (1.2.136-37). Admittedly, at no time does Hidetora chant his version of "Fa, sol, la, mi" (1.2.137) through whose dissonant sound Edmund invokes the diabolus in musica. No less than Edmund, however, Hidetora tragically blows out the Fool's "candle" (1.4.208), thereby plunging his Edo kingdom into a Shakespearean eclipse. Indeed, though Hidetora's nightmare at the Third Castle concludes with flaming arrows crackling his "wheel of fire" (4.7.47) back to audibility, his touching departure sounds as hollowly dark as the devil's tritone reverberating in Edmund's heart. For what accompanies Hidetora beyond the pale is the Nohkan's anguished wail. It is the same hishigi scream through which Hidetora deepens ma's silence invading him when he angrily orders the closing of Jiro's booming portals. The Nohkan truly voices Hidetora's silent sobbing that Lear too harbors by yielding his broken heart to ma's silence. [...] You think I'll weep, No, I'll not weep. (...] I have full cause of weeping, bul this heart Shalt break into a hundred thousand flaws Or e'er I'll weep. (2.2.471-75) '

Hidetora is clearly a Shakespearean silent weeper whose goring of his boar heart is what the Nohkan poignantly transcribes. Paradoxically, however, it is also through such Nohkan weeping that Hidetora becomes a human being. Consider, for example, Hidetora's "grassland" hallucination that Kurosawa eerily pitches on the hishigi.. thereby imbuing the field's tall grasses, which Hidetora transforms into phantoms of his past victims, with lamenting shrieking. But Hidetora too wails through the hishigi, for his "Forgive me" discloses his empathy with these mugen Noh ghosts whom Kurosawa dematerializes into Nohkan moans. Hidetora becomes the denizen of a Noh phantom landthus his fleeing from the green field of his boarish self into Lear's regeneratl sphere where silent "tears / Do scald like molten lead" (4.7.53). Hidetora's metamorphosis culminates however in his hovel meeting with a living Noh-inspired revenant: Tsurumaru, the fiute player, whom Hidetora had once blinded, and whose welcoming gesture is to transfix Hidetora's heart with his Nohkan's shrilling shaft. In Kott'.s words, "the fiute wails [...], moans, rises in more and more penetrating tones, as if it were tearing not only at the ears but at the heart as well" (146). Reworking Zeami's Semimaru.* a Noh play about a blind wanderer wbose "tears obscure the sounds'"* of his biwa or lute playing, Kurosawa makes Tsurumaru play the music of tears we never hear him shed. In his Gloucester-like blindness, Tsurumaru also contends with the silent song of Edgar/Poor Tom's self-tormenting "nightingale" (3.6.30)for Tsunimarxi's wailing woodwind emulates his unheard scream that he has never ceased playing since Hidetora blinded him. "[Mjinded like the weather [blowing] most unquietly" outside his hovel (3.1.2), Tsurumaru chimes in with Lear lamenting to Kent;
[...] this tempest in my mind Doth from my senses take alt feeling else. Save what beats there [-..] (3-4.12-14) '

Tsurumaru's are in fact Nohkan tempest tears that the Japanese Lear also silently shares. Like Browning's Pied Piper, and indeed like Hardy's Fiddler of the Reels, Tsurumaru pierces people musically, though his effect on Hidetora simultaneously parallels that of Cordelia's musical plea for her father's sanity:

90/The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran O you kind gods! Cure this great breach in his abused nature; Th' untuned and jarring senses. O. wind up. (4.7.14-16) Cordelia is Edward's musical antithesis for. as Kent rightly discerns, she is anything but "empty-hearted" and so "reverbs no hollowness" (l.l.l.'54-55). But just as Cordelia heals Edmund's musical malignity, so does Tsurumaru paradoxically humanize Hidetora by musically propelling him over the psychic edge where he truly finds his moral self. That Tsurumaru's Nohkan shriek also transcribes Hidetora's silent weeping for his mournful victim is underscored by his horrified reaction. Hidetora actually breaks through Tsurumaru's flimsy hut where, as R. B. Parker remarks, "the wait literally collapses under the weight of Hidetora's guilt" (89). It is as clear an indication as any that Hidetora, by looking once again with his ears, finally attains Gloucester's gift of seeing others "feelingly" (4,6.145). Just like Lear, who fmds the sight of insight by asking "Where are (liar's] eyes?" (1.4.218), Hidetora realizes that tlie silent self is "the cause of thunder" (3.4,151). Hence Hidetora's anguished cry at Saburo's death, a shriek of lament that totally shatters his stifling ma, just as Lear's refusal to cry bursts into "Howl, howl, howl, howl!" (5.3.255) when Cordelia dies. Hidetora's heart, just like Lear's, utterly breaks when it grieves for another's death. It is Lear's transcendence of his "Hysterica passio" existence (2.2.247) that Hidetora ultimately attains, tor he likewise tunes his unhinged l>eing by filling the Shakespearean t)culiir "water-pots" (4.6.192) with the wisdom of his weeping. Ran revealingly concludes with the musical absent presence haunting its hunting prelude the wailing notes of Tsurumaru's lost flute whose unsuccessful retrieval leads to his sister Su^'s M i^^^^^^^H murder at the hands of the vixen Lady Kaede.

Sharing T. McAlindon's vision of Shakespeare's play as "a tragedy of the pierced, gored and broken heart" (193). Kurosawa stunningly recreates King Lear by tran.scribing the silent rhythm of its "cadent tears" (1.4.277) iqto piercing Nohkan wails. Consequently, the shrieking wail that opens Ran inevitably brings it to an end, but with a crucial difference. Truly, the fiute is irretrievably lost, but Tsurumani wails on, literally to the very edge of life's precipice. By evoking the Shakespearean stoic attitude of Browning's Childe Roland, with his self-aiFirming hom echoing Edgar's heroic ballad (3.4.178-80), Kurosjiwa transmutes Rwi's climactic moment into what may be termed 'Tsurumaru to the dark abyss came." Tsurumaru's spirit, like Roland's, is musically indestructible. So is Hidetora's spirit whose going hence the ghostly Nohkan wailingly celebrates. Ran shares King Lear's cathartic effect, for it likewise suggests the purging pain of Dylan Thomas's paradoxical line: "Light breaks where no stin sliines."'" The feeling is not unlike Gloucester's antithetical death as Edgar recreates it for Edmund's sake: |...) But his tlawcd heart. Alack, loo weak ihe conflict to support. 'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief, Burst smilingly. (5.3.195-98) As Edgar profoundly intuits: 'The lamentable change is from the best. / The worst returns to laughter" (4.1.5-6). Hence Kurosawa's mono no aware ending, with its enchanting depiction of what Conrad aptly calls a "haemorrhage" sunset (152). Like one of Shakespeare's "Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang,"" what Hidetora leaves in his transient trail is the sad beauty of his wail. The greatest revelation in both King Lear and Ran is that something will come of nothing. For Hidetora's tale, just like Lear's, is of an archer who loses an arrow and

B K ^

"^^^^^^^l ^^^^^^^H ^^^^^^^1

The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran/9\ finds his heart by bending and drawing a bow. By reimagining King Lear as Ran, Kurosawa unleashes what Keats would call the arrow of soul-making.

Saviour Catania University of Malta NOTES ' Quoted from "Guinevere." See Ricks's edition 535. ^ Quoted from Marker's commentary to A.K. available on the Studio Canal DVD edition of Ran (Z138393), ' All quoiations from King Lear (in parentheses) refer to Foakes's Arden 3 edition. * See Slu Kobak's online article. "The Epic Images of Kurosawa," available at: <http:// www.fiImsondisc.com/Features/kurosawa/epicimagesofkurosawa.htm>. ' All quotations from Ran come from the English subtides of the Studio Canal DVD editioQ. See Sbyk 74. ' Quoted by Takemilsu in his Confronting Silence 30. " For an insightful analysis of Noh's influence on Kurosawa see McDonald 125-44. * Quoted from tbe Keene translation of Zeami's "Semimani" 62. " > Quoted from "Light breaks." See Tbomas 29. " Quoted from Sonnet 73. "That time of year." See Duncan-Jones's Arden edition 257.

Works Cited Bart, Peter. The Music of Tom Takemitsu. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001. Bresson, Robert. Notes on Cinematography. Trans. Jonathan Griffin. New York: Urizen. 1977. Chion, Michel. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. Trans. Claudia Goibman. New York: Columbia UP. 1994.

92/The Noh Transcription of Shakespeare's Sounds in Kurosawa's Ran


Collick, John, "Kurosawa's Kumonosu jo and Ran." Shakespeare, Cinema and Society. Manchesler: Manchester UP, 1989. 166-87. Conrad. Peter. "Expatriating Lear." To Be Continued: Four Stories and Their Survival. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. 95-152. Crowl, Samuel, "The Bow Is Bent and Drawn; Kurosawa's Ran and the Shakespearean Arrow of Desire." Uterature/Film Quarterly 22.2 (1994): 109-16. Duncan-Jones. Katherine. ed. Sliakespeare's Sonnets. London: Thomas Nelson. 1997. Emmert, Richard. "Expanding No's Horizons: Considerations for a New No Perspective." No and Kyogen in the Contemporary World. Ed. Janws R. Brandon. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1997. 19-35. Foakes. R. A., ed. King Lear. Surrey: Thomas Nelson, 1997. Frye, Northrop. "King Lear. The Tragedy of Isolation." Shakespeare: King Lear. Ed. Frank Kermode. London: Macmillan, 1969. 265-69. Guntner. J, Lawrence. "Hamlet, Macbeth and King Lear on Film." The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film. Ed. Russell Jackson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000. 117-34. Howlett, Kalhy M. "Breaking the Frame: Akira Kurosawa's Ran." Framing Shakespeare on Film. Athens: Ohio UP. 2000. 115-27. JcHtna'. David. "The Stability of the Heart Amidst Fields of Green: An Ecocritical Reading of Kurosawa Akird's Ran." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities 20.1 {20(K)): 82-91. Kane, Julie. "From the Baroque to Wabi: Translating Animal Imagery from Shakespeare's King Lear to Kurosawa's Ran." Literature/Film Quarterly 25.2 (1997): 146-51. Keene, Donald. "Semimaru." No: The Classical Theater of Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha. 196L Kott. Jan. "King Lear, or Endgame." Shakespeare Our Contemporary. Trans. Boleslaw Taborski. London: Methuen, 1964. 101-37. . "Ran, or the End of the World." The Bottom Translation. Trans. Lillian Vallee. Evanston: Northwestern UP. 1987. 143-51. Lacayo, Richard. "The Magic of Kurosawa: A Legend Behind the Lens." Time 28 Oct 1985: 66-72. McAlindon. T. Shakespeare's Tragic Cosmos. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. McDonald. Keiko 1. "The Noh Convention in The Throne of Blood and Ran." Japanese Classical Theater in Films. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1994. 125-44. Parker. Brian. "Ran and the Tragedy of History." U of Toronto Quarterly 55.4 (1986): 413-23. Parker, R. B. "The Use of Mise-en-Scine in Three Films of King Lear." Shakespeare Quarterly 42.1 (1991): 75-90. Richie. Dcmaid. The Films ofAldru Kurosawa. Berkeley: V of California P, 1996. Ricks. Christopher, ed. The Poems of Tennyson. Vol. 3. Essex: Longman, 1987. Rothwell, Kenneth S. A History of Shakespeare on Screen: A Century of Film and Television. Camlwidge: Cambridge UP. 1999. Stryk. L., trans. Love and Barley: Haiku of Basho. Hannondsworth: Penguin. 1985. Takemitsu, Tom. Confronting Silence: Selected Writings. Trans, and Ed. Yoshiko Kakudo and Glenn Glasow. Berkeley: Fallen Leaf. 1995. Thomas, Dylan. Collected Poems of Dylan Thomas: 1934-1952. New York: New Directions, 1971. Weiss, Theodore. "As the Wind Sit.s: The Poetics of King Lear." On King Lear. Ed. Lawrence Danson. Princeton: Princeton UP, 198i. 61-90.