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The Study of Scheduled Wastes Recovery and Recycling Processes


Norhasmi binti Hassan Department of Civil Engineering, Politeknik Ungku Omar Assoc. Prof. Dr. ohan bin !ohaili Department of Environmental Engineering, "acult# of Civil Engineering, Universiti $eknologi %ala#sia

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institution The Abstract is a


brief summary of the paper, allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper. The abstract should be brief, written in one paragraph and should be between 150 and 50 words. It should states: i.introduction ii.the problem statement iii.research objectives iv.methodology adopted v.result obtained vi.result analysis vii.conclusion !ormat" Font = T !, 1" Indentation #eft = $.$% cm !ight = 1.$& cm 'pacing = single

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Abstract: "or the past four &eca&es treatment an& &isposal of sche&ule& 'astes resulting in man# environmental problems such as illegal &umping, illegal e(port an& import of 'astes. Nevertheless, 'ith ne' technolog# &evelopment an& increasing commitment, man# t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes can be recovere& or rec#cle&. Ho'ever, there are three main issues to consi&er 'hen &iscussing sche&ule& 'aste management hierarch#, 'hich are lack of a'areness on the importance of sche&ule& 'aste recover# or rec#cling, regulator# constraints, an& lack of kno'le&ge on the state)of)the)art technolog# for the recover# or rec#cling processes. $he aim of the stu&# is to pro&uce the recover# or rec#cling process flo' for selecte& sche&ule& 'astes. $he ob*ectives are to initiate the possibilit# of sche&ule& 'aste recover# an& rec#cling processes base& on the Environmental +ualit# Act re,uirements that can be recovere& or rec#cle&, organi-e the recover# an& rec#cling process flo' for use& solvent an& to formulate the 'aste acceptance criteria an& material balance calculation for use& solvent. $he stu&# 'as con&ucte& through an evaluation an& comparison on the recover# or rec#cling processes &one b# the relate& in&ustries in %ala#sia an& site visit to rec#cling factor#. "rom the stu&#, out of total .. t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes liste& in the "irst !che&ule, there are /0 t#pes are being recovere& or rec#cle&, the flo' of recover# or rec#cling processes for use& solvent has been pro&uce&. 1n a&&ition, the 'aste acceptance criteria have been i&entifie& from the minimum level of acceptance prior to recover# or rec#cling processes. $he material balance calculation 'hich in&icate the percentage of treate& or recovere& 'aste materials, resi&ual slu&ge material generate& an& 'aste'ater &ischarge& if the plant is operate& at its ma(imum capacit# is also been a&&resse& in or&er to enable the factor# or consultant have the certaint# to invest in the re,uire& ne' technolog# , hence to ensure efficient 'astes recover# activities. Keywords: recovery, recycling, process flow, waste acceptance criteria, material balance

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5 main keywords used in the research

Accor&ing to the Environmental +ualit# Act, 02./ 3Amen&ment4 0225, 6sche&ule& 'aste7 means an# 'aste prescribe& b# the %inister in the regulations as sche&ule& 'astes. !cientificall#, sche&ule& 'aste is a material or article containing a chemical, or mi(ture of chemicals, e(cee&ing the threshol& concentration an& threshol& ,uantit# 'hich is pro&uce& from certain activities such as in&ustrial, me&ical, service,

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containing organic in nature, resistant to &egra&ation b# chemical, ph#sical or biological means, to(ic to humans, animals, vegetation or a,uatic life an& bioaccumulative in humans, flora an& fauna. Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations :;;< came into operation on 0< August :;;<, an& replaces the Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations 02=2. Un&er these ne' regulations, .. t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes liste& in the "irst !che&ule are &ivi&e& into < categories. !che&ule& 'astes can be store&, recovere& or treate& 'ithin the premises of the 'aste generators. !uch activities &o not re,uire licensing b# the Department of Environment. A 'aste generator ma# store sche&ule& 'astes generate& b# him for 0=; &a#s or less after its generation provi&e& that the ,uantit# of sche&ule& 'astes accumulate& on site shall not e(cee& :; metric tones. Ho'ever, 'aste generators ma# appl# to the Director >eneral in 'riting to store more than :; metric tones of sche&ule& 'astes 3E1A >ui&elines, :;;.4. $he containers that are use& to store sche&ule& 'astes shall be clearl# labele& 'ith the &ate 'hen the sche&ule& 'astes are first generate& an& name, a&&ress an& telephone number of the 'aste generator. On)site incineration of sche&ule& 'astes is not encourage&. 1f it is &eeme& necessar#, application for the installation of such incinerator must strictl# a&here to the >ui&elines on the 1nstallation of On)site 1ncinerator for the Disposal of !che&ule& 8astes in %ala#sia b# the Department of Environment, inclu&ing carr#ing out a &etaile& environmental impact assessment.

'pacing % lines ! Problem Statement 'pacing 1.) lines $here are three main issues to consi&er 'hen &iscussing sche&ule& 'aste management hierarch# of re&uce, reuse, rec#cle, an& recover. $he three main issues are lack of a'areness on the importance of sche&ule& 'aste recover# an& rec#cling, regulator# constraints an& lack of kno'le&ge on the state)of)the)art technolog# for the recover# an& rec#cling processes.

$he Ninth %ala#sia Plan states the >overnment?s intention to focus its effort on &eveloping the countr#?s agricultural in&ustr#, nevertheless %ala#sia continues to maintain the manufacturing in&ustr# as the main sector for &evelopment process an& economic gro'th. Ho'ever, in&ustrial activit# generates huge amount of 'astes. $he e(isting management s#stems in %ala#sia for in&ustrial 'astes gives priorit# to en&)of) pipe approach, promotes the use of treatment an& &isposal metho&, rather than recover# or rec#cling. @ut this approach has been foun& creating man# environmental problems such as ne' lan& re,uirements for &isposals an& illegal &umping. !che&ule& 'aste management in %ala#sia is 'ell)establishe& after more than A< #ears of e(perience commencing from the enactment of Environmental +ualit# Act 02./. Nonetheless, problems associate& 'ith sche&ule& 'aste management such as illegal &umping as 'ell as lack of enforcement still e(ist that necessitate urgent intervention from relevant stakehol&ers. 9egulation 5 in the Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations :;;< an& the amen&ment 9egulations :;;. &efines in a ver# general manner the recover# of material or pro&uct from sche&ule& 'aste. $he .. t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes liste& in the "irst !che&ule shoul& be &efine& specificall# b# 'aste acceptance criteria prior recover# an& rec#cling processes. A complete &escription of sche&ule& 'aste shoul& i&entif# source, t#pe, categories an& also the process involve& in the generation of the sche&ule& 'aste. $he chemical composition anal#sis such as heav# metals, sulfur, ben-ene, etc shoul& be &efine& as 'ell. $his is important for the local in&ustries to i&entif# the suitable sche&ule& 'aste for recover# an& rec#cling purposes. !$ Aim and ob%ectives

$he aim of the pro*ect is to pro&uce the recover# an& rec#cling process flo' for selecte& sche&ule& 'astes. $he ob*ectives of this stu&# areB 3i4 $o initiate the possibilit# of sche&ule& processes base& on the Environmental 'aste recover# an& rec#cling +ualit# Act re,uirements.

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$o

organi-e the recover# an&

rec#cling

process flo' for use& solvent

an& use& rags recover#. $o formulate the 8aste Acceptance Criteria 38AC4 an& %aterial @alance calculation for use& solvent an& use& rags recover#. !& Scope of the Study

$he scope of this stu&# is the recover# an& rec#cling processes practice& b# factories in %ala#sia 'ho are involve& in the sche&ule& 'astes recover# an& rec#cling in&ustries. Assessment on 8aste Acceptance Criteria 38AC4 an& %aterial @alance calculation for use& solvent an& rags 'ill be base& on the current practice an& fin&ings b# the relate& factories. !' #mportance of the Study

!che&ule& 'aste recover# or rec#cling contribute& significantl# to economic benefits an& environmental protection. Currentl#, the amount of sche&ule& 'aste generate& b# the manufacturing in&ustries in %ala#sia sho's increasing tren&s. $herefore, the stu&# 'oul& help the Environmental 1mpact Assessment Consultant, investors an& also private an& government sectors to create an innovative technolog# in recover# or rec#cling processes for sche&ule& 'aste as liste& in the Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations :;;<.

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(iterature Review A high volume of sche&ule& 'aste generate& &ail# &eman&s goo& management

s#stem an& effective support of

infrastructure.

High volume of 'aste generate&

b# %ala#sian in&ustries for the past three &eca&es provi&es enough suppl# of 'astes for recover# purposes 3A-ni et.al., :;;/4. 8ith re&ucing number of lan&fill able to han&le increasing 'astes, there is nee& to recover or rec#cle 'astes for other uses. !che&ule&

'astes such as spent solvent, spent oil, slag an& &ross, contaminate& rag, etc. generate& &uring manufacturing or packaging has been foun& having significant values. 1n a&&ition, recover# an& rec#cling of 'aste catal#st, photographic solutions, contaminate& rag, paper an& plastic, use& &rum, use& HDPE container, etc. has become an important support in&ustr#. Hence, recover# an& rec#cling of sche&ule& 'aste can offer a number of environmental in terms of re&ucing the volume of sche&ule& 'aste that nee&s to be finall# &ispose&. @esi&es, recover# an& rec#cling 'oul& help in&ustr# to obtain alternative resources, 'hich is also able to re&uce their manufacturing cost. As pollution is ba& for business, innovative environmental management metho&s are &esigne& to satisf# all regulator# re,uirements, to protect an& enhance the value of ph#sical assets as 'ell as corporate reputations. $his is in line 'ith the increasing &eman& for limite& natural resource, hence sche&ule& 'aste metal for &rum. !olvents particularl# have man# &iverse uses from paints an& coatings, personal care pro&ucts an& pharmaceuticals to pestici&es, cleaners an& inks. $housan&s of pro&ucers an& manufacturers, an& millions of 'orkers, rel# on solvents ever# &a# to provi&e solutions to ne' manufacturing nee&s an& to sustain e(cellence in functional performance. 1n the form of li,ui&, solvent has the abilit# to &issolve, suspen&, or e(tract other materials 'ithout causing a chemical change to the material or solvent. !olvents make it possible to process, appl#, clean, or separate materials. $he American !olvents Council 3:;;:4 states that solvents operate on the principle of 6like &issolves like7C therefore, for a solvent to 'ork it nee&s to have similar chemical characteristics to the substance that it is tr#ing to &issolve. Halogenate& solvent is a s#nthetic solvents containing mi(ture of elements such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, io&ine, an& astatine. Nevertheless non)halogenate& solvent is a petroleum solvent 3Dee, :;;=4. $he use& solvents can be recovere& b# &istillation or evaporation to separate the more volatile materials from less volatile materials b# a process of vaporisation an& con&ensation. recover# an& rec#cling provi&es alternative resources an& re&uces &epen&enc# on natural resource such as oil for plastic an&

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Research )ethodology $o achieve this research ob*ectives, e(plorator# case stu&# approach 'ere

implemente&. $he recover# an& rec#cling processes &one b# factories in %ala#sia 'ere stu&ie&. !econ&ar# &ata 'ere collecte& from the Department of Environment at ohor @ahru, Putra*a#a an& 1poh. Data gathere& for the stu&# areB 0. :. A. $#pes of sche&ule& 'astes as classifie& in the Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations :;;< that being recovere& or rec#cle&. $he recover# an& rec#cling processes technolog# for use& solvent an& use& rags 'hich are currentl# practice& $he 8aste Acceptance Criteria an& %aterial @alance calculation for the recover# an& rec#cling of use& solvent an& rags.

Primar# &ata 'ere obtaine& through site visit to Eilang Eitar !emula, 9anama 9esource !&n. @h&., Dot :=0., 0=.< Em Debuhra#a Pasir >u&ang, $an !an Estate, =0.<; Plentong, ohor @ahru, ohor 'hich 'as con&ucte& in "ebruar# :;;2. $he purpose of the visit 'as to observe an& stu&# solvent recover# an& rec#cling processes &one in the premise.

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*ata +ollection and Analysis "rom the secon&ar# &ata gathere&, out of total .. t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes as

liste& in the "irst !che&ule, there are /0 3<AF4 t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes are being recovere& an& rec#cle&. '! ,sed Solvent Recovery

$he solvents recovere& have purit# greater than 2<F, varie& from times to times &epen&s on the nature of the spent solvents 39anama 9esources !&n @h&, :;;.4. $o

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purif# spent solvents 'hich contain single solvent is simple. 8hereas to separate mi(e& solvents like thinner re,uires more te&ious process like longer con&ensing columns an& longer evaporation time. $he solvents that use& in plating process ma# contain oil an& grease that nee&s to be remove& as this contributes to inefficient in plating process. $here are various t#pes of solvent 'hich can be collecte& from in&ustries. '!$ Solvent Waste Acceptance +riteria $he solvent 'aste ma# be supplie& from electronics manufacturer 3PC@, 1C an& parts4, paint in&ustr#, solvent base& paint manufacturers an& paint packing factories, ink in&ustr# from ink manufacturer an& printing companies an& other in&ustr# inclu&ing a&hesive in&ustries an& factories using paint an& ink pro&ucts. Upon receiving, the 'aste 'ill be anal#-e& to reconfirm their characteristic base& on the information furnishe& b# the spent solvent 'aste generators. $he 'aste spent solvent must meet the acceptance criteria prior rec#cling. '!& Solvent Recovery Process *escription 8aste solvent coul& be recovere& through separation an& evaporation. After conforming to the 'aste acceptance criteria, the 'aste solvent 'ill be fe& into the !eparator to separate oil an& 'ater or li,ui& b# separating the heav# soli&s an& oil from solvents. $he coalescers in the !eparator 'oul& trap an# free 'ater an& act as pre)filter to other processes. $he heavier soli&s 'ill settle at the bottom of the !eparator an& 'ill be e(tracte& out to be &rie&, thickene& an& &ispose& at Eualiti Alam !&n. @h&. $he solvent is then being &irecte& through soli& removal &evice such as a couple of stainless steel 'ire mesh bag filters to eliminate un'ante& suspen&e& soli&s ranging from 0 to :< micron 'ith the help of a pressure pump. $he stainless steel 'ire cloth bag filters is 'ashable for reuse. $he slu&ge 'ill be remove& for thickening an& &isposal. After separation process, 'hich is the removal of soli& contaminants an& oil, the solvent 'ill be fe& into vacuum evaporation chamber for moisture removal. $he

vapori-er is use& to preheat the solvent to the re,uire& temperature 'hen it starts boiling 'hile the pressure in the chamber is kept belo' the atmospheric pressure. $he vapori-e& solvent is then &ra'n to'ar&s the refrigerate& coole& con&enser 'here it is con&ense& to li,ui& form. $he air gets sucke& insi&e the vacuum pump is &irecte& out into the atmosphere. $he process is continue& till the solvent is completel# evaporate& 'hile the non)volatile resi&ue or slu&ge 'ill be scrappe& out through a valve s#stem from the vacuum vapori-er. $he evaporation process 'orks in an entirel# close& s#stem. $he capacit# of cooling s#stem shoul& 'ell enough to con&ense all the vapor hence the fume emitte& into the air is negligible. '!' Solvent Recovery )aterial -alance Depen&s on the plant capacit#, from 0;;F of 'aste solvent collecte&, about ;.;:F 'ill be the settable soli&. $hroughout the recover# process, it is estimate& to recover about =AF of treate& solvent an& generate about :.;F of resi&ual slu&ge material an& 0<.;F is estimate& to be oil# 'aste'ater &epen&ing on the purit# of the 'aste solvent use& as the fee&stock an& consi&ering the plant is operate& at its ma(imum capacit#.

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+onclusions and Recommendations $he stu&# has met the aim an& ob*ectives setup earlier as the follo'ing

conclusions can be &ra'n base& on the fin&ingsB 0. @ase& on the Environmental +ualit# Act re,uirements, /0 t#pes of sche&ule& 'astes generate& from / categories 'hich are !8 0, !8 :, !8 A an& !8 / can be rec#cle& an& recovere&. :. $hrough evaluation an& comparison on the recover# an& rec#cling processes &one b# the relate& manufacturers in %ala#sia, the recover# an& rec#cling process flo' for use& solvent has been pro&uce&.

A.

@# comparison, the 8aste Acceptance Criteria have been i&entifie& from the minimum level of acceptance prior to recover# an& rec#cling processes an& the %aterial @alance calculation in&icate the percentage of treate& or recovere& 'aste materials, resi&ual slu&ge material generate& an& 'aste'ater &ischarge& if the plant is operate& at its ma(imum capacit#.

1n line 'ith the concept of /9 3re&uction, reuse, rec#cling an& recover#4 an& 6from cra&le to grave7 'aste management, a greener environmental solution, thereb# enabling the rec#cling in&ustries to achieve A;F of total soli& an& sche&ule& 'aste rec#cling in :;:; besi&es <F currentl# 3Utusan %ala#sia, :;;24. Hence, the follo'ing recommen&ations shoul& be carrie& out to improve the stu&#B 0. $he general recover# an& rec#cling process flo' for another 50 t#pes or the most 'aste generate& from the "irst !che&ule Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8astes4 9egulations :;;< shoul& be pro&uce&. :. $he costs associate& 'ith the price &iscover# for the technolog# 'hich give NPG 3Net Present Galue4 coul& be another element that shoul& be enhance& in the stu&# in or&er to give value a&&e& to the rec#cling in&ustr#.

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References

A-ni 1&ris, @ulent 1nanc an& %oh& Nasir Hasan, 3:;;/4. Overview of Waste Disposal and Landfills/Dumps in Asian Countries. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. Volume , No.:, pp 0;/)00; Department of Environment 3:;;.4. !nvironmental "mpact Assessment #uidance Document for $%e Construction of &c%eduled Waste 'ecovery (lant )Off*&ite+, Department of Environment, %ala#sia Department of Environment, %ala#sia 3:;;.4. !nvironmental "mpact Assessment, Containers 'ecycling, &olvent and Oil 'ecovery, J-arrels . Drums "ndustry &dn -%d Lot /011 Jalan 2empas Lama, 2m 33 &eelong Jaya, Mu4im &4udai, Jo%or -a%ru, Jo%or , Department of Environment, %ala#sia Department of Environment, %ala#sia 3:;;.4. !nvironmental "mpact Assessment, 9ags 9ec#cling an& Paint 9ecover#, 'anama 'esources &dn -%d Dots 0;:/:, 30156 and 30155, Mu4im (lentong, Daera% Jo%or -a%ru, Jo%or, Department of Environment, %ala#sia Department of Environment, %ala#sia 3:;;.4. !nvironmental "mpact Assessment, 'ecycling Containers and &olvent 'ecovery, 'anama 'esources &dn -%d Dots 0;:/:, 30156 and 30155, Mu4im (lentong, Daera% Jo%or -a%ru, Jo%or, Department of Environment, %ala#sia Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8aste4 9egulations, :;;< PU3A4:2/H:;;< Environmental +ualit# 3!che&ule& 8aste4 3Amen&ment4 9egulations, :;;. PU3A4 0<=H:;;. %aterial !afet# Data !heet %.E. Carol Dee 3:;;=4. 7on*8alogenated &olvent Dry Cleaning M.2. Unite& !tates of America Utusan %ala#sia, 3:;;24. 6%ala#sia mahu capai A; peratus ka&ar kitar semula7, :AH;:H:;;2

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Diterature 9evie' 9esearch %etho&olog# Data Collection an& Anal#sis Conclusions an& 9ecommen&ations 9eferences